Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086
Jiloha, R C
Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.
Weeks, S M
1. Services that may be provided by psychiatric-mental health nurses following a disaster include education, intervention, problem solving, advocacy, and referral. 2. Nurses providing disaster mental health services must be flexible and creative. Strong observational skills and teamwork are also essential characteristics in disaster settings. 3. Psychiatric-mental health nurses who wish to receive training for disaster mental health volunteer opportunities should contact their local chapter of the American Red Cross.
Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham
Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740
The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
In spite of recent clinical and research advances, an increased burden of mortality and morbidity related to stress and mental ill health can be noted, especially in European societies and populations undergoing stressful transitions and dramatic changes. A societal syndrome, consisting of depression, suicide, abuse, risk-taking and violent behaviour as well as vascular morbidity and mortality, can be observed, reflecting individual psychopathology related to disturbances of the serotonin metabolism as one of the oldest, most basic cerebral instruments of mankind to survive, to socialize, to cope with stress and danger. In a time where mental health professionals look for new and challenging identities, they have a tendency to abdicate from social psychiatric and public health activities in favour of more prestigious positions in brain research, genetics or advanced psychotherapy. A redefinition, reconceptualization and renaissance of social psychiatry seems timely and necessary, responding to the burden, advances and possibilities related to mental health we find today. It should proceed from the reductionism which often has characterized earlier psychosocial and social psychiatric approaches, utilize modern knowledge about neuroplasticity, psychoimmunology, neuropsychology and neurophilosophy, reflect the interaction between environment and structure, nature and nurture, and integrate different areas of knowledge in a holistic public mental health approach. Political decisions and societal solutions can be more or less in line with basic human preconditions. Consequences of failure to respect this already can be seen. A new awareness and responsibility-taking with regard to basic human ethological, physiological, psychological and existential conditions is needed and has to be concretized in innovative public mental health approaches. PMID:16946915
Holden, E. Wayne; Blau, Gary M.
Comments on three articles (see records EJ733583, EJ733584, and EJ733585) on the status of children's mental health services in the United States, which appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "American Psychologist." The current authors suggest that, although this series of articles provides important information, the articles fall…
McKie, A; Naysmith, S
This paper explores themes relevant to mental health nursing using the example of one educational module of a nursing degree. The authors argue that the educational preparation of mental health nursing students in higher education must address certain contested philosophical, conceptual, social and ethical dimensions of contemporary mental health care practice. These themes are discussed within the context of a third-year mental health nursing module within a Scottish nursing degree programme. By interlinking epistemology and ontology, the notion of student as 'critical practitioner', involving the encouragement of 'critical thinking', is developed. This is shown via engagement with parallel perspectives of the sciences and the humanities in mental health. Narratives of student nurse engagement with selected literary texts demonstrate the extent to which issues of knowledge, self-awareness and personal development are central to a student's professional journey as they progress through an academic course. The paper concludes by suggesting that these 'critical perspectives' have important wider implications for curriculum design in nursing education. Insights from critical theory can equip nurse educators to challenge consumerist tendencies within contemporary higher education by encouraging them to remain knowledgeable, critical and ethically sensitive towards the needs of their students.
Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M
Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI.
Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette
Individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) who are incarcerated pose major treatment challenges for both correctional personnel and healthcare providers, yet deserve the same high standards of care as those in traditional mental health facilities. The literature references these challenges as types of mental health treatment disparities, and calls for improvement measures from clinicians, researchers, policy-makers, and advocates. From the standpoint of psychiatric-mental health (PMH) nursing, this paper explores, examines, and offers some contemporary clinical and practice perspectives for providing best-practice psychiatric care for SMI individuals who are in jails. The diverse roles of PMH nursing can contribute meaningfully to tackling quality improvement initiatives on mental health treatment agendas for SMI inmates.
Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila
The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.
Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla
Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health
Gale, J; Marshall-Lucette, S
Recovery-oriented practice, an approach aligned towards the service user perspective, has dominated the mental health care arena. Numerous studies have explored service users' accounts of the purpose, meaning and importance of 'recovery'; however, far less is known about healthcare staff confidence in its application to care delivery. A self-efficacy questionnaire and content analysis of nursing course documents were used to investigate a cohort of community mental health nurses' recovery-oriented practice and to determine the extent to which the current continuing professional development curriculum met their educational needs in this regard. Twenty-three community mental health nurses completed a self-efficacy questionnaire and 28 course documents were analysed. The findings revealed high levels of nurses' confidence in their understanding and ability to apply the recovery model and low levels of confidence were found in areas of social inclusion. The content analysis found only one course document that used the whole term 'recovery model'. The findings suggest a gap in the nurses' perceived ability and confidence in recovery-oriented practice with what is taught academically. Hence, nursing education needs to be more explicitly focused on the recovery model and its application to care delivery.
O'Mahony, Joyce M; Donnelly, Tamphd T
The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders. Evidence has shown that immigrant women experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. Informed by the post-colonial feminist perspective, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provide mental health services to immigrant women. In-depth interviews were used to obtain information about immigrant women's mental health care experiences. The primary goal was to explore how contextual factors intersect with race, gender, and class to influence the ways in which immigrant women seek help and to increase awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health care needs of the immigrant women. The study's results reveal that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties accessing mental health care due to insufficient language skills, unfamiliarity/unawareness of services, and low socioeconomic status; (b) participants identified structural barriers and gender roles as barriers to accessing the available mental health services; (c) the health care relationship between health care providers and women had profound effects on whether or not immigrant women seek help for mental health problems.
The field of mental health, at the present time, has an important potential for rapid development. The reasons for this include important new knowledge that has become available, increased awareness of governments about the size of mental health problems and about the importance of psychosocial factors, and the development of an appropriate technology and a new doctrine of mental health care which allow useful interventions to be made, even when financial resources are extremely scarce. PMID:6601533
Bagley, Christopher; And Others
The key dependent variable in adoption research is the child's mental health, in the short and the long term. Defining mental health as the development of basic ego strength and a feeling of self-worth, which enable an individual to cope with stresses later in life, this book focuses on how well adolescents and young adults have fared in adoption.…
Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle; Peterson, Violeta; Hollander, Yitzchak; Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart
For many situations involving a mental health crisis, carers (e.g. family or friends) are present and either attempt to help the person overcome the crisis or request assistance from professional services (e.g. mental health or police). Comparatively, little research has explored how carers experience the crisis, the professional response and how the nature of the response, in turn, impacts carers. The current study was conducted to explore these issues during individual interviews with nine carers who had previous contact with police and mental health services during a crisis response. Collected data described the definition and perceived impact of a mental health crisis for carers, how carers had experienced a crisis response from police and mental health services, and how the professional response had impacted on carers. Of importance was the finding that carers were often themselves traumatized by witnessing or being involved in the crisis, however, were rarely offered direct education or support to help them cope or prevent future crises. A number of carers described a reluctance to request assistance from professional services due to previous poor experiences. This highlighted the importance of implementing strategies to deliver more timely, respectful, specialist and collaborative crisis responses to improve carer and consumer outcomes.
Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.
The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…
Lambert, Kelly G.
Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies
Bain, Steve F.; Rueda, Breeze; Mata-Villarreal, Jennifer; Mundy, Marie-Anne
Texas continues to fall short of the necessary mental health resources for those communities and populations in rural counties. The purpose of this article was to review the mental health resource needs of rural schools in South Texas. The study focused primarily on the perspectives of the school counselors in the identified districts. Funded by a…
Askell-Williams, Helen; Cefai, Carmel; Fabri, Francis
In this article we report Maltese primary and secondary students' perspectives about their school experiences and their mental health. Questionnaires were completed by 281 students. Relationships emerged between students' reports about their involvement in bullying, mental health status, and a range of typical features of school environments. A…
Major transformations in forms of governance of the liberal state have been wrought over the course of the last century, including the rise of neoliberalism and 'new public management.' Mental health too has witnessed change, with pharmacological treatment displacing residential care, a shift to community-based services, mainstreaming with general health care, and greater reliance on civil society institutions such as the family or markets. This article considers whether mental health law, and its court/tribunal 'gatekeepers' have kept pace with those changes. It argues that the focus of the liberal project needs to shift to measures which will better guarantee access to mental health services, and keep a more watchful eye on both 'hidden' coercion of people on community treatment orders, and passive neglect of human need.
This article is an anthropological reflection on the trans-cultural issues specific to large urban centers. The author questions how can a person develop and create an identity in this context. He then examines how proximity and isolation relative to urban settings contribute to the mental health of urban populations. Finally, he examines how characteristics of city life conditions assistance to people with mental disorders in urban settings.
This paper presents a succinct overview of the conception of mental health held by the cognitive-behavioral paradigm. For some of these models, human suffering is ubiquitious and largely unavoidable. Therefore, suffering cannot be linearly equated to pathology. Mental health implies acting towards achieving our valued goals, despite the negative emotions and thoughts that this may activate. The paper describes some cognitive and metacognitive phenomena characteristically associated to psychopathology, as well as some principles to establish the normalcy of both emotional experience and behavior. It establishes a difference between consultations motivated by mental disorders and those motivated by life crises and by a desire of achieving personal growth. Finally, the paper analyzes the conditions in which implementing treatment is desirable and necessary.
Pallone, Nathaniel J.
Discusses inconsistencies in societal responses to criminal behavior. Maintains that some offenders who are both guilty of criminal behavior and psychiatrically (or biochemically) disordered are being diverted from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Suggests that clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology can…
Bornstein, Marc H
In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies.
Bornstein, Marc H
In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing “cultural scripts” in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. PMID:24096792
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stadnick, Nicole; Taylor, Robin
The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured…
Ueno, Rie; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
This study examined Japanese mothers with severe mental illness and their perspectives about disclosing their mental health status to their children. Seventy-four outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or mood disorders were recruited. We utilized a cross-sectional design and a self-report questionnaire. Approximately 72% of the participants disclosed their mental health status to their children. The reasons for disclosure and nondisclosure varied. Our findings indicate that although both the disclosing and nondisclosing groups held beliefs about disclosure, many mothers appeared to struggle with these issues. It is essential that clinicians are aware of this issue so they may appropriately help the mothers.
Solution focused therapy (SFT) is a relatively new and increasingly popular model of brief intervention in mental health care. The central assertion of SFT is that the individual's problem or difficulty (and its cause) need not determine the direction in which the discussion proceeds. Instead the role of the SFT practitioner is to identify what the individual wants to be different and then to explore and elaborate on that difference. This paper outlines the principles of SFT and highlights the compatibility of this approach with the core values of nursing practice. Specific strategies and techniques used in SFT are detailed with clinical examples to illustrate the application of SFT to mental health nursing practice. A summary of current research outcomes and future prospects for SFT in clinical practice and education is also presented.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Hoge, Michael A; Wolf, Jessica; Migdole, Scott; Cannata, Elisabeth; Gregory, Francis X
The existence of a workforce crisis in behavioral health has been recognized for decades. However, workforce problems often have been viewed as too large, too complex, and too daunting for individual states to tackle. This article reviews the progress of one state in systematically strengthening its workforce as part of a federally supported effort to transform mental health services. The workforce priorities in Connecticut are identified and the specific workforce transformation projects and their impact are described. The success in sustaining these initiatives after cessation of federal support is reviewed. The authors conclude by offering five recommendations to guide comprehensive state workforce development. This work has particular salience for the many states across the nation that have identified behavioral health service and workforce needs as obstacles to comprehensive health care reform.
Cardoso, Lucilene; Vieira, Mariana Verderoce; Ricci, Maira Aparecida Malagutti; Mazza, Rafael Severio
A systematic literature review was performed regarding the burden on mental health caregivers. The studies were selected from the Virtual Health Library - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), using the keyword caregiver burden. The main criteria for this study were: full-text articles published between 2000 and 2010, in Portuguese, English or Spanish; indexed on the BVS databases; which investigated the burden of mental health caregivers, and had caregivers as the main subject. The analysis was performed considering the following: title, year of publication, objectives, methodological approach, instruments and main results. The analysis of 114 full-text articles showed the predominant objectives were the burden on informal caregivers and the validation of psychometric scales, particularly the Zarit Scale. Some studies showed an association between high levels of burden, feelings of guilt and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, psycho-educational interventions were indicated as having a positive impact. This theme has a growing scientific interest and there is a need for deeper studies addressing formal caregivers.
Hahn, T; Nierenberg, A A; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S
The emerging field of 'predictive analytics in mental health' has recently generated tremendous interest with the bold promise to revolutionize clinical practice in psychiatry paralleling similar developments in personalized and precision medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the key questions and challenges in the field, aiming to (1) propose general guidelines for predictive analytics projects in psychiatry, (2) provide a conceptual introduction to core aspects of predictive modeling technology, and (3) foster a broad and informed discussion involving all stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, patients, funding bodies and policymakers.
Background Functional neuroimaging is being used in clinical psychiatry today despite the vigorous objections of many in the research community over issues of readiness. To date, a systematic examination of the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in this debate has not yet been attempted. To this fill this gap, we interviewed investigators who conduct functional neuroimaging studies involving adults with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, providers who offer clinical neuroimaging services in the open marketplace, and consumers of these services, in order to understand perspectives underlying different views and practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone. Verbal consent was obtained and all interviews were audio recorded. Interviews of investigators and service providers followed the same interview guide. A separate set of questions was developed for consumers. All interviews were transcribed and made software ready. We applied the qualitative methodology of constant comparison to analyze the data, whereby two researchers independently analyzed the results into textual themes. Coding discrepancies were discussed until consensus was achieved. Results Investigators, service providers, and consumers held many common perspectives about the potential or actual risks and benefits of functional neuroimaging for mental illness. However, we also found striking divergences. Service providers focused on the challenges posed by the persistence of symptoms based diagnostic categories, whereas the limitations of the science in this area was the challenge noted most frequently by investigators. The majority of consumers stated that their expectations were met. Conclusion Our findings point toward a fundamental tension between academic investigators on the one hand, and commercial service providers and their customers on the other. This scenario poses dangers to
Glass, C R; Arnkoff, D B
We summarize the four papers in this issue by consumers evaluating their mental health treatment, focusing on aspects of their treatment that they collectively found helpful and hindering. These factors include the context of treatment, the therapy relationship, interventions used and issues addressed, helpful experiences outside the mental health system, and hindering views of mental illness and treatment. We then present comments by two clients in outpatient therapy on the same topic. Research on clients' perceptions of their outpatient psychotherapy is discussed in reference to these six consumer perspectives, and future directions for therapists and researchers are suggested.
Payne, Hannah E; Steele, Michalyn; Bingham, Jennie L; Sloan, Chantel D
The purpose of this paper was to investigate disparities in mental healthcare delivery in American Indian/Alaska Native populations from three perspectives: public health, legal policy and mental healthcare and provide evidence-based recommendations toward reducing those disparities. Data on mental health funding to tribes were obtained from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. As a result of analysis of these data, vital statistics and current literature, we propose three recommendations to reduce mental health disparities. First, where possible, increase mental health funding opportunities for federally-recognized tribes. Second, model funding practices on principles of tribal self-determination. Finally, support diverse interventions that are culturally-based and culturally-appropriate.
Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi
Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, two per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents’ experiences. PMID:19170104
Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn
Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…
Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore relationships between students' self-reported mental health and their perspectives about life at school in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Design/methodology/approach: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a purpose designed Living and Learning at School Questionnaire (LLSQ)…
Gardiner, Samantha; Lowe, Laura
Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS)/pervasive arousal withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and conversion disorder (CD) are two rare mental health disorders that commonly affect children and young people. In the most extreme cases of PRS/PAWS, young people may be unable to perform activities of daily living and rely on adults for physical and emotional support. CD can present as loss of sensation in vision and touch, pain in certain areas and an inability to walk. It is important that children's nurses are aware of these disorders and have some insight into the most helpful approaches. Young people need to feel that their experiences are validated, which can elicit feelings in staff from an urge to help to intense frustration. It is essential for staff to be able to talk and reflect to allow such feelings to be understood. Although these are rare conditions, this article outlines what to do if young people present with features of PRS/PAWS or CD in a general healthcare setting.
Rutten, B P F; Hammels, C; Geschwind, N; Menne-Lothmann, C; Pishva, E; Schruers, K; van den Hove, D; Kenis, G; van Os, J; Wichers, M
Objective To review the literature on psychological and biological findings on resilience (i.e. the successful adaptation and swift recovery after experiencing life adversities) at the level of the individual, and to integrate findings from animal and human studies. Method Electronic and manual literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO, using a range of search terms around biological and psychological factors influencing resilience as observed in human and experimental animal studies, complemented by review articles and cross-references. Results The term resilience is used in the literature for different phenomena ranging from prevention of mental health disturbance to successful adaptation and swift recovery after experiencing life adversities, and may also include post-traumatic psychological growth. Secure attachment, experiencing positive emotions and having a purpose in life are three important psychological building blocks of resilience. Overlap between psychological and biological findings on resilience in the literature is most apparent for the topic of stress sensitivity, although recent results suggest a crucial role for reward experience in resilience. Conclusion Improving the understanding of the links between genetic endowment, environmental impact and gene–environment interactions with developmental psychology and biology is crucial for elucidating the neurobiological and psychological underpinnings of resilience. PMID:23488807
Shah, Jai L; Kapoor, Reena; Cole, Robert; Steiner, Jeanne L
Issues of mental health and employee health have risen to increasing prominence in recent years. However, there have been few explorations of the clinical and administrative challenges that these issues raise, particularly in settings that are themselves mental health workplaces. In order to identify and understand such challenges, a brief case of acute employee illness in a mental health workplace is described followed by a discussion of salient clinical, administrative, and organizational considerations. The case raises questions about medicolegal responsibilities and relationships between clinicians and patients in mental health settings, illuminates tensions between clinical staff and human resources processes, and draws attention to the need for illness prevention and mental health promotion initiatives in the workplace. Increased awareness of these issues, complications, and potential solutions would benefit clinicians, administrators, and mental health institutions.
Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie
This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally.
Gouthro, Trina Johnena
Negative and stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental health nursing discredit the valuable contributions of mental health nurses, but more importantly, these beliefs discredit the needs of people who access mental health care. The stigma associated with mental health nursing, however, has received little attention in the literature. In this article, the author explores the stigma associated with mental health nursing from a critical lens. Recommendations are proposed to address the stigma associated with mental health nursing and mental illness, concurrently, within nursing education.
Hopia, Hanna; Raitio, Katja
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study is to explore the perceptions and experiences that mental health service users (n = 10) and healthcare professionals (n = 32) have regarding the use of gamification in mental health care. Data was gathered by interviews. The mental health service users described promoting and retarding factors in the use of gamification, while professionals described the requirements for using gamification and changes occurring in the work culture. Additional research is needed on how game-playing elements could be integrated as a systematic part of mental health practice and how the digital skills of professionals could be effectively developed.
Maureen O'Mahony, Joyce; Truong Donnelly, Tam
The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. As a result, there is greater emphasis on health care providers and the health care system to provide culturally appropriate and equitable care. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems and experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. In this paper we advocate for new ways of research inquiry in exploring immigrant women's mental health care experiences, ones that move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness toward recognition that the health of immigrant women must be addressed within the social, cultural, economic, historical, and political context of their lives. Drawing on past research we demonstrate how the postcolonial feminist perspective can be used to illuminate the ways in which race, gender, and class relations influence social, cultural, political, and economic factors, which, in turn, shape the lives of immigrant women. We suggest that postcolonial feminism provides an analytic lens to (a) generate transformative knowledge about immigrant women's mental health care experiences; (b) improve equitable health care; and (c) increase understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the immigrant women's health care needs.
Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary
Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Romano, Evalynn; Koltracht, Jane; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
Objective The “fit” or appropriateness of well-researched interventions within usual care contexts is among the most commonly-cited, but infrequently researched, factors in the successful implementation of new practices. The current study was initiated to address two exploratory research questions: (1) How do clinicians describe their current school mental health service delivery context? and (2) How do clinicians describe the fit between modular psychotherapy and multiple levels of the school mental health service delivery context? Method Following a year-long training and consultation program in an evidence-based, modular approach to psychotherapy, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen school-based mental health providers to evaluate their perspectives on the appropriateness of implementing the approach within a system of school-based health centers. Interviews were transcribed and coded for themes using conventional and directed content analysis. Results Findings identified key elements of the school mental health context including characteristics of the clinicians, their practices, the school context, and the service recipients. Specific evaluation of intervention-setting appropriateness elicited many comments about both practical and value-based (e.g., cultural considerations) aspects at the clinician and client levels, but fewer comments at the school or organizational levels. Conclusions Results suggest that a modular approach may fit well with the school mental health service context, especially along practical aspects of appropriateness. Future research focused on the development of methods for routinely assessing appropriateness at different stages of the implementation process is recommended. PMID:24134063
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...
Ennis, Gary; Happell, Brenda; Broadbent, Marc; Reid-Searl, Kerry
Communication has been identified as an important attribute of clinical leadership in nursing. However, there is a paucity of research on its relevance in mental health nursing. This article presents the findings of a grounded theory informed study exploring the attributes and characteristics required for effective clinical leadership in mental health nursing, specifically the views of nurses working in mental health about the importance of effective communication in day to day clinical leadership. In-depth interviews were conducted to gain insight into the participants' experiences and views on clinical leadership in mental health nursing. The data that emerged from these interviews were constantly compared and reviewed, ensuring that any themes that emerged were based on the participants' own experiences and views. Participants recognized that effective communication was one of the attributes of effective clinical leadership and they considered communication as essential for successful working relationships and improved learning experiences for junior staff and students in mental health nursing. Four main themes emerged: choice of language; relationships; nonverbal communication, and listening and relevance. Participants identified that clinical leadership in mental health nursing requires effective communication skills, which enables the development of effective working relationships with others that allows them to contribute to the retention of staff, improved outcomes for clients, and the development of the profession.
... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Kallioniemi, Marja; Lundqvist, Peter; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Stallones, Lorann; Brumby, Susan
Dairy farm operators-farmers, workers, and family members-are faced with many demands and stressors in their daily work and these appear to be shared across countries and cultures. Dairy operators experience high psychosocial demands with respect to a hard work and production ethos, economic influences, and social and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, both traditional and industrial farms are highly dependent on external conditions, such as weather, fluctuating markets, and regulations from government authorities. Possible external stressors include disease outbreaks, taxes related to dairy production, and recent negative societal attitudes to farming in general. Dairy farm operators may have very few or no opportunities to influence and control these external conditions, demands, and expectations. High work demands and expectations coupled with low control and lack of social support can lead to a poor psychosocial work environment, with increased stress levels, ill mental health, depression, and, in the worst cases, suicide. Internationally, farmers with ill mental health have different health service options depending on their location. Regardless of location, it is initially the responsibility of the individual farmer and farm family to handle mental health and stress, which can be of short- or long-term duration. This paper reviews the literature on the topics of psychosocial working conditions, mental health, stress, depression, and suicide among dairy farm operators, farm workers, and farm family members in an international perspective.
Meyers, Diana; Allien, Charles E; Dunn, Donisha; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F
Disaster-affected communities may face prolonged challenges to community-wide mental health recovery due to limitations in local resources, infrastructure, and leadership. REACH NOLA, an umbrella non-profit organization comprising academic institutions and community-based agencies, sought to promote community recovery, increase mental health service delivery capacity, and develop local leadership in post-Katrina New Orleans through its Mental Health infrastructure and Training Project (MHIT). The project offered local health service providers training and follow-up support for implementing evidence-based and new approaches to mental health service delivery. This commentary shares the perspectives of three community leaders who co-directed MHIT. They describe the genesis of MHIT, the experience of each agency in adopting leadership roles in addressing post-disaster needs, challenges and growth opportunities, and then overarching lessons learned concerning leadership in a prolonged crisis. These lessons may be relevant to community agencies addressing hurricane recovery in other areas of the Gulf States as well as to inform long-term disaster recovery efforts elsewhere.
Jönsson, Patrik D; Nunstedt, Håkan; Berglund, Inger J; Ahlström, Britt H; Hedelin, Birgitta; Skärsäter, Ingela; Jormfeldt, Henrika
Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses' responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network "Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia" (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm.
This paper reports on a qualitative study analyzing service-user (SU) and carer perspectives on medication compliance and their experience of compulsory treatment. Eleven SUs and eight carers were interviewed. The research is set against the background of changes to mental health legislation in England, in the form of Supervised Community Treatment. This signals a change in community mental health practice and urges a reconsideration of concepts such as compliance, concordance and coercion. These concepts are discussed in the context of legislative changes and in relation to the perspectives of service-SUs and carers. Five themes emerged from qualitative interview data, analysed using an adapted form of grounded theory: loss of credible identity, playing the game, medicalization, therapeutic competence and incompetence and increased control. The findings suggest that SUs are initially reluctant to comply with mental health treatment, but do eventually accept the need for treatment; they also stress the significance of respectful relationships with professionals and the importance of communicative competence.
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette
There has been renewed, global interest in developing new and transformative models of facilitating access to high-quality, cost-effective, and individually-centered health care for severe mentally-ill (SMI) persons of diverse racial/ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, in our present-day health-service delivery systems, scholars have identified layers of barriers to widespread dispersal of well-needed mental health care both nationally and internationally. It is crucial that contemporary models directed at eradicating barriers to mental health services are interdisciplinary in context, design, scope, sequence, and best-practice standards. Contextually, nurses are well-positioned to influence the incorporation and integration of new concepts into operationally interdisciplinary, evidence-based care models with measurable outcomes. The aim of this concept paper is to use the available evidence to contextually explicate how the blended roles of psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing can be influential in eradicating barriers to care and services for SMI persons through the integrated principles of collaboration, integration and service expansion across health, socioeconomic, and community systems. A large body of literature proposes that any best-practice standards aimed at eliminating barriers to the health care needs of SMI persons require systematic, well-coordinated interdisciplinary partnerships through evidence-based, high-quality, person-centered, and outcome-driven processes. Transforming the conceptual models of collaboration, integration and service expansion could be revolutionary in how care and services are coordinated and dispersed to populations across disadvantaged communities. Building on their longstanding commitment to individual and community care approaches, and their pivotal roles in research, education, leadership, practice, and legislative processes; PMH nurses are well-positioned to be both influential and instrumental in
This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.
In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games. PMID:27458390
Zarfas, Donald E.
A survey was made of provincial ministries and voluntary associations in nine Canadian provinces and two territories, to assess service provision to mentally retarded citizens with emotional problems. The survey focused on government agencies' involvement in service delivery, settings for short- and long-term care, quality of services available,…
Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P
Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…
Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.; Fossey, Ellie
This article reports findings from a qualitative case study, as part of which staff perspectives of student disclosure of mental health issues in an Australian post-secondary vocational education setting were explored. Twenty teaching and specialist support staff from four vocational education and training institutions participated in individual…
Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott
In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…
Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine
The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…
Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard; Slymen, Donald J.
Objective: To determine factors influencing the use of outpatient mental health services provided by mental health professionals (OMHS) for children in foster care using a national probability sample in the United States. Method: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, detailed survey data were collected on 462 children,…
Blackman, Kate F.; Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Lechner, Ethan; Swick, Danielle C.
Mental health needs among children in the United States have significant consequences for children and their families, as well as the schools that serve them. This qualitative study evaluated the second year of an innovative school-based mental health project that created a multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental…
Though research has focused on clinical characteristics and behavioral problems of youth in out-of-home mental health placement settings, few studies have examined how adolescents and emerging adults (Arnett, 2000) experience and make sense of treatment. In this study, semistructured interviews regarding the experience of mental health placement…
Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and
Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris; Happell, Brenda; Scott, David
Relative to the general population, people with serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated risks of physical disease and illness and live shorter lives. A human rights perspective argues that people with serious mental illness have a right to equal access to physical health care. Nurses in mental health services can contribute to improving the availability and accessibility of physical health care. This study, involving focus group interviews with nurses in a large regional and rural mental health care district of Queensland, Australia, revealed significant problems in access to physical health care for service users. The current article reports on our exploratory analysis of nurses' views and perceptions to identify (1) orientation of nurses to human rights, and (2) access of consumers with SMI to general practitioner services. It was rare for nurses to raise the topic of human rights, and when raised, it was not as a strategy for improving access to physical health care services that they felt consumers with SMI greatly needed. Two main themes were identified as causes of poor access: clinical barriers to physical care and attitudinal barriers to physical care. In light of these results, the authors explore a human rights perspective on access and how this provides an inclusive lobbying umbrella under which nurses and other groups can pursue access to physical health services that are adequate, accessible, and non-discriminatory. The article then discusses the implications for these findings for the value of human rights as a perspective and means of increasing physical health of people with SMI.
Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.
Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Fujishiro, Kaori; Takeuchi, David T
The relationship between human agency and health is an important yet under-researched topic. This study uses a life course perspective to examine how human agency (measured by voluntariness, migratory reasons, and planning) and timing (measured by age at immigration) affect mental health outcomes among Asian immigrants in the United States. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study showed that Asian immigrants (n=1491) with multiple strong reasons to migrate were less likely to suffer from mental health problems (i.e., psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months) than those without clear goals. Moreover, Asian immigrants with adequate migratory planning had lower levels of distress and lower rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders than those with poorly planned migration. Compared with migrants of the youngest age category (six or younger), those who migrated during preteen and adolescent years without clear goals had higher levels of psychological distress, and those who migrated during adulthood (25 years or older) were less likely to suffer from recent depressive disorders (with the exception of those migrating for life-improving goals). Furthermore, we found that well-planned migration lowered acculturative stress, and multiple strong reasons for migration buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress upon mental health. Findings from this study advance research on immigrant health from the life course perspective by highlighting the effects of exercising human agency during the pre-migration stage upon post-migration mental health.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
This paper uses social conflict theory to reconsider the relationship of American nursing theory and individualised mental health care in the UK. It is argued that nursing theory has developed within a context of 'American dream' individualism, and that this ideology may be problematic for some UK mental health nurses and service users whose values and beliefs are those of different socio-political traditions. The paper explores the historical background of Anglo-American nursing theory, and then uses conflict theory to generate challenging propositions about the culture bias and political instrumentality of individualised care in mental health settings. In so doing, it critiques the 'scientific' and 'liberal' preconceptions of individualised care which have dominated mental health care policy for over a decade.
Giacco, Domenico; Amering, Michaela; Bird, Victoria; Craig, Thomas; Ducci, Giuseppe; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gillard, Steven George; Greacen, Tim; Hadridge, Phil; Johnson, Sonia; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Laugharne, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Muijen, Matthijs; Schomerus, Georg; Zinkler, Martin; Wessely, Simon; Priebe, Stefan
Social values and concepts have played a central role in the history of mental health care. They have driven major reforms and guided the development of various treatment models. Although social values and concepts have been important for mental health care in the past, this Personal View addresses what their role might be in the future. We (DG, PH, and SP) did a survey of professional stakeholders and then used a scenario planning technique in an international expert workshop to address this question. The workshop developed four distinct but not mutually exclusive scenarios in which the social aspect is central: mental health care will be patient controlled; it will target people's social context to improve their mental health; it will become virtual; and access to care will be regulated on the basis of social disadvantage. These scenarios are not intended as fixed depictions of what will happen. They could, however, be useful in guiding further debate, research, and innovation.
Morphet, Julia; Innes, Kelli; Munro, Ian; O'Brien, Anthony; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Reed, Fiona; Kudinoff, Teresa
Mainstreaming of mental health services (MHS) within the Australian medical system has generated a fundamental transformation in the way consumers and carers access emergency MHS. People present to the Emergency Department (ED) with many health issues which can often include the management of their mental illness, physical co morbidity, or substance use. This paper discusses the issues surrounding access to EDs for clients, families and staff in the context of presentations for mental health problems at a southern metropolitan hospital in Victoria. The pilot project utilised focus groups with mental health care consumers and carers to collaboratively focus on and document the mental health client's 'journey of care' in the ED. There is evidence to suggest from this project that the ED mental health client journey needs continuous improvement and evaluation.
Osofsky, Joy D; Lieberman, Alicia F
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences for their mental and physical health. Research on normal development and developmental psychopathology has shown that early development unfolds in an ecology of transactional influences among biological, interpersonal, and environmental domains. Psychologists should collaborate with other early intervention disciplines to create systems of care based on an ecological-transactional model of development that includes early mental health principles in order to serve the needs of these young children. Didactic courses, practicums, and internships in infant and early childhood mental health should become integral components of undergraduate and graduate curricula in psychology in order to build capacity to achieve this goal. Recommendations are offered for systemic change by integrating infant and early childhood mental health principles into existing systems of care for young children and their families.
Barros, Sônia; Claro, Heloísa Garcia
The current national mental health policies confirm the need to encourage teaching, research and extension practices that favor new professional attitude. A previous study has shown that the students' representation about the competencies required in mental health fall into categories about the concepts of competence, cognitive resources, expressed feelings, and the concept of health and illness, but with no reference to themes related to the users' citizenship or psychosocial rehabilitation, which are central concepts in the course discipline. In this study, an analysis was made of the representation about these concepts, the knowledge and skills identified as being necessary to practice rehabilitation. Participants were students of a public university, attending the Mental Health Nursing class. The results show that students value the users' needs, but the representations about citizenship and psychosocial rehabilitation are founded on common sense about hazards and basic rights like health and leisure.
McIntosh, Andrew M; Stewart, Robert; John, Ann; Smith, Daniel J; Davis, Katrina; Sudlow, Cathie; Corvin, Aiden; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kingdon, David; Hassan, Lamiece; Hotopf, Matthew; Lawrie, Stephen M; Russ, Tom C; Geddes, John R; Wolpert, Miranda; Wölbert, Eva; Porteous, David J
Data science uses computer science and statistics to extract new knowledge from high-dimensional datasets (ie, those with many different variables and data types). Mental health research, diagnosis, and treatment could benefit from data science that uses cohort studies, genomics, and routine health-care and administrative data. The UK is well placed to trial these approaches through robust NHS-linked data science projects, such as the UK Biobank, Generation Scotland, and the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) programme. Data science has great potential as a low-cost, high-return catalyst for improved mental health recognition, understanding, support, and outcomes. Lessons learnt from such studies could have global implications.
Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita
The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…
Roesch, R; Ogloff, J R; Eaves, D
There is a need for researchers and policy makers in the area of mental health and law to collaborate and develop common methods of approach to research. Although we have learned a great deal about the prevalence and needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, there are a number of research questions that remain. If the "second generation" of research is to be fruitful--and useful to policy makers--we need to be sure that the methods we employ are valid and that the findings we obtain are reliable. By collaborating with colleagues in other jurisdictions, we can begin to learn whether some of the existing findings are of a general nature, or dependent upon the system in which they were found. Similarly, while the first-generation research has alerted us to the needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, second-generation research is needed to help identify factors that may help prevent the "revolving door phenomenon," which results in mentally ill people being volleyed among mental health, criminal justice, and community settings. One area that has received embarrassingly little attention has been the need for considering the relationship between substance abuse and mental disorders. In our own work, we have found an alarmingly high degree of substance abuse among offenders, including mentally ill offenders. We have come to realize the importance of considering the role that substance abuse coupled with other mental disorders may play in the criminal justice system. As a result of this concern, the Surrey Mental Health Project recently hired a full-time drug and alcohol counselor whose job it is to work with inmates with substance abuse disorders while in the jail, and to help arrange continuing treatment resources upon their release. As Wilson et al. (1995) discuss, intensive case management projects may be particularly useful at targeting the unique needs of mentally ill offenders with multiple problems. Much of the research conducted with
Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza
Background: Mothers got stressed when they are informed about the occurrence of stillbirth. Many researchers believe that the failure to provide the required care by health teams during this hard time is the main determinant of maternal mental health in the future. In other words, psychosocial support by medical care providers can significantly improve mental outcomes of mother after stillbirth. Objectives: This study aimed to explore stillborn mothers’ suggested strategies to provide maternal mental health in the experience of stillbirth. Patients and Methods: Twenty women who had experienced stillbirths participated in this qualitative content analysis study. They were selected through purposeful sampling method. Data were gathered by individual interviews recorded on audiotapes, transcripted and then analyzed. Then, transcriptions were coded and classified. Finally, 3 main categories and 9 subcategories were emerged. Results: Analysis of participants’ viewpoints and their opinions about strategies to provide maternal mental health in the experience of stillbirth lead to development of 3 main categories: “before delivery strategies” with 3 subcategories, “during labor strategies” with 3 subcategories, and “postpartum strategies” with 3 subcategories. Analyses of findings showed that, health care providers can mitigate some of the long-term negative mental outcomes of stillborn mothers by spending extra time with grieving mothers, facilitating bonding, and validating their emotional expressions. Conclusions: According to the results, revision and modification of the care plan in the experience of stillbirth seems necessary to improve mental health in these mothers. According to suggested strategies, midwives and health care providers are health professionals who can effectively and properly care for stillborn mothers. PMID:26889389
O'Mahony, Joyce Maureen; Donnelly, Tam Truong
It is well documented that serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders exist among immigrant women. Informed by Kleinman's explanatory model, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provided mental health services to immigrant women. Analysis of the data revealed that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties when accessing mental health care services due to cultural differences, social stigma, and unfamiliarity with Western biomedicine, (b) spiritual beliefs and practices that influence immigrant women's mental health care practices, and (c) the health care provider-client relationship, which exerts great influence on how immigrant women seek mental health care. The study also revealed that cultural background exerts both positive and negative influences on how immigrant women seek mental health care. We suggest that although cultural knowledge and practices influence immigrant women's coping choices and strategies, awareness of social and economic differences among diverse groups of immigrant women is necessary to improve the accessibility of mental health care for immigrant women.
Gone, Joseph P; Trimble, Joseph E
As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AI/AN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AI/AN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AI/AN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AI/AN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AI/AN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AI/AN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms.
O’Connor, Kathleen; Anders, Robert L.; Balcazar, Hector; Ibarra, Jorge; Perez, Eduardo; Flores, Luis; Ortiz, Melchor; Bean, Nathaniel H.
The purpose of this paper is to (a) examine the results of a binational study of two colonias near El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, focusing on mental health and (b) analyze those results in relation to the existing literature on Hispanic mental health to determine how border regions compare with Hispanic enclaves in nonborder regions. We focus on gender, birthplace, length of residency, and level of acculturation correlated with self-reported diagnoses of depression in our analysis. Our survey instrument incorporates portions of the Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance Survey; the SF36, version 2; and the CAGE scale for alcohol use and abuse. We found that birthplace, acculturation, and length of residency at the border did not correlate in the same ways to mental health issues as in nonborder regions. PMID:25374480
Reflective practice forms a pivotal part of mental health intervention in a setting where language and cultural differences require working together with a community counselor for language interpretation. Reflective practice in infant mental health began with Esther Bick's () infant observations and continued with Selma Fraiberg's () parent-infant psychotherapy. These two models formed the basis of the practice of infant mental health in a community in South Africa. A clinical example will highlight the importance of culturally informed observation that is then reflected upon. A qualitative study that examined the interaction among the participants in three clinical settings shows that a sustained partnership and tolerance for flexibility lie at the heart of good practice in intercultural settings. Object-relations theory offers an additional, in-depth understanding of the underlying psychic processes in reflective practice.
Bórquez Rojas, E; Torres, P; Tapia, L; Rodríguez, A; Rocha, P; Larrea, J; Yulis, J; Bórquez, J A
The situation of Mental Health in Latin America is analyzed. Urgently creating a system able at handling the psychiatric disease increase in the years to come is a conclusion this paper strongly aims at. The beginning of Psychiatry is reviewed, and the importance of Psychiatry at the General Hospital is outlined as well as its rapprochement toward the community, which led to a better control and prevention in the field of Mental Health. A definition of Psychiatry is proposed, as a branch of Medicine which stands in between mental hospitals and communities. Active teamwork, coupled with the physician's work and the tasks other members of the health personnel are engaged in, has led to a more integrated approach onto the ill thus benefiting not only patients but also the whole community.
Asylum seekers represent a highly traumatized group with experiences of systematic oppression, loss, displacement, and exposure to violence. Around the world many are viewed with distrust and anxiety. The Australian response to asylum seekers is one that has used prolonged detention with significant negative impact on mental health. This has prompted much social debate and the involvement of clinicians and researchers in advocating for the human rights of asylum seekers. This article reviews the impact of mandatory prolonged detention on the mental health of asylum seekers and the significance of this for recovery and adaption. It concludes that the mandatory detention of high-risk and oppressed groups compounds trauma, with a potential long-term negative impact on mental health.
O'Connor, Kathleen; Anders, Robert L; Balcazar, Hector; Ibarra, Jorge; Perez, Eduardo; Flores, Luis; Ortiz, Melchor; Bean, Nathaniel H
The purpose of this paper is to (a) examine the results of a binational study of two colonias near El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, focusing on mental health and (b) analyze those results in relation to the existing literature on Hispanic mental health to determine how border regions compare with Hispanic enclaves in nonborder regions. We focus on gender, birthplace, length of residency, and level of acculturation correlated with self-reported diagnoses of depression in our analysis. Our survey instrument incorporates portions of the Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance Survey; the SF36, version 2; and the CAGE scale for alcohol use and abuse. We found that birthplace, acculturation, and length of residency at the border did not correlate in the same ways to mental health issues as in nonborder regions.
Kaiser, Niclas; Ruong, Terje; Renberg, Ellinor Salander
Objectives To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health. Methods A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18–35 years old. Results The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a) being “inside” or “outside” is a question of identity; (b) a paradox between being free/bound; (c) an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d) specific norms for how a “real” reindeer herder should be; and (e) the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but “bite the bullet or be a failure.” Conclusions Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group. PMID:23853764
Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer
This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.
Chen, Jason I; Hergert, Danielle C
The purpose of this essay is to explore the long-term impact of depression on cognitive functioning and to discuss possible treatment strategies that mental health and psychiatric nurses may employ in practice or pursue in research to improve patient outcomes. As psychiatric and mental health nurses play a valuable role in promoting recovery from depression, addressing cognitive difficulties associated with depression may be an important area for nursing practice. This essay will first introduce the rationale for evaluating cognitive deficits in remitted depression in regards to the impact on quality of life (QOL). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...
Wiglesworth, Sophie; Farnworth, Louise
Despite the increased use of sensory rooms, there is little published evidence related to their benefits. The purpose of this study was to explore staff and patient perspectives of the use of a sensory room in an Australian forensic mental health setting. Staff and patients on a forensic hospital unit were recruited for this study. Focus group data was obtained from the perspective of the healthcare staff. A sensory assessment identified patients' sensory preferences. The details of the patients sensory room use and stress experienced before and after using the sensory room were recorded. The results showed a mean decrease in stress that was attributed to the use of the sensory room. Stress reducing benefits of sensory room use may improve a patient's experience within a forensic mental health facility while applying a recovery approach. As a limitation of the study, patient stress was rated on an un-validated scale. Further research is needed for greater insight and evidence in evaluating the use of sensory rooms in forensic mental health settings in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Avison, William R.
Emerging themes in demography, developmental medicine, and psychiatry suggest that a comprehensive understanding of mental health across the life course requires that we incorporate the lives of children into our research. If we can learn more about the ways in which the stress process unfolds for children, we will gain important insights into the…
Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib
The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America.
This article presents findings from a recent national study supported by Association for Higher Education Access & Disability and the National Learning Network (2016) to investigate the experiences of students with mental health difficulties in higher education in Ireland. The data investigation was a combination of both survey and qualitative…
Whaley, Arthur L.; Davis, King E.
The need for cultural competence and the need for evidence-based practice in mental health services are major issues in contemporary discourse, especially in the psychological treatment of people of color. Although these 2 paradigms are complementary in nature, there is little cross-fertilization in the psychological literature. The present…
Mazza, James J.; Overstreet, Stacy
This article provides school psychologists with important information regarding child and adolescent mental health problems that have been shown to be related to community violence exposure. Implications for school psychologists who are working with youth exposed to community violence or at-risk populations are discussed. (Contains 86 references…
Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.
For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…
The author was wholly unprepared for what he encountered when he entered Fraiberg's Child Development Project at the University of Michigan in 1973, joining five others in a special 2-year training program in infant mental health. He sputtered in astonishment. He resisted the interpretations. But there was no turning back, once he was exposed (on…
Padilla, Eligio R., Ed.; Padilla, Amado M., Ed.
Presenting multi-ethnic views about the delivery of mental health services to the Hispanic population, this monograph contains 18 papers presented at the joint meeting of the Puerto Rican Medical Association's Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery Section, the Caribbean Psychiatric Association, and the American Psychiatric Association held in May…
Spivack, James D.
Examines the credentialing process in mental health and likens it to the process of animals in confrontation over territoriality. Examines the data on which credentialing claims are predicated and the implications of and to the marketplace of licensing and certification. (BH)
Gladding, Samuel T.; Wallace, Melanie Drake
In the 20th century, a group of talented individuals with the surname Rogers made creative contributions to American society. This article examines the most noted of these personalities and their effect on the mental health of a nation. Although it is unlikely that a group with the same last name will be as prominent again, it is crucial for…
Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Richard
This 2012 research report, based on a national online survey conducted by the Canadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) in collaboration with the Mental Health Commission of Canada, gathers the responses of over 3,900 teachers who voluntarily took part in the survey. Teachers were asked to identify the potential barriers to the provision of mental…
Dana, Richard H.
Mental health services for minorities have remained biased and deficient. A discussion is included on some racial differences that affect assessment, diagnosis, and intervention of counseling services. A model is proposed that illustrates how cultural information can improve service delivery to African Americans. (JDM)
Byron, Gerard; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; McGrath, Caroline; Frazier, Jean A.; deTorrijos, Fernando
Occupational stress and burnout adversely impacts mental health care staff well-being and patient outcomes. Mindfulness training reduces staff stress and may improve patient care. However, few studies explore mental health setting implementation. This qualitative study used focus groups to evaluate stakeholders’ perceptions of organizational factors affecting implementation of an adapted version of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for staff on adolescent mental health units. Common facilitators included leadership securing buy-in with staff, allocating staff time to participate, and quiet space for training and practice. Other facilitators were past staff knowledge of mindfulness, local champions, and acculturating staff with mindfulness through a non-mandatory training attendance policy. Common barriers were limited staff time to attend training sessions and insufficient training coverage for some staff. Staff also reported improved focus when interacting with adolescents and improved social cohesion on the units. We conclude that a mindfulness-based program for reducing occupational stress can be successfully implemented on adolescent mental health units. Implementation appeared to change the social context of the units, including staff and patient interactions. More broadly, our findings highlight the importance of environmental factors in shaping attitudes, diffusion of innovation, and acculturation of wellness program implementations. PMID:26500708
Laing, Judy M
This article discusses the findings of an exploratory study involving semi-structured interviews with a sample of Mental Health Act (MHA) Commissioners. MHA Commissioners are employed by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in England to monitor patients who are deprived of their liberty under the Mental Health Act 1983 (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007). The study was designed to examine the impact of the transfer of responsibility of mental health detention monitoring in April 2009 from the Mental Health Act Commission to the CQC. The interviews were devised around the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT) framework, which provides a useful benchmark for effective monitoring of deprivations of liberty to national inspection bodies (known as National Preventive Mechanisms), such as the CQC. Article 18 of the OPCAT advises a regular system of preventive visits by independent expert monitors, as well focussing on the promotion and protection of human rights. There is paucity of data on the work of MHA Commissioners in England to date and the author was unable to locate any previous studies on the subject. This study is timely and important as the CQC has been heavily criticised following the abuses uncovered at Winterbourne View care home and in the wake of the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry. Consequently, in 2012, the CQC undertook a major strategic review. The findings of this study suggest that, whilst there is some evidence of compliance, the CQC still has some way to go to effectively fulfil its monitoring duties in line with the provisions of the OPCAT.
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra P.; Tol, Wietse A.
Background Children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict are at high risk of developing mental health problems. To date, a range of psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric interventions has been used to address mental health needs in these groups. Aims To provide an overview of peer-reviewed psychosocial and mental health interventions designed to address mental health needs of conflict-affected children, and to highlight areas in which policy and research need strengthening. Methods We used standard review methodology to identify interventions aimed at improving or treating mental health problems in conflict-affected youth. An ecological lens was used to organize studies according to the individual, family, peer/school, and community factors targeted by each intervention. Interventions were also evaluated for their orientation toward prevention, treatment, or maintenance, and for the strength of the scientific evidence of reported effects. Results Of 2305 studies returned from online searches of the literature and 21 sources identified through bibliography mining, 58 qualified for full review, with 40 peer-reviewed studies included in the final narrative synthesis. Overall, the peer-reviewed literature focused largely on school-based interventions. Very few family and community-based interventions have been empirically evaluated. Only two studies assessed multilevel or stepped-care packages. Conclusions The evidence base on effective and efficacious interventions for conflict-affected youth requires strengthening. Postconflict development agendas must be retooled to target the vulnerabilities characterizing conflict-affected youth, and these approaches must be collaborative across bodies responsible for the care of youth and families. PMID:23656831
Jameson, John Paul; Farmer, Mary Sue; Head, Katharine J.; Fortney, John; Teal, Cayla R.
Context: Mental health (MH) providers in community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) are important stakeholders in the development of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) telemental health (TMH) system, but their perceptions of these technologies have not been systematically examined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Hannah, Seth Donal
The concept of culture as an analytic concept has increasingly been questioned by social scientists, just as health care institutions and clinicians have increasingly routinized concepts and uses of culture as means for improving the quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities. This paper examines this tension, asking whether it is possible to use cultural categories to develop evidenced-based practice guidelines in mental health services when these categories are challenged by the increasing hyperdiversity of patient populations and newer theories of culture that question direct connection between group-based social identities and cultural characteristics. Anthropologists have grown concerned about essentializing societies, yet unequal treatment on the basis of cultural, racial, or ethnic group membership is present in medicine and mental health care today. We argue that discussions of culture-patients' culture and the "culture of medicine"-should be sensitive to the risk of improper stereotypes, but should also be sensitive to the continuing significance of group-based discrimination and the myriad ways culture shapes clinical presentation, doctor-patient interactions, the illness experience, and the communication of symptoms. We recommend that mental health professionals consider the local contexts, with greater appreciation for the diversity of lived experience found among individual patients. This suggests a nuanced reliance on broad cultural categories of racial, ethnic, and national identities in evidence-based practice guidelines.
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Arman, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Karlsson, Bengt
Stable, trusting relationships are at the core of Norwegian community-based mental health services. Being acknowledged and respected may promote a client's recovery. The aim of this study was to explore mental health workers' experiences of relating to clients. The design involved multi-stage focus groups based on a participatory approach and using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Acknowledging the personhood of a client appears to offer opportunities for growth and development in the client as well as in the health worker, based on reciprocal processes of each person affecting the other and the health workers' openness to understanding the other person.
Osofsky, H J; Osofsky, J D
Aggressive behavior and violence leading to disciplinary and legal difficulties have reached epidemic proportions among our youth. The severity of problems and social and economic costs to society have increased markedly. In this article, the authors review the risk factors, situational concerns, and warning signs that are important in predicting school violence and in designing effective prevention and early intervention efforts. They then describe programs with which they are involved as mental health professionals that appear to be extremely promising and applicable to other communities. The prevention and intervention programs are distinctive in that they involve collaborations with law enforcement, including the police and criminal sheriff, and the juvenile court as well as parents and schools in their efforts to promote positive development. These clinical, educational, and public policy approaches offer mental health professionals increased opportunities to be of help in this critical area.
Rost, Kathryn; Fortney, John; Fischer, Ellen; Smith, Jeffrey
This review synthesizes empirical research in rural mental health services to identify current research priorities to improve the mental health of rural Americans. Using a conceptual framework of the multiple determinants of use, quality, and outcomes, the authors address (1) how key constructs are operationalized, (2) their theoretical influence on the care process, (3) reported differences for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan individuals or within nonmetropolitan individuals, (4) salient issues rural advocates have raised, and (5) key research questions. While the authors recognize that rurality is a useful political umbrella to organize advocacy efforts, they propose that investigators no longer employ any of the multiple definitions of the term in the literature as even intrarural comparisons have not provided compelling evidence about the underlying causes of observed outcomes differences. Until these underlying causes have been identified, it is difficult to determine which components of the nonmetropolitan service system need to be improved.
Gubi, Peter Madsen; Smart, Harry
There is limited research into the value, purpose and function of Mental Health (MH) Chaplains. Yet, they are employed within National Health Service Trusts in the UK. Eight MH Chaplains were interviewed to explore how they see their value, purpose and function. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The data reveal…
Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.
Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…
Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda
Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.
Shiina, Akihiro; Tomoto, Aika; Omiya, Soichiro; Sato, Aiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Igarashi, Yoshito
AIM To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony. In the United Kingdom, forensic psychiatrists were responsible for ensuring public safety, and psychopathy was identified as a disease but deemed as not suitable for medical treatment. On the other hand, in Japan, psychopathy was not considered a mental illness. CONCLUSION In conclusion, there are considerable differences between the United Kingdom and Japan with regard to the concepts of FMH. Some ideas taken from both cultures for better FMH practice were suggested.
Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas
Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming and their relationship to emotions have been studied since the beginning of recorded history. Earliest historical records show the predominant view to be that dreams were considered divine in origin and only later did dream theory become linked with the functioning of the brain, perhaps most famously in psychoanalytic theory. The development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era of the dream study and their relationship to mental health. In this review we outline the history of theories about the genesis and function of dreams and sleep and their relationship to mental illness from ancient mythic and religious views to the first tentative scientific approaches to the ascendency of psychoanalysis and ultimately to the modern era of neuroscience.
... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...
Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, M.; Garofalo, R.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth are at increased risk for both victimization and internalizing mental health problems, but limited research has studied their association or factors that increase resilience. The sample included 425 LGBs between the ages of 16 and 24 year. The majority had disclosed their sexual orientation to family or friends (98%) and 97% had someone in their lives who was accepting. Racial/ethnic minority and female participants in general reported lower levels of disclosure and acceptance. Most participants reported some form of sexual orientation-related victimization (94%). Victimization was associated with psychological distress, but a compensatory model indicated that in the context of this victimization both peer and family support had significant promotive effects. A test of a protective model found social support did not ameliorate negative effects of victimization. The positive effects of family support decreased with age. Peer and family support were particularly important, but they did not significantly dampen the negative effects of victimization. Our findings suggest that mental health professionals working with LGB youth should address social support and that public health approaches are needed to reduce levels of victimization. PMID:21731405
Marsh, Herbert W; Parada, Roberto H; Ayotte, Violaine
Relations between self-concept and mental health are best understood from a multidimensional perspective. For responses by 903 adolescents (mean age = 12.6) to a new French translation of the Self Description Questionnaire II (SDQII), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a well-defined multidimensional factor structure of reliable, highly differentiated self-concept factors. Correlations between 11 SDQII factors and 7 mental health problems (Youth Self-Report; YSR) varied substantially (.11 to -.83; mean r = -.35). Single higher-order factors could not explain relations among SDQII factors, among YSR factors, or between the SDQII and YSR factors. This highly differentiated multivariate pattern of relations supports a multidimensional perspective of self-concept, not the unidimensional perspective still prevalent in mental health research and assessment.
Children and adolescents in street situations (CASS) in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) could arguably be regarded as the most at-risk group of children for mental health and psychosocial impairments compared with any other group of children. CASS, street-connected children and street children are some of the terms used to describe this group of children who have some association with the street; such as living, working or loitering for long periods of time on the street. These children are often described as 'voiceless'; a vulnerable group of children who experience a considerable amount of adversity from a young age.
... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253
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Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.
Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…
Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Rimi, Nadia A; Jahan, Shamshad; Lindmark, and Gunilla
This paper reports on evaluation of an initiative to use paramedics as the first-level mental health counsellors of abused women in rural Bangladesh (2003–2004) from the perspective of the abused women who participated in one or more counselling sessions. Thirty in-depth interviews, followed by a survey (n=372), targeted to cover all participants, were conducted in 2006. Overall, the arrangement, management of ethical issues, and skills of paramedics were rated favourably. Most (89%) abused women (n=372) considered the session useful; one-fourth of these women considered it very useful; and only a few abused women considered the session useless. Usefulness of the session was expressed mostly in terms of relief attained after talking about the issue. Most (87%) women reported being encouraged to be self-confident. In a context characterized by low self-confidence of women, lack of opportunity to talk about violence, and absence of professional mental health counselling services, this initiative is sufficiently promising to warrant further testing. PMID:19761082
Livingston, James D
Outcomes research in forensic mental health (FMH) has concentrated on reoffending as the principal indicator of success. Defining success in one-dimensional, negative terms can create a distorted view of the diverse objectives of the FMH system. This qualitative study examined the complexity of success from the perspectives of people in the FMH system. Interviews were conducted with 18 forensic service users and 10 forensic service providers. Data were analyzed inductively using thematic analysis to identify predominant themes. The participants conceptualized success as a dynamic process materializing across six different domains in the context of the FMH system: (a) normal life, (b) independent life, (c) compliant life, (d) healthy life, (e) meaningful life, and (f) progressing life. The results indicate that people who provide or use FMH services emphasize a broad range of processes and outcomes, apart from public safety, when they think about success.
Weems, Carl F.; Overstreet, Stacy
This article introduces the special section on child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina. We outline the purpose and intent of the special section and present an integrative perspective based on broad contextual theories of human development with which to think about the impact of disasters like Katrina. The…
Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…
Horvath, Michael; And Others
This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
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Separately, both user involvement and assessment are conceptually poorly defined by practitioners. Not surprisingly, reviews suggest that involvement in assessment is poorly researched, understood and largely achieved only at low levels. In this study fourteen service users and five assessors were interviewed, and a conceptual framework developed using grounded theory methods for data gathering and analysis. Two key dimensions of the experience emerged for involvement; the nature of the relationship with the assessor; and the construction of assessment as a process of dialogue. Recommendations for practice include: the use of an introductory letter to orientate service users to the assessment process; reconstructing the assessment as a series of encounters rather than as a single event; the provision of a written formulation to service users and; the introduction of systems to ensure that staff maintain their capacity for emotional reactivity to people presenting for this initial contact with mental health services.
The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.
de Nesnera, Alexander
Psychiatrists are urged to get involved in promoting legislation and public policy debates in state legislatures to effectively advocate for positive change in legislation and policy making. This column focuses on strategies that New Hampshire Psychiatric Society members have found effective in engaging policy makers and legislators in a dialogue that assertively promotes the views of patients with mental illness and the profession of psychiatry.
Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene
Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.
Gilbert, Steven P.; Sifers, Sarah K.
Coping with a romantic breakup is a normal developmental task of emerging adulthood. Because of their role in influencing interpersonal relationships and adjustment, attachment history and time perspectives may influence resilience to romantic loss. In an online survey of 1,404 university students ages 18-25 who reported experiencing recent…
Mirza, Ilyas; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Haroon; Jenkins, Rachel
Neuro-psychiatric disorders are associated with a considerable burden of disease, not only globally, but also in low- and middle-income countries. Epidemiological information about treatment of these disorders is required to help formulate treatment and prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to describe different types of mental health care providers, and examine patients' knowledge of the treatments and their views about its effectiveness in rural Punjab, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of attenders at a 1-day psychiatric consultation clinic in rural Punjab, Pakistan. Patients sought help from five different types of providers and were treated with physical, psychotherapeutic and spiritual treatments. Most recognised psychiatric problems as treatable. There was a discrepancy between belief and knowledge of the treatment of mental disorders; most had a very basic understanding of treatment. They reported general practitioner (GP) treatments as more effective (56%) compared to other practitioners (20%). We argue that treatments given by primary mental health care providers need to be standardised. A systematic appraisal of the theoretical rationale of the mental health treatments prescribed in primary care settings is required in low-income countries like Pakistan. This will help ensure standardisation of care especially regarding spiritual/psychological therapies so that in future valid inferences can be made about their effectiveness in populations. Further work should include improving mental health literacy with special reference to treatments available for mental health problems.
Parkar, Shubhangi R.
This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…
Kenney, Brigitte L.
Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…
Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A
Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope.
Maass, Juan; Mella, Cesar; Risco, Luis
The practices and systems of mental health in Latin America and the Caribbean are heterogeneous and are connected to dissociation between national macro systems and the complex quotidian that occurs in the daily attention of mental pathologies. The health care experiences in mental health are diverse and go back to the 1960s; these took a boost with the Caracas Declaration of 1990. The Health Care Reform has had several stages, lately focused in the strength that derives from a growing psychiatric epidemiology "base". In addition, it notes that the majority of countries have a National Plan of Mental Health, but they do not seem purposely deployed in local developmental plans or in other sectors. It is proposed the existence of a willing to discuss psychiatry, critical and bold; trans and intrasectoral face to the national and communal developments. Governments need to prioritize strategies in mental health as an integral part of another national project with regard for quality of life and productivity of citizens. The communication poses challenges for the next 15 years, with what is complete the first quarter of this century, proposing a series of measures even basic, but valid for this part of the continent.
Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Fay
In this article we examine the factorial structure of the Greek version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd in "J Personal Soc Psychol" 77:1271-1288, 1999), in a sample of 337 university students, using principal axis factoring (PAF) with oblique rotation, and its dimensionality using parallel analysis.…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
de Voursney, David; Huang, Larke N
The health home program established under the Affordable Care Act (2010) is derived from the medical home concept originated by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1968 to provide a care delivery model for children with special health care needs. As applied to behavioral health, health homes or medical homes have become increasingly adult-focused models, with a primary goal of coordinating physical and behavioral health care. For children and youth with serious emotional disorders, health homes must go beyond physical and behavioral health care to connect with other child-focused sectors, such as education, child welfare, and juvenile justice. Each of these systems have a significant role in helping children meet health and developmental goals, and should be included in integrated approaches to care for children and youth. Health homes for young people should incorporate a continuum of care from health promotion to the prevention and treatment of disorders. The challenge for child- and youth-focused health homes is to integrate effective services and supports into the settings where young people naturally exist, drawing on the best evidence from mental health, physical medicine, and other fields. What may be needed is not a health home as currently conceptualized for adults, nor a traditional medical home, but a family- and child-centered coordinated care and support delivery system supported by health homes or other arrangements. This article sets out a health home framework for children and youth with serious mental health conditions and their families, examining infrastructure and service delivery issues.
Lee, Stuart J; Thomas, Phillipa; Doulis, Chantelle; Bowles, Doug; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Perez, Eva; Stafrace, Simon
Despite their limited mental health expertise, police are often first to respond to people experiencing a mental health crisis. Often the person in crisis is then transported to hospital for care, instead of receiving more immediate assessment and treatment in the community. The current study conducted an evaluation of an Australian joint police-mental health mobile response unit that aimed to improve the delivery of a community-based crisis response. Activity data were audited to demonstrate utilization and outcomes for referred people. Police officers and mental health clinicians in the catchment area were also surveyed to measure the unit's perceived impact. During the 6-month pilot, 296 contacts involving the unit occurred. Threatened suicide (33%), welfare concerns (22%) and psychotic episodes (18%) were the most common reasons for referral. The responses comprised direct admission to a psychiatric unit for 11% of contacts, transportation to a hospital emergency department for 32% of contacts, and community management for the remainder (57%). Police officers were highly supportive of the model and reported having observed benefits of the unit for consumers and police and improved collaboration between services. The joint police-mental health clinician unit enabled rapid delivery of a multi-skilled crisis response in the community.
... and Resources Clinical Trials Share Older Adults and Mental Health Overview It’s just as important for an older ... this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to receive immediate counseling. Calling ...
Foyle, M F; Beer, M D; Watson, J P
This paper reviews the historical aspects of expatriate mental health, and comments on the paucity of literature in the medical and psychiatric journals. Data obtained from 397 expatriate probands examined during overseas service are described. It was noted that there was a high incidence of affective and adjustment disorders. The results showed six areas significantly related to those with affective disorders at interview, namely a history of consultation for psychological problems in out-patient departments or with the patient's own doctor, a history of depressed mood, and a family history of suicide, psychosis or personality disorder. Subjects with adjustment disorders at interview showed a significant positive correlation with four stressors (occupational anxiety, home country anxieties, acculturation and physical ill-health), but showed a negative association with a past personal history of consultation for psychological problems at out-patient departments or with their own doctors. These findings are discussed and practical applications suggested for improving expatriate mental health.
Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison
Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change.
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives.
Norvoll, Reidun; Pedersen, Reidar
In mental health care, coercion is a controversial issue that has led to much debate and research on its nature and use. Yet, few previous studies have explicitly explored the views on the concept of coercion among people with first-hand experiences of being coerced. This study includes semi-structured focus-groups and individual interviews with 24 participants who had various mental health problems and experiences with coercion. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in three regions of Norway and analysed by a thematic content analysis. Findings show that participants had wide-ranging accounts of coercion, including formal and informal coercion across health- and welfare services. They emphasised that using coercion reflects the mental health system's tendency to rely on coercion and the lack of voluntary services and treatment methods that are more helpful. Other core characteristics of coercion were deprivation of freedom, power relations, in terms of powerlessness and 'counter-power,' and coercion as existential and social life events. Participants' views are consistent with prevailing theories of coercion and research on perceived coercion. However, this study demonstrates a need for broader existential and socio-ethical perspectives on coercion that are intertwined with treatment and care systems in research and practice. Implications for mental health policy and services are discussed.
Crane-Ross, Dushka; Lutz, Wilma J; Roth, Dee
This study examines the relationship between service empowerment and recovery. Service empowerment is defined as the extent to which consumers participate in service decisions and the level of reciprocity and respect within the relationship with their case managers. Assessments were made from two perspectives: consumers and their case managers. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of service empowerment on four recovery outcomes: Quality of Life, Level of Functioning, Consumer-Reported Symptomatology, and Case Manager-Reported Symptomatology. Consumers' perceptions of service empowerment were the most powerful predictor of recovery outcomes across the four models. Consumers' and case managers' perceptions were related but the magnitude of the relationship was small, indicating that considerable differences exist between their perceptions of service empowerment.
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Segal, Julius, Ed.
The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Gordon, Lynwood J.
For young people aged 16-24, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood involves predictable and unpredictable changes and they may encounter challenges in their roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Young people with mental health difficulties face additional challenges as they and their families navigate this transition. As a…
Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.
This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others
Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…
Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…
Stadnick, Nicole A.; Drahota, Amy; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
Research suggests that improvements to community mental health (CMH) care for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are needed. Recent research examining the feasibility of training CMH therapists to deliver a package of evidence-based practice intervention strategies (EBPs) targeting challenging behaviors for school-age children with ASD…
Germundsson, Per; Hillborg, Helene; Danermark, Berth
There is an aspiration and policy within the European Union to fully involve persons with disabilities in the community; this implies an opportunity to gainful employment. A large percentage of disabled persons remain unemployed despite this policy, especially persons with mental health problems. This study aims at investigating how people with…
Pillay, B J
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established to deal with the history and future prevention of the abuse of human rights in South Africa. It aimed to restore relationships between the state and/or other perpetrators and victims of violence. Nevertheless, the process has highlighted the alarming prevalence of psychological trauma in our society. This paper reports on a study of individuals and/or families who presented their testimonies to the TRC in the Kwa Zulu-Natal and Free State Provinces of South Africa. The participants were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire designed by the author and a Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Most witnesses had recognisable psychiatric disorders. The most common was post-traumatic stress disorder (chronic), followed by either anxiety and mood disorders. The results from this study point to the pervasiveness and seriousness of the sequelae of trauma experienced by individuals and communities (both victims and perpetrators) in South Africa. Health professionals in South Africa have the mammoth task and responsibility to assist in the process of healing and reparation.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
Vail, David J.
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Flach, Frederic, Ed.
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Perspectives on the Essentials of Clinical Supervision" (Stephen A. Anderson); (2) "Adlerian Group Psychotherapy: A Brief Therapy Approach"…
Vorhies, Vanessa; Davis, Kristin E; Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Kaiser, Susan M
Vulnerable transition age youth, such as those in foster care and with serious mental health conditions, are at increased risk for lower rates of employment. Social capital is empirically linked to employment in the general population, yet little is known about the role of social capital in employment for at-risk transition age youth. Focus groups were conducted with young people with serious mental health conditions and their vocational specialists. Discussions reveal that both social and cultural capital influence employment processes. Those with employment experience value the motivation to work provided through others compared to those with no employment experience. Consistently employed describe strong working relationships with vocational specialists and possession of self-awareness, professionalism, and work-place knowledge as critical for employment success, while inconsistently employed describe worries about controlling emotions or behaviors on the job. Building social and cultural capital are explored as potential service provider goals.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Villanueva O'Driscoll, Julia; Serneels, Geertrui; Imeraj, Lindita
The past years have been characterized by a large refugee crisis across the globe. The exposure to preflight, flight, and resettlement stressors puts refugee children and their families at risk of developing emotional and behavioral disorders. A unique Western-based approach of mental health problems seems to be insufficient to address the complexity of interactions between individual vulnerabilities and more ecological surrounding systems. We looked into (1) the reasons for referral; and (2) the process diagnostic outcomes after ethnopsychiatric and psychological assessment. We conducted a thematic content analysis on 93 files of refugee children. The findings suggest that mental health care professionals need to hold into account the multiplicity and intertwining of ongoing challenges to the well-being of refugee children. The integration of a Western-based psychiatric assessment with a more ecologically based view can lead to a more culturally sensitive approach in refugee children and their families. This way, both under- and overdiagnosis of psychiatric disorders could be avoided to further optimalise mental health care in this population.
This supplement to ninth grade mental health units relates mental health to the following occupational clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, environment, health, marine science, communications and media, business and office, marketing and distribution, public service, transportation, personnel services, consumer and homemaking education,…
O'Reilly, Mary Linda
Spirituality is an important part of human existence but is often overlooked in the conceptualization of the person as a biopsychosocial entity. This article examines spirituality as a concept, relates it to the experience of mental health clients, proposes spiritual assessments and interventions within the role of advanced practice mental health nurses, and discusses the necessity of including spiritual interventions to support healing and wholeness for mental health clients.
Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…
Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Pollard, Robert
Deafness is a heterogeneous condition with far-reaching effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Onset before language has been established happens in about seven per 10,000 people. Increased rates of mental health problems are reported in deaf people. Many regard themselves as members of a cultural minority who use sign language. In this Review, we describe discrepancies between a high burden of common mental health disorders and barriers to health care. About a quarter of deaf individuals have additional disabilities and a high probability of complex mental health needs. Research into factors affecting mental health of deaf children shows that early access to effective communication with family members and peers is desirable. Improved access to health and mental health care can be achieved by provision of specialist services with professionals trained to directly communicate with deaf people and with sign-language interpreters.
Hollister, William G.; And Others
Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this guide deals with programming school mental health in Vance and Franklin counties. Detailing both successes and failures, this booklet presents the following program activities: (1)…
Van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Otten, Leila S; de Kruijff, Deborah; van de Loo, Aurora JAE; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C
Background Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ), and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001), perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002), and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001). Conclusion A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. PMID:28356753
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385
Parales-Quenza, Carlos J
This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home.
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…
Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.
Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…
Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.
In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…
Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon
Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Baca, Enrique; Lázaro, José; Hernández-Clemente, Juan C
This paper shows how the community of Latin-American and Spanish psychiatry represents a solid platform for the so-called 'continental thought' to meet the analytical Anglo-Saxon thought. It reviews what both Latin America and the Spanish and Portuguese languages represent in the American continent; the relation between Spanish psychiatry and Spanish-speaking psychiatry in America during the twentieth century; the reality of psychiatric research and profession in Latin America; the evolution of Spanish psychiatry in the twentieth century from the post civil war diaspora to the beginning of the twenty-first century, and research on mental health in Spain and the foreseeable future.
Selix, Nancy; Henshaw, Erin; Barrera, Alinne; Botcheva, Luba; Huie, Erin; Kaufman, Gabrielle
One out of every five to seven births is affected by postpartum depression, making it the most common maternal health problem in the first year after childbirth. Early identification and treatment are essential, though screening and treatment rates are low. Factors that inhibit effective screening and treatment include lack of uniform screening policies in all maternal health settings, poor coordination of care between primary care and mental health services, coordination of community education efforts and resources, social stigma surrounding mental health treatment, and ineffective application of research and technology in the clinical setting. An interdisciplinary model that includes primary care providers, mental health professionals, community resources, policy makers, researchers, and technological innovators addresses these gaps in care and enhances screening and treatment efforts that improve overall maternal and child health. We present a promising interdisciplinary cross-organizational approach coalescing diverse perspectives from those working across policy, research, training, primary care, and mental health in various disciplines to practice collaboratively to improve perinatal mental healthcare.
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
Butts, Hugh F.
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171
Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V
As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth . The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services . Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system
Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ford, James D; Shiwak, Inez; Wood, Michele
The Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in climatic conditions, with implications for Inuit communities widely documented. Youth have been identified as an at-risk population, with likely impacts on mental health and well-being. This study identifies and characterizes youth-specific protective factors that enhance well-being in light of a rapidly changing climate, and examines how climatic and environmental change challenges these. In-depth conversational interviews were conducted with youth aged 15-25 from the five communities of the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada: Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. Five key protective factors were identified as enhancing their mental health and well-being: being on the land; connecting to Inuit culture; strong communities; relationships with family and friends; and staying busy. Changing sea ice and weather conditions were widely reported to be compromising these protective factors by reducing access to the land, and increasing the danger of land-based activities. This study contributes to existing work on Northern climate change adaptation by identifying factors that enhance youth resilience and, if incorporated into adaptation strategies, may contribute to creating successful and effective adaptation responses.
Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin
Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518
Houle, Jason N
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Facts about college mental health are presented in response to frequently asked questions. Areas of concern include common conditions interfering with student effectiveness, why students seek help and where they can get it, the frequency of severe mental illness in college students, the suicide problem, the limitations of nonprofessional help, the…
Lagomasino, Isabel T; Zatzick, Douglas F; Chambers, David A
Limited financial resources, escalating mental health-related costs and opportunities for capitalizing on advances in health information technologies have brought the theme of efficiency to the forefront of mental health services research and clinical practice. In this introductory article to the journal series stemming from the 20th NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference, we first delineate the need for a new focus on efficiency in both research and clinical practice. Second, we provide preliminary definitions of efficiency for the field and discuss issues related to measurement. Finally, we explore the interface between efficiency in mental health services research and practice and the NIMH strategic objectives of developing improved interventions for diverse populations and enhancing the public health impact of research. Case examples illustrate how perspectives from dissemination and implementation research may be used to maximize efficiencies in the development and implementation of new service delivery models. Allowing findings from the dissemination and implementation field to permeate and inform clinical practice and research may facilitate more efficient development of interventions and enhance the public health impact of research.
Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas
Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740
Garai, Josef E.
The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…
David, H P
It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions.
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Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley
Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology.
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David
Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with
The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Once an orphan field, 'global mental health' now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives.
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.
Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel
Immigrants leave their homes for unfamiliar destinations in search of better lives for themselves and their families. Many immigrants experience profound loss and emotional distress as they adjust to life in different societies. Despite these challenges, the prevalence of mental health conditions among immigrants is low, whereas children of immigrants have rates equal to those of native populations. The prevalence of mental health conditions is high among refugees, who comprise a specific subgroup of immigrants who have been displaced forcibly and often have experienced severe trauma. Cultural factors, such as stigma and somatization of emotional symptoms, make it less likely that immigrants and refugees from certain groups will ever present to mental health subspecialists. Strong therapeutic relationships, cultural sensitivity, involvement of family members, judicious use of medications, and knowledge of available community resources are important tools that can aid clinicians who treat immigrants and refugees with mental health conditions.
Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick
Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n = 72) and patient (n = 98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research.
Moore, Alan; Cross, Wendy
How might the unconscious part of the mind affect mental health patients' emotions or behaviour? How might the unconscious motivations of mental health nurses affect their patients? The discovery of "the unconscious" two centuries ago has allowed philosophers and scientists, such as C. G. Jung, to explore the field. Contemporary mental health care subscribes to a dominance of neurobiological approaches, neglecting the unconscious or relegating it to that of a merely biological process. Approaching this subject from the perspective of Jung, we make a case for the inclusion of theoretical concepts about the unconscious in the discourse of mental health nursing. Such awareness may help mental health nurses to better understand the mental disease, disorder, and distress found in patients. It also may help them understand their own conflicts and motivations that, in turn, can have an affect on their patients.
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Once an orphan field, ‘global mental health’ now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660
Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May
Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.
When developing accessible, affordable and effective mental health systems, exchange of data between countries is an important moving force towards better mental health care. Unfortunately, health information systems in most countries are weak in the field of mental health, and comparability of data is low. Special international data collection exercises, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas Project and the WHO Baseline Project have provided valuable insights in the state of mental health systems in countries, but such single-standing data collections are not sustainable solutions. Improvements in routine data collection are urgently needed. The European Commission has initiated major improvements to ensure harmonized and comprehensive health data collection, by introducing the European Community Health Indicators set and the European Health Interview Survey. However, both of these initiatives lack strength in the field of mental health. The neglect of the need for relevant and valid comparable data on mental health systems is in conflict with the importance of mental health for European countries and the objectives of the 'Europe 2020' strategy. The need for valid and comparable mental health services data is today addressed only by single initiatives, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development work to establish quality indicators for mental health care. Real leadership in developing harmonized mental health data across Europe is lacking. A European Mental Health Observatory is urgently needed to lead development and implementation of monitoring of mental health and mental health service provision in Europe.
Restall, Gayle; Strutt, Carolyn
The participation of people who use mental health services in service planning and evaluation has become increasingly important in recent years. Health planners and people who use services are seeking information about how to enable participation that is meaningful and impacts positively on service delivery. This qualitative study explored the perspectives of people who use mental health services on participation in mental health service planning and evaluation. Sixty-three people from diverse backgrounds participated in either a focus group or interview. Themes were extracted from the data and resulted in a conceptual framework that can be used to guide the development and evaluation of participation.
Autism is not a mental health disorder, but it sometimes is misdiagnosed as one--and can bring its own mental health issues. Dr Judith Gould explains how a mental health problem may mask an undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorder.
Killion, Cheryl; Cayetano, Claudina
Belize, Central America, the most sparsely populated country in Central America, has taken gigantic steps to improve the mental health of its citizens. This article profiles mental health in this country and explicates contextual factors circumscribing manifestations, treatment, and care of mental illness. An overview of mental health services is provided, with particular focus on the role of psychiatric nurse practitioners. Other innovative approaches in promoting mental health and providing care to the those who are mentally ill are highlighted. Current and future challenges for nursing care and mental health services are presented. Recommendations for future action are offered.
This paper first presents a historical perspective of the disadvantaged minority, using black people as an example. The following section presents a clinical perspective of the psycho-social characteristics of this group. These characteristics are laden with some accuracies and many fallacies: (1) the fallacy of wisdom belonging to whites; (2) the…
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
Mental health trust chief executives are increasingly confident about recruiting crisis resolution and early intervention teams, according to the new HSJ Barometer survey. However, very few expect to gain foundation status in the next two years. The survey also shows that bed occupancy rates are increasing, with about a fifth of trusts showing rates above 100 per cent.
Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)
... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...
Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.
This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…
Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice
Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Albergaria, Aurenice Karine; da Conceição, Flávia Matos
This investigation advances on the perspective of the construction of knowledge on the relation between mental health and nursing work. It is a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach and on the Social Representations Theory as well as studies on Psychopathology and Work Psychodynamics. The analysis indicated that nurses representations on the relation between mental health and nursing work are influenced by the individual and collective-organizational levels, showing these professionals as a product and producers of their personal history and of the mental health regarding the work environment, understanding them as a manifestation of the social totality.
Barcala, Alejandra; Torricelli, Flavia
There are forms of severe suffering in contemporary life that are not accommodated within the mechanisms offered by the mental health care system or that are not described on diagnostics handbooks, which need an appropriate response. This paper deals with the development of a community mental health program that provided care to children and teenagers with severe mental disorders and with a significant subjective suffering in the City of Buenos Aires from 2006 until the beginning of 2012. Pursuant to international standards in force in terms of mental health and human rights, this community, collective and territorial mental health practice suggested an inter-discipline and cross-sector approach that took into consideration the multi-dimension of social health determiners to provide comprehensive care. In order to offer a reply to fragmentation and the repeated traumas to which a large number of these children and teenagers have been exposed to, the program designed individual clinical-community strategies for each child or teenager, based on a network of continuous and reliable institutional supports. Conceived from a psychoanalytical approach, this praxis intended to benefit subjectification processes and the building of social bonds aiming at preventing the growing trends of administering medication and admitting children and teenagers as patients in mental health facilities.
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.
Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath
There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Palombini, Analice de Lima; Leal, Erotildes; de Serpa, Octavio Domont; Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Ferrer, Ana Luiza; Diaz, Alberto Giovanello; Xavier, Maria Angélica Zamora
Narratives are ever more frequent in qualitative studies seeking to interpret experiences and the different viewpoints of individuals in a given context. Starting from this concept, the tradition that addresses narrative is reexamined, including the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, the historical perspective of Walter Benjamin and the field of medical anthropology grounded in phenomenology. In Ricoeur, with hermeneutics as a variation derived from phenomenology, narrative is linked to temporality. In Benjamin, narrative comprised of bits and pieces, always inconclusive, emerges in spite of the official stories. If Ricoeur retrieves tradition from Gadamer as a fundamental component for the construction of the world of a text that makes imitation of life possible, Benjamin, faced with the collapse of tradition, suggests the invention of narrative forms outside the traditional canons, making it possible to hark to the past in order to change the present. Assumptions of medical anthropology are also presented, as they consider narrative a dimension of life and not its abstraction, namely an embodied and situated narrative. Lastly, three distinct research projects in mental health that use narrative linked to the theoretical concepts cited with their differences and similarities are presented.
The author reviews the psychosocial implications of immigration. Immigration is a complex, emotionally charged process which involves leaving behind old values, relationships, security, and resettling in an unknown culture with a new set of norms and boundaries. Some studies report a higher incidence of psychiatric illness in a migrant population than among the native born. Preventive and early therapeutic intervention is mandatory. In order to facilitate acculturation and eventual adaptation, the host society should promote easy access to the health-care systems, educational facilities, housing requirements and community organizations. PMID:21267172
Souza, Aline de Jesus Fontineli; Matias, Gina Nogueira; Gomes, Kenia de Fátima Alencar; Parente, Adriana da Cunha Menezes
A descriptive study whose objective was to identify the education and actions of the nurse in Mental Health (MH), in the Family Health Program. The sample consisted of 134 acting nurses at the Family Health Program in Teresina, Piauí The results show that 95.5% don't have the specified education in MH. Of those interviewed, 97% state that there are patients, in their assigned areas, that need this type of care. The referenced actions were home visits (60%) appointments (27.7%), referrals (21.5%), medication delivery (15.4%), inactivity (14.6%), ambulatory service (7.7%), community therapy (5.4%) and casework (0.8%). Methods and strategies of public policies related to this area should be revisited and instituted in order to (re)direct ways of reform in the actions and services of mental health.
Dykstra, Ralph R.; Dirr, Peter J.
The second in a series of bibliographies lists approximately 350 instructional materials for use in mental health education. It is noted that all of the materials listed were suggested by teachers after careful screening, including evaluation with handicapped children. Materials are grouped according to the following media forms: books (the major…
Ackerman, Nathan W.
This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…
National Technical Assistance Center in Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…
Babich, Karen S., Comp.
Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health…
Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt
Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Outcome evaluation assesses the results or benefits of mental health services received by clients or communities by comparing descriptive data on the mental health status of clients at different points in time. It aids clinicians and managers in planning programs and managing clinical services. A mental health center should establish goal-oriented…
Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985
The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic…
Kraft, David P
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50 years of college mental health were marked by a series of national conferences. At the American Student Health Association's annual meeting in 1920, "mental hygiene" was identified as critical for college campuses to assist students to reach their highest potential. However, it took another 40 years before mental health and psychological counseling services became common on college and university campuses. The American College Health Association formed a Mental Health Section to serve mental health professionals in 1957, and most colleges and universities have now developed mental health and counseling programs commensurate with the size of their student bodies.
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.
The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898
Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.
Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611
Mental health services in New Zealand have been significantly altered by Māori cultural values. Since 1980, a monocultural approach has given way to the incorporation of Māori language, Māori health perspectives, and Māori psychological frameworks in the assessment, treatment, and care of patients. Māori provider organizations, an expanded Māori health workforce, and Māori leadership have been crucial catalysts for the transformation. The shifts have paralleled similar changes in other sectors, reflecting a broader societal movement within which indigeneity has received greater acknowledgement. The author's bicultural background, psychiatric training, and inclusion in Māori networks were important for promoting the transformation.
Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher
Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.
New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Beck, Edward S.
Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A
The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.
Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne
Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
Goldner, Elliot M.; Jeffries, Victoria; Bilsker, Dan; Jenkins, Emily; Menear, Matthew; Petermann, Lisa
Intensified knowledge translation (KT) efforts are considered important in the field of mental health in order to accelerate the implementation of various developments in research, policy and practice. A scoping review of KT focused on the field of mental health was undertaken to help inform development of a Knowledge Exchange Centre being initiated by the Mental Health Commission of Canada. A systematic search of publications in English and French identified 187 publications that met inclusion criteria. Relevant literature was found across a number of disparate thematic research areas: implementation science, community-based and participatory action research, shared decision-making studies, mental health literacy research, network analysis and studies directly addressing KT. The available literature is concerned predominantly with KT efforts between a few specific stakeholder dyads. A paradigm shift has been emerging and has resulted in a progressively broader perspective, incorporating a wider range of participants and increased valuing of experiential knowledge. PMID:23115572
Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.
Hirdes, Alice; Scarparo, Helena Beatriz Kochenborger
The article aims to discuss the issue of integration of mental health in primary care by matrix support in mental health. We point out the main barriers in the use of this work method, as well as the facilitating factors of the matrix support of mental health in primary care. The first are within the scope of epistemological specificities, professional issues and management in the political and ideological dimensions. Among the second, we highlight: the care for people with mental disorders in the territory; the reduction of stigma and discrimination; the development of new skills for professionals in primary care; reduction of costs; simultaneous treatment of physical and mental illness, which often overlap; the possibility of incorporating mental health care in a perspective of extended clinical service using an inter/transdisciplinary approach.
Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime
In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed.
Magee, William; St-Arnaud, Sebastien
Research on subjective wellbeing includes studies of both domain-related and global distress. The mental health literature, though, focuses almost exclusively on global distress. This seems to be partly due to a common belief that psychological distress, and the moods that comprise distress, necessarily lack referential content. However, if that…
Kivnick, Helen Q.
The Life Strengths Interview Guide is a framework based on eight psychosocial themes: hope and faith; willfulness, independence, and control; competence and hard work; values and sense of self; love and friendship; care and productivity; and wisdom and perspective. It can be used to conceptualize everyday mental health in working with older…
The intent of this research is to understand the types of mental health problems individuals encounter during periods of unemployment, and the severity of those problems from an individual, family and community-based perspective. Of primary importance is determining whether or not treatment services are utilized, and if so, the sensitivity…
A brief account is given of attitudes towards mental health and the development of psychiatry in the Middle East from an historical perspective. The Middle East is considered as a cultural entity and the influence of the beliefs and practices of ancient times on the collective mind of the people of the Region is discussed.
Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary
Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…
Hogan, Anne E.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Fernandes, Sherira; Spieker, Susan; ZeanahTulane, Paula D.
Developing a sustainable, competent workforce is an urgent and challenging task for the Infant Mental Health (IMH) field. In this article, the authors share their experiences and perspectives on the importance of and challenges in the development of the IMH workforce. The broad view of both workforce members and professional development…
Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor
Introduction Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding of Equatoguinean health care professionals' perspectives on the mental health care system. Methods Nine adult participants (directors or program managers) were interviewed in July 2013 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from government agencies, aid organizations, hospitals, and pharmacies. Interviews were designed to collect broad information about the mental healthcare system in Equatorial Guinea including the professionals' perspectives and access to resources. This research was reviewed and approved by an ethical oversight committee. Results All individuals interviewed indicated that the mental health system does not currently meet the needs of the community. Professionals cited infrastructural capacity, stigmatization, and a lack of other resources (training programs, knowledgeable staff, medications, data) as key factors that limit the effectiveness of mental healthcare. Conclusion This study provides a preliminary understanding of the existing mental health care needs in the country, highlighting opportunities for enhanced healthcare services. PMID:28293352
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders.
Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L
In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.
Dokecki, Paul R.
Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…
Kakalik, J. S.; And Others
Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This bibliography for families lists 44 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1987 through 1994. The list is organized into the following categories: directories and bibliographies, other print resources, and information in Spanish. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of…
Keyes, Corey L. M.
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.
Oram, Sian; Khalifeh, Hind; Howard, Louise M
Violence against women is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a public health problem. In this Series paper, we argue that violence against women is also a prominent public mental health problem, and that mental health professionals should be identifying, preventing, and responding to violence against women more effectively. The most common forms of violence against women are domestic abuse and sexual violence, and victimisation is associated with an increased risk of mental disorder. Despite clinical guidance on the role of mental health professionals in identifying violence against women and responding appropriately, poor identification persists and can lead to non-engagement with services and poor response to treatment. We highlight that little research has been done on how to improve identification and treatment of victims and perpetrators in contact with mental health services, but that mental health services could play a major role in primary and secondary prevention of violence against women.
Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Randemark, Norma Faustino Rocha; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Ruiz, Erasmo Miessa
This study is inserted in assumptions of research's analysis qualitative which objective was to interpretate the Mental Health professional's perspectives about psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorder's porter to know as them proceed it in their professional practice. Data collection came up by the application of semi-structured interviews to 8 Mental Health professionals that work in the Center of Psychosocial Attention. After the readings, notes of pieces of talk, subcategories and categories were composed after the interpretation based on the literature. The results pointed that psychosocial rehabilitation is a process which implementation and still needs effective overcome of traditional paradigma of health mental disease, that form conception and therapeutic practices and requires trust of professionals about the users' capacity of live as citizen in the most variable segments of social life.
If you knew no one with a mental illness, what would mold your perceptions of someone with a mental illness? A movie character, a television actor, a description from a friend? Each of these explanations has been given to me by nursing students beginning their mental health nursing clinical rotation. Reconsideration of the limited amount of mental health education in nursing school is urgent. As we become more engrossed as a society in television and movies, the result appears to be a deceptive idea of what true mental illness entails. This piece shares personal insight from a mental health nursing educator and the transformation she witnesses in her students after a mental health clinical rotation.
Examined factors affecting the application of learning to practice in British mental health services, considering the role of administrators and emphasizing distance education. Data from administrators and health professionals indicated that workers who studied mental health often felt disempowered and isolated when introducing new practice ideas…
... social activities or trouble finding housing Bullying, physical violence or harassment Health insurance that doesn't adequately cover your mental illness treatment The belief that you'll never be ...
Gureje, O.; Alem, A.
Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166
Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Musabegovic, Hana; Huo, Yanling
We reviewed case records for 583 juvenile delinquency intakes in four county juvenile probation offices; 14.4% were receiving mental health or substance use services at case opening, and 24.9% were newly identified during probation contact. Youths were significantly more likely to be newly identified if they were repeat offenders, if their probation officer knew more about mental health and if they resided in a county without a shortage of available mental health professionals. Probation officers were especially likely to underidentify internalizing disorders. Policy implications for promoting identification of mental health needs and improving linkage to community service providers are discussed.
In the last ten years the concepts of health and mental health have been considerably modified and mental health at work is becoming an important interest of the
Taylor, Laura E; Taylor-Henley, Sharon; Doan, Lan
Later-life immigration and a lack of dominant language competency present many challenges to mental health for older adults. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes for seniors, often regarded as the sole domain of ESL teachers, offer mental health professionals opportunities for mental health promotion and education. This paper examines some of the mental health issues that emerged from stories written by older adults in an ESL for Seniors program. The program is presented as an example of best practices in an ESL for Seniors program because of its specific development to meet the needs of ESL older persons.
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Facts about mental and emotional illness and implications for student mental health services in higher education are reviewed. Psychoses, which are types of mental illness that are usually quite severe, are discussed in terms of symptoms, as are neuroses, which cause severe distress and impair coping with living conditions but are not as…
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
Abstract This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your ‘cluster’ of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development. PMID:28250821
Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, Istvan; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; Van Der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wykes, Til; Arango, Celso; Bickenbach, Jerome; Brunn, Matthias; Cammarata, Pamela; Chevreul, Karine; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Finocchiaro, Carla; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Knappe, Susanne; Kuepper, Rebecca; Luciano, Mario; Miret, Marta; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Pagano, Grazia; Papp, Szilvia; Walker-Tilley, Tom
Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in mental health is lagging behind other disciplines in Europe, resulting in lower degree of cooperation and scientific impact. To reduce more efficiently the burden of mental disorders in Europe, a concerted new research agenda is necessary. The ROAMER (Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe) project, funded under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, aims to develop a comprehensive and integrated mental health research agenda within the perspective of the European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 programme, with a translational goal, covering basic, clinical and public health research. ROAMER covers six major domains: infrastructures and capacity building, biomedicine, psychological research and treatments, social and economic issues, public health and well-being. Within each of them, state-of-the-art and strength, weakness and gap analyses were conducted before building consensus on future research priorities. The process is inclusive and participatory, incorporating a wide diversity of European expert researchers as well as the views of service users, carers, professionals and policy and funding institutions.
Cuffel, B J; Snowden, L; Masland, M; Piccagli, G
The movement towards managed care in the public mental health system has surpassed efforts to develop a systematic literature concerning its theory, practice, and outcome. In particular little has been written about potential challenges and difficulties in translating managed care systems from their origins in the private sector to the delivery of public sector mental health services. This paper provides an overview of managed care definitions, organizational arrangements, administrative techniques, and roles and responsibilities using a theoretical framework adopted from economics referred to as principal-agent theory. Consistent with this theory, we assert that the primary function of the managed care organization is to act as agent for the payor and to manage the relationships between payors, providers, and consumers. From this perspective, managed care organizations in the public mental health system will be forced to manage an extremely complex set of relationships between multiple government payors, communities, mental health providers, and consumers. In each relationship, we have identified many challenges for managed care including the complexity of public financing, the vulnerable nature of the population served, and the importance of synchronization between managed care performance and community expectations for the public mental health system. In our view, policy regarding the role of managed care in the public mental health system must evolve from an understanding of the dynamics of government-community-provider-consumer "agency relationships".
This article uses a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective to review the evolution of mental health law in the Western world by examining developments at various stages in history, in particular the 20th century. It suggests that one of the major challenges for the future, from a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective, will be to help minimise the stigma, prejudice and discrimination associated with mental health law. The article concludes with the suggestion that the question of whether mental health law itself, because it contributes to discrimination against mentally disordered people, may be anti-therapeutic requires more investigation and consideration.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Ashton, John R.
Mental health and the failings of the mental health services are in the spotlight as never before. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the often dire situation with regard to child and adolescent mental health. At the same time, there is a renewed interest in the scope for prevention of mental illness and distress, and in population approaches to mental well-being. It may come as a surprise to some that others have given such serious consideration to strategic approaches to public mental health as long ago as the 1950s. It appears that such consideration was squeezed out by the dominant concerns of serious and enduring mental illness and a prevailing biological view of psychiatry. The time is right to engage with this agenda in recognition of the importance of public mental health, not only for the individual and for families, but also for society as a whole and for the economy. The publication of a review of the subject by the Faculty of Public Health and the Mental Health Foundation is to be commended. Let us make sure it leads to action. PMID:28184309
Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community.
Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile
The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.
Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems.
McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment fads. The development of a community education pamphlet illustrates how one organization addressed these issues.
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
Stigmatizing views towards consumers may be held even by those working within mental health organizations. Contemporary mental health policies require organizations to work collaboratively with consumers in producing and delivering services. Using social exchange theory, which emphasises mutual exchange to maximise benefits in partnership, the current study explores the perspectives of those working within organizations that have some level of consumer leadership. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from a range of mental health organizations. Data were transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non-consumers. Several discourses challenged such a view - showing how consumers bring value to mental health organizations through their expertise in the mental health system, and their ability to provide safety and support to other consumers. Through a social exchange theory lens, the authors call for organizations to challenge stigma and promote the value that consumers can bring to maximize mutual benefits.
Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J
The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.
Naughton, Michelle J.; Weaver, Kathryn E.
The physical and mental health of cancer patients needs to be addressed not only during active treatment but also throughout the continuum of survivorship care. This commentary provides an overview of issues pertinent to cancer survivors, with an emphasis on mental health issues and recommendations for annual clinical screening and monitoring using recently published guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. PMID:25046097
Trussell, Robert P.
Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mental health services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mental health. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…
Stone, T R; Warren, W E; Stevens, R E
The authors report the results of a segmentation study of the mental health care market. A random sample of 387 residents of a western city were interviewed by telephone. Cluster analysis of the data identified six market segments. Each is described according to the mental health care services to which it is most sensitive. Implications for targeting the segments are discussed.
The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…
Buxbaum, Carl B.
This critical review of the 1961 report of the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health concludes that the report and its adherents promised more than could be delivered and its claims regarding community mental health could not be supported by the available data. (Author)
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
Texas Child Care, 2003
Highlights the concept of infant mental health and discusses what early care and education professionals can do to boost babies' emotional well-being. Offers steps for the following specific strategies: (1) developing trust; (2) being alert to risk conditions; (3) nurturing children's mental health; (4) creating supportive environments; and (5)…
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
Brown, Bertram S.
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique
Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)
Barman, Alicerose S.
In discussing the areas of mental health pertinent to the work of the school, the text defines mental health and elaborates upon the following: the healthy personality; the child and his family, his inner self, and his society; and the child and the teacher who send out distress signals. Also considered are the school's role in the promotion of…
Qualls, Sara Honn
Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
The purpose and approach of community mental health in the urban ghetto is discussed. Mental health service is viewed as an alien institution by the deprived citizen and institutions of the Kennedy era were naive the approaches from 1963 on were only new in ideals but not practice. Each center is meant to offer its community consultation and…
Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others
The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Clinton, J; Feller, AF; Williams, RC
A clear understanding of infant mental health will significantly assist a clinician’s ability to provide high-quality paediatric care for children and their families, given the new understanding of its role in overall development. The present commentary describes the mental health needs of children <3 years of age and provides practical suggestions for the office setting. PMID:27441014
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.
The closing decades of the twentieth century saw a dramatic shift from institutional to community-based care for the mentally ill. This paper describes a study of the social representation of mental illness by mental health professionals working in Britain and France during this time of major policy change. Such professionals play a vital social role in translating policy directives into practical work with laypeople, yet their representations are relatively under-researched. Data in this study derive from semistructured interviews on the nature of mental ill-health and mental health work conducted with a multidisciplinary sample of professionals (N=60). Consonant with community care policies, analysis suggests that professionals conceptualize mental ill-health and its treatment in social rather than medical terms. However, uncertainty characterizes many aspects of their representations. This is associated with eclectic working practices combining multiple strategies derived from diverse theoretical traditions. The changing policy context appears to have augmented this representational uncertainty. Psychodynamic perspectives are more influential amongst French practitioners compared with their British counterparts. The study highlights how social representations held by 'intermediary' groups reflect their interface between scientific and lay spheres. The role of power and the function of social representations in reconciling sources of tension and ambiguity associated with this unique social position are discussed.
Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.
In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…
Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien
There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Puri, Rohini; Goel, Nidhi
There is a significant research to practice gap in the area of mental health practices and interventions in schools. Understanding the teacher perspective can provide important information about contextual influences that can be used to bridge the research to practice gap in school-based mental health practices. The purpose of this study was to…
Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley
Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…
Participation in mental health care poses many challenges for mental health service users and service providers. Consideration of these issues for improving the integration of service user participation in mental health care can help to inform integrated care within health care systems, broadly. This paper argues for practicing greater empathy and teaching it, stigma reduction, changing what we measure, valuing the intrinsic aspects of care more, employing more people with lived experience within mental health services, raising the visibility of service users as leaders and our teachers within services and redefining integrated care from the service user perspective.
Seed, Mary S; Torkelson, Diane J; Karshmer, Judith F
The national movement to transform the health care delivery systems must include a focus on mental health treatment. To address similar deficits across other practice domains, the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role has been created. The CNL is a master's degree that prepares a nurse to use a systems perspective to improve outcomes for a cohort of patient, deliver care based on best practices, and coordinate care in a multidisciplinary team. Applying the CNL role to mental health care could help psychiatric mental health nursing be at the forefront in the transformation of mental health care delivery.
Grants awarded by the Ontario Mental Health Foundation (OMHF) between 1986 and 1991 were analyzed for their relevance to male and female mental health topics following earlier research by Stark-Adamec in 1981. OMHF fellowships and scholarships, 1986 to 1991, National Health Research and Development Program funding, 1989 to 1990 and 1990 to 1991 funding by the Medical Research Council were also examined. Essentially, funding focused on neither gender; issues concerning gender and mental health were seldom involved in research funded by these agencies.
Tierney, K J
Controversies regarding the mental health consequences of disasters are rooted both in disciplinary orientations and in the widely varied research strategies that have been employed in disaster mental health studies. However, despite a history of dissensus, there are also key issues on which researchers agree. Disasters constitute stressful and traumatic experiences. However, vulnerability to such experiences, as well as to more chronic stressors, is socially structured, reflecting the influence of socio-economic status and other axes of stratification, including gender, race, and ethnicity. Disaster events differ in the extent to which they generate stress for victims. A holistic perspective on disaster mental health would take into account not only disaster event characteristics, but also social-systemic sources of both acute and chronic stress, secondary and cumulative stressors, and victims internal and external coping capacities.
Bonfiglio, Robert A.
The provision of college mental health services is undergoing a dynamic evolution. The ability of mental health practitioners and administrators to balance multiple and sometimes opposing trends may determine the future course of mental health services in higher education.
Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse
The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C
Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Signs of Overload (American Academy of Pediatrics) What Is Child Traumatic ... of Mental Health Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and other ...
Background Although detained youth evidence increased rates of mental illness, relatively few adolescents utilize mental health care upon release from detention. Thus, the goal of this study is to understand the process of mental health care engagement upon community reentry for mentally-ill detained youth. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 youth and caregiver dyads (39 participants) recruited from four Midwest counties affiliated with a state-wide mental health screening project. Previously detained youth (ages 11–17), who had elevated scores on a validated mental health screening measure, and a caregiver were interviewed 30 days post release. A critical realist perspective was used to identify themes on the detention and reentry experiences that impacted youth mental health care acquisition. Results Youth perceived detention as a crisis event and having detention-based mental health care increased their motivation to seek mental health care at reentry. Caregivers described receiving very little information regarding their child during detention and felt “out of the loop,” which resulted in mental health care utilization difficulty. Upon community reentry, long wait periods between detention release and initial contact with court or probation officers were associated with decreased motivation for youth to seek care. However, systemic coordination between the family, court and mental health system facilitated mental health care connection. Conclusions Utilizing mental health care services can be a daunting process, particularly for youth upon community reentry from detention. The current study illustrates that individual, family-specific and systemic issues interact to facilitate or impair mental health care utilization. As such, in order to aid youth in accessing mental health care at detention release, systemic coordination efforts are necessary. The systematic coordination among caregivers, youth, and individuals within the justice
Worley, N K; Lowery, B J
Directors of community mental health centers and superintendents of public mental health hospitals in one state were surveyed to gather data on interagency linkages. Implementation of affiliation agreements, exchange of staff training, and exchange of patient information were investigated. Affiliation agreements tended to be implemented with little difficulty and there was more interagency cooperation than that reported in earlier research. However, exchange of training and staff were still areas of minimal interaction. Geographic proximity was found to have a positive influence and competition a negative influence on cooperation. Further attempts at interagency linkages in the interest of continuity of patient care are recommended.
Harms, Sheila; Kizza, Ruth; Sebunnya, Joshua; Jack, Susan
The AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected developing or low-income sub-Saharan African countries. Within the context of the epidemic, children and youth are at risk of losing their parents at an early age. The experience of orphanhood due to AIDS has the potential to negatively impact on a child's mental health. A qualitative study was conducted to comprehensively describe the experience of orphanhood and its impact on mental health from the culturally specific perspective of Ugandan youths. We conducted interviews with a purposeful sample of 13 youths (ages 12 to 18) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS illness and who were also affiliated with a non-governmental organisation providing support to orphans. The orphaned youths experienced significant ongoing emotional difficulties following the death of their parent(s). The youths in this study were unfamiliar with the term 'mental health,' however they easily identified factors associated with good or poor mental health. In general, good mental health was associated with social conduct that is culturally appropriate. Poor mental health was perceived as a form of madness or insanity and it was associated with a loss of basic life necessities, such as access to food, education or shelter. The youths also identified factors that promote more successful orphans. The findings of this study suggest that Western terminologies and symptom constellations in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV may not be applicable in an African cultural context. There are several clinical implications, including the development of a mental health intervention paradigm that emphasises resilience.
Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M
Background Despite the advanced development of evidence-based psychological treatment services, help-seeking persons with mental health problems often fail to receive appropriate professional help. Internet-delivered psychotherapy has thus been suggested as an efficient strategy to overcome barriers to access mental health care on a large scale. However, previous research indicated poor public acceptability as an issue for the dissemination of Internet-delivered therapies. Currently, little is known about the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the general population. This is especially the case for countries such as Germany where electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services are planned to be implemented in routine care. Objective This pilot study aimed to determine the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy in the general population in Germany. Furthermore, it aimed to explore the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Methods To assess public attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy, we conducted both Web-based and paper-and-pencil surveys using a self-developed 14-item questionnaire (Cronbach alpha=.89). Psychological distress was measured by employing a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the 20-item German version of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). In addition, we conducted explorative factor analysis (principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation). Spearman’s rank correlations were used to determine the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Results Descriptive analyses revealed that most respondents (N=1558; female: 78.95%, 1230/1558) indicated being not aware of the existence of Internet-delivered therapies (83.46%, 1141/1367). The average age was 32 years (standard deviation, SD 10.9; range 16-76). Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 3 dimensions of public
Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen
Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.
Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the…
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
Carty, Lee; Burley, Christopher
The Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law is the nation's leading legal advocate for the rights of adults and children with mental disabilities. The Center uses a coordinated strategy of federal policy advocacy, legal support for a nationwide network of advocates, and creation of educational materials to help families, professionals,…
El Morr, Christo; Maule, Catherine; Ashfaq, Iqra; Ritvo, Paul; Ahmad, Farah
Mental health is a pervasive challenge in the population and especially for university/college students on campuses across North America. Anxiety, stress and depression are on the rise and a scalable, economically sound innovation is essential to address these mental health challenges. The research team has conducted 8 focus groups in April to May 2016 in order to elicit perspectives of students at York University about their online activities and the development of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community. This paper explains the main results of the qualitative analysis pertaining to the challenges and benefits of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community.
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181
Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Young, Alexander S; Vona, Pamela; Zima, Bonnie
Shared decision making (SDM) interventions aim to improve client autonomy, information sharing, and collaborative decision making, yet implementation of these interventions has been variably perceived. Using interviews and focus groups with clients and clinicians from mental health clinics, we explored experiences with and perceptions about decision support strategies aimed to promote SDM around psychotropic medication treatment. Using thematic analysis, we identified themes regarding beliefs about participant involvement, information management, and participants' broader understanding of their epistemic expertise. Clients and clinicians highly valued client-centered priorities such as autonomy and empowerment when making decisions. However, two frequently discussed themes revealed complex beliefs about what that involvement should look like in practice: (a) the role of communication and information exchange and (b) the value and stability of clinician and client epistemic expertise. Complex beliefs regarding these two themes suggested a dynamic and reflexive approach to information management. Situating these findings within the Theory of Motivated Information Management, we discuss implications for conceptualizing SDM in mental health services and adapt Siminoff and Step's Communication Model of Shared Decision Making (CMSDM) to propose a Communication-centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making (CEM-SDM).
Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.
Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113
Greenley, J R
The author reviews advances in the sociological perspective on mental health over the past four years. He examines research on such topics as community acceptance of the mentally ill, arrest rates among former psychiatric inpatients, and the effect of social factors on the type of mental health treatment received. Other research areas surveyed include the influence of social factors on service utilization and on life stress and psychological distress, sex differences in psychological problems, and the relationship between organization of service delivery systems and patient outcome.
VAILLANT, GEORGE E.
Seven models for conceptualizing positive mental health are reviewed: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV’s Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health. PMID:22654934
Hamilton, B; Roper, C
This paper critiques the conventional concept of 'insight' within the mental status assessment, seeking to unseat its taken-for-granted definition and the status it has acquired in research and practice. Drawing on social theory, consumer perspective and interdisciplinary research, the paper focuses on the impact of 'thin' biomedical understandings of insight, in disqualifying and demoralizing persons subjected to assessment and at the same time creating punitive scrutineers out of well-intentioned practitioners. Nurses and their mental health colleagues are encouraged to reconsider their reliance on the concept of insight. We entertain the alternative idea that insight is a quality of perception that mental health practitioners can cultivate, to more deeply understand their work, culture and the self.
Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them.
Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona
Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD). We found that the online activities of these young adults were diverse; they ranged from regular production and consumption ('prosumption') of health-related user-generated content to no engagement with such content. Our analysis suggested three main types of users: 'prosumers'; 'tacit consumers' and 'non-engagers'. A key determinant of participants' engagement with resources related to diabetes and CMHDs in the online environment was their offline experiences of support. Barriers to young adults' participation in online interaction, and sharing of content related to their health experiences, included concerns about compromising their presentation of identity and adherence to conventions about what content is most appropriate for specific social media spaces. Based on our analysis, we suggest that social media do not provide an unproblematic environment for engagement with health content and the generation of supportive networks. Rather, producing and consuming user-generated content is an activity embedded within individuals' specific health experiences and is impacted by offline contexts, as well as their daily engagement with, and expectations, of different social media platforms.
Shim, Ruth S; Compton, Michael T; Zhang, Shun; Roberts, Kristin; Rust, George; Druss, Benjamin G
Disparities in behavioral health treatment outcomes are multifactorial, but treatment engagement and dropout from treatment often contribute to unequal mental health outcomes in individuals with serious mental illnesses. Alcohol and other substance use disorders have been associated with poor treatment adherence and premature discontinuation of treatment, but few studies have examined these factors in a predominantly African American sample of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This study examined predictors of mental health treatment engagement and dropout in a sample of 90 African American individuals presenting for treatment at a community mental health treatment facility in Atlanta, Georgia. Having an alcohol use disorder was associated with being less likely to attend mental health follow up (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.88). Among African American individuals with alcohol use disorders, specific, targeted interventions may be necessary to help reach individuals that are at extremely high risk of poor health and poor adherence to treatment.
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772
Cox, Gary B.; And Others
Describes an ongoing research project designed to develop a computer model capable of simulating the service delivery activities of community mental health care centers and human service agencies. The goal and methodology of the project are described. (NB)
The author presents an overview of the role of existentialism in the training of counselors and mental health practitioners. Exercises and skill development techniques are also presented for existentially oriented training of psychotherapists, using a workshop format. (HLM)
McLaren, L.; Hawe, P.
An ecological perspective on health emphasises both individual and contextual systems and the interdependent relations between the two. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. This article provides a glossary of perspectives, processes, and settings that pertain to an ecological approach in health research. PMID:15598720
The author points out that, with the development of technology in industry and the resultant more-technical roles demanded of workers, communication between them and between all persons in an industrial organization becomes of primary importance. This is particularly so because of the constant demands for change within an industrial organization. Any change, however minor, will inevitably involve a wide area of the organization, and special attention will therefore have to be paid to communication between persons. The author goes on to describe some of the investigations which have been made by the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leyden, and indicates the extreme difficulty of obtaining accurate information. He shows also how the different attitudes of persons within a factory can lead to completely different perceptions of the field and of the attitudes of others within the same organization. He concludes that the main task of the mental health workers in industry lies in the prevention of tensions within it. One of the means of preventing tensions is to aim at a concept of “productive collaboration” within a factory. This task is seen as a special kind of therapy which must concern all levels of the factory. The author describes a procedure of investigation—diagnostic and therapeutic—within a factory, commencing with a phase of introduction, a pilot study, extensive individual interviewing, group interviewing, and a more specifically therapeutic phase, in which groups or specific individuals are enabled to talk their problems out. Finally, the investigating team must take steps to prevent situations of tension recurring, and, before leaving, must be certain that the plant is capable of maintaining a healthy equilibrium by itself. PMID:13276808
Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A
We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
Fistein, E.C.; Holland, A.J.; Clare, I.C.H.; Gunn, M.J.
Introduction In the regulation of involuntary treatment, a balance must be found between duties of care and protection and the right to self-determination. Despite its shared common roots, the mental health legislation of Commonwealth countries approaches this balance in different ways. When reform is planned, lessons can be learned from the experiences of other countries. Method Criteria for involuntary treatment used in a sample of 32 Commonwealth Mental Health Acts were compared using a framework developed from standards derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Reasons for non-compliance were considered and examples of good practice were noted. Changes in the criteria used over time and across areas with differing levels of economic development were analysed. Results 1. Widespread deviation from standards was demonstrated, suggesting that some current legislation may be inadequate for the protection of the human rights of people with mental disorders. 2. Current trends in Commonwealth mental health law reform include a move towards broad diagnostic criteria, use of capacity and treatability tests, treatment in the interests of health rather than safety, and regular reviews of treatment orders. Nevertheless, there are some striking exceptions. Discussion Explanations for deviation from the standards include differing value perspectives underpinning approaches to balancing conflicting principles, failure to keep pace with changing attitudes to mental disorder, and variations in the resources available for providing treatment and undertaking law reform. Current good practice provides examples of ways of dealing with some of these difficulties. PMID:19299015
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung
Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries.
Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised
Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.
As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…
McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve
Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.
Adams, Sara T.; Calista, Joanne L.; Connell, Joy; Encarnación, José; Esparza, Nancy K.; Frohock, Jeanne; Hicks, Ellen; Kim, Saeromi; Kokernak, Gerald; McGrenra, Michael; Mestre, Ray; Pérez, Maria; Pinedo, Tatiana M.; Quagan, Rosemary; Rivera, Christina; Taucer, Patsy; Wang, Ed
In this article, we present the results of a local needs assessment of the mental health experiences, service needs, and barriers to treatment-seeking of the Latino population in Worcester, Massachusetts. Overall, participants reported relatively high rates of experiences with symptoms of mental health problems, they indicated using a range of both formal and alternative mental health services, and they noted a variety of instrumental, attitudinal, and culturally-specific barriers to seeking mental health services. Findings are discussed with regards to the role that community-driven research can play in advancing efforts to provide relevant services to underserved populations. PMID:17279338
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study. PMID:27929304
More than two decades since the introduction of comprehensive nursing education in Australia, the controversy regarding the type of undergraduate education that would best serve the needs of the mental health nursing profession continues. The ensuing debate tends to be based on a comparison between the current model of comprehensive education in the universities and the specialist mental health nursing programs that previously operated within the hospital system. The previous existence of a tertiary-based direct-entry mental health nursing program in Victoria is generally not recognized. The paper provides a brief overview of mental health nursing education from a historical perspective emphasizing the period following the commencement of the transfer of the nursing education. Articulating the Victorian experience of specialist undergraduate mental health nursing education within universities is essential as discussions about the most appropriate educational preparation for mental health nursing continues.
Chun, Thomas H.; Katz, Emily R.; Duffy, Susan J.
SYNOPSIS Children with mental health problems are increasingly being evaluated and treated by both pediatric primary care and pediatric emergency physicians. This article focuses on the epidemiology, evaluation, and management of the two most common pediatric mental health emergencies, suicidal and homicidal/aggressive patients, as well as the equally challenging population of children with autism or other developmental disabilities. PMID:24093903
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Borgelt, Emily; Buchman, Daniel Z.; Illes, Judy
Mental health care providers increasingly confront challenges posed by the introduction of new neurotechnology into the clinic, but little is known about the impact of such capabilities on practice patterns and relationships with patients. To address this important gap, we sought providers' perspectives on the potential clinical translation of functional neuroimaging for prediction and diagnosis of mental illness. We conducted 32 semi-structured telephone interviews with mental health care providers representing psychiatry, psychology, family medicine, and allied mental health. Our results suggest that mental health providers have begun to re-conceptualize mental illness with a neuroscience gaze. They report an epistemic commitment to the value of a brain scan to provide a meaningful explanation of mental illness for their clients. If functional neuroimaging continues along its projected trajectory to translation, providers will ultimately have to negotiate its role in mental health. Their perspectives, therefore, enrich bioethical discourse surrounding neurotechnology and inform the translational pathway. PMID:21572566
Borgelt, Emily; Buchman, Daniel Z; Illes, Judy
Mental health care providers increasingly confront challenges posed by the introduction of new neurotechnology into the clinic, but little is known about the impact of such capabilities on practice patterns and relationships with patients. To address this important gap, we sought providers' perspectives on the potential clinical translation of functional neuroimaging for prediction and diagnosis of mental illness. We conducted 32 semi-structured telephone interviews with mental health care providers representing psychiatry, psychology, family medicine, and allied mental health. Our results suggest that mental health providers have begun to re-conceptualize mental illness with a neuroscience gaze. They report an epistemic commitment to the value of a brain scan to provide a meaningful explanation of mental illness for their clients. If functional neuroimaging continues along its projected trajectory to translation, providers will ultimately have to negotiate its role in mental health. Their perspectives, therefore, enrich bioethical discourse surrounding neurotechnology and inform the translational pathway.
Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh
Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068
Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.
Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian
The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of
Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938
Kinderman, Peter; Tai, Sara
Recent amendments to the 1983 Mental Health Act in the UK (Mental Health Act 2007) include the controversial provision for: "supervised treatment in the community for suitable patients following an initial period of detention and treatment in hospital". This provision is widespread, and more formal, in other English-speaking jurisdictions. Reviews of the international literature, human rights considerations and the perspective of psychological approaches to mental health care suggest that proposed 'supervised community treatment orders' are valuable, lawful, and compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights if certain specific conditions are met. Provisions for 'supervised community treatment orders' in the UK should be supported, but with the provisos that: the powers of the Mental Health Act are limited as in Scotland, to persons whose "ability to make decisions about the provision of [care] is significantly impaired", that each order is time-limited and subject to review by a properly constituted Tribunal, and that the use of such orders should represent a benefit to people in terms of more appropriate treatment, or be a least restrictive alternative, or better preserve the person's private and family life.
Daar, Abdallah S; Jacobs, Marian; Wall, Stig; Groenewald, Johann; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; dos Santos, Palmira; Kagee, Ashraf; Gevers, Anik; Sunkel, Charlene; Andrews, Gail; Daniels, Ingrid; Ndetei, David
Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.
Ferman, Louis A., Ed.; Gordus, Jeanne P., Ed.
This volume offers a collection of papers which explores the relationships between major economic changes and individual and collective mental and physical well-being, including individual distress, deviant behavior, and other symptoms of underlying pathology. The contributors examine the processes leading from macroeconomic change to social and…
Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Vargas Huicochea, Ingrid; Raviola, Giuseppe; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Kutcher, Stan
This column provides an overview of child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico, where prevalence rates of mental disorders among young people are up to twice as high as U.S. and Canadian rates. The mental health care system in Mexico is underdeveloped and underfunded, and for the approximately 40% of the population with no insurance, access to and quality of care are particularly poor. This column offers policy recommendations aimed at better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.
Marquez, Patricio V; Saxena, Shekhar
At a conference in April in Washington, D.C., the World Bank Group (WBG), together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners kick-started a call to action to governments, international partners, health professionals, and others to find solutions to a rising global mental health problem. Our authors write that mental disorders account for 30 percent of the non-fatal disease burden worldwide and 10 percent of overall disease burden, including death and disability, and that the global cost-estimated to be approximately $2.5 trillion in 2010-is expected to rise to $6 trillion by 2030.
Gitterman, D P; Sturm, R; Scheffler, R M
The 1996 Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA), which became effective in January 1998, is scheduled to expire in September 2001. This paper examines what the MHPA accomplished and steps toward more comprehensive parity. We explain the strategic and self-reinforcing link of parity with managed behavioral health care and conclude that the current path will be difficult to reverse. The paper ends with a discussion of what might be behind the claims that full parity in mental health benefits is insufficient to achieve true equity and whether additional steps beyond full parity appear realistic or even desirable.
Albizu-Garcia, Carmen E.; Alegría, Margarita; Freeman, Daniel; Vera, Mildred
This study addresses whether the predictors of seeking help for a mental health problem differ by gender. An adaptation of Andersen’s Socio-Behavioral Model is used to identify factors associated with seeking care for a mental health problem. Data are derived from two waves of a community survey undertaken in 1992–1993 and in 1993–1994 among a probability sample of adults (18–69 years), residing in poor areas of Puerto Rico. Paired data was used from those individuals who responded to both waves of the survey for a total of 3221 community respondents. Responses from wave 1 were used to predict mental health service use in wave 2. The dependent variable is any use of outpatient mental health services in the year preceding the second interview. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of the independent variables on use. Males and females were found to use mental health services in nearly equal proportions. Gender did not have a main effect on use when other covariates were controlled. Significant interactions with gender were found for several predictors of use. The largest intervention effects were encountered in our need for care indicators. Having a definite need for mental health care and poor self-rated mental health had a larger effect on predicting use of services for men than they do for women. It is concluded that strategies designed to improve access to mental health services for minority disadvantaged populations ought to take into account gender differences in the predictors of use. Studies addressing factors influencing health services utilization for a mental health problem should consider stratifying their sample by gender. Future research should establish whether or not these findings are sustained with other population groups. PMID:11522134
Proctor, Enola K.; McMillen, Curtis; Haywood, Sally; Dore, Peter
Research centers have become a key component of the research infrastructure in schools of social work, including the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University. In 1993, that school's Center for Mental Health Services Research (CMHSR) received funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) as a Social Work…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009
The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Lima, Bruno R.
This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…
Kraft, David P.
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…
Furtado, Juarez Pereira; Oda, Wagner Yoshizaki; Borysow, Igor da Costa; Kapp, Silke
The term "territory" and its correlates have become commonplace in the field of Mental Health since the psychiatric reform, a potentially emancipatory milestone in non-hospital-centered ideals. However, in a previous empirical study, we found a lack of consistent concepts and practices (corresponding to the use of this term) in the territorial reinsertion of persons with mental illness. To clarify the term's various uses and its possible correlations in practice, we have conducted a systematic survey of scientific articles and official documents, comparing them to each other and with the concept of territory from Critical Geography. We conclude that in the Mental Health field in Brazil, despite numerous and repeated critical efforts, a functional notion of territory has prevailed, overlooking power relations and symbolic appropriations, increasing the tendency of subjecting the reinsertion of persons with mental illness to a given territory rather than favoring socio-spatial transformations for the coexistence of differences.
Berg, Michael B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A
Little data exist about the mental health needs of gay and bisexual men. This is due to limitations of existing studies such as small and nonrepresentative samples, failure to assess sexual orientation, and concerns about stigmatization, possibly causing sexual minority individuals to be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation to researchers. Fenway Community Health is a large urban health center that serves the LGBT community. The large number of gay and bisexual men who present for mental health treatment allows for a unique opportunity to gain insight into mental health, prevention, and intervention needs for this group. The current study is a review of the mental health information from all of the gay and bisexual men who reported that they were HIV-negative during their mental health intake over a six-month period at Fenway Community Health (January to June 2000; N = 92). The most frequent presenting problems were depression, anxiety, and relationship issues. Additionally, presenting problems included current or past abuse, substance abuse, finance and employment, recent loss, and family issues. The most frequent diagnoses were depression, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorders. These findings support the notion that presenting problems and mental health concerns among gay and bisexual men are similar to those frequently reported by individuals in other mental health facilities, however, specific psychosocial stressors are unique to this population.
Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa
This paper presents findings from a study exploring the mental health inpatient care of people with a dual disability of intellectual disability and mental health issues from the perspective of those people with the dual disability. A mixture of semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were carried out with nine participants who had been admitted to an inpatient unit for mental health care exploring their experience of care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Therapeutic and Meaningful Activity', 'Emotion Focussed Care', and 'Feeling Safe?' Participants were able to identify the aspects of inpatient care that worked for them in terms of coping with time in hospital. This research suggests that there are several factors that should be considered in providing effective mental health inpatient care for people with dual disability. A number of strategies and recommendations for responding to their needs are identified and discussed.
Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng
"Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools."
Foster, Juliet L H
This paper focuses on a multi-method qualitative study of the social representations of mental health problems held by clients of the mental health services. Clients appear to represent mental health within representational projects, and, in the course of these projects, situate mental health problems at various points within a two-dimensional representational structure comprising controllability and location. It will be suggested that the element of Otherness, so integral to public representations of mental ill health, is therefore significantly more complicated in clients' representations. Similarly, the interaction between these two dimensions suggests that clients move beyond the professional divide between psychosis and neurosis. The implications of these results will be briefly considered.
Sygna, Karin; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager
This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mental health. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL≥1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mental health among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental health among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mental health than individuals with better sleep quality.
Matsea, Thabisa Coleen
Stigma is a contributing factor to non-help-seeking behavior and social isolation of mental health-care users. The study examined social workers' perspective regarding strategies that can be implemented to destigmatize mental illness in South Africa. A qualitative study method was adopted. Data were sourced through focus group discussions with social work students and telephone interviews with social workers working in hospitals. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Active involvement, education, and awareness campaigns, creating opportunities for improved well-being and constant support, were identified as relevant strategies. Given that stigma is multidimensional, various strategies are important if mental illness is to be destigmatized.
De La Cancela, Victor; Martinez, Iris Zavala
Identifies limitations of culturalist perspective often advocated by Latino mental health workers outlines folk healing practices they favor. Notes that culturalist perspective suffers from ahistorical/asocial/static conceptualization, and lacks analysis of class/sex/structural dimensions of so-called cultural expressions. Calls for recognition of…
The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief
This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
The Alternatives Project, a 60-week, mass media, mental health education project, had as its goals community education and increased public awareness of mental health facilities in the community. Sponsored by the River Region Mental Health/Mental Retardation Board in Louisville, Kentucky, the program made use of creatively produced, coordinated…
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008
As knowledge of effective treatments for mental disorders has grown, so too has the field of mental health promotion and positive development. Studies completed during the last two decades have synthesized the state of mental health promotion and documented that universal mental health supports positively affect child and adolescent developmental…
Cowan, Katherine C.
May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…
Ryan, Rob; Garlick, Robyn; Happell, Brenda
There is currently considerable discussion about the impact of the aging population on the demand for health care services, however there is considerably less attention paid to the impact of mental health issues on the needs of the aged population. Nurses comprise the largest professional group within the mental health workforce in Australia. The availability of a high quality mental health nursing workforce will therefore be crucial to meeting the health needs of aging clients in the future, accompanied by an increased pressure to increase the proportion of care delivered in the community. There is however, a paucity of literature on the role and contribution of community mental health nurses specialising in the aged care field. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of a project designed to examine the role of mental health nursing within aged persons' community mental health teams in Victoria, Australia, with particular emphasis on the biopsychosocial interventions used. Fifteen participants from three community mental health services in Victoria participated in a focus group interview to share their insights and experiences. Data analysis revealed two main themes, the role of the nurse, and the specific functions of the nurse. This data is presented as a beginning contribution to the paucity of literature currently available in this important area.
Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; lindsay, jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard
Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group (‘normalisation activity’) in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change
Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; Lindsay, Jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard
Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group ('normalisation activity') in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical
Joska, J A; Sorsdahl, K R
Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments. In resource-limited settings, many barriers to the detection and treatment of mental disorders exist. One approach to the effective targeting of the available resources is to utilize a "risk-flag" approach, wherein individuals at-risk of treatment failure are identified and routed into more intensive mental health screening and intervention. This paper discusses how lessons from HIV services may inform how to improve mental health care and integration in HIV settings, as well as in other chronic diseases.
Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chang, Hsiu-Ju
Societal ageing and the rising prevalence of chronic disease are important causes that underlie the growth in the number of disabled individuals. The disease-induced psychological distress experienced by this population not only decreases quality of life but also increases demand for healthcare. The healthcare policy for the disabled population currently focuses on community healthcare. Therefore, developing appropriate programs to promote mental health among the disabled population in community settings is a critical issue. The present paper reviews current mental health promotion initiatives that target the disabled population in the community and addresses mental healthcare issues that are prevalent among the chronically disabled; strategies of mental health promotion that use music therapy, reminiscence therapy, and horticultural therapy; and the roles and responsibilities of community professionals in mental healthcare. We offer these perspectives as a reference to promote mental health and to establish holistic community healthcare for chronically disabled individuals.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Frank, Richard G; Conti, Rena M; Goldman, Howard H
The pace of innovation in psychotropic drugs has been rapid over the past 15 years. There also have been unprecedented increases in spending on prescription drugs generally and psychotropic medications specifically. Psychotropic medications are playing a more central role in treatment. They also are receiving close scrutiny from health insurers, state budget makers, and ordinary citizens. Public policy actions regarding prescription drugs have the potential to significantly affect clinical care for mental disorders, the costs of this care to individuals and society at large, and the prospects for future scientific advances. This article outlines the policy issues related to psychotropic drugs with respect to their role in determining access to mental health treatment and the cost and quality of mental health care.
Willis, V J
The design environment of mental health facilities can facilitate the human interactions essential to treatment and can help in meeting clients' basic needs for safety and security, for self-esteem, and for the development of interpersonal and social skills. To determine the factors in the design of interior spaces that optimize clients' response to therapy, the author made a study of six Indiana community mental health centers. Drawing on that study and other sources, she presents design recommendations for mental health facilities for such areas as reception and admission areas, corridors and stairwells, therapists' offices, inpatient rooms, and dayrooms. Other discussions cover the relation of color, visual patterning, and light, and the selection of materials and finishes.
Edgar, K; Rickford, D
From first contact with the police to release from prison, people with mental ill health who come into conflict with the law often find that their mental health needs are neglected while they are under the authority of the criminal justice system. In 2008, the Prison Reform Trust surveyed independent monitoring boards in England and Wales, asking them to comment on mental health care. Topics included the adequacy of court diversion schemes, assessments carried out in prison reception units, and preparations to ensure continuity of care upon release. The responses documented some of the consequences of neglect in prisons in England and Wales. Over half of the boards felt that they frequently saw prisoners who were too ill to be in prison. Boards also expressed concerns about assessment processes in prison reception areas, which were by no means adequate to identify mental health problems. A number of boards stated that, too often, people with severe mental illnesses are held in segregation units, where they endure an impoverished regime. The boards observed that many prisons lack any means of identifying people who have learning disabilities, and often their disabilities restrict their capacity to engage fully with the regime.
Dever, R. B.
A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)
Dunn, Hailee K; Clark, Melissa A; Pearlman, Deborah N
This study uses a feminist theoretical framework to extend the literature on the relationship between sexual history, bullying victimization, and poor mental health outcomes. First, we examined whether an association between the sexual double standard and bullying victimization would apply to sexual minority youth the same way it applies to heterosexual youth. A second aim was to assess whether sexual minority boys, typically stereotyped as effeminate, would report the highest odds of bullying victimization. A third and final aim of our study was to look at the joint effect of sex and sexual intercourse on depression and suicidal ideation. Our analytic sample (N = 9,300) was from the 2009, 2011, and 2013 Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Findings demonstrated that heterosexual girls who engaged in sexual intercourse had significantly higher adjusted odds of bullying victimization than heterosexual boys who engaged in the same behavior. Similar results were not found for sexual minority adolescents, suggesting the sexual double standard may not apply to sexual minority adolescents in the same way it applies to heterosexual adolescents. Consistent with our second hypothesis, sexual minority boys reported the highest odds of being recently bullied compared with heterosexual boys. Among students who were recently bullied, sexual minority girls displayed the highest adjusted odds of recent depression and suicidal ideation. Our study demonstrated that using a feminist theoretical framework broadens our understanding of why girls and sexual minority boys are particularly vulnerable to bullying victimization and the sequel of depression and suicidal ideation.
Kutcher, S.; Wei, Y.; McLuckie, A.; Bullock, L.
Mental disorders make up close to one-third of the global burden of disease experienced during adolescence. Schools can play an important role in the promotion of positive mental health as well as an integral role in the pathways into mental health care for adolescents. In order for schools to effectively address the mental health problems of…
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243
Lincoln, Karen D.
Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal
This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.
Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Sands, Roberta G; Solomon, Phyllis L
In this article we describe a focus group study of the perspectives of diverse groups of mental health consumers on the concept of community. We identify the core domains that constitute the notion of community, and commonalities and differences in the perception of community along the lines of ethnicity and sexual orientation/gender identity. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 62 participants. Transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach.Two domains-togetherness and community acceptance-emerged as common to four types of communities that were most frequently mentioned in the focus group discussion. Our findings show that identities other than those associated with mental illness and the role of service user are critical to the understanding of the psychological sense of community among persons with psychiatric disabilities. We suggest that mental health providers empower consumers to expand their "personal communities" beyond that of mental health clients using their diverse identities, and design interventions for addressing the stigma emanating from identities that are discriminated against by the wider society.
Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro
The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient.
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. These problems in motor coordination are prevalent despite children’s intelligence levels. Common symptoms include marked delays in achieving motor milestones and clumsiness, typically associated with poor balance, coordination, and especially handwriting skills. Currently, DCD is said to impact about 2–7% of school-age children. More importantly, DCD is considered to be one of the major health problems among school-aged children worldwide, with unique consequences to physical and mental health. Because these children and adolescents often experience difficulties participating in typical childhood activities (e.g., riding a bike), they tend to be more sedentary, more overweight/obese, at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease, and have lower cardiorespiratory and physical fitness than their typically developing peers. From another perspective, the motor difficulties have also been linked to an increased risk for mental health issues, such as higher anxiety and depression. The understanding of the health consequences associated with DCD offers practical applications for the understanding of the mechanisms and intervention protocols that can improve the consequences of this condition. In this review, I will explore such consequences and provide evidence for the implementation of interventions that focus on improving physical and mental health in this population. PMID:27822464
Ansuini, Caterina; Cavallo, Andrea; Pia, Lorenzo; Becchio, Cristina
Recent years have seen accumulating evidence for the proposition that people process time by mapping it onto a linear spatial representation and automatically “project” themselves on an imagined mental time line. Here, we ask whether people can adopt the temporal perspective of another person when travelling through time. To elucidate similarities and differences between time travelling from one's own perspective or from the perspective of another person, we asked participants to mentally project themselves or someone else (i.e., a coexperimenter) to different time points. Three basic properties of mental time travel were manipulated: temporal location (i.e., where in time the travel originates: past, present, and future), motion direction (either backwards or forwards), and temporal duration (i.e., the distance to travel: one, three, or five years). We found that time travels originating in the present lasted longer in the self- than in the other-perspective. Moreover, for self-perspective, but not for other-perspective, time was differently scaled depending on where in time the travel originated. In contrast, when considering the direction and the duration of time travelling, no dissimilarities between the self- and the other-perspective emerged. These results suggest that self- and other-projection, despite some differences, share important similarities in structure. PMID:26881103
Ansuini, Caterina; Cavallo, Andrea; Pia, Lorenzo; Becchio, Cristina
Recent years have seen accumulating evidence for the proposition that people process time by mapping it onto a linear spatial representation and automatically "project" themselves on an imagined mental time line. Here, we ask whether people can adopt the temporal perspective of another person when travelling through time. To elucidate similarities and differences between time travelling from one's own perspective or from the perspective of another person, we asked participants to mentally project themselves or someone else (i.e., a coexperimenter) to different time points. Three basic properties of mental time travel were manipulated: temporal location (i.e., where in time the travel originates: past, present, and future), motion direction (either backwards or forwards), and temporal duration (i.e., the distance to travel: one, three, or five years). We found that time travels originating in the present lasted longer in the self- than in the other-perspective. Moreover, for self-perspective, but not for other-perspective, time was differently scaled depending on where in time the travel originated. In contrast, when considering the direction and the duration of time travelling, no dissimilarities between the self- and the other-perspective emerged. These results suggest that self- and other-projection, despite some differences, share important similarities in structure.
In adventure therapy (AT), health professionals and adolescents with cancer come together to explore the wilderness of nature. One goal of this therapy is to encourage the adolescents to enhance their self-concept as part of an overall physical, cognitive, emotional or spiritual, social and psychological, or developmental rehabilitation that promotes health. The adolescents with cancer who participate in AT also learn about themselves through self-evaluation, self-exploration, self-reevaluation, self-acceptance, and self-realization. Mental health promotion (MHP) is considered a perspective and a strategy to promote health. An AT experience could be an example of an MHP initiative in which nurses can take a leadership role in participating, and further investigating, the health effects of AT on adolescents with cancer.
Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Jansen, Karen
The scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA) and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119), the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138). The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001). In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.
Lehtonen, Annukka; Restifo, Kathleen
Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent–child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer. PMID:21125026
Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224
People who live with mental illnesses are among the most stigmatized groups in society. In 1996, in recognition of the particularly harsh burden caused by the stigma associated with schizophrenia, the WPA initiated a global anti-stigma program, Open-the-Doors. In 2005, a WPA Section on Stigma and Mental Health was created, with a broader mandate to reduce stigma and discrimination caused by mental disabilities in general. In light of these impor-tant developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction, this paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders. PMID:18836546
Furnham, A; Trezise, L
Because of the psychological stress associated with university life and the physical and mental stress associated with migration, researchers have become interested in psychological problems of foreign students. In this study four groups of foreign students from different parts of the world were compared with two British groups on a self-report measure of mental health. No sex differences were found yet the overseas students, as a whole, showed significantly more disturbance than either British control or first-year subjects. However, despite many differences between their countries of origin there were no significant differences between any of the overseas groups on the total scale score or any sub-scores. Further, with the exception of Malaysian students, the British subjects were significantly more satisfied with their social lives than the other groups. These findings are discussed in terms of the literature on life events and illness, culture shock and migration and mental health.
Padwa, Howard; Guerrero, Erick G.; Braslow, Joel T.; Fenwick, Karissa M.
Objective The publication of the President’s New Freedom Commission Report in 2003 led to hope and anticipation that system transformation would address barriers that have impeded the delivery of integrated services for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Have problems been resolved? This study analyzed providers’ perspectives on serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a large mental health system that has undergone transformation. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with providers at specialty mental health treatment organizations that received funding to transform services. Using content analysis, the authors identified major themes of the focus group discussions. Results Participants reported several barriers within the mental health system and challenges associated with collaborating with specialty substance abuse treatment providers that impede the delivery of integrated care. Conclusions In spite of efforts to improve co-occurring disorder service delivery in a transformed mental health system, barriers that have historically impeded integrated treatment persist. PMID:25686812
The development of the Victorian mental health nurse practitioner youth early psychosis, is a pioneer advance in clinical psychiatric/mental health nursing. This paper will explore and describe the scope of practice for the youth early psychosis mental health nurse practitioner candidate, and how the model is informed by relevant literature. The role description and context of the nurse practitioner candidate, which is synonymous with the role of the endorsed nurse practitioner, is described. Advanced practice nursing is discussed in terms of what the nurse practitioner literature says and contrasted with perceptions of a clinical nurse's everyday practice. Inherent challenges and issues are highlighted that need to sit in the background of any picture being painted of the mental health nurse practitioner role in Victoria into the future. An alternative perspective in the mental health care of the young person is proposed for the nurse practitioner scope of practice.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This first Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mental health is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mental health revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.
The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
Le Tulle, Edith
Mental health needs are expressed well beyond the doors of the psychiatric hospital. The health and social sectors are also confronted with situations of psychological suffering. The local mental health council offers solutions to professionals faced with this issue. The creation of the local mental health council and the collaborative way of working which it promotes give rise to projects aimed at improving mental health care.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH ACTIVITIES REPRESENTING EIGHT MAJOR PROGRAMS OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF MEETING THE NEEDS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS, PROVIDING EARLY TREATMENT OF MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD, AND DEVELOPING TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMS FOR SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN.…
Jorm, Anthony F.
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group) with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in both intervention arms
Russo, Nancy Felipe
Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)
The mental health film festival is based on the respect of the patient as a subject and is a place where psychic suffering can be expressed. As a film is destined to be shown, there is a dilemma between the aesthetic and the therapeutic aspects and, it's in this link that the ethical dimension concerned by this kind of activity takes place.
Henderson, Schuyler W.; Rosario, Katyna
The article explores the insight into child and adolescent behavior offered by clowns. It reviews the Big Apple Circus Clown Care hospital clowning program and evaluates the role clowns could play in pediatric mental health inpatient work and their implications for the broader clinical setting.
Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.
The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…
Bentz, Willard K.; And Others
Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73 in Vance and Franklin Counties) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this booklet is the first in a series of nine and deals with methods of gathering preliminary information. Basically, this booklet presents information…
Educating the student body on mental health involves outreach to groups not normally exposed to this information, including athletes, ethnic groups, residence hall inhabitants, fraternities and sororities, and international students. Frontline responders can help facilitate this outreach through initiatives that involve presentations by counselors…
Workman, John F.; And Others
A study was conducted in fall 1980 at Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC) to develop a greater understanding of the mental health/counseling needs of students. Specifically, the study sought to determine which stress-inducing conditions (stressors) had the greatest effect on students and the kinds of interventions and strategies that might be…
Summerlin, Florence A., Comp.
This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, reports, and books on religion and mental health published since 1970. The listing is intended to help psychologists, psychiatrists, clergymen, social workers, teachers, doctors and other professionals respond to requests for information and advice in areas spanning the common ground between…
Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…
Greist, John H.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Erdman, Harold P.; Jefferson, James W.
Direct patient-computer interviews were among the earliest applications of computing in medicine. Yet patient interviewing and other clinical applications have lagged behind fiscal/administrative uses. Several reasons for delays in the development and implementation of clinical computing programs and their resolution are discussed. Patient interviewing, clinician consultation and other applications of clinical computing in mental health are reviewed.
Padilla, Amado M.; Ruiz, Rene A.
Reviewed from an interdisciplinary viewpoint is the available literature on the mental health of Spanish speaking, Spanish surnammed (SSSS) individuals and communities in the United States. It is reported that over 9 million U.S. residents are of Spanish origin, that the SSSS are usually on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic ladder, that the…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each lesson presents an analysis of the subject under consideration. A list of further sources…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
This guide is concerned with productivity measurement and improvement in mental health centers, and focuses on the relationship between service outputs and available clinical staff, i.e., staff productivity. Staff productivity measures are described as useful in identifying existing levels of productivity, making comparisons to determine the…
Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby
Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…
Frabutt, James M.
One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…
This paper draws on research which considers the implications for practitioners and managers of implementing new ideas for practice gained from learning and education in mental health in the UK. Using a questionnaire survey followed by eight semi-structured interviews, the research set out to identify the issues facing workers trying to implement change in the workplace as a result of new learning gained from study of an Open University mental health course. The paper argues that much management literature on change within organisations is problematic in this specific context. This is largely because it takes insufficient account of the complexities surrounding work within social care (particularly mental health). Findings show that workers who have undertaken learning in mental health often feel disempowered and isolated when attempting to introduce new ideas for practice into the workplace. The first line manager operates at the intersection of practice and learning and has a key role in enabling and supporting staff through practice as well as service change and professional development. This paper locates the distance learning experience within a wider framework of student/practitioner support, and explores the role of the first line manager in supporting and enabling staff.
Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each paper presents a clear, easily understood analysis of the subject under consideration. A…
Brooks, Deems M.
The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…
Waetjen, Walter B., Ed.; Leeper, Robert R., Ed.
This book, comprised of seven chapters, focuses on the problem of planning a curriculum that recognizes and promotes growth of each pupil in the areas of mental health and learning. Chapter one, "Mutuality of Effective Functioning and School Experiences," emphasizes acceptance of pupils' thoughts and feelings and the pupils' challenging of the…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse
The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.
ALTSHULER, KENNETH Z.; RAINER, JOHN D.
A THREE YEAR PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEMONSTRATE THE VALUE AND FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH (PSYCHIATRIC) SERVICES FOR THE DEAF ESTABLISHED A CLINICAL UNIT FOR THE DEAF WITH INPATIENT, OUTPATIENT, AND AFTERCARE SERVICES. THE CLINIC SERVED 50 PATIENTS (MINIMUM AGE 16) IN THE WARDS AND 96 PATIENTS (ALL AGES) IN THE…
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…