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Sample records for mental retardation pathogenic

  1. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  2. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  3. Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jill; Hoover, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Critically reviews data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders. Discusses possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research. (Author)

  4. Depression and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Marie A.

    Mentally retarded people may be particularly vulnerable to depression and related emotional disturbances due to limited social skills, lack of friends, and negative self-esteem. A therapy group for depressed retarded clients provided an opportunity to collect information about depression in retarded individuals and to evaluate various treatment…

  5. [Genetics of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, A; Saugier-Veber, P

    2010-10-01

    Mental retardation affects nearly 3 % of the population. The causes of these disorders are various and are often not identified. Recent advances focused on the molecular basis of mental retardation. Nearly half of mental retardation syndromes have a genetic origin and the description of molecular, cytogenetic and metabolic alterations in these disorders led to the development of diagnostic tools. Indeed, identifying the precise origin of the mental retardation allows to improve patient care and to refine the prognosis. Moreover, these molecular tools will help the geneticist to evaluate the recurrence risk in the family in the genetic counseling step. On a fundamental point of view, the knowledge of molecular basis of mental retardation will help to understand the biological pathway which constitutes the first step before therapeutic strategies. Every patient with mental retardation should be investigated for causal origin of the disease. We will detail the diagnostic methods necessary to investigate a patient presenting with mental retardation. Then different examples of syndromes including a mental retardation will be chosen to illustrate different clinical situations. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  7. [Genetic mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Revenga Bodi, L; Madrigal-Bajo, I; Milà-Racasens, M

    2006-10-10

    Mental retardation is a frequently occurring disorder with a major impact on the life of the affected person, the family and society, with an estimated incidence of 1-3% in developed countries. Among the etiologies that cause mental retardation it would appear that 30% have a genetic origin, 15% have an environmental origin, and the rest have an unknown origin. AIM. To report the genetic causes of mental retardation and the new molecular techniques used in order to reach a diagnosis. The identification of the causes of mental retardation is of great interest due to the consequences it has in the intervention, prognosis, estimation of risk of recurrence and its prevention. Causes of mental retardation are extremely heterogeneous. Genetic causes can be classified as chromosomal alterations (aneuploidies, subtelomeric rearrangements, microdeletion or microduplication syndrome), monogenic, metabolic, or multifactorial alterations. Thanks to the development of high-resolution new techniques -comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays, and multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA)- now we are able to detect microdeletions and microduplication all over the genome, which might be related with mental retardation. The genetic causes of mental retardation are highly heterogeneous and complex. Nowadays and thanks to the new molecular techniques we are able to perform several studies, even though almost half of cases remain undiagnosed. In those undiagnosed cases with positive familial history a genetic counseling can be provided. However, in order to perform a prenatal or a preimplantational study a genetic diagnosis is required.

  8. X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2009-05-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions. There are more than 900 genetic disorders associated with MR and it affects around 3% of the general population. Many MR conditions described are syndromic, fragile X syndrome being the most common clinical entity among them. X linked mental retardation (XLMR) is subdivided in two categories: syndromic XLMR (MRXS) when MR is associated with clinical features and non-syndromic XLMR (MRX) when MR is isolated. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to join together the results of several studies related to X linked mental retardation and to present various genes implicated in this disease. In this review, focus has been given on genes implicated in mental retardation, the clinical data and on phenotype-genotype correlations. An exhaustive electronic and library research of the recent literature was carried out on the Web sites "Science Direct" and "Interscience Wiley". The key words used were "mental retardation", "X chromosome", "gene", "syndromic mental retardation", "non-syndromic mental retardation". In this review a number of X linked genes, the clinical features associated with the gene abnormality, and the prevalence of the disease gene are discussed. We classified these genes by order of their first implication in MR. A table presented on the XLMR Update Web site who list the 82 known XLMR genes is available as XLMR Genes and corresponding proteins.

  9. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  10. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  11. The genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F Lucy; Tarpey, Patrick

    2006-10-15

    Genetic abnormalities frequently give rise to a mental retardation phenotype. Recent advances in resolution of comparative genomic hybridization and genomic sequence annotation has identified new syndromes at chromosome 3q29 and 9q34. The finding of a significant number of copy number polymorphisms in the genome in the normal population, means that assigning pathogenicity to deletions and duplications in patients with mental retardation can be difficult but has been identified for duplications of MECP2 and L1CAM. Novel autosomal genes that cause mental retardation have been identified recently including CC2D1A identified by homozygosity mapping. Several new genes and pathways have been identified in the field of X-linked mental retardation but many more still await identification. Analysis of families where only a single male is affected reveals that the chance of this being due to a single X-linked gene abnormality is significantly less than would be expected if the excess of males in the population is entirely due to X-linked disease. Recent identification of novel X-linked mental retardation genes has identified components of the post-synaptic density and multiple zinc finger transcription factors as disease causing suggesting new mechanisms of disease causation. The first therapeutic treatments of animal models of mental retardation have been reported, a Drosophila model of Fragile X syndrome has been treated with lithium or metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists and a mouse model of NF1 has been treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lavastatin, which improves the learning and memory skills in these models.

  12. Mental Retardation Film List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A list of films on mental retardation includes titles, publication information, physical descriptions, language revisions when other than English, series reference, technical description of film content, sale source, and distributor. Films intended for the general public are grouped under the heading Nonprofessional; others are listed as…

  13. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  14. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  15. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  16. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  17. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  18. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  19. [Mental retardation and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Hyperactivity syndromes and disorders (ADHD and HKD) include the symptoms of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, which occur in many other mental disorders as well, including mental retardation (MR). It is not surprising that symptoms of ADHD occur significantly higher in children with learning disabilities. Dekker and Koot (2003) found a prevalence of 14.8 % for ADHD in Dutch children attending special schools, and Emerson (2003) reported rates of 8.7 % for HKD in children with global learning disability, representing a 10-fold increased risk compared to the prevalence of hyperactivity (0.9 %) in the general population sample. Yet only very few studies have been published concerning ADHD in children with mental retardation. Several features distinguish the diagnoses of ADHD and MR. In contrast to the limited knowledge about the differences and similarities of ADHD and MR, many studies considered stimulant medication as a pharmacological management strategy for children suffering from ADHD, MR, or both. According to these studies, psychostimulants may improve the target symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, disinhibition, and inattention, albeit with caveats: ADHD symptoms in patients with MR may be less responsive to medical treatment than in patients without MR. Moreover, people with MR may be more susceptible to side effects.

  20. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  1. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  2. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  3. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  4. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  5. Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Seizure Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Anne; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a common form of cognitive impairment affecting approximately 3% of the population in industrialized countries. The mental retardation syndrome incorporates a highly diverse group of mental disorders characterized by the combination of cognitive impairment and defective adaptive behavior. The genetic basis of the disease is strongly supported by identification of the genetic lesions associated with impaired cognition, learning, and social adaptation in many mental retardation syndromes. Several of the impaired genes encode epigenetic regulators of gene expression. These regulators exert their function through genome-wide posttranslational modification of histones or by mediating and/or recognizing DNA methylation. In this chapter, we review the most recent advances in the field of epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation. In particular, we focus on animal models of the human diseases and the mechanism of transcriptional deregulation associated with changes in the cell epigenome.

  7. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ropers, H-Hilger; Hamel, Ben C J

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental retardation has focused almost entirely on the X-chromosome. Here, we review the remarkable recent progress in this field, its promise for understanding neural function, learning and memory, and the implications of this research for health care.

  8. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  9. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  10. Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Patricia

    Literature on deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded persons is reviewed. Cited are studies showing positive aspects, including improved communication abilities, increased adaptive behavior and personal satisfaction. Community adjustment findings focus on effects of involuntary relocation to another facility, age differences, and…

  11. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  12. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lisik, Małgorzata Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2008-11-01

    Mental retardation is a serious medical and social problem. The prevalence of mental retardation in Western countries is estimated to be between 2 and 3%. Establishing the cause of mental retardation is essential for prognosis, management, and genetic counseling. It is estimated that 25-35% of mental retardation might have a genetic background. Of these genetic causes, 25-30% are probably due to mutations on the X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation, XLMR). XLMR is a heterogeneous set of conditions involved in a large proportion of inherited mental retardation. More than 200 XLMR conditions have been reported and 76 genes has been linked to them. XLMR conditions are commonly subdivided into syndromic and nonsyndromic forms on the basis of clinical presentation. The distinction between these forms of XLMR is gradually becoming less clear as phenotypes are described for several of the genes. The spectrum of phenotypic variability in XLMR is so large that mutations in several XLMR genes have been found in both syndromic and nonsyndromic (XLMR) pedigrees. About 42% of patients from families with an XLMR history might have mutations in one of the known genes implicated in XLMR. However, in genetic counseling we have to use empiric recurrence risk.

  13. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  14. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  15. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  16. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  17. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  18. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  19. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  20. Scholarly Productivity in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)

  1. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  2. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  3. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  4. Scouting for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.

    The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…

  5. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  6. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  7. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  8. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  9. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  10. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  11. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  12. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  13. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  14. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  15. Ocular disorder in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.

  16. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  17. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  18. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  19. Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costeff, H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and familial, had a strikingly higher prevalence of disturbances than a control group of retarded individuals with consanguineous parents…

  20. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  1. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  2. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  3. Statistics on Mental Retardation in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Association for Retarded Citizens, Indianapolis.

    Presented are 19 tables of statistical data on prevalence of mental retardation, and services provided the estimated 158,724 mentally retarded (MR) persons in Indiana through 1973 by special education classes, vocational rehabilitation units, local organizations, and state hospitals and training centers. Given in tables 1 through 8 are data on…

  4. Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.

    Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…

  5. Mental Retardation: Update 2002. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourcade, Jack

    This digest provides an overview of mental retardation in children and adults. It begins by discussing the definition of mental retardation and the three components that are required for an accurate diagnosis: an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, a determination of deficits in adaptive behavior, and origins of the disability prior to age 18.…

  6. Interaction between Family Violence and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics that make individuals with mental retardation more vulnerable to family violence are discussed in the areas of child, adult, and sexual abuse. Common psychological effects of this trauma are then explored followed by implications for practice. A case study of a female with mental retardation is presented. (Contains references.)…

  7. Defining Mental Retardation from an Instructional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)

  8. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  9. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  10. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  11. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  12. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A child is classified as mentally retarded who exhibits significantly sub-average intellectual...

  13. [Correlations between vocal qualities and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappala, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1990-01-01

    This research is intended to verify the existence of vocal spectrographic alterations, with particular reference to the values of Fundamental Frequency, in patients with different levels of Mental Retardation. The results show the existence of a direct correspondence between the values of the Fundamental Frequency and the level of Mental Retardation: the spectrographic characteristics appear to be more altered in subjects with severe Mental Retardation. The spectrographics patterns are characterized by the presence of bi-phonation particularly at the onset time and at the end, and by a noise signal on constant frequency. The shifts of Fundamental Frequency and voice breakage are rarely detected.

  14. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  15. Social development of children with mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Indrabhushan; Singh, Amool R.; Akhtar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social development of children with mental retardation has implications for prognosis. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five mentally retarded children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale and Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Results: It was found that there was significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the IQ of the subjects. Further it was found that with increasing severity of retardation, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Conclusion: Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of retardation. PMID:21234165

  16. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  17. [X-linked mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Billuart, Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2005-11-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) affects 1.8 per thousand male births and is usually categorized as "syndromic" (MRXS) or "non-specific" (MRX) forms according to the presence or absence of specific signs in addition to the MR. Up to 60 genes have been implicated in XLMR and certain mutations can alternatively lead to MRXS or MRX. Indeed the extreme phenotypic and allelic heterogeneity of XLMR makes the classification of most genes difficult. Therefore, following identification of new genes, accurate retrospective clinical evaluation of patients and their families is necessary to aid the molecular diagnosis and the classification of this heterogeneous group of disorders. Analyses of the protein products corresponding to XLMR genes show a great diversity of cellular pathways involved in MR. Common mechanisms are beginning to emerge : a first group of proteins belongs to the Rho and Rab GTPase signaling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity and a second group is related to the regulation of gene expression. In this review, we illustrate the complexity of XLMR conditions and present recent data about the FMR1, ARX and Oligophrenin 1 genes.

  18. The Texas Plan to Combat Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Advisory Committee on Mental Retardation Planning, Austin, TX.

    The Texas state plan of action against mental retardation is presented. Aspects considered include the evolution of the plan, the role of the health services, medical aspects of retardation, education and training, vocational rehabilitation and employment, and social welfare. Also surveyed are the following: residential and day care, manpower,…

  19. MR 76. Mental Retardation: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The tenth annual report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the history of America's services for the retarded from the 1850's to the present. Traced is governmental involvement through conferences on children and youth, and reviewed is the role of parents and volunteers in securing appropriate services. Among agencies…

  20. Problems of Psychology of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 18 papers on problems in the psychology of mentally retarded children. Seven of the papers are in English, two in French, and nine in Russian. The English papers are concerned with the following topics: peculiarities of psychic functions in oligophrenic (retarded) children with pronounced underdevelopment of frontal lobes of cerebral…

  1. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  2. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  3. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  4. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  5. Galactosaemia: A Preventable Form of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)

  6. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  7. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  8. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  9. Dendritic spine abnormalities in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Abnormalities in dendritic spine morphologies are often associated with mental retardation. Since dendritic spines are thought to represent a morphological correlate of neuronal plasticity, altered spine morphologies may underlie or contribute to cognitive deficits seen in mental retardation. Signaling cascades that are important for cytoskeletal regulation may have an impact upon spine morphologies. The Rho GTPase signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and to play fundamental roles in the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. Moreover, alterations in the Rho GTPase signaling pathway have been shown to contribute to mental retardation. Recently, different mental retardation-associated genes have been identified that encode modulators of the Rho GTPases. Disturbances in these genes can lead to mental retardation and-on the morphological level-to alterations in dendritic spines. Thus, getting more insight into the Rho GTPase signaling pathways, and the molecules involved, would not only help in understanding the basic mechanisms by which the morphologies of dendritic spines are modulated but may also allow the development of therapeutic strategies to counteract some aspects of mental retardation.

  10. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  11. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

  12. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents.

  13. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  14. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  15. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  16. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F L

    2006-03-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.

  17. Reduced Cortical Thickness in Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a developmental disorder associated with impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in adaptive behaviors. Many studies have addressed white matter abnormalities in patients with mental retardation, while the changes of the cerebral cortex have been studied to a lesser extent. Quantitative analysis of cortical integrity using cortical thickness measurement may provide new insights into the gray matter pathology. In this study, cortical thickness was compared between 13 patients with mental retardation and 26 demographically matched healthy controls. We found that patients with mental retardation had significantly reduced cortical thickness in multiple brain regions compared with healthy controls. These regions include the bilateral lingual gyrus, the bilateral fusiform gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the bilateral temporal pole, the left inferior temporal gyrus, the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the right precentral gyrus. The observed cortical thickness reductions might be the anatomical substrates for the impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in adaptive behaviors in patients with mental retardation. Cortical thickness measurement might provide a sensitive prospective surrogate marker for clinical trials of neuroprotective medications. PMID:22216343

  18. Advances in X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Roger E

    2005-12-01

    Mutations in genes on the X chromosome rival chromosome aberrations as a cause of mental retardation. Progress in the clinical and molecular delineation of X-linked mental retardation has outpaced progress in understanding autosomal mental retardation. This is a result in large part of the identification of large families in which mental retardation has segregated in an X-linked pattern and the greater ease with which molecular technologies can be applied to hemizygosity in males. About one-third of the estimated 165 genes associated with syndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome and one-fourth of the estimated 100 genes associated with nonsyndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome have been identified. In a number of instances, the same gene is responsible for syndromal and nonsyndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome. The molecular delineation of mutations of genes on the X chromosome has allowed certain conditions to be lumped together on the basis of allelism and has caused others that appear clinical similar to remain separate. The clinical and molecular advances have allowed X-linked mental retardation to be more clearly delineated, have provided the means of confirmatory laboratory testing, and have ushered in an era of carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  19. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; El-Malhany, Nadia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-02-14

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.

  20. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  1. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  2. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  3. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The document presents an international directory of mental retardation resources. International organizations pertaining to the mentally retarded are listed and described, including those affiliated with the United Nations, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international coordinating agencies, and regional nongovernmental…

  4. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  5. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  6. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  7. The Deaf Mentally Retarded: Understanding Their World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonies, Barbara C.

    Described photographically and textually in the brochure are the educational, vocational, and social needs of deaf mentally retarded (DMR) children and adults. The DMR person is discussed in relation to the double handicap which precludes educational benefits from a traditional program, secondary problems such as visual handicaps, and incidence…

  8. Implementing Programs for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Guidelines for the development of programs for trainable mentally retarded children are presented. Major task areas identified are the family group, communication skills, physical development, socialization, recreational interests and skills, and preparation for work oriented activity. Six papers are presented: precision teaching and behavior…

  9. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  10. Thoughts on Changing the Term Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kevin K.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. It offers some ideas on how society might think about elemental change in terminology so a healthy outcome can be achieved without simply rearranging prejudices. The term "cognitive- adaptive disability" is proposed. (Contains three…

  11. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  12. LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DURRELL, DONALD D.; SULLIVAN, HELEN B.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE--(1) TO DISCOVER VARIATIONS IN LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CHILDREN AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) TO DISCOVER "OPEN CHANNELS" FOR CURRENT EDUCATION OF THESE CHILDREN, (3) TO CHART THE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC DIFFICULTIES IN THE INTAKE AND OUTPUT IDEAS THROUGH LANGUAGE, AND (4) TO IDENTIFY…

  13. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  14. Prevention of Mental Retardation in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    This paper describes causes of mental retardation in rural America, preventative methods, and factors impeding preventative approaches in rural settings and offers principles for tailoring traditional preventative methods for rural areas. Relevant findings of research conducted by the National Rural Project, American Council on Rural Special…

  15. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  16. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  17. Throwing Patterns of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David

    This study explored developmental patterns in the acquisition of the gross motor skill of throwing among 110 educable, mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-olds. Each child was examined through cinematographic procedures to discover: a) variance in throwing patterns, b) elements composing throwing skills, and c) sequential integration of the elements…

  18. Meta-Analyses in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews 26 meta-analyses in mental retardation in terms of selected hypotheses, sampling information, representative characteristics of the review, analysis of primary studies, interpretation of results, and reporting of the integrative view. Results indicate a wide variation in the amount of reported data similar to other analyses of…

  19. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  20. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  1. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  2. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  3. MENTAL RETARDATION. CATALOG OF LIBRARY ACCESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FEARON, ROSS E.

    LISTING ABOUT 570 ITEMS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY REPRESENTS THE MENTAL RETARDATION COLLECTION AT MANTOR LIBRARY, FARMINGTON STATE COLLEGE. ITEMS ARE LISTED BY DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION NUMBER OR VERTICAL FILE NUMBER, INCLUDED ARE CURRICULUM AND TEACHER GUIDES, PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONS, PARENT HANDBOOKS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, DIRECTORIES, RESEARCH…

  4. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  5. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  6. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  7. The Year 2000 Objective for Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Vernon N.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has begun a program for the prevention of disabilities, with one area of focus being developmental disabilities. An objective for the Year 2000 Health Objectives for the Nation has been proposed, stating: "By the year 2000, the prevalence of serious mental retardation (an intelligence quotient of less…

  8. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  9. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  10. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  11. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  12. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  13. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  14. Educating Students with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the history of educating students with mild mental retardation and includes discussion of general demographic trends, contextual factors that influenced this process, assessment and instructional practices, and teacher roles and preparation. It then examines these same features currently and offers recommendations for…

  15. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  16. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  18. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  19. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  20. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  1. Evaluating Achievement of the Mentally Retarded: A Comprehensive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotick, Andrew L.

    Several factors should be considered in using standardized tests to measure achievement in the mentally retarded. Who should be included in the normative sample is a first consideration; this depends on the definition of mentally retarded being used. For achievement purposes the mentally retarded probably differ from one another as much as they do…

  2. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  3. Mentally retarded workers' reactions to their jobs.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Z; Cnaan, R A; Cnaan, A

    1985-09-01

    Reactions of 34 mentally retarded employees to their jobs were examined in a field study conducted at a sheltered workshop. Three experienced social workers observed a group of retarded employees whose job was assembling toys. The workers were then interviewed on their perceptions of and reactions to their job characteristics and supervision, and these were related to performance data that included performance time, productivity, and effort ratings. Results showed that performance measures were related to perceived job characteristics and that growth-need strength (people's needs for personal development and achievement) affected these relationships. On the basis of these results, we discussed the feasibility of using motivation models for retarded workers that were designed for nonretarded workers.

  4. Genetics of non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Non-syndromic mental retardation is one of the most serious neurodevelopmental disorders, which has a serious impact not only on the affected individuals and their families but also on the health care system and society. Previously research has been more focused on the X-linked mental retardation and only recently studies have shown that non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation is extremely heterogeneous and contributes much more than the X-linked mental retardation. But very little is known about the genes and loci involved in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation than the X-linked mental retardation. To date only thirty loci and ten genes have been established associated with the non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation. This short review presents an overview of the current knowledge on clinical information available for the ten genes associated with this unexplored group of genetic disorder.

  5. Mental Retardation in Rural Texas; An Examination of Selected Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, James O.

    The results of a mental health and mental retardation educational program were reported for the period January 1969 to June 1970. The objectives were to foster and enhance public awareness, interest, and concern for mental health and mental retardation; to inform the population of the services available to meet immediate needs; to educate the…

  6. [Microcephalia vera. Genetic heterogeneity and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Baldellou Váquez, A; Caro Rebollo, J; Bernad Usoz, J V; Tamparillas Salvador, M

    1988-11-01

    Genetic counseling has been carried in 30 families with 51 patients affected of microcephalia. An exogenous cause was determined in 13 cases. In two cases authors do not find a definite aetiology. Microcephalia vera AD can be demonstrated in seven families, and microcephalia vera AR eight. This last form showed always typical phenotype, but the former was present without any peculiar traits. Main observation is that mental retardation is not always conditioned by inheritance form.

  7. Walking Habits of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…

  8. Issues in Identification and Assessment in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal…

  9. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  10. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosen, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  11. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  12. [Children with mental retardation after special education].

    PubMed

    Qu, C Y; Zhang, X L; Li, H

    1994-03-01

    44 children with mental retardation were tested 4 times with Hiskey-Nebraska test of learning aptitude (H-NTLA) and tested 2 times with personal and social self-sufficiency scales in a special education school in Taiyuan from 1989 to 1992. No significant difference of total IQ was found. The visual association, concept relationship, visual concentration and perceptual abilities were decreased consistently. The rising of IQ was positively associated with mother's higher education, child's higher IQ, mother's professional and technical occupation and child's younger age in beginning special education. The adaptive behavior was rising significantly.

  13. New definition of mental retardation for the American Association of Mental Retardation.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, D W; Williams, W L

    1998-01-01

    To describe the new definition of mental retardation developed by the American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) published in 1992. The previous definition was based on a deficiency model that identified "subaverage intelligence" using an intelligence quotient (IQ) score equal to or less than 70. The new definition places greater emphasis on adaptive skills and environmental support needs. Defining mental retardation according to AAMR criteria reflects a significant paradigm shift from an absolute trait to a functional conception. The new definition is dynamic, attends to context, is inherently holistic--and, therefore--closely aligned with nursing theory. Diagnosis is a three-step process by which functional strengths and weaknesses are identified along 4 dimensions and 10 adaptive-skill areas. Identification of needed supports is incorporated within the three-step process. Nurses can enhance holistic care by working to have AAMR's new definition adopted by government legislators and administrators of state and county agencies that provide mental-retardation services. Nurses should become active participants as interdisciplinary diagnostic team members as well as case managers. Nurse researchers and educators can contribute toward further developing AAMR's definition by standardizing assessment instruments, working to make diagnostic procedures more user-friendly, and researching the construct validity of adaptive-skill areas. Finally, nurses should help legislators and policy makers understand the sociocultural ramifications of AAMR's new definition.

  14. Travis County Mental Retardation Services Plan of the Travis County Mental Retardation Planning Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin - Travis County Mental Health - Mental Retardation Center, TX.

    Presented is a county wide (Travis County, Texas) plan developed by 12 human service agencies to provide comprehensive educational, maintenance, and prevention services to the mentally retarded of all ages. Described are three underlying principles: human ecology (which stresses an individual approach to fulfillment), normalization, and community…

  15. [X-linked mental retardation--treatment scheme].

    PubMed

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2008-01-01

    Mental retardation is a serious medical and social problem. The prevalence of mental retardation is estimated at 2-3%. Establishing the cause of mental retardation is extremely important for prognosis, management, and genetic counseling. It is postulated that 25-35% of mental retardation cases may be of genetic background. Among the genetic causes 25-30% are probably result of mutations located in the X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation--XLMR). X-linked mental retardation is a heterogeneous set of conditions responsible for a large proportion of inherited mental retardation. More than 200 XLMR conditions and 45 cloned genes are listed in catalogue available on the Internet. Traditionally, based on clinical presentation, XLMR conditions were divided into specific and nonspecific forms or syndromic and nonsyndromic. The distinction between specific and non-specific forms of XLMR is gradually becoming less clear and spectrum of phenotypic variability is very large as both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms have been described for several of the XLMR genes. Mutations in patients suffering from X-linked mental retardation genes have been found only in a relatively limited number of cases. Up to 50% of the patients from XLMR families might have mutations in one of the known genes implicated in XLMR so far. However, current methods are generally too expensive or too unreliable to justify mutation screening of all known XLMR genes in diagnostic testing. Thus it is necessary to use empirical data of recurrence risk in genetic counseling of the family with mental retardation.

  16. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  17. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  18. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals.

  19. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  20. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  1. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  2. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  3. Folie à deux and mental retardation: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Ghaziuddin, M

    1991-02-01

    Despite the known association of folie à deux with low intelligence, very few reports of its occurrence in people with documented mental retardation have been published. A case of folie à deux in a 32 year old man with moderate mental retardation is described and the clinical implications discussed. The need for an increased awareness of the existence of mental illness in the mentally handicapped is also emphasized.

  4. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  5. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  6. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  7. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  8. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  9. Kansas Citizens Plan Comprehensive Mental Retardation Services. Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Social Welfare, Topeka. Div. of Institutional Management.

    Summarized are the recommendations and findings of 1 1/2-year project to prepare a plan to combat mental retardation in Kansas. The study is said to have been based on the principle that needs rather than diagnostic labels should determine services provided. Outlined are mental retardation planning activities at the federal level and preplanning…

  10. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  11. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  12. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  13. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  14. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  15. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  16. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  17. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  18. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  19. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  20. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  1. CEC Selected Convention Papers; Annual International Convention: Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The following articles on mental retardation are provided: translating research findings into classroom activity; camping programs; a measurement device for educable mentally retarded adolescents on their self-concept as a worker; an investigation of the Doman-Delacato Theory in a trainable program in the public schools; and problems of sex…

  2. Services for People with Mental Retardation or Related Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Mental Retardation, Columbia.

    Intended as a reference for chambers of commerce, physicians, public schools, and other agencies, this directory lists services for families of people with mental retardation or related disabilities in South Carolina. First, the South Carolina Department of Mental Retardation is described, including its service system, organization, case…

  3. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  4. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  5. Effects on Learning of Relaxation Training with Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.

    Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…

  6. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  7. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  8. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  9. Sex between People with "Mental Retardation": An Ethical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issue of whether sex between mentally retarded individuals is morally permissable, and if so, under what conditions. Argues that mutual consent has unacceptable consequences for the mentally retarded. Specifies conditions where caregivers can grant permission for sexual activity. Describes the implications for future professionals'…

  10. Educational Initiatives in Mental Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Holland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijers, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)

  11. Speech and Prosody Characteristics of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Widder, Carol J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples of 40 noninstitutionalized persons (ages 20-50) with mental retardation found that speech and prosody status were not statistically associated with gender or gross level of mental retardation but were associated with estimated probability of independent living. The existence of a cognitive capacity constraint and a…

  12. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  13. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  14. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  15. Nutrition and Mental Retardation. An Annotated Bibliography, 1964-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino

    This annotated bibliography is primarily organized for nutritionists. It presents selected articles published from 1964 to the present. All aspects of nutrition in mental retardation are covered excepting inborn errors of metabolism. Sections are included on: (1) nutrition, birthweight, and mental retardation; (2) nutrition, growth, and mental…

  16. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  17. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  18. Reaction Times of Down's Syndrome and Other Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, D. N.; Bankhead, I.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of mentally retarded subjects matched for sex, chronological age, mental age, and length of institutionalization were observed on three reaction time tasks for which pre-response complexity varied. Down's Syndrome subjects did not differ from epileptic and undifferentiated retarded subjects in reaction time performance on any of the tasks.…

  19. Students with Mild Mental Retardation Participating in Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of a student with mild mental retardation in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with mild mental retardation and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the…

  20. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  1. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  2. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  3. Crisis Intervention With the Mentally Retarded: The New Treatment Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny; Deutsch, Martin R.

    The trend toward normalization of the mentally retarded has brought a new dimension to the problem of their adjustment. Within the past several years, large numbers of the mentally retarded have been discharged into the community from residential facilities; the stress and anxiety they experience at being thrust into a strange and alien world…

  4. RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.

    A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION"…

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. Trisomy 21: from chromosomes to mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Kerdelhué, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    The first descriptions of the trisomy 21 phenotype were by Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol (1838), Edouard Séguin (1846) and later by John L. H. Down in 1862. It took more than a century to discover the extra-chromosomal origin of the syndrome commonly called "Down's syndrome" and which, we suggest, should be referred to as "Trisomy 21". In this review we are presenting the landmarks, from the pioneering description of the syndrome in 1838 to Jérôme Lejeune's discovery of the first genetic substrate for mental retardation. The sequencing of HSA21 was a new starting point that generated transcriptome studies, and we have noted that studies of gene over-expression have provided the impetus for discovering the HSA21 genes associated with trisomy 21 cognitive impairment.

  7. The Educational Meaning of Mental Retardation: Toward a More Helpful Construct. Mental Retardation and the Neglected Construct of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzky, Harvey N.

    This paper examines the role of motivation in the way mental retardation is defined and treated. It reviews evidence that mental retardation involves a motivational self-system and a self-regulatory influence which, interacting with cognitive and metacognitive factors, result in inefficient learning. It suggests that individuals with mental…

  8. A Survey of Toxoplasmosis Among Mentally Retarded Children

    PubMed Central

    Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.

    1965-01-01

    To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency. PMID:14282158

  9. Critical flicker frequency of mentally retarded and normal persons.

    PubMed

    Ali, M R; Khaleque, A; Khanam, M; al-Shatti, A; Ahmed, R U

    1994-12-01

    Critical flicker frequency (CFF) of 40 men, 20 mentally retarded whose mean age was 22.0 yr. and 20 normal whose mean age was 21.5 yr., was measured under binocular viewing using the Lafayette Visual Perception Control with a display unit. Subjects had been previously tested for visual acuity and color blindness. Analysis showed a significant difference in CFF between mentally retarded persons and normal individuals, the former having lower CFF than the latter. This finding suggests lower perceptual sensitivity of the mentally retarded persons. Further research with provision for EEG recordings is suggested.

  10. Research on mental retardation: an agenda for the future.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, M A

    2000-06-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study carried out on 12 scientific journals that deal with research on mental retardation. The purpose was to analyze the type of research currently being published. Data shows that, although most of research on mental retardation from 1991 to June, 1999 agrees with the multidimensional system proposed by the AAMR in 1992, research still tends to focus on a psychopathological model when considering people with mental retardation. We conclude by offering several suggestions on the need for a collaborative approach between researchers and professionals and the benefits of developing a supportive culture for research.

  11. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  12. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  13. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard

    2006-01-01

    X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615

  14. Developmental abnormalities and mental retardation: diagnostic strategy.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Meral; Yalnizoğlu, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability formerly called mental retardation (MR) is defined as having an IQ score below 70; the term "developmental delay" (DD) is preferred for young children. A detailed clinical history including a three-generation pedigreee and physical examination are the fundamental steps in achieving an etiological diagnosis in MR. Physical examination should be performed with special emphasis on dysmorphological and neurological exam. Genetic studies have priority in the laboratory investigation of a child with MR. Routine karyotyping is recommended regardless of the degree of MR. Fragile X studies are strongly recommended in both females and males with unexplained MR, especially in patients with a positive family history and typical physical and behavioral features. FISH analysis of subtelomeric regions should be reserved for selected patients. Inborn errors of metabolism are seldom seen as the causes of isolated MR but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with MR/DD in populations where the rate of consanguineous marriages is high. Neuroimaging studies should be performed on an indication basis such as abnormal brain size or neurological findings. It is essential to diagnose the underlying etiology of MR for recognition of treatable disorders, determining prognosis, family counseling, and providing prenatal diagnosis when possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Outpatient Services for Mentally Ill Retarded Clients in a Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Arthur Stephenson, Jr.

    Although Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mandated to serve all clients requiring mental health services including those who are mentally retarded, it appears that many CMHCs have no programs designed to address the needs of the retarded. This paper describes a financially sound outpatient program which provides psychological and…

  16. Outpatient Services for Mentally Ill Retarded Clients in a Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Arthur Stephenson, Jr.

    Although Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mandated to serve all clients requiring mental health services including those who are mentally retarded, it appears that many CMHCs have no programs designed to address the needs of the retarded. This paper describes a financially sound outpatient program which provides psychological and…

  17. The Mentally Retarded Inmate: Prison Adjustment and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether or not there were differences in the prison adaptation of mentally retarded and nonretarded inmates. Compared 439 retarded inmates, 439 matched nonretarded inmates, and 439 unmatched nonretarded inmates. Found statistically significant differences between groups in the areas of assaults on correctional officers and other…

  18. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  19. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  20. Lessons from the Margins, Narrating Mental Retardation: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    This essay argues that ideas circulated by Blatt and Dybwad, two scholars who exposed the plight of people labeled "retarded," can be illustrated in certain inclusive education practices and reinforced and refined in various critical narratives about mental retardation, particularly in autobiographical accounts of people with…

  1. TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A HANDBOOK FOR WARD PERSONNEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENSBERG, GERALD J.

    WRITTEN FOR ATTENDANTS, VOLUNTEERS, PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE, AND PARENTS, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO BE AS INDEPENDENT AS POSSIBLE. THE FIRST SECTION PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND CONTRASTS THESE WITH SOME OF THE NEEDS OF THE RETARDED.…

  2. Activational Peaking in Educable and Trainable Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.; Uno, Tad

    1977-01-01

    A study involving 10 educable and 10 trainable mentally retarded adolescents indicated that levels of intellectual functioning influenced patterns of autonomic activation as measured by magnitude of the galvanic skin response. (CL)

  3. Reality Therapy with Institutionalized Emotionally Disturbed Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated a reality therapy program used with 20 institutionalized mentally retarded (mild to profound) and emotionally disturbed adolescents residing in an institution. Results indicated that 17 of the Ss increased adaptive behaviors and all decreased maladaptive behaviors. (DB)

  4. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  5. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  6. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  7. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  8. The involvement of epigenetic defects in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Tamara B; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2011-07-01

    Mental retardation is a group of cognitive disorders with a significant worldwide prevalence rate. This high rate, together with the considerable familial and societal burden resulting from these disorders, makes it an important focus for prevention and intervention. While the diseases associated with mental retardation are diverse, a significant number are linked with disruptions in epigenetic mechanisms, mainly due to loss-of-function mutations in genes that are key components of the epigenetic machinery. Additionally, several disorders classed as imprinting syndromes are associated with mental retardation. This review will discuss the epigenetic abnormalities associated with mental retardation, and will highlight their importance for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  10. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  11. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  12. Reality Therapy with Institutionalized Emotionally Disturbed Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated a reality therapy program used with 20 institutionalized mentally retarded (mild to profound) and emotionally disturbed adolescents residing in an institution. Results indicated that 17 of the Ss increased adaptive behaviors and all decreased maladaptive behaviors. (DB)

  13. Consumer Roulette: The Shopping Patterns of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Randall D.; Ewing, Sheryl

    1981-01-01

    To develop information regarding the commercial product purchasing behavior of mildly mentally retarded adults, 11 participants were included in a mock shopping exercise. The results indicated several serious deficiencies in the purchasing strategies of the participants. (Author/SB)

  14. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  15. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  16. Motivation, vocational interests and job satisfaction of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.

  17. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  18. Molecular and comparative genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472

  19. Management problems of mentally retarded children and their families.

    PubMed

    Gayton, W F

    1975-08-01

    Pediatricians faced with the difficult task of providing management services to mentally retarded children and their families are confronted with a number of difficult problems. These range all the way from deciding how to inform parents that their child is retarded to dealing with grandparents who are a source of stress. Successful handling of these problems requires a recognition that management is central to the care of the mentally retarded child. The needs of mentally retarded children and their families will not be met by interacting with families only around issues of acute physical illness. Attention must be directed toward psychosocial as well as medical variables and the emphasis must be on the total family system.

  20. BRIEF IN-PATIENT FAMILY INTERVENTION IN MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, H.S.; Girimaji, S.R.; Gandhi, D.H.; Raju, K. Maruthai; Rao, P. Madhu; Nardev, G.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel programme of intervention - brief inpatient family intervention - was formulated to impart the training skills to the parents of mentally retarded children to optimise the development of their retarded child. During the period of this study. 106 mentally retarded children with different socio-demographic backgrounds and degrees of handicap participated in this programme, with encouraging results. The individualised management plan, spread over 2 weeks of inpatient stay, included intensive counselling, training of the parents in techniques of multisensory stimulation, speech, motor, and self-help skills training, behaviour modification and medical management, as required. The programme could serve as a suitable model for professionals working with the mentally retarded, to implement with limited resources. PMID:21927322

  1. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.

  2. Recreation's Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L., Ed.

    The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…

  3. Services and Provisions for Persons with Mental Retardation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Lennar

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)

  4. Oral Health of Institutionalized Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurek, George H.; Reid, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Residents (n=702) of Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation institutions were given dental examinations, and findings were compared with data from 1,077 residents 9 years earlier. Data were analyzed for oral pathology, unmet dental needs, contribution of dental care to habilitation, and effectiveness of the dental service system.…

  5. Substituting Traditional Antipsychotics with Risperidone for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…

  6. Program Budgeting and the Mentally Retarded. Perspective Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.

    Reported are 1973 conference proceedings of the National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded (MR), which address the economics of service delivery to mentally handicapped children and adults. Conference speakers included a state legislator, a state budget official, an economist, and state and local officials.…

  7. Recreation's Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L., Ed.

    The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…

  8. Depressive Symptoms Displayed by Persons with Mental Retardation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlarcyzk, Douglas; Beckwith, Bill E.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III" diagnostic criteria for "Major Depressive Episode" within a population of persons with mild and moderate mental retardation was validated by reviewing reports of severe depression among these individuals. (Author/DB)

  9. Substituting Traditional Antipsychotics with Risperidone for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…

  10. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  11. Family, Environmental and Developmental Variables in Mental Retardation: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)

  12. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development: Selected Papers from the 1970 Staff Development Conferences of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation (Washington, D.C., 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…

  13. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  14. Retraso Mental. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #528. (Mental Retardation. Translation of ERIC EC Digest #528).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…

  15. Community involvement and socialization among individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Kampert, Amy L; Goreczny, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Mental retardation, a condition characterized by significantly lower than average intellectual ability and adaptive behavior deficits, currently affects between 2% and 3% of the population. Individuals with mental retardation experience many difficulties throughout their lives, with one such difficulty being that they have few opportunities for community involvement and often have few social relationships. To determine if increased community involvement and increased socialization are among the most common desires expressed by individuals with mental retardation, we conducted a study examining pre-existing data of 1348 individuals. The study focused on specific desires expressed by individuals with mental retardation--including, but not limited to, increased community involvement and increased socialization. Although these individuals expressed a wide variety of desires, they expressed a desire for increased community involvement most frequently. Individuals also frequently expressed a desire for increased socialization, change of residence, work-related changes, increased personal belongings, and increased personal activities. We discuss the importance of community involvement and socialization, the link between the two, interactions that could potentially exist among other expressed desires, and ways of increasing community involvement while addressing other desires that individuals with mental retardation expressed.

  16. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities influenced by environmental neurotoxic insults.

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper sets a framework for the discussion of neurotoxicity as a potentially major contributor to the etiology of many types of mental retardation and developmental disabilities. In the past the literatures on developmental neurotoxicology and on mental retardation have evolved independently, yet we know that the developing brain is a target for neurotoxicity in the developing central nervous system through many stages of pregnancy as well as during infancy and early childhood. Our definitions and theories of mental retardation and developmental disabilities affect the models of neurotoxicity we espouse. For instance, models of developmental risk in neurotoxicology have guided environmental regulation to reduce the likelihood of neurotoxic effects. On the other hand, models of developmental risk for mental retardation aim not only at primary prevention,but also at secondary and tertiary prevention through early intervention. In the future, dynamic models of neuroplasticity based on the study of gene-brain-behavior relationships are likely to guide our views of developmental neurotoxicology and prevention of mental retardation and other disabilities. PMID:10852834

  17. Sex between people with "mental retardation": an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-06-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" [1] morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity" and mental retardation" are analysed briefly, which is challenging given the widely divergent and sometimes rather awkward definitions of these concepts. On the basis of this analysis, it is argued that the liberal principle of mutual consent, if taken as a necessary condition of permissible sex, has unacceptable consequences for people with mental retardation. Many forms of sex between them would be morally impermissible, given the fact that their limited powers of practical reasoning will often make valid consent well-nigh impossible. As an alternative to the liberal principle of permissible sex, conditions are specified that include the additional consent of caretakers. If people with mental retardation do not have the capacities of practical deliberation required for valid consent, care providers with mature reasoning powers should act as their substitutes. Finally, some important implications for the moral education of future care professionals are spelled out.

  18. PERSONALITY PATTERN OF PARENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Parents of fifty mentally retarded children were studied for their personality pattern with the help of Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. In fathers and mothers separately, none of the personality traits were observed to vary at statistically significant level in relation to the degree of retardation in their child, but both the parents of mildly retarded children obtained higher score on scale of anxiety, phobia and depression. Analysis of different factors when compared for fathers and mothers together, revealed a higher degree of neurotic traits in mothers. PMID:21965955

  19. Helping by siblings of children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2005-03-01

    Our purpose for conducting this investigation was to extend the research on the help that siblings of children with mental retardation give to their brothers and sisters to include not only custodial care, but also other forms of helping behavior, such as emotional support, tangible aid, and information giving. We compared 100 siblings (50 with and 50 without a brother or sister with mental retardation) in terms of their perceived helping behavior. Siblings of brothers and sisters with mental retardation engaged in higher levels of perceived emotional support and custodial care but not information giving or tangible aid. Perceived custodial care and emotional support were associated with gender, the child's need for assistance, and self-esteem.

  20. [Genetic mental retardation. Presentation of the GIRMOGEN network].

    PubMed

    Tejada, M I

    2006-01-07

    Mental retardation is the most frequent disability and is already quite apparent in infancy. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that it affects approximately 3% of the population in industrialised countries. Among the aetiologies that cause mental retardation it would appear that 30% have a genetic origin, although in recent years the progress made in molecular genetics in relation to new mutations and new genes that can account for mental retardation advances at an incredible pace. It is for this reason that, three years ago, a group of clinicians and researchers, most of whom were working in Spain on fragile X syndrome (the most prevalent of the hereditary causes of mental retardation), decided to set up the GIRMOGEN (Genetic Mental Retardation Research Group). Most of us had noticed how many of the clinical cases that we dealt with went undiagnosed and that the exact prevalence of this disability in Spain was not known either. GIRMOGEN was funded by the Carlos III Health Institute and is made up of eight groups; a ninth group is responsible for coordinating the work. Its members are all involved in clinical studies or research into mental retardation with a genetic origin, and belong to 15 hospitals and to five universities from a total of 11 different autonomous communities in Spain. Some of its aims include gathering all the data on patients and families in a common database for epidemiological and prevalence studies; distributing genes to be studied in order to search for mutations; creating generally approved work protocols, and training professionals in this field. In this supplement, which is the result of a training course, we report all the findings we have obtained in these three years of work.

  1. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  2. Fragile X mental retardation protein and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Abrar; Li, Xuekun; Jin, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells, which can self-renew and produce different cell types, are regulated by both extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors. Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the functional loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein that forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, the role of Fmrp in stem cell biology has been explored in both Drosophila and the mouse. In this chapter, we discuss the role of FMRP in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells.

  3. Medicaid-financed residential care for persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lakin, K C; Hall, M J

    1990-12-01

    Two sources of Medicaid support for persons with mental retardation and related conditions (MR/RC) are examined, the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (ICF/MR) program and the home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver. Results indicate that Medicaid support through the ICF/MR program has shown little recent growth in terms of number of persons served, although expenditures continue to increase. Medicaid's HCBS waiver is being used increasingly by States to support residential placement because of its greater flexibility and more individualized approach relative to ICF/MR care. Use of Medicaid to finance care for persons with MR/RC varies considerably across States.

  4. [Sexual abuse prevention programs for individuals with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Chodan, Wencke; Hässler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews international research on sexual abuse prevention for individuals with mental retardation and programs implemented in Germany. Using Pubmed, PsycINFO, and various search engines, 263 studies and 128,080 search results for programs were retrieved, of which twelve international studies and six national programs met several inclusion criteria. Studies provided evidence for the effectiveness of prevention programs. Clinical significance, however, is restricted by methodological limitations. None of the programs found throughout Germany has yet been evaluated. Implications for future research in the field of sexual abuse prevention for children and adolescents with mental retardation are discussed.

  5. Role of microRNA pathway in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Abrar; Chang, Shuang; Peng, Jin

    2007-11-02

    Deficits in cognitive functions lead to mental retardation (MR). Understanding the genetic basis of inherited MR has provided insights into the pathogenesis of MR. Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited MR, caused by the loss of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded RNAs between 18 and 25 nucleotides in length, which have been implicated in diversified biological pathways. Recent studies have linked the miRNA pathway to fragile X syndrome. Here we review the role of the miRNA pathway in fragile X syndrome and discuss its implication in MR in general.

  6. Fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-04-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported.

  7. CHILDREN'S BUREAU ACTIVITIES IN MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A HISTORY OF THE CONCERN FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN BY THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU IS FOLLOWED BY DESCRIPTIONS OF ITS VARIOUS PROGRAMS. HEALTH SERVICES INCLUDE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PROJECTS SERVING THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED, PERSONNEL TRAINING THROUGH GRANTS TO UNIVERSITIES, GRANT PROGRAMS FOR MATERNITY AND INFANT CARE PROJECTS, AND…

  8. The Mentally Retarded Child and His Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Richard, Ed.; Dobson, James C., Ed.

    Described as a text for students in college courses of all disciplines relating to the mentally handicapped (education, medicine, psychology, rehabilitation and others), the collection of papers contains two introductory articles on the origins of intelligence and the meaning of mental handicaps. Eight papers devoted to the biological factors in…

  9. The Mentally Retarded Child and His Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Richard, Ed.; Dobson, James C., Ed.

    Described as a text for students in college courses of all disciplines relating to the mentally handicapped (education, medicine, psychology, rehabilitation and others), the collection of papers contains two introductory articles on the origins of intelligence and the meaning of mental handicaps. Eight papers devoted to the biological factors in…

  10. The impact of array genomic hybridization on mental retardation research: a review of current technologies and their clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Zahir, F; Friedman, J M

    2007-10-01

    Our understanding of the causes of mental retardation is benefiting greatly from whole-genome scans to detect submicroscopic pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) that are undetectable by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The current method of choice for performing whole-genome scans for CNVs is array genomic hybridization (AGH). Several platforms are available for AGH, each with its own strengths and limitations. This review discusses considerations that are relevant to the clinical use of whole-genome AGH platforms for the diagnosis of pathogenic CNVs in children with mental retardation. Whole-genome AGH studies are a maturing technology, but their high diagnostic utility assures their increasing use in clinical genetics.

  11. Association of AHSG with alopecia and mental retardation (APMR) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reza Sailani, M; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Nasiri, Jafar; Behnam, Mahdiyeh; Salehi, Mansoor; Sedghi, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Majid; Takahashi, Shinichi; Zia, Amin; Gruber, Joshua; Lynch, Janet Linnea; Lam, Daniel; Winkelmann, Juliane; Amirkiai, Semira; Pang, Baoxu; Rego, Shannon; Mazroui, Safoura; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Snyder, Michael P

    2017-03-01

    Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR) is a very rare autosomal recessive condition that is associated with total or partial absence of hair from the scalp and other parts of the body as well as variable intellectual disability. Here we present whole-exome sequencing results of a large consanguineous family segregating APMR syndrome with seven affected family members. Our study revealed a novel predicted pathogenic, homozygous missense mutation in the AHSG (OMIM 138680) gene (AHSG: NM_001622:exon7:c.950G>A:p.Arg317His). The variant is predicted to affect a region of the protein required for protein processing and disrupts a phosphorylation motif. In addition, the altered protein migrates with an aberrant size relative to healthy individuals. Consistent with the phenotype, AHSG maps within APMR linkage region 1 (APMR 1) as reported before, and falls within runs of homozygosity (ROH). Previous families with APMR syndrome have been studied through linkage analyses and the linkage resolution did not allow pointing out to a single gene candidate. Our study is the first report to identify a homozygous missense mutation for APMR syndrome through whole-exome sequencing.

  12. The Role of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Major Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is highly enriched in neurons and binds to approximately 4% of mRNAs in mammalian brain. Its loss is a hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of mental retardation. In this review we discuss the mutation in the fragile X mental retardation-1 gene (FMR1), that leads to FXS, the role FMRP plays in neuronal cells, experiments from our own laboratory that demonstrate reductions of FMRP in additional psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and potential therapies to ameliorate the loss of FMRP. PMID:21108954

  13. Learning in Mental Retardation: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, James M.; And Others

    The bibliography on learning in mentally handicapped persons is divided into the following topic categories: applied behavior change, classical conditioning, discrimination, generalization, motor learning, reinforcement, verbal learning, and miscellaneous. An author index is included. (KW)

  14. Family Problems concerning the Mentally Retarded Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klackenberg, Gunnar

    1969-01-01

    A mentally handicapped child causes familial pressures: concerns over future pregnancies, emotional strain, and the necessity for an ultimate decision on whether or not the child should be institutionalized. (JF)

  15. Hansels and Gretels: Studies of Children in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braginsky, Dorothea D.; Braginsky, Benjamin M.

    Data from research with mildly mentally retarded children conducted in state training schools contradicts prevalent conceptions and theories of mental retardation and supports a new way of conceptualizing retardation, in which retardates are not seen as qualitatively different from others nor as defective or less than human organisms. Investigated…

  16. Comparative approaches to the nonconsensual sterilization of the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Price, D P

    1990-01-01

    Laws governing the sterilization of persons so mentally retarded as to be unable themselves to consent to the procedure have left a trail of manifest abuses right around the globe, and no less in North America than elsewhere. Ostensibly, as a kind of rebound effect, courts in North America, and most obviously in Canada, have erected substantial legal obstacles in the path of those seeking the sterilization of such a retarded individual. Historically, such abuses have been of a lesser scale, or at least have been much less manifest, in Great Britain. In the absence of any significant negative legacy, courts in Britain would seem to have developed a more balanced and equitable, although not necessarily more reasoned, approach to the determination of such cases to the seeming benefit of many seriously retarded persons. Ironically, these same courts hinder their own efforts in relation to retarded adults by denying jurisdiction in such cases and refusing to seek an adequate remedy for the lacuna.

  17. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  18. Northeastern State College Camping Program for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeastern State Univ., Tahlequah, OK.

    Operating on the principle of meeting community needs and the desire to build a realistic practicum experience for special education majors, Northeastern State College began a special camping program for mentally retarded children. The program provides the special education student with the opportunity of direct experience in working with the…

  19. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  20. Teaching Moderately Mentally Retarded Children Basic Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogeveen, Frans R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four moderately mentally retarded students, aged 8-13, were instructed in a basic skills reading program which emphasized a phonemic alphabet, pictorial cueing, and stimulus manipulation techniques. The training improved the Dutch students' ability to read one- and two-syllable words, and was generalizable to untrained words of the same…

  1. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…

  2. Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

  3. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  4. The New Jersey Comprehensive Plan to Combat Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Interdepartmental Committee on Lifetime Disability, Trenton.

    Recommendations to combat mental retardation in New Jersey are made in the following areas: coordination; research; prevention, detection, and treatment; clinical, social, recreation, and religious services; residential care; education; vocational rehabilitation; law; manpower and training; and public awareness. Additional information is given…

  5. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation.

  6. RECREATION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED--A COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRENBAUM, ARNOLD; SCHWARTZ, ARTHUR L.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS 3-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS TO TEST THE FEASIBILITY OF EXTENDING THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMUNITY WORK AGENCIES IN NEW YORK TO INCLUDE THE MENTALLY RETARDED. THE 13 PARTICIPATING GROUP WORK AGENCIES RECEIVED FINANCIAL SUPPORT WAS WELL AS CONSULTATIVE, INTAKE, AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SERVICES FROM…

  7. Jancar syndrome: mental retardation, spasticity, and distal transverse limbs defects.

    PubMed

    Zlotogora, J; Glick, B

    1993-08-01

    We report on a child with mental retardation, spasticity, and distal transverse defects of the limbs born to healthy parents related as first cousin. This is the third child reported to be affected with the syndrome described by Jancar. We confirm the existence of the syndrome as a separate entity and raise possibility that it may be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

  8. Automation in Vocational Training of the Mentally Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Henry; And Others

    Various uses of automation in teaching were studied with mentally retarded (IQ 70 to 90) and/or emotionally disturbed (IQ 80 to 90) youth aged 16 to 20. Programed instruction was presented by six audiovisual devices and techniques: the Devereux Model 50 Teaching Aid, the Learn-Ease Teaching Device, the Mast Teaching Machine, the Graflex…

  9. Mainstreaming: Educable Mentally Retarded Children in Regular Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jack W.

    Described in the monograph are mainstreaming programs for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in six variously sized school districts within five states. It is noted that mainstreaming is based on the principle of educating most children in the regular classroom and providing special education on the basis of learning needs rather than…

  10. Acquiescence in the Mentally Retarded: Do They Just Say Yes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Dominick R.; Schare, Mitchell L.

    Mentally retarded adults (N=180) were asked 30 yes/no questions, to determine if their acquiescence is explained by indiscriminant yea-saying in response to the yes/no question format or due to subjects submitting to the influence of the interviewer. After selected questions, the interviewer either nodded his head "yes" or shook his head…

  11. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  12. Predictors of Maternal Adjustment to a Child with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kil Sung; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This survey of South Korean mothers (n=135) of children with mental retardation found significant correlations between parental score on a scale of parental adjustment and socioeconomic status, age of mother, and age of child. No significant trend was found for maternal adjustment and the child's IQ level. (DB)

  13. Persons with Mental Retardation and Technology Use Patterns and Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBiervliet, Alan

    A questionnaire examining consumer needs, spending, travel, credit options and utilization practices in adaptive/assistive and educational technology was answered by 2,201 Arkansans with disabilities of all ages. This paper emphasizes results relating to Arkansans with mental retardation. Results indicate Medicare/Medicaid as the single most…

  14. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  15. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  16. Teaching and Training Relevant Community Skills to Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the major developments in teaching and training relevant community skills to mentally retarded persons. The following adaptive skills are discussed: (1) toilet use and bed wetting; (2) eating, dressing, and personal hygiene; (3) community survival; and (4) vocational and social skills. (BJV)

  17. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  18. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  19. Assessing the Work Personalities of Mentally Retarded Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    A series of studies were conducted to modify the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) and the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) for use with mentally retarded individuals. Modification of the GATB consisted of eliminating answer sheets, increasing practice, individual administration, untimed administration, removal of verbally loaded items,…

  20. Motivation, Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…

  1. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…

  2. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  3. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  4. Incidental Teaching of Mentally Retarded Students within a Token System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabry, Bernard D; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Six mentally retarded students (12-22 years old) were taught to name sight words during token-exchange periods of a token-reinforcement system. Sequential teaching of new sets of sight words via a multiple-baseline design evaluated the procedure. Five of the 6 students acquired sight-word vocabularies. Data support the educational use of…

  5. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  6. Mental Retardation FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…

  7. Varieties of Repetitive Behavior in Autism: Comparisons to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.; Parker, Dawn E.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared specific repetitive behaviors in 32 adults with autism with 34 controls with mental retardation. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in individuals with autism and they showed a greater number of topographies of stereotypy and compulsions. Repetitive behavior severity also predicated autism…

  8. Features of Autism in Rett Syndrome and Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Rebecca H.; Charman, Tony; Hastings, Richard P.; Reilly, Sheena; Cass, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    The Autism Behavior Checklist measured autistic symptoms in 15 girls (ages 11-16) with Rett Syndrome (RS) and 14 with severe mental retardation. Girls with RS scored higher on the Sensory and Relating subscales. There were no differences on the Body and Object Use, Language, and Social and Self-Help subscales. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Injury Prevalence among Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Kubisiak, Joanna M.; Bishop, Christine E.; Gilden, Daniel M.; Hakim, Rosemarie B.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood injuries lead to increased morbidity and result in significant costs to public insurance programs. People with mental retardation, most of whom are covered by Medicaid, are at high risk for injury, which has implications for community inclusion, a central policy goal. Medicaid data from inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings…

  10. Standards for Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…

  11. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Human Diseases Involving Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latt, Samuel A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques provide new approaches to the diagnosis and analysis of inherited human diseases associated with mental retardation, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, phenylketonauria, the Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and those associated with deletions or duplications of subchromosomal regions. (Author/CL)

  12. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  13. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  14. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  15. Guided Visual Search in Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Strawbridge, Christina; Chechile, Nicholas A.

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the ability of six individuals with mental retardation to focus on task-relevant elements of complex visual arrays and increased visual-search efficiency. Results found participants were able to limit attention to the task-relevant items on a guided search task, thus greatly reducing overall target identification times.…

  16. Programs and Services Received by Older Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A national sample of 370 older persons with mental retardation in 235 facilities (foster care, small group homes, large private facilities, and state-operated facilities) was surveyed. Information is presented on resident characteristics, day program participation, services received, and differences in programs and services by facility type. The…

  17. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  18. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…

  19. Word-Attack Skills in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the state of the literature on word-attack skills and phonological awareness (PA) in individuals with mental retardation, in light of progress towards the development of effective teaching procedures. The literature contains promising findings. Studies have shown PA to be correlated with word-attack skills in individuals with…

  20. Can Students with Mental Retardation Teach Their Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Vicky G.; Balboni, Giulia

    2003-01-01

    This review provides an updated synthesis on peer tutoring research focusing on school-age students with mental retardation serving as tutors and/or tutees. The focus included peer tutoring implementations in the areas of academic, social, and daily living/self-help skills. Results of the 52 studies were categorized and discussed according to…

  1. Measuring Behavior in Genetic Disorders of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    As researchers have examined the so-called "behavioral phenotypes" of different genetic mental retardation conditions, the measurement of behavior becomes increasingly important. From earlier, more global examinations of noteworthy behaviors or profiles, recent researchers have moved from reliance on a single, all-encompassing questionnaire to…

  2. Drug Abuse in Persons with Mental Retardation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, LeeAnn; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Review of the literature on drug abuse by people with mental retardation addresses prevalence, drug-related problems, special vulnerabilities of this population, treatment programs, and status of drug abuse prevention and drug education for this population. A lack of and need for controlled research dealing with the genesis, treatment, and…

  3. Health-Promoting Physical Activity of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.; Frey, Georgia C.

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be…

  4. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  5. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  6. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  7. Administrative Issues in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.

    Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…

  8. Housekeeping Management Assistant Manual for Training of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.

    Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…

  9. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  10. Economic Competency: Implications for Programs for the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Ronald F.; Kokaska, Charles

    1975-01-01

    One of the major objectives of programing for the educable mentally retarded is the development of the individual's economic competency or efficiency. In order to reinforce this objective it is necessary that classroom activities employ real money and that some type of work experience be provided so that students learn to manage a given amount of…

  11. South Asian Indian Cultural Orientations toward Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The findings of a portion of a 2-year ethnographic study involving North Indian Hindu immigrants living in the mid-Western United States is discussed. These findings illuminate the ways in which participants think and talk about mental retardation, how this linguistic information was obtained, and the cultural context within which participants…

  12. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  13. Coping Styles among Mothers of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This paper describes the use of various coping strategies of mothers of adult children with mental retardation, and examines whether there is a relation between specific styles of coping and maternal characteristics and personal well-being. A group of 349 mothers completed the "Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced" scale. On average,…

  14. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  15. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  16. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  17. Neglected and Abused Children of Mentally Retarded Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…

  18. MEASUREMENT OF THE EDUCABILITY OF SEVERELY MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRACE, ALONZO; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE A TESTING METHOD FOR OBTAINING OBJECTIVE, QUANTIFIED, PREDICTIVE MEASURES OF EDUCABILITY FOR MENTAL RETARDATES. THE METHOD WAS DESIGNED TO MEASURE ABILITIES ON WHICH EDUCATION DEPENDS--NAMELY, THE ABILITY TO LEARN UNDER TRAINING, TO TRANSFER THE TRAINING, AND TO RETAIN THE LEARNING. TWO SAMPLES WERE…

  19. Arts and Crafts for Use with Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Toni, Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Mentally retarded children of any age. SUBJECT MATTER: Arts and crafts. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into sections according to the material to be used. Section headings are: Paper, Fabrics, Wood, Metal, Nature, Miscellaneous, and Painting. Each section is laid out in three parallel columns, one each…

  20. Teaching the Severely Mentally Retarded and Elderly to Stand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David; And Others

    The study explored behavioral procedures for developing the skill of standing from a chair for a severely mentally retarded 11-year-old nonambulatory girl and an 86-year-old man residing in a nursing home for the elderly. Functional assessment and programing determined the specific instructional needs of each S. A changing criterion design was…

  1. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  2. The New Morbidity and the Prevention of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts to prevent mental retardation have been encumbered by lack of scientific and technical knowledge, vague understanding of incidence and prevalence, and scarcity of resources to implement effective public policies. Scientific and social progress toward prevention has pursued a wavelike, erratic course, driven primarily by prevailing social,…

  3. Mainstreaming: Educable Mentally Retarded Children in Regular Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jack W.

    Described in the monograph are mainstreaming programs for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in six variously sized school districts within five states. It is noted that mainstreaming is based on the principle of educating most children in the regular classroom and providing special education on the basis of learning needs rather than…

  4. Motivation, Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…

  5. Successful Weight Loss Techniques with Mentally Retarded Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A review of traditional (such as psychotherapy) and behavioral approaches (such as self-monitoring and reinforcement) to obesity treatment of mentally retarded students led to the conclusion that the behavioral orientation was more successful. Implications for initiating such programs include thorough training, voluntary participation, and parent…

  6. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  7. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  8. Art Integration: A Teaching Program for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Special Education Curriculum Development Center.

    To aid the teacher of the mentally retarded in integrating art into other subject areas, two sample projects and two five-lesson units with core activities, one on clothing and one on the state of Iowa, are presented. In addition, suggestions for teachers are listed along with the expectations of normal children and the basics of good art.…

  9. Vocational Language Project for Secondary Trainable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Cynthia; And Others

    This project was designed to develop a vocational language program for secondary trainable mentally retarded students based on an analysis of the concepts needed for entry and continuation in vocational training programs and related jobs. Twenty-five students from the Ebensburg State School in Pennsylvania participated in the project. The three…

  10. Behavior Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation Receiving Antipsychotic Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The behavior disorders of 54 Japanese individuals with mental retardation receiving antipsychotic medication were compared to 52 subjects receiving anticonvulsants and 202 subjects without medication. Results found the problem behaviors of subjects receiving antipsychotic drugs were more severe and severity of disability was associated with higher…

  11. Teaching Sign Language to Hearing Impaired-Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Paula J.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    Students with the dual handicaps of hearing impairment and mental retardation display special problems in language acquisition. These problems do not appear to have been addressed by curricula that have been designed for either of the single handicap groups. Since specially designed curricula for this population are virtually nonexistent, a…

  12. A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI.

    DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…

  13. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  14. MEASUREMENT OF THE EDUCABILITY OF SEVERELY MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRACE, ALONZO; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE A TESTING METHOD FOR OBTAINING OBJECTIVE, QUANTIFIED, PREDICTIVE MEASURES OF EDUCABILITY FOR MENTAL RETARDATES. THE METHOD WAS DESIGNED TO MEASURE ABILITIES ON WHICH EDUCATION DEPENDS--NAMELY, THE ABILITY TO LEARN UNDER TRAINING, TO TRANSFER THE TRAINING, AND TO RETAIN THE LEARNING. TWO SAMPLES WERE…

  15. A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI.

    DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…

  16. Educating Students with Mental Retardation in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; McLeskey, James; Hoppey, David; Rentz, Tarcha

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence and federal mandates support the notion that students with mental retardation (MR) should spend some or much of the school day in general education classrooms. This study investigated trends in state-level rates for placing students in different educational settings between 1989-90 and 1999-2000. The research utilized…

  17. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  18. The Participant-Observer Approach to Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Participant-observation which calls for long-term immersion in the world of the persons being studied yet disciplined detachment from that world, allows investigators to learn how mentally retarded people a actually behave in a variety of contexts and to grasp the meaning these activities have for them. (Author/CL)

  19. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul Steven

    1999-01-01

    This commentary discusses the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the success the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has had in enforcing the ADA for people with mental retardation. Cases the EEOC has won against discriminatory employers are described, and the need for ongoing efforts is emphasized. (CR)

  20. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Human Diseases Involving Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latt, Samuel A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques provide new approaches to the diagnosis and analysis of inherited human diseases associated with mental retardation, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, phenylketonauria, the Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and those associated with deletions or duplications of subchromosomal regions. (Author/CL)

  1. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  2. Everyday Cognition among Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults: An Ethnographic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)

  3. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  4. Editorial: Trends in Mental Retardation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowitz, Louis

    1989-01-01

    Issues in mental retardation to be addressed in the next decade include homogenization of disabilities, aging of the population, increasing information and research needs, diagnosis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, legal and ethical problems, caregiving, adolescent care, health care delivery, lifelong disabilities, vocational opportunities,…

  5. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  6. Work Status Trends for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Dana Scott; Butterworth, John

    1997-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes evidence on the work status of successful rehabilitations/closures for people with mental retardation in light of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, which strengthened the focus of state vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs on community employment outcomes. Data analyzed were drawn from the Rehabilitation…

  7. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  8. Behavior Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation Receiving Antipsychotic Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The behavior disorders of 54 Japanese individuals with mental retardation receiving antipsychotic medication were compared to 52 subjects receiving anticonvulsants and 202 subjects without medication. Results found the problem behaviors of subjects receiving antipsychotic drugs were more severe and severity of disability was associated with higher…

  9. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  10. [Monogenic causes of X-linked mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Navarro, E; Glóver-López, G

    2006-01-07

    The term X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) refers to a heterogeneous group of conditions that, on the basis of their presenting symptoms, have traditionally been classified as being syndromic (SMR) and non-syndromic or non-specific (XMR). The prevalence of XLMR in males is estimated to be 10%, excluding fragile X syndrome, which is the most common monogenic cause. There are over 100 genes involved in XLMR. In this work we review some of the phenotypes and genes involved in SMR. A small stature and coarse features indicate a suspected case of Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is secondary to mutations of the RPS6KA3 or RSK2 genes. Cerebellar hypoplasia points towards alterations of the OPHN1 gene. In males with coarse features and genital abnormalities screening for alpha thalassemia must be carried out; this association results from mutations in the ATRX gene. Of the genes involved in mental retardation and epilepsy, the most notable are SLC6A8 (which triggers a deficit in creatine transport when altered and which is easily detected with respect to its biochemistry) and ARX (also associated to lissencephaly and dystonia of the hands). Mutations in the PQBP1 and JARID1C genes have been identified in patients with mental retardation associated to microcephaly and short stature. A high level of T3 hormone points towards defects in the SLC16A2 gene. Some of these genes have also been implicated in XMR, which makes this distinction less clear molecularly speaking. Systematic screening of all the genes involved in XLMR is not possible in clinical praxis today. It is important to search for differential phenotypic features in males with mental retardation that guide the study towards specific genes. Identification of the molecular defect will allow for correct genetic counselling. DNA microarrays for the study of different mutations in a large number of genes involved in mental retardation are the great hope for the future.

  11. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  12. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  13. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  14. Mental Retardation in the 21st Century: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael; Patton, James R.

    2000-01-01

    The introductory article to this special issue on mental retardation in the 21st century first reviews changes in the 20th century that affected people with mental retardation and then provides an overview of the following six articles, all taken from the recent book, "Mental Retardation in the 21st Century," edited by the authors of this article.…

  15. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  16. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  17. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  18. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  19. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, January 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    The report describes the current mental retardation activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). Discussed in the introductory section are the coordination of mental retardation programs and the categories of mental retardation activities of the Department: preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of…

  20. Living in the Community: Persons with Mental Retardation and Allied Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaepe, Paris A.; Hayden, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    The review summarizes research (1978-1989) on the medical needs of persons with mental retardation living in institutional and community settings. Specifically it addresses six questions: (1) do mentally retarded persons in institutions have more serious medical needs than their community counterparts? (2) when people with mental retardation are…

  1. DAY CAMPING FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GINGLEND, DAVID; GOULD, KAY

    EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND COORDINATION (BOTH MOTOR AND MUSCULAR), SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, AND LANGUAGE AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. SECTIONS ARE DEVOTED TO ORGANIZATION OF A DAY CAMPING PROGRAM, SELECTING THE STAFF AND THE CAMPERS, THE DAY CAMP IN OPERATION, DAY CAMPING AS A TRAINING PERIOD, CAMP RELATIONS WITH THE…

  2. Sex Education Resources for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempton, Winifred

    Described is a slide show for teaching and counseling mentally handicapped persons about their sexuality. Advantages of the slide approach are seen to include lack of expense and ease of adaptation for differing levels of students. The approach is said to focus on factual and emotional aspects as well as responsibilities involved in sexuality.…

  3. Curriculum Guide for Trainable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paintsville Board of Education, KY.

    The curriculum guide is introduced by a history and identification information for the trainable mentally handicapped. Each area of instruction presents the importance of the unit, objectives, an outline of content, sources of information, evaluation techniques, and the work-study skills integrated into the unit. Areas included are self care,…

  4. Sex Education Resources for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempton, Winifred

    Described is a slide show for teaching and counseling mentally handicapped persons about their sexuality. Advantages of the slide approach are seen to include lack of expense and ease of adaptation for differing levels of students. The approach is said to focus on factual and emotional aspects as well as responsibilities involved in sexuality.…

  5. Self-recognition ability in mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fryrear, J L; Kodera, T L; Kennedy, M J

    1981-05-01

    Self-recognition abilities of 30 mentally retarded adolescents were measured using an optical system and a psychophysical scaling procedure that results in a recognition threshold. Compared with college freshmen, the experimental group had significantly higher thresholds (p = .00003). Males were better than females at recognizing full-face self-images (p = .0238). Results were discussed in terms of the retarded adolescents' greater dependency on specific visual cues. The method is discussed as an advance over previous self-recognition methods because of accuracy and the capability of measuring a range of self-recognition abilities.

  6. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, H.F. |

    1996-07-12

    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Mental Health in Spanish-Speaking Mentally Retarded People: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacristan, Jaime Rodriguez

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes diagnostic methods, treatment approaches, cultural factors, service delivery systems, and governmental roles important in the consideration of the status of mentally retarded people with mental health problems in four Spanish-speaking populations: Chile, Mexico, Spain, and Hispanic groups in the U.S. (JDD)

  8. An Analysis of Australian Mental Health Services for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Trevor R.

    1988-01-01

    This review of mental health service provision to people with mental retardation in Australia addresses: role of public and private agencies, adequacy of services, lack of trained medical personnel, overemphasis on diagnosis, separation of diagnosis from treatment, lack of coordination among departments, inadequate services for moderately and…

  9. Program Evaluation of the Reorganization of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Legislature, Des Moines.

    The report evaluates Iowa's reorganization of mental health and mental retardation (MH/MR) services. Evaluation methods include a policy analysis of legislation, interviews with agency staff and consumer representatives, review of MH/MR Commission and Developmental Disabilities (DD) Council meetings, an opinion survey of county auditors, and…

  10. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  11. Fetishistic Transvestism in a Patient with Mental Retardation and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-01-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported. PMID:24860226

  12. Carotenemia in mentally retarded children I. Incidence and etiology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, H.; Dunn, H. G.; Tischler, B.; McBurney, A. Karaa

    1973-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of carotenemia in mentally retarded children were examined. Fasting serum carotenoid and vitamin A levels were measured in 77 profoundly mentally retarded children aged 3 to 19 years who were receiving a standard diet containing 2000 IU of carotene (expressed in terms of vitamin A activity) and supplemented by 2000 IU of vitamin A daily. Seventeen of the 77 patients had serum carotenoid levels of more than 300 μg./ml. The particulate size of food had a significant inverse relationship to serum carotenoid levels and was an important factor in determining carotenemia. The serum vitamin A level was also higher in children on homogenized diet than in those on pureed feeds, while the lowest level was noted among patients on a chopped diet. Besides particulate size of food, other factors may also be operative in determining carotenemia. PMID:4707231

  13. Spanish-Speaking Pupils Classified as Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John

    A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…

  14. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  15. Musical aptitude and adaptive behavior of people with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K; Monroe, M J

    1990-09-01

    Musical aptitude was assessed in 16 adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills and 16 matched comparison adults. Information pertaining to strengths and weaknesses in adjustment was also obtained. Musical target subjects scored higher on the test of musical aptitude, particularly if they played a musical instrument. Evidence for difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, although, in general, the results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental retardation.

  16. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  17. Effect of amphetamines on speech defects in the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    FISH, C H; BOWLING, E

    1962-02-01

    In a double-blind study, 106 mentally retarded patients with speech defects were given 15 mg. of d-Amphetamine daily, or a placebo, for a three-month period. Speech defect types were: Stuttering, immature production, oral inaccuracy, lisp, psychotic, mongoloid, aphasia, deafness, and cleft palate. Only the stutterers showed obvious improvement in comparison with the placebo group. Three severe, long-term stutterers showed such dramatic improvement that their whole course in life has been changed.

  18. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Mahesh K.; Muppa, Radhika; Reddy, G. S. Prasad; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery. PMID:23230365

  19. State of Ohio Curriculum Guide for Moderately Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Maxine.

    Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…

  20. Law & psychiatry: mental retardation and the death penalty: after Atkins.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-10-01

    In Atkins v. Virginia the U.S. Supreme Court declared execution of persons with mental retardation to constitute cruel and unusual punishment, and thus to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment. However, the Court left all considerations regarding how to implement the decision explicitly to the states. Since Atkins was decided in 2002, legislatures, courts, and mental health experts have struggled with its implementation, highlighting the complexities that can arise when the courts base legal rules on clinical findings. This column reviews the Atkins case and considers the challenges associated with a clinical determination that can have life-or-death consequences for capital defendants.

  1. Change in terminology: "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) we published in the Federal Register on January 28, 2013. We are replacing the term "mental retardation'' with "intellectual disability'' in our Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving mental disorders in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act) and in other appropriate sections of our rules. This change reflects the widespread adoption of the term "intellectual disability'' by Congress, government agencies, and various public and private organizations.

  2. Neuroendocrine features of pubertal development in females with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Cento, R M; Ciampelli, M; Proto, C; Le Donne, M; Romano, C; Lanzone, A

    2001-06-01

    In order to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of mental retardation during pubertal development, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration were evaluated at various pubertal stages in a female population with mental retardation (MR) compared to a healthy control group of adolescents. Fifty-six girls aged 8-16 years with MR and 146 normal females of the same age participated in the study. The analyzed subjects were divided into different pubertal stages, ranging from P2 to P5, in line with their degree of sexual maturation. Each patient underwent a GnRH test (100 micrograms); blood samples were collected basally and 15, 30, 60, 90 minutes after the GnRH injection. FSH and LH were assayed in each sample; the gonadotropin response to GnRH administration was evaluated as incremental area. No differences were found at any pubertal stage between the two studied groups with regard to the age, body mass index, or age at menarche. Patients with mental retardation during stages P2 and P3 showed lower FSH secretion in response to GnRH bolus compared with control subjects (P2, p < 0.05; P3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data show that MR is related to an impaired response of the FSH-secreting pituitary cells to their appropriate stimulus; this feature is present only in the initial pubertal stages, whereas it disappears during sexual development.

  3. THE ETIOLOGIC PATTERNS IN MICROCEPHALY WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K.M.R.; Girimaji, S.R.; Manjunatha, K.R.; Khanna, Neelam; Rao, B.S.S.; Ravi, V.; Murthy, R. Srinivasa; Vani, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Microcephaly with mental retardation forms a distinct subgroup among mentally retarded individuals. The paucity of studies on the etiology of this condition in India made the investigators to study this population. It HTO aimed to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the etiologic pattern in children with microcepltaly and mental retardation The sample consisted of 82 children who were examined by detailed clinical assessment and a battery of investigations. A definite etiology could be found in 56% of children which have been grouped into prenatal embryonic, prenatal maternal/environmental, and birth and neonatal causes. Non-genetic causes were the most common. The prenatal etiology constituted nearly twice that of birth and neonatal causes. Majority of the etiologic factors were preventable. The role of socio-environmental factors has been discussed As a group, the neurological disorders were found to be the most commonly associated medical condition. Malnutrition, specially of severe degree, was significantly associated with this group compared to the general population. The study findings indicate that there is a significant place for prevention. PMID:21743719

  4. Epilepsy, speech delay, and mental retardation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Salvatore; Mostardini, Rosa; Di Bartolo, Rosanna Maria; Balestri, Paolo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common muscular dystrophies which is related to the deletion of tandem repeats on chromosome 4q35. Extramuscular features such as hearing loss, retinopathy, mental retardation, and epilepsy, may be observed in patients carrying large 4q35 deletions resulting in fragment sizes less than 12 kilobases (kb) (normal >35 kb). We report on a family affected by FSHD carrying a small 4q35 deletion and residual fragments length of 17 kb, presenting with epilepsy (three patients), speech delay (two), and mental retardation (one). In all patients semeiology of seizures and interictal EEG anomalies were congruent with a localization-related epilepsy possibly involving the temporal lobe. In conclusion, we provide further evidences that extramuscular findings such as epilepsy, speech delay, and mental retardation may occur in those patients carrying smaller 4q35 deletions, suggesting that a close correlation between 4q35 fragment size and clinical severity in FSHD is therefore not constant. Moreover, a review of the literature and our observations seem to suggest that focal epilepsies, likely related to the temporal lobe in the present family, represent the main type of epilepsy occurring in children with FSHD. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.; Venkatraman, J.; Regan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence of Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.

  6. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with mental retardation and syndactyly in boys: a new X-linked mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R; Czapansky-Beilman, D K; Pierpont, M E; Breningstall, G; Yock, D H; Bonanni, P; Truwit, C L

    1997-10-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) is a recently recognized malformation of neuronal migration, and perhaps proliferation, in which nodular masses of gray matter line the walls of the lateral ventricles. Most affected individuals have epilepsy and normal intelligence with no other congenital anomalies. A striking skew of the sex ratio has been observed because 31 of 38 probands have been female, and one gene associated with BPNH was recently mapped to chromosome Xq28. We report three unrelated boys with a new multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome that consists of BPNH, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, epilepsy, and syndactyly. Variable abnormalities included focal or regional cortical dysplasia, cataracts, and hypospadius. We hypothesize that this syndrome involves the same Xq28 locus as isolated BPNH, and we review the expanding number of syndromes associated with BPNH.

  7. Mental Retardation: The Known and the Unknown. Information as of February 1, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation deals with three goal areas: minimum occurrence of disability, adequate and humane service systems, and assurance of full citizenship for the retarded. Considered in an initial section are the background, definition, prevalence, and incidence of mental retardation. Reviewed is research…

  8. Creating a Technology Toolkit for Students with Mental Retardation: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Phil; Wojcik, Brian W.

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC) of the United States issued a position statement stating that assistive technology (AT) could be a useful tool for individuals with mental retardation. The Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children published a position statement…

  9. A Plea for Consideration of Ecological Validity in the Experimental Psychology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Penelope H.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1983-01-01

    Problems with experimental research on mental retardation include: (1) difficulties with defining mental retardation; (2) neglect in demonstrating causal relationships; and (3) reliance on methodology not necessarily appropriate for defining the criteria of retardation. The author advocates abandoning definitions based on intelligence tests and…

  10. Community mental health and mental retardation services in the United States: a comparative study of resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Braddock, D

    1992-02-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that during the 1980s, spending for community mental retardation services in the United States may have grown much more rapidly than spending for community mental health. The primary objective of this study was to test empirically the validity of this thesis on a national basis. An additional objective was to determine why such a distinction in community spending patterns might have evolved nationally. The study used states as the units of analysis and employed a five-factor hierarchical regression to predict variance in mental health and mental retardation spending. Factors were state size, state wealth, degree of federal assistance, state civil rights activity, and strength of consumer advocacy groups. Strong roles for the civil rights and consumer advocacy factors were hypothesized. A collateral opinion survey in the 10 states exhibiting the greatest within-state difference in community mental health and mental retardation spending was also completed. Community mental retardation spending grew nearly four times more rapidly than community mental health spending in the 1980s. The consumer advocacy and civil rights factors were strongly associated with spending for community mental retardation services in the states, but these factors did not predict spending for community mental health services. Study recommendations included strengthening mental health family and consumer advocacy groups in the states and promoting systematic exchange between the mental health and mental retardation fields through joint state planning initiatives, studies, and conferences. The need for Medicaid reform is a unifying theme in both the mental health and mental retardation fields.

  11. Factors Influencing Direct-Care Paraprofessionals' Decisions to Initiate Mental Health Referrals for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Matthew N. I.; Miller, Trisha T.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2005-01-01

    Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members…

  12. The Hearing Impaired Mentally/Retarded: A Survey of State Institutions for the Retarded. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, A. Clark; And Others

    Reported is a survey of state institutions for the mentally handicapped in which information about hearing imparied mentally handicapped HI/MH persons was solicited. Existing data on hearing impairment and mental retardation, its diagnosis and related programing are reviewed briefly. It is explained that 158 of 212 surveyed institutions (75…

  13. The role of fragile X mental retardation protein in major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is highly enriched in neurons and binds to approximately 4% of mRNAs in mammalian brain. Its loss is a hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of mental retardation. In this review we discuss the mutation in the fragile X mental retardation-1 gene (FMR1), that leads to FXS, the role FMRP plays in neuronal cells, experiments from our own laboratory that demonstrate reductions of FMRP in additional psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and potential therapies to ameliorate the loss of FMRP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  14. Attentional Habituation and Mental Retardation. A Theoretical Interpretation of MA and IQ Differences in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furby, Lita

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical proposal is offered concerning individual differences in cognitive processes. The focus is on mental retardation and the comparative problem-solving performance of 'normal' and 'retarded' children. (Author/CS)

  15. A Note on Left-Handedness and Severity of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert E.; Barton, A. Keith

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents data supplementing previous reports of elevated incidence of left handedness for the mentally retarded. The new data confirm a positive relationship between degree of retardation and incidence of left-handedness. (GO)

  16. Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D; Keilitz, I

    1975-01-01

    The need for self-care by retarded individuals in behaviors such as brushing teeth led to the development and evaluation of a comprehensive toothbrushing program that included a task analysis and training procedure specific to each component of the task analysis. Eight mentally retarded adolescents, in two groups, individually received acquisition training that included scheduled opportunities for independent performances, verbal instruction, modelling, demonstration, and physical assistance. The first group of four subjects received token plus social reinforcement; the second received only social reinforcement. All eight subjects showed improved toothbrushing behaviors when compared to baseline. Six of the eight subjects correctly performed all toothbrushing steps in two of three consecutive sessions. The study emphasizes the need for systematic program development and evaluation. PMID:1184494

  17. Deceased loved ones in the dreams of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Graffam, J H

    1987-11-01

    Dream reports were collected over a 10-year period as part of an ethnographic study of mentally retarded employees in a sheltered workshop. Deceased loved ones, usually parents or other family members, figured prominently as characters in many of these dreams. Dreams about the dead were often recurring and elicited salient emotional reactions from the dreamers. The various forms that these dreams take and their characteristic thematic content were described for 154 dreams by 60 dreamers. Some of the percepts and feelings that reflect the dreamers' understanding of their dreams were also noted. Findings reveal that the dream life of retarded adults is much more rich and diverse than previous studies suggest. Clinical implications and the occurrence of similar dreams among nonretarded persons were discussed.

  18. High-resolution genomic microarrays for X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Veltman, Joris A; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2007-09-01

    Developments in genomic microarray technology have revolutionized the study of human genomic copy number variation. This has significantly affected many areas in human genetics, including the field of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Chromosome X-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes microarrays have been developed to specifically test this chromosome with a resolution of approximately 100 kilobases. Application of these microarrays in X-linked mental retardation studies has resulted in the identification of novel X-linked mental retardation genes, copy number variation at known X-linked mental retardation genes, and copy number variations harboring as yet unidentified X-linked mental retardation genes. Further enhancements in genomic microarray analysis will soon allow the reliable analysis of all copy number variations throughout this chromosome at the kilobase or single exon resolution. In this review, we describe the developments in this field and specifically highlight the impact of these microarray studies in the field of X-linked mental retardation.

  19. Molecular basis of X-linked non-specific mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Udai Bhan; Mittal, Balraj

    2004-06-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a common disorder, affecting 1-3% of the total population. This condition results from failure to develop cognitive abilities and intelligence level appropriate for the age group. Mental retardation is basically a clinically as well as etiologically heterogeneous type of condition and both genetic and non-genetic factors have been found to be involved. There are more than 1000 entries in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database under the name of mental retardation. In recent years 15 genes for X linked non-specific mental retardation have been identified which provide important clues regarding molecular and cellular processes involved in signal transduction cascade in central nervous system. Recent advancements in identification and characterization of X-linked non-specific mental retardation genes have been discussed in this review. Understanding of the molecular pathways of disease causing genes would be helpful in developing effective therapeutic approaches for mental retardation.

  20. [X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wada, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X syndrome, OMIM #301040) is one of the syndromes associated with abnormal epigenetic gene regulation, including ICF(DNMT3B), Rett (MECP2), Rubinstein-Taybi (CBP), Coffin-Lowry (RSK2), and Sotos (NSD1) syndromes. It is a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation, which affects males and is characterized by profound mental retardation, mild HbH disease (alpha-thalassemia), facial dysmorphism, skeletal abnormalities, and autistic behavior. ATR-X syndrome is caused by a mutation in the ATRX gene on the X chromosome (Xq13), which encodes ATRX protein, belonging to the SNF2 family of chromatin-remodeling proteins. The protein has two functionally important domains: an ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L) domain at the N-terminus, and chromatin-remodeling domain in the C-terminal half, where the ATRX gene mutations of most ATR-X patients reside. Perturbation in DNA methylation in the rDNA genes was repored in ATR-X patients, and ATRX protein is presumed to be involved in the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation. Based on its various clinical phenotypes, the expressions of many genes, including alpha globin genes, seem to be abnormally regulated in ATR-X patients. However, the precise mechanism involving ATRX protein remains to be elucidated. Epigenetics can link environmental and genetic causes of many pathological conditions. The genes, which are abnormally regulated by a perturbed epigenetic mechanism, are, in themselves, structurally normal, and the elucidation of their mechanism may lead to the development of appropriate therapy.

  1. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Iser G; Hagopian, Louis P; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G; Long, Ethan S; Boelter, Eric W

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and brief response blocking (until 5 s without an attempt to remove glasses had elapsed) increased glasses wearing for the others. Partial component analyses revealed that different components of the package were sufficient or necessary to sustain glasses wearing across participants. PMID:18468288

  2. Increasing wearing of prescription glasses in individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Iser G; Hagopian, Louis P; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G; Long, Ethan S; Boelter, Eric W

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and brief response blocking (until 5 s without an attempt to remove glasses had elapsed) increased glasses wearing for the others. Partial component analyses revealed that different components of the package were sufficient or necessary to sustain glasses wearing across participants.

  3. Appropriate classification of obesity of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Fox, R; Burkhart, J E; Rotatori, A F

    1983-07-01

    Triceps skinfold thickness and body weight measures were obtained for 44 female and 40 male mentally retarded adults participating in a sheltered workshop setting. Subjects' relative weights and skinfold thicknesses were found to correlate reasonably well for females and males, rs = .88 and .59, respectively. Use of only height and weight tables for determining the presence of obesity, however, resulted in 22.5 percent of the males and 13.7 percent of the females being misclassified as nonobese. The distinction between overweight and obesity was discussed. Clinical/research implications of the findings were delineated.

  4. α-Thalassemia, Mental Retardation, and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes three rare syndromes in which the presence of α-thalassemia provided an important clue to the molecular basis of the underlying condition. It exemplifies how rare diseases allied with careful clinical observation can lead to important biological principles. Two of the syndromes, ATR-16 and ATR-X, are characterized by α-thalassemia in association with multiple developmental abnormalities including mental retardation. The third condition, ATMDS, is an acquired disorder in which α-thalassemia arises in the context of myelodysplasia. Intriguingly, mutations in the chromatin remodeling factor, ATRX, are common to both ATR-X syndrome and ATMDS. PMID:23028133

  5. Instruction on Piagetian concepts for children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, P K; Campbell, J W; Pasnak, R; Perry, P

    1990-12-01

    Eighteen children with mild mental retardation were pretested on unidimensional classification (oddity), unidimensional seriation, number conservation, Slosson's Intelligence Test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). The children were instructed on the Piagetian concepts twice per week for 4 months via a learning-set technique. All 315 problems (except 20 verbal classification and 15 verbal seriation items) involved concrete items. When posttested at the semester's end, the children had, with few exceptions, mastered the Piagetian concepts and made significant gains on performance on the PPVT.

  6. Mental retardation and domestic violence: an ecological approach to intervention.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B E

    1997-01-01

    The public and health and law enforcement professionals have finally become aware of the problem of domestic violence among community-dwelling women with developmental disabilities such as mental retardation. This article presents an ecological approach to analyzing factors that contribute to and maintain such abuse. Service needs of women with developmental disabilities who experience domestic violence as well as assumptions that should underlie treatment are addressed within an ecological framework. Assessment and individual and group intervention are discussed, including the development of a personal safety plan. A case example is provided.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis in a large series of children with non-syndromic mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mental retardation affects 1–3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy. PMID:27625819

  8. Cytogenetic analysis in a large series of children with non-syndromic mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Mental retardation affects 1-3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy.

  9. Mental Health Systems for People with Mental Retardation: A Canadian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarfas, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    A survey was made of provincial ministries and voluntary associations in nine Canadian provinces and two territories, to assess service provision to mentally retarded citizens with emotional problems. The survey focused on government agencies' involvement in service delivery, settings for short- and long-term care, quality of services available,…

  10. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  11. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  12. Attitudes of Mainstream Pupils towards Mental Retardation: Pilot Study at a Leeds Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Catherine; Davies, Katherine

    1991-01-01

    This survey of 53 students (ages 13-15) at a Leeds (England) secondary school found confusion between mental and physical handicap, confusion between mental handicap and mental illness, and confusion about causes of mental retardation. Most students felt that persons with mental handicap belonged in the community. (JDD)

  13. Are the mentally retarded and learning disordered overrepresented among sex offenders and paraphilics?

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2008-08-01

    A sample of 2,286 male sex offenders and paraphilics and 241 nonsex offenders was evaluated for the prevalence of mental retardation and learning disorders, using the full Wechsler IQ scales. The sex offenders were generally of average intelligence, and the mentally retarded were not overrepresented among them, but the learning disordered were. There were no differences among sex offenders and controls in overall IQ or in the percentage of mentally retarded or learning-disordered cases, suggesting that the learning difficulties are not peculiar to sex offenders. There was a bias in referral source, with more mentally retarded, borderline-retarded, and/or learning-disordered cases being referred by the Children's Aid Society, prisons, and the Crown, suggesting that referral source may play a significant role in evaluating intelligence and mental retardation among sex offenders; but the overrepresentation of learning disorders among criminals appears to be a significant phenomenon, regardless of referral source.

  14. [Prevalence of mental retardation in teenagers with dissocial conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Puerta, I C; Martínez-Gómez, J; Pineda, D A

    Prevalence of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) has been calculated between 4 y 10%. To estimate the prevalence of mental retardation in Colombian adolescent offenders, using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children Revised (WISC R). 106 male adolescent offenders with CD, aged 12 to 16 years, and attending to institutions of re education in Medell n Colombia were selected in a randomized approach. WISC R Hispanic version was administered to the sample, using 4 verbal (information, vocabulary, similarities and arithmetic) and 4 performance (Picture completion, block design, picture arrangement, and digit symbol) subtests for calculating verbal, performance and full scale IQs (VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ), according to the manual instructions. 43 participants (40.6%) obtained a FSIQ < 70, then they were categorized as mild mental retardation. 34 offenders (32.1%) had a FSIQ between 70 and 84, then they were classified as people with borderline intellectual functioning, only 29 participants (27.4%) obtained a FSIQ over 85. 72.7% of the institutionalized adolescents offenders had low intellectual functioning, which may be interfere with the re education programs.

  15. 'Mental retardation' or 'intellectual disability': time for a conceptual change.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Bertelli, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The term 'mental retardation' (MR) is outdated and has changed to 'intellectual disability' (ID). Unfortunately, this decision did not follow a nosology approach. The aim of this overview is twofold: (1) to provide a conceptual background and framing on the ID/MR field to other psychiatrists, and (2) to provide a nosology-based perspective to the debate on the name and concept of MR/ID. This conceptual paper is based on a literature review and on an iterative process of debate within the WPA Section 'Psychiatry of Mental Retardation'. ID may be regarded not as a disease or as a disability but as a syndrome grouping (metasyndrome) similar to the construct of dementia. It includes a heterogeneous group of clinical conditions, ranging from genetic to nutritional, infectious, metabolic or neurotoxic conditions. The ID metasyndrome is characterized by a deficit in cognitive functioning prior to the acquisition of skills through learning. The intensity of the deficit is such to interfere in a significant way with individual normal functioning as expressed in limitations in activities and restriction in participation (disabilities). The name 'developmental cognitive impairment' is here suggested to coexist with ID for naming the metasyndrome previously called MR following a polysemic-polynomious approach. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Advances in the identification of the aetiology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Raggio, Víctor; Boidi, María; Tapié, Alejandra; Roche, Leda

    2013-09-06

    Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, metabolic diseases in 1-5% and multifactor causes in 3-12%. The family history, the detailed medical records required by dysmorphology and the neurological examination will make it possible to establish or suspect a diagnosis in two thirds of the cases and, in the others, scanning tests will be able to confirm an aetiology. The order of the studies will be guided by the clinical picture: karyotype if a chromosome pathology is suspected, neuroimaging if there is some abnormality in the neurological examination and specific genetic or neurometabolic studies to confirm the clinical presumption. The estimated diagnostic performance of the different techniques is: karyotype, 9%; fragile X, 5%; subtelomeric abnormalities, 4%; neurometabolic diseases, 1%, and new microarray techniques, 19%. As a result of the higher performance and cost-benefit ratio, today the recommended procedure, as the first line of treatment for unexplainable cases of mental retardation, is the study of microarrays. Although the outcomes of these tests are complex and require confirmation and careful interpretation by a specialist in medical genetics, the advances in their technological development and resolution, together with lower costs make this technique a fundamental tool in the identification of the aetiology in these children.

  17. Neocortical vasculature abnormalities in the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Ashley M; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-08-30

    The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited mental retardation. To date, the most prominent neuronal phenotype associated with the syndrome is an abundance of long thin spines exhibiting an immature morphology. However, in addition to synaptic abnormalities, recent case studies have demonstrated that Fragile X (FX) patients also exhibit abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF). To examine the role of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in altering CBF, we examined blood vessel density (BVD) in the visual cortex of Adult and Middle-aged FX mice. Analysis of Middle-aged FX mice demonstrated elevated BVD compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that FX mice exhibit a lack of age-induced BVD plasticity. However, Adult FX and wildtype mice did not exhibit consistent differences in BVD. These data demonstrate that FMRP is required for age-induced neocortical vasculature plasticity. Furthermore, these data suggest a new role for FMRP in blood vessel regulation that would have profound implications towards appropriately timed delivery of neuronal nutrients, thus contributing to or exacerbating FX cognitive and neuronal abnormalities.

  18. Assessment and treatment of clinical fears in mentally retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Matson, J L

    1981-01-01

    Three moderately mentally retarded females ranging from 8 to 10 years of age were treated for long-standing fears. These children had refused to talk with or be in the same general vicinity of adults other than their parents, a few close family members, and to a lesser degree, their teacher. To establish an accurate criterion for successful performance on dependent measures, participants were matched on age, sex, and level of mental retardation with children having "normal" amounts of fear. Dependent measures included approaching and talking to strange adults as well as child ratings of overall fear. Participant modeling was given by the mother who provided a sufficient amount of physical and verbal prompts to ensure that an acceptable greeting of adults specified by the mother were made. These prompts were gradually faded out as treatment progressed. Treatment, which was given in a multiple baseline format across subjects, proved effective and gains in the reduction of fears were maintained at the six month follow-up. PMID:7298538

  19. Prevention of mental retardation in offspring of hyperphenylalaninemic mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, L; Clow, C L; Lippman-Hand, A; Morissette, J; Scriver, C R

    1982-01-01

    Maternal hyperphenylalaninemia constitutes a potential hazard to the fetus for whom the risks of postnatal mental retardation, microcephaly, and congenital malformations are elevated. Preconception and intragestational dietary treatment can apparently improve the outcome of such pregnancies. In the absence of predictive mechanisms for pregnancies at risk and preventive measures involving reproductive counseling and treatment, there could be a rebound in the population frequency of mental retardation related to disorders of phenylalanine metabolism in subsequent generations. We describe a program serving a population of six million that includes screening, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling of the hyperphenylalaninemias. The program has recently added a simple dedicated register for males and females with hyperphenylalaninemia to supplement traditional methods for continuous surveillance of probands. We registered 153 patients: 43 females and 56 males with phenylketonuria, 23 females and 31 males with benign hyperphenylalaninemia, of which 22, 7, 27 and 5, respectively, had reached their 12th birthday in an 1981. Regional centers in the program provided counseling about the consequences of maternal hyperphenylalaninemia and the options to prevent them. No family has rejected the principle or fact of the Register and its goals. PMID:7137436

  20. Distal brachyphalangy of the thumb in mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, M M; da Silva, J A

    1975-01-01

    Distal brachyphalangy (DBP) of the thumbs is a hereditary autosomal anomaly found in 1 to 1.5% of whites and in less than 1% of blacks. It was found in 26 of 852 mentally retarded patients in the present study; a frequency of over 3%. The male:female ratio was 70:30. There was bilateral DBP IN 69.5% and unilateral DBP on the right hand in 19% and on the left in 11.5%. The 26 cases (100%) showed a subsyndromic aggregate of distal brachyphalangy of the thumb (DBT), short stature and mental retardation, 19 of them presented an abnormal head and 17 presented abnormal feet (nine of them also had convulsions). Six cases are discussed in detail; it is suggested that they belong to particular clinical categories. In addition to gene abnormalities (which is the most likely cause) a possible explanation of the aetiological factors could be found in some sort of anomaly of the hypopituitary-hypothalmic area, since in the five cases where it was investigated, the sella turcica was small in four cases and large in one. Almost all known syndromes of which the subsyndrome discussed here is a part also shown abnormal skulls, and this may add to the aetiology. PMID:1240973

  1. Mental Health Disorders Associated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-11-01

    Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are

  2. Proceedings of the Conference on Nutrition and Mental Retardation (Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 10-11, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino, Ed.

    The conference, planned primarily for nutritionists and dieticians, dealt with the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of mental retardation. Proceedings include an overview of mental retardation, an examination of nutrition manpower needs in the fields of mental health and mental retardation on both the national and state levels,…

  3. [Mental retardation and sexual abuse. 65 mentally retarded men submitted to forensic psychiatric examination because of sex offences].

    PubMed

    Noreik, K; Grünfeld, B

    1993-06-20

    65 mentally impaired men charged with different sexual crimes were submitted to judicial psychiatric examination. 37% of these men had previously stayed in institutions for the mentally impaired, two thirds had worked for a period. Half of the charged men were functionally retarded and the rest were assessed as functioning at an even lower level. Approximately every third man suffered from serious behavioural symptoms and personality disturbances. Most of the abuse was towards acquaintances or persons in the local environment. Almost half of the men used violence in connection with the abuse. Two thirds of the victims were under the age of 16 years. About half of the men were charged with sexual abuse of minors, and a few with rape. The majority were charged, and almost half were placed under preventive detention.

  4. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  5. The Mentally Retarded Worker: An Economic Discovery. Report to the President. 14th Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The booklet examines potential contributions that can be made by mentally retarded workers and exposes common misconceptions about their employability. Initial sections introduce the nature of retardation and describe real-life situations showing economic benefits of employment to employers, taxpayers, and retarded persons themselves. Among the…

  6. Factors influencing direct-care paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate mental health referrals for adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew N I; Miller, Trisha T; Skillman, Gemma D

    2005-04-01

    Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members recognized and differentiated psychopathology of varying levels of clinical severity. Results also suggest that paraprofessionals are more likely to initiate making a referral when professionals are perceived as being competent in treating individuals with mental retardation, and when providers' interventions are consistent with the referring agency's philosophy.

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  8. Art for the Mentally Retarded: Methodology and Techniques for a Broad Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchner, Thomas A.

    Many aspects of discipline-based art education (DBAE) can be used with mentally retarded students and the effects of this approach can be exciting and fulfilling for them. Art criticism activities improve mentally retarded students' visual awareness, verbal skills, and ability to think independently. They are able to progress through the steps of…

  9. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  10. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  11. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  12. Relationship between Children's Attitudes toward and Their Social Acceptance of Mentally Retarded Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siperstein, Gary N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Forty-six intermediate grade students expressed their attitudes toward an unknown mentally retarded student presented in a videotape, and indicated their social acceptance, rejection, or neglect of a mentally retarded peer in their classroom. Children's attitudes toward the videotaped child were related to their sociometric choices of the retarded…

  13. Shaping with Visual Feedback and Token Reinforcement: Effects on Voice Volume Changes in Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.

    In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…

  14. A Community-Based Accommodation Program for Adults with Autism and Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.; Holtz, Casey A.; Moist, Amie M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of treatment literature for significant and intractable behavior problems in adults with autism and mental retardation. Four adults with autism, severe to profound mental retardation, and serious, long-term behavior problems participated in an accommodation training program as an adjunct to more traditional behavioral and…

  15. An Evaluation of State Guidelines for Mental Retardation: Focus on Definition and Classification Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Christopher B.; Chamberlain, Jolie A.; Polloway, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of the American Association on Mental Retardation's 1992 manual that provided an alternative approach to mental retardation definition and classification. Forty-four states indicated they based their guidelines on the 1983 manual, four states reported using the 1992 manual, and three used neither model. (Contains…

  16. Levels of Deficits or Supports in the Classification of Mental Retardation: Implementation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polloway, Edward A.; Chamberlain, Jolie; Denning, Christopher B.; Smith, J. David; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the application of levels of deficits or supports in the classification of mental retardation in published research. Analysis of data from three professional journals indicated that the supports model of classification has had no significant impact in subject descriptions reported in mental-retardation research. Implications for teacher…

  17. THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.

    PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  18. Kansas Plan: For Program Planning and Development in Education for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsell, Marguerite; And Others

    The manual of administrative guidelines outlining program organization for the education of the mentally retarded in Kansas presents standards of program organization and operation and plans for implementing specified services for the various levels of mental retardation. Part 1 of the manual, detailing program organization, covers program…

  19. Awareness among Family Members Having Children with Mental Retardation on Relevant Legislations in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppusamy, Balabaskar; Narayan, Jayanthi; Nair, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    In India, Acts and legislations are in place for persons with mental retardation. Three major Acts namely Rehabilitation Council of India Act (1992), Persons with Disabilities (Equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) Act (1995) and National Trust for welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental retardation and…

  20. A Survey of Nondisabled Employees' Attitudes toward Supported Employees with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A survey administered to 212 co-workers of supported employees with mental retardation found that the co-workers' attitudes concerning supported employees' competence were not significantly affected by contact in the workplace or by the level of mental retardation. The majority of contacts between nondisabled and supported employees concentrated…

  1. Vocational Rehabilitation Operations Within a Prison System: One Approach to Serving the Mentally Retarded Public Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    The purpose of this paper is to present one approach to providing vocational rehabilitation for the mentally retarded public offender. The rehabilitation process for prison inmates is described, one southeastern state program is reviewed from an operational point of view, and some traits and characteristics of the mentally retarded public offender…

  2. Explanatory Model to Describe School District Prevalence Rates for Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Data reports from South Carolina's 92 independent school districts during 1980-81 were used to calculate prevalence rates of mental retardation and learning disabilities. These prevalence rates were 41.66/1,000 children enrolled for mental retardation and 33.21/1,000 children enrolled for learning disabilities. Additional analysis showed that…

  3. Preparing Teachers of Pupils with Mental Retardation: Changes in Course Offerings from 1970-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusca, Rita M.; Montemurro, Theodore J.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of typical courses of study from 1970 to 1990 for students preparing to be teachers of pupils with mental retardation found little change in percentage of programs offering a special course on mental retardation; increased percentage of programs offering cross-categorical courses; and decreased percentage of programs requiring joint…

  4. Evaluating Psychotropic Drugs in People with Mental Retardation: Where Are the Social Validity Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; LeSage, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Journal articles dealing with drug treatment of individuals with mental retardation were examined to determine treatment goals and outcomes of treating behavior problems. Analysis of articles published from 1987 to 1993 in 5 major journals revealed that none of the 68 articles concerned with the psychopharmacology of mental retardation reported…

  5. Families and Mental Retardation: A Collection of Notable AAMR Journal Articles across the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan, Ed.; Baker, Bruce L., Ed.

    This volume brings together 32 papers on families and mental retardation. The papers were first published in journals of the American Association on Mental Retardation and date from 1935 through 1999. The papers are divided into four units within which the papers are presented chronologically. Essays introduce each unit. The first unit,…

  6. Institutionalization, Involuntary Sterilization, and Mental Retardation: Profiles from the History of the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This study analyzes data on 212 individuals with mental retardation who were sterilized while residents of the Central Virginia Training Center and discharged from the facility between 1969 and 1989. The analysis includes gender, age at and date of sterilization, level of mental retardation, and location of subsequent discharge. (Author/JDD)

  7. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  8. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  9. Variability of Stereotypic Body-Rocking in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.; Incledon, Thomas; Bodfish, James W.; Sprague, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The variability of stereotypic body-rocking motions of eight adults with severe/profound mental retardation was examined through kinematic analysis and compared to a matched nonretarded group of adults. Inter- and intra-individual variability was, on average, higher for the individuals with mental retardation. Results suggest that low variability…

  10. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  11. Sleep Studies of Adults with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation and Epilepsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Colin A.; Paul, Audrey; McFie, Joyce; Amos, Pat; Hamilton, David; McColl, John H.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    A study of the sleep patterns of 28 people with severe or profound mental retardation and epilepsy found atypical sleep stages with significant depletion of REM sleep and a predominance of indiscriminate non-REM sleep. Sleep diaries completed by caregivers reveal lengthy sleep periods, especially among those with profound mental retardation.…

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  13. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  14. Vocational Rehabilitation Operations Within a Prison System: One Approach to Serving the Mentally Retarded Public Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    The purpose of this paper is to present one approach to providing vocational rehabilitation for the mentally retarded public offender. The rehabilitation process for prison inmates is described, one southeastern state program is reviewed from an operational point of view, and some traits and characteristics of the mentally retarded public offender…

  15. Elementary counting of cardinal and ordinal numbers by persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Marx, M H

    1989-06-01

    Cardinal and ordinal counting skills were assessed in 37 mentally retarded adult workers and 42 school children with mental retardation. The major results were the very poor performance of the younger children (essentially at chance beyond the numbers 1 and 2) and the overall marked inferiority in ordinal compared with cardinal counting.

  16. Art for the Mentally Retarded: Methodology and Techniques for a Broad Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchner, Thomas A.

    Many aspects of discipline-based art education (DBAE) can be used with mentally retarded students and the effects of this approach can be exciting and fulfilling for them. Art criticism activities improve mentally retarded students' visual awareness, verbal skills, and ability to think independently. They are able to progress through the steps of…

  17. Margaret Mead and Mental Retardation: Words of Understanding, Concepts of Inclusiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Johnson, George Lee, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Margaret Mead's insights on mental retardation. Her study of intelligence scores of Italian children, which analyzed correlations between test performance, language, immigration date, and social status, is used to indicate recognition of the multicultural complexities of mental retardation. Her belief in social integration is also…

  18. Evaluation of a Weight Loss Treatment Program for Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailer, Angela B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Johnson, Brigitte; Zetocha, Kim; Egemo, Kristin; Hegstad, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem for people in the United States. Individuals with mental retardation also are prone to obesity. The most successful programs for treating obesity typically are treatment packages consisting of multiple behavioral components. Research in the area of weight loss and mental retardation has not evaluated programs for…

  19. Self-Reported Fears in Hispanic Youth with Mental Retardation: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Nguyen, Trang; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed fears experienced by 48 Hispanic youth (ages 10-21) with mental retardation. Although differences were found in the content of fears across age and gender groups, the number and intensity of fears did not differ from those of their non-Hispanic peers with mental retardation. (Author/CR)

  20. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  1. The Impact of National Policies on Research in Mental Retardation--A United States Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Duane

    1988-01-01

    The contributions of the families of John Kennedy and Robert Cooke to national policies on mental retardation research and services are explored. The course of federal funding from 1950-1985 for mental retardation and developmental disabilities is traced for six program categories: services, training, information/coordination, income maintenance,…

  2. Empirical Approach to Psychopharmacology for Institutionalized Individuals with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Andrew C.

    1992-01-01

    A six-point program of diagnostic inquiry and treatment strategy for individuals with behavior disorders in addition to severe or profound mental retardation is presented, which allows alternate etiological hypotheses to be tested in a clinical setting. This format is intended to unify psychopharmacy practice in mental retardation and in general…

  3. Shaping with Visual Feedback and Token Reinforcement: Effects on Voice Volume Changes in Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.

    In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…

  4. Personal Characteristics and Contextual Factors Associated with Residential Expenditures for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jeffrey A.; Altman, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 3,920 individuals with mental retardation from 665 residential facilities found ownership, facility size, facility services, and location were factors associated with higher expenditures. Individuals with a greater number of activity of daily living limitations, developmental disabilities, and more severe mental retardation had…

  5. Detection of Metabolic Disorders among Selectively Screened People with Idiopathic Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Michael B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight people (ages 2 to 66) receiving residential or other services for idiopathic mental retardation were evaluated for evidence of metabolic disease. Five (8%) demonstrated symptoms pointing to specific genetic metabolic defects, suggesting the need for evaluation of other similar populations with idiopathic mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  6. THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.

    PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  7. Facial Emotion Recognition by Persons with Mental Retardation: A Review of the Experimental Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This literature review discusses 21 studies on facial emotion recognition by persons with mental retardation in terms of methodological characteristics, stimulus material, salient variables and their relation to recognition tasks, and emotion recognition deficits in mental retardation. A table provides comparative data on all 21 studies. (DB)

  8. Clozapine in Three Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation and Treatment-Refractory Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Although clozapine is a drug specifically approved for people with schizophrenia, it has not been systematically evaluated with dually diagnosed individuals having mental retardation. This article reviews the drug's use in the general population, discusses potential difficulties in prescribing it for individuals with mental retardation, and…

  9. Social Skills Training for Adults with Mental Retardation in Job-Related Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Weihe; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for social-skills training for workers with mental retardation. Offers definitions and behavioral standards of these skills and differences in the interaction patterns between workers with and without mental retardation. Critically reviews various intervention strategies. Makes recommendations on how to introduce…

  10. Ethical Challenges in the Conduct of Research Involving Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Ruth I.

    2001-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of research with individuals with mental retardation, this article examines critical ethical issues related to informed consent and surrogate decision-making. It then discusses ways to facilitate the research decision-making process for individuals with mental retardation and their families, including enhancing…

  11. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul; Beck, Ronna Lee

    Included in the report are summaries of four new cases and updated information on 38 cases regarding legal issues in mental retardation. Featured is a review of cases dealing with liability of judges and lawyers in violating the rights of mentally retarded persons. Other issues addressed (with sample court case in parentheses) include commitment…

  12. Effects of Goal Setting on Task Performance of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Susan R.; Hughes, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    A review of empirical investigations of effects of goal setting on task performance of persons with mental retardation found that use of goal setting strategies, in conjunction with other instructional strategies, was associated with increased rate or accuracy of performance of both children and adults with mild to severe mental retardation.…

  13. Assessment of Seizures and Related Symptomatology in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Erik A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2004-01-01

    Seizures can be debilitating across a number of physical, social, occupational, and personal variables. Given the deficits in all of these areas frequently present in persons with mental retardation, effective assessment and subsequent treatment of seizures is a primary goal for individuals with both mental retardation and epilepsy. To thoroughly…

  14. Evaluation of a Weight Loss Treatment Program for Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailer, Angela B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Johnson, Brigitte; Zetocha, Kim; Egemo, Kristin; Hegstad, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem for people in the United States. Individuals with mental retardation also are prone to obesity. The most successful programs for treating obesity typically are treatment packages consisting of multiple behavioral components. Research in the area of weight loss and mental retardation has not evaluated programs for…

  15. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  16. A National Survey of State Legislation defining mental retardation: implications for policy and practice after Atkins.

    PubMed

    DeMatteo, David; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Pich, Michele

    2007-01-01

    In Atkins v. Virginia 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Eighth Amendment prohibits executing offenders who are mentally retarded. Rather than adopting a uniform definition of mental retardation, the court charged each state with defining mental retardation in a manner that enforces the constitutional restriction. An unanswered question is how states define mental retardation after Atkins, which has implications for capital defendants and forensic evaluators who conduct capital mitigation evaluations. This project identified the statutory definitions of mental retardation in each state, and grouped the definitions based on consistency with accepted clinical criteria for mental retardation. Results show that definitions of mental retardation vary considerably by state. The large majority of states, both overall and specifically among death penalty states, use criteria for mental retardation that are not entirely consistent with accepted clinical standards. As such, it is not clear whether the majority of states are effectuating the intent of Atkins. The implications of these findings for both policy and practice are discussed.

  17. Personal Characteristics and Contextual Factors Associated with Residential Expenditures for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jeffrey A.; Altman, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 3,920 individuals with mental retardation from 665 residential facilities found ownership, facility size, facility services, and location were factors associated with higher expenditures. Individuals with a greater number of activity of daily living limitations, developmental disabilities, and more severe mental retardation had…

  18. Capital Punishment and Offenders with Mental Retardation: Response to the Penry Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calnen, Terrence; Blackman, Leonard S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper responds to a court brief of amici curiae asserting that mental retardation reduces culpability in capital offenses. The paper argues that the position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability, and undermines respect and value…

  19. Teachers' and Mothers' Assessment of Social Skills of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifci Tekinarslan, Ilknur; Sazak Pinar, Elif; Sucuoglu, Bulbin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the assessment results of social skills of students with mental retardation by their teachers and mothers through relational model by using descriptive statistics. The research group in this study consisted of mothers and teachers of 562 children with mental retardation aged between 6 and 12 who enrolled in…

  20. Effects of Age, Gender, and Causality on Perceptions of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…