Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.
Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…
Horvath, Michael; And Others
This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…
Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi
Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089
González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto
The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.
Stewart, Larry G., Ed.
Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…
Broekgaarden, R.; And Others
The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…
Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…
Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen
Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…
This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)
Budoff, Milton; And Others
A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)
CROME, L.; STERN, J.
DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…
Menolascino, Frank J.
The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…
Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen
An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…
Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.
This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…
The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…
Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.
This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…
CARTER, CHARLES H.
THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…
Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.
In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…
Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.
Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…
Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.
The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…
Matson, Johnny L.; And Others
The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)
Poser, Charles M., Ed.
A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…
Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others
An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…
SHAFTER, ALBERT J.
MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…
Ellis, Norman R., Ed.
The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…
Ayers, George E., Ed.
Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…
Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…
van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others
The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…
Hurley, Rodger L.
The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…
Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn
Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…
Dever, R. B.
A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)
Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.
Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…
Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R
A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264
Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810
Biondi, S; Zappala, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F
This research is intended to verify the existence of vocal spectrographic alterations, with particular reference to the values of Fundamental Frequency, in patients with different levels of Mental Retardation. The results show the existence of a direct correspondence between the values of the Fundamental Frequency and the level of Mental Retardation: the spectrographic characteristics appear to be more altered in subjects with severe Mental Retardation. The spectrographics patterns are characterized by the presence of bi-phonation particularly at the onset time and at the end, and by a noise signal on constant frequency. The shifts of Fundamental Frequency and voice breakage are rarely detected.
Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.
A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…
Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M
Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096
Hayes, Alan; And Others
Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)
Weisbord, H. F.
Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)
Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda
Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)
Davis, Patricia A.
Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…
Stanovich, Keith E.
The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.
This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…
Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon
This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…
Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.
Raymond, F L
Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.
There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the
Kakalik, J. S.; And Others
Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…
Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.
The document presents an international directory of mental retardation resources. International organizations pertaining to the mentally retarded are listed and described, including those affiliated with the United Nations, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international coordinating agencies, and regional nongovernmental…
Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard
This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…
Magana, Sandra M.
This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…
McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.
This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…
Aman, Michael G.
Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…
Norlin, Dennis A.
Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…
The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)
Crissey, Marie Skodak
Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)
Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.
A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)
This study explored developmental patterns in the acquisition of the gross motor skill of throwing among 110 educable, mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-olds. Each child was examined through cinematographic procedures to discover: a) variance in throwing patterns, b) elements composing throwing skills, and c) sequential integration of the elements…
Handen, Benjamin L.
Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…
Coulter, David L.
The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…
Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others
Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…
Sonies, Barbara C.
Described photographically and textually in the brochure are the educational, vocational, and social needs of deaf mentally retarded (DMR) children and adults. The DMR person is discussed in relation to the double handicap which precludes educational benefits from a traditional program, secondary problems such as visual handicaps, and incidence…
LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…
Shotick, Andrew L.
Several factors should be considered in using standardized tests to measure achievement in the mentally retarded. Who should be included in the normative sample is a first consideration; this depends on the definition of mentally retarded being used. For achievement purposes the mentally retarded probably differ from one another as much as they do…
Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate
A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…
Shapira, Z; Cnaan, R A; Cnaan, A
Reactions of 34 mentally retarded employees to their jobs were examined in a field study conducted at a sheltered workshop. Three experienced social workers observed a group of retarded employees whose job was assembling toys. The workers were then interviewed on their perceptions of and reactions to their job characteristics and supervision, and these were related to performance data that included performance time, productivity, and effort ratings. Results showed that performance measures were related to perceived job characteristics and that growth-need strength (people's needs for personal development and achievement) affected these relationships. On the basis of these results, we discussed the feasibility of using motivation models for retarded workers that were designed for nonretarded workers.
Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.
The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…
Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A.
The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal…
Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.
This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…
Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…
Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi
High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098
Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others
The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…
Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald
The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…
Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)
Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others
This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…
Lown, Irving C., Jr.
To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…
Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.
Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…
Arc, Arlington, TX.
This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…
Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.
Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…
Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra
An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)
Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.
Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…
Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.
To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…
Kadlubek, Renee Marie
In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…
COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.
A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION"…
Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.
Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…
Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.
The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...
Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)
Feldstein, Jerome H.
The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…
Kastner, Ted; And Others
This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…
Sternlicht, Manny; Deutsch, Martin R.
The trend toward normalization of the mentally retarded has brought a new dimension to the problem of their adjustment. Within the past several years, large numbers of the mentally retarded have been discharged into the community from residential facilities; the stress and anxiety they experience at being thrust into a strange and alien world…
Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.
We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…
Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios
This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…
Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.
The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…
Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.
To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency. PMID:14282158
Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.
This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…
Spangler, Arthur Stephenson, Jr.
Although Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mandated to serve all clients requiring mental health services including those who are mentally retarded, it appears that many CMHCs have no programs designed to address the needs of the retarded. This paper describes a financially sound outpatient program which provides psychological and…
Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others
Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…
X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615
LeVann, Leonard J.
In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)
Barton, Bonnie J.
The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)
Shafer, Michael S.; And Others
Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)
Williams, Randall D.; Ewing, Sheryl
To develop information regarding the commercial product purchasing behavior of mildly mentally retarded adults, 11 participants were included in a mock shopping exercise. The results indicated several serious deficiencies in the purchasing strategies of the participants. (Author/SB)
Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…
Cratty, Bryant J.
To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…
Smith, Craig; And Others
Examined whether or not there were differences in the prison adaptation of mentally retarded and nonretarded inmates. Compared 439 retarded inmates, 439 matched nonretarded inmates, and 439 unmatched nonretarded inmates. Found statistically significant differences between groups in the areas of assaults on correctional officers and other…
BENSBERG, GERALD J.
WRITTEN FOR ATTENDANTS, VOLUNTEERS, PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE, AND PARENTS, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO BE AS INDEPENDENT AS POSSIBLE. THE FIRST SECTION PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND CONTRASTS THESE WITH SOME OF THE NEEDS OF THE RETARDED.…
Arc, Arlington, TX.
This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…
Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.
Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L
Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472
Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M
The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.
Narayanan, H.S.; Girimaji, S.R.; Gandhi, D.H.; Raju, K. Maruthai; Rao, P. Madhu; Nardev, G.
SUMMARY A novel programme of intervention - brief inpatient family intervention - was formulated to impart the training skills to the parents of mentally retarded children to optimise the development of their retarded child. During the period of this study. 106 mentally retarded children with different socio-demographic backgrounds and degrees of handicap participated in this programme, with encouraging results. The individualised management plan, spread over 2 weeks of inpatient stay, included intensive counselling, training of the parents in techniques of multisensory stimulation, speech, motor, and self-help skills training, behaviour modification and medical management, as required. The programme could serve as a suitable model for professionals working with the mentally retarded, to implement with limited resources. PMID:21927322
Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.
Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…
National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.
Reported are 1973 conference proceedings of the National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded (MR), which address the economics of service delivery to mentally handicapped children and adults. Conference speakers included a state legislator, a state budget official, an economist, and state and local officials.…
This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)
Neal, Larry L., Ed.
The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…
To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)
This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…
Stedman, Donald J., Ed.
Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…
Miller, L K
A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.
Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan
Is sex between people with "mental retardation"  morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity" and mental retardation" are analysed briefly, which is challenging given the widely divergent and sometimes rather awkward definitions of these concepts. On the basis of this analysis, it is argued that the liberal principle of mutual consent, if taken as a necessary condition of permissible sex, has unacceptable consequences for people with mental retardation. Many forms of sex between them would be morally impermissible, given the fact that their limited powers of practical reasoning will often make valid consent well-nigh impossible. As an alternative to the liberal principle of permissible sex, conditions are specified that include the additional consent of caretakers. If people with mental retardation do not have the capacities of practical deliberation required for valid consent, care providers with mature reasoning powers should act as their substitutes. Finally, some important implications for the moral education of future care professionals are spelled out.
Smith, J. David
In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…
Lakin, K C; Hall, M J
Two sources of Medicaid support for persons with mental retardation and related conditions (MR/RC) are examined, the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (ICF/MR) program and the home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver. Results indicate that Medicaid support through the ICF/MR program has shown little recent growth in terms of number of persons served, although expenditures continue to increase. Medicaid's HCBS waiver is being used increasingly by States to support residential placement because of its greater flexibility and more individualized approach relative to ICF/MR care. Use of Medicaid to finance care for persons with MR/RC varies considerably across States.
Qurashi, Abrar; Li, Xuekun; Jin, Peng
Stem cells, which can self-renew and produce different cell types, are regulated by both extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors. Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the functional loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein that forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, the role of Fmrp in stem cell biology has been explored in both Drosophila and the mouse. In this chapter, we discuss the role of FMRP in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells.
Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.
A HISTORY OF THE CONCERN FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN BY THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU IS FOLLOWED BY DESCRIPTIONS OF ITS VARIOUS PROGRAMS. HEALTH SERVICES INCLUDE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PROJECTS SERVING THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED, PERSONNEL TRAINING THROUGH GRANTS TO UNIVERSITIES, GRANT PROGRAMS FOR MATERNITY AND INFANT CARE PROJECTS, AND…
Koch, Richard, Ed.; Dobson, James C., Ed.
Described as a text for students in college courses of all disciplines relating to the mentally handicapped (education, medicine, psychology, rehabilitation and others), the collection of papers contains two introductory articles on the origins of intelligence and the meaning of mental handicaps. Eight papers devoted to the biological factors in…
Gardner, James M.; And Others
The bibliography on learning in mentally handicapped persons is divided into the following topic categories: applied behavior change, classical conditioning, discrimination, generalization, motor learning, reinforcement, verbal learning, and miscellaneous. An author index is included. (KW)
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to
Williamson, Pamela; McLeskey, James; Hoppey, David; Rentz, Tarcha
Empirical evidence and federal mandates support the notion that students with mental retardation (MR) should spend some or much of the school day in general education classrooms. This study investigated trends in state-level rates for placing students in different educational settings between 1989-90 and 1999-2000. The research utilized…
Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji
Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…
Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others
A national sample of 370 older persons with mental retardation in 235 facilities (foster care, small group homes, large private facilities, and state-operated facilities) was surveyed. Information is presented on resident characteristics, day program participation, services received, and differences in programs and services by facility type. The…
The findings of a portion of a 2-year ethnographic study involving North Indian Hindu immigrants living in the mid-Western United States is discussed. These findings illuminate the ways in which participants think and talk about mental retardation, how this linguistic information was obtained, and the cultural context within which participants…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.
Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.
Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…
Detroit Public Schools, MI.
DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…
Güner Yildiz, Nevin
This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…
Brace, D. K.
The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…
Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.
The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…
Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.
The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)
Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.
Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…
Auxter, David; And Others
The study explored behavioral procedures for developing the skill of standing from a chair for a severely mentally retarded 11-year-old nonambulatory girl and an 86-year-old man residing in a nursing home for the elderly. Functional assessment and programing determined the specific instructional needs of each S. A changing criterion design was…
DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.
This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…
Child, Toni, Ed.
GRADES OR AGES: Mentally retarded children of any age. SUBJECT MATTER: Arts and crafts. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into sections according to the material to be used. Section headings are: Paper, Fabrics, Wood, Metal, Nature, Miscellaneous, and Painting. Each section is laid out in three parallel columns, one each…
Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.
Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)
Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.
Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…
South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.
The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…
Reiter, Shunit; And Others
Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…
Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.
Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…
Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.
Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…
Matson, Johnny L.
Reviews some of the major developments in teaching and training relevant community skills to mentally retarded persons. The following adaptive skills are discussed: (1) toilet use and bed wetting; (2) eating, dressing, and personal hygiene; (3) community survival; and (4) vocational and social skills. (BJV)
Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II
The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…
Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard
Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…
Fabry, Bernard D; And Others
Six mentally retarded students (12-22 years old) were taught to name sight words during token-exchange periods of a token-reinforcement system. Sequential teaching of new sets of sight words via a multiple-baseline design evaluated the procedure. Five of the 6 students acquired sight-word vocabularies. Data support the educational use of…
Mount, Rebecca H.; Charman, Tony; Hastings, Richard P.; Reilly, Sheena; Cass, Hilary
The Autism Behavior Checklist measured autistic symptoms in 15 girls (ages 11-16) with Rett Syndrome (RS) and 14 with severe mental retardation. Girls with RS scored higher on the Sensory and Relating subscales. There were no differences on the Body and Object Use, Language, and Social and Self-Help subscales. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.
Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…
Koch, Jean, Ed.
Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…
Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983
A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…
Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi
Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)
Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.
A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…
This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…
Singh, Delar K.
This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…
Birch, Jack W.
Described in the monograph are mainstreaming programs for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in six variously sized school districts within five states. It is noted that mainstreaming is based on the principle of educating most children in the regular classroom and providing special education on the basis of learning needs rather than…
Meyen, Edward L., Ed.
The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…
La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi
Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)
Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.
This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…
The behavior disorders of 54 Japanese individuals with mental retardation receiving antipsychotic medication were compared to 52 subjects receiving anticonvulsants and 202 subjects without medication. Results found the problem behaviors of subjects receiving antipsychotic drugs were more severe and severity of disability was associated with higher…
Hoogeveen, Frans R.; And Others
Four moderately mentally retarded students, aged 8-13, were instructed in a basic skills reading program which emphasized a phonemic alphabet, pictorial cueing, and stimulus manipulation techniques. The training improved the Dutch students' ability to read one- and two-syllable words, and was generalizable to untrained words of the same…
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…
Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.; Parker, Dawn E.; Lewis, Mark H.
A study compared specific repetitive behaviors in 32 adults with autism with 34 controls with mental retardation. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in individuals with autism and they showed a greater number of topographies of stereotypy and compulsions. Repetitive behavior severity also predicated autism…
CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.
ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…
Smith, David T.
This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…
Platt, Henry; And Others
Various uses of automation in teaching were studied with mentally retarded (IQ 70 to 90) and/or emotionally disturbed (IQ 80 to 90) youth aged 16 to 20. Programed instruction was presented by six audiovisual devices and techniques: the Devereux Model 50 Teaching Aid, the Learn-Ease Teaching Device, the Mast Teaching Machine, the Graflex…
Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.
Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)
Issues in mental retardation to be addressed in the next decade include homogenization of disabilities, aging of the population, increasing information and research needs, diagnosis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, legal and ethical problems, caregiving, adolescent care, health care delivery, lifelong disabilities, vocational opportunities,…
Gilmore, Dana Scott; Butterworth, John
This fact sheet summarizes evidence on the work status of successful rehabilitations/closures for people with mental retardation in light of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, which strengthened the focus of state vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs on community employment outcomes. Data analyzed were drawn from the Rehabilitation…
Latt, Samuel A.; And Others
Recombinant DNA techniques provide new approaches to the diagnosis and analysis of inherited human diseases associated with mental retardation, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, phenylketonauria, the Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and those associated with deletions or duplications of subchromosomal regions. (Author/CL)
Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996
This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…
Edgerton, Robert B.
Participant-observation which calls for long-term immersion in the world of the persons being studied yet disciplined detachment from that world, allows investigators to learn how mentally retarded people a actually behave in a variety of contexts and to grasp the meaning these activities have for them. (Author/CL)
Price, D P
Laws governing the sterilization of persons so mentally retarded as to be unable themselves to consent to the procedure have left a trail of manifest abuses right around the globe, and no less in North America than elsewhere. Ostensibly, as a kind of rebound effect, courts in North America, and most obviously in Canada, have erected substantial legal obstacles in the path of those seeking the sterilization of such a retarded individual. Historically, such abuses have been of a lesser scale, or at least have been much less manifest, in Great Britain. In the absence of any significant negative legacy, courts in Britain would seem to have developed a more balanced and equitable, although not necessarily more reasoned, approach to the determination of such cases to the seeming benefit of many seriously retarded persons. Ironically, these same courts hinder their own efforts in relation to retarded adults by denying jurisdiction in such cases and refusing to seek an adequate remedy for the lacuna.
Paintsville Board of Education, KY.
The curriculum guide is introduced by a history and identification information for the trainable mentally handicapped. Each area of instruction presents the importance of the unit, objectives, an outline of content, sources of information, evaluation techniques, and the work-study skills integrated into the unit. Areas included are self care,…
Described is a slide show for teaching and counseling mentally handicapped persons about their sexuality. Advantages of the slide approach are seen to include lack of expense and ease of adaptation for differing levels of students. The approach is said to focus on factual and emotional aspects as well as responsibilities involved in sexuality.…
GINGLEND, DAVID; GOULD, KAY
EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND COORDINATION (BOTH MOTOR AND MUSCULAR), SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, AND LANGUAGE AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. SECTIONS ARE DEVOTED TO ORGANIZATION OF A DAY CAMPING PROGRAM, SELECTING THE STAFF AND THE CAMPERS, THE DAY CAMP IN OPERATION, DAY CAMPING AS A TRAINING PERIOD, CAMP RELATIONS WITH THE…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.
The report describes the current mental retardation activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). Discussed in the introductory section are the coordination of mental retardation programs and the categories of mental retardation activities of the Department: preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of…
Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…
Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.
A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.
Sacristan, Jaime Rodriguez
This paper describes diagnostic methods, treatment approaches, cultural factors, service delivery systems, and governmental roles important in the consideration of the status of mentally retarded people with mental health problems in four Spanish-speaking populations: Chile, Mexico, Spain, and Hispanic groups in the U.S. (JDD)
Parmenter, Trevor R.
This review of mental health service provision to people with mental retardation in Australia addresses: role of public and private agencies, adequacy of services, lack of trained medical personnel, overemphasis on diagnosis, separation of diagnosis from treatment, lack of coordination among departments, inadequate services for moderately and…
Patel, H.; Dunn, H. G.; Tischler, B.; McBurney, A. Karaa
The incidence and etiology of carotenemia in mentally retarded children were examined. Fasting serum carotenoid and vitamin A levels were measured in 77 profoundly mentally retarded children aged 3 to 19 years who were receiving a standard diet containing 2000 IU of carotene (expressed in terms of vitamin A activity) and supplemented by 2000 IU of vitamin A daily. Seventeen of the 77 patients had serum carotenoid levels of more than 300 μg./ml. The particulate size of food had a significant inverse relationship to serum carotenoid levels and was an important factor in determining carotenemia. The serum vitamin A level was also higher in children on homogenized diet than in those on pureed feeds, while the lowest level was noted among patients on a chopped diet. Besides particulate size of food, other factors may also be operative in determining carotenemia. PMID:4707231
Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C
This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.
Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John
A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…
Miller, L K; Monroe, M J
Musical aptitude was assessed in 16 adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills and 16 matched comparison adults. Information pertaining to strengths and weaknesses in adjustment was also obtained. Musical target subjects scored higher on the test of musical aptitude, particularly if they played a musical instrument. Evidence for difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, although, in general, the results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental retardation.
Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…
Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara
This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…
Cento, R M; Ciampelli, M; Proto, C; Le Donne, M; Romano, C; Lanzone, A
In order to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of mental retardation during pubertal development, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration were evaluated at various pubertal stages in a female population with mental retardation (MR) compared to a healthy control group of adolescents. Fifty-six girls aged 8-16 years with MR and 146 normal females of the same age participated in the study. The analyzed subjects were divided into different pubertal stages, ranging from P2 to P5, in line with their degree of sexual maturation. Each patient underwent a GnRH test (100 micrograms); blood samples were collected basally and 15, 30, 60, 90 minutes after the GnRH injection. FSH and LH were assayed in each sample; the gonadotropin response to GnRH administration was evaluated as incremental area. No differences were found at any pubertal stage between the two studied groups with regard to the age, body mass index, or age at menarche. Patients with mental retardation during stages P2 and P3 showed lower FSH secretion in response to GnRH bolus compared with control subjects (P2, p < 0.05; P3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data show that MR is related to an impaired response of the FSH-secreting pituitary cells to their appropriate stimulus; this feature is present only in the initial pubertal stages, whereas it disappears during sexual development.
Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.; Venkatraman, J.; Regan, L.
Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence of Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.
Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R; Czapansky-Beilman, D K; Pierpont, M E; Breningstall, G; Yock, D H; Bonanni, P; Truwit, C L
Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) is a recently recognized malformation of neuronal migration, and perhaps proliferation, in which nodular masses of gray matter line the walls of the lateral ventricles. Most affected individuals have epilepsy and normal intelligence with no other congenital anomalies. A striking skew of the sex ratio has been observed because 31 of 38 probands have been female, and one gene associated with BPNH was recently mapped to chromosome Xq28. We report three unrelated boys with a new multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome that consists of BPNH, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, epilepsy, and syndactyly. Variable abnormalities included focal or regional cortical dysplasia, cataracts, and hypospadius. We hypothesize that this syndrome involves the same Xq28 locus as isolated BPNH, and we review the expanding number of syndromes associated with BPNH.
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
The report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation deals with three goal areas: minimum occurrence of disability, adequate and humane service systems, and assurance of full citizenship for the retarded. Considered in an initial section are the background, definition, prevalence, and incidence of mental retardation. Reviewed is research…
Parette, Phil; Wojcik, Brian W.
In 1991, the Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC) of the United States issued a position statement stating that assistive technology (AT) could be a useful tool for individuals with mental retardation. The Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children published a position statement…
Oliver, Matthew N. I.; Miller, Trisha T.; Skillman, Gemma D.
Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members…
Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is highly enriched in neurons and binds to approximately 4% of mRNAs in mammalian brain. Its loss is a hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of mental retardation. In this review we discuss the mutation in the fragile X mental retardation-1 gene (FMR1), that leads to FXS, the role FMRP plays in neuronal cells, experiments from our own laboratory that demonstrate reductions of FMRP in additional psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and potential therapies to ameliorate the loss of FMRP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.
Brannan, A. Clark; And Others
Reported is a survey of state institutions for the mentally handicapped in which information about hearing imparied mentally handicapped HI/MH persons was solicited. Existing data on hearing impairment and mental retardation, its diagnosis and related programing are reviewed briefly. It is explained that 158 of 212 surveyed institutions (75…
A theoretical proposal is offered concerning individual differences in cognitive processes. The focus is on mental retardation and the comparative problem-solving performance of 'normal' and 'retarded' children. (Author/CS)
Horner, R D; Keilitz, I
The need for self-care by retarded individuals in behaviors such as brushing teeth led to the development and evaluation of a comprehensive toothbrushing program that included a task analysis and training procedure specific to each component of the task analysis. Eight mentally retarded adolescents, in two groups, individually received acquisition training that included scheduled opportunities for independent performances, verbal instruction, modelling, demonstration, and physical assistance. The first group of four subjects received token plus social reinforcement; the second received only social reinforcement. All eight subjects showed improved toothbrushing behaviors when compared to baseline. Six of the eight subjects correctly performed all toothbrushing steps in two of three consecutive sessions. The study emphasizes the need for systematic program development and evaluation. PMID:1184494
Carlson, B E
The public and health and law enforcement professionals have finally become aware of the problem of domestic violence among community-dwelling women with developmental disabilities such as mental retardation. This article presents an ecological approach to analyzing factors that contribute to and maintain such abuse. Service needs of women with developmental disabilities who experience domestic violence as well as assumptions that should underlie treatment are addressed within an ecological framework. Assessment and individual and group intervention are discussed, including the development of a personal safety plan. A case example is provided.
Gibbons, Richard J.
This article describes three rare syndromes in which the presence of α-thalassemia provided an important clue to the molecular basis of the underlying condition. It exemplifies how rare diseases allied with careful clinical observation can lead to important biological principles. Two of the syndromes, ATR-16 and ATR-X, are characterized by α-thalassemia in association with multiple developmental abnormalities including mental retardation. The third condition, ATMDS, is an acquired disorder in which α-thalassemia arises in the context of myelodysplasia. Intriguingly, mutations in the chromatin remodeling factor, ATRX, are common to both ATR-X syndrome and ATMDS. PMID:23028133
McCormick, P K; Campbell, J W; Pasnak, R; Perry, P
Eighteen children with mild mental retardation were pretested on unidimensional classification (oddity), unidimensional seriation, number conservation, Slosson's Intelligence Test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). The children were instructed on the Piagetian concepts twice per week for 4 months via a learning-set technique. All 315 problems (except 20 verbal classification and 15 verbal seriation items) involved concrete items. When posttested at the semester's end, the children had, with few exceptions, mastered the Piagetian concepts and made significant gains on performance on the PPVT.
Pary, Robert J.
Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…
Zarfas, Donald E.
A survey was made of provincial ministries and voluntary associations in nine Canadian provinces and two territories, to assess service provision to mentally retarded citizens with emotional problems. The survey focused on government agencies' involvement in service delivery, settings for short- and long-term care, quality of services available,…
Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali
Mental retardation affects 1–3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy. PMID:27625819
Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali
Mental retardation affects 1-3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy.
Kyle, Catherine; Davies, Katherine
This survey of 53 students (ages 13-15) at a Leeds (England) secondary school found confusion between mental and physical handicap, confusion between mental handicap and mental illness, and confusion about causes of mental retardation. Most students felt that persons with mental handicap belonged in the community. (JDD)
Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are
Cartier, L; Clow, C L; Lippman-Hand, A; Morissette, J; Scriver, C R
Maternal hyperphenylalaninemia constitutes a potential hazard to the fetus for whom the risks of postnatal mental retardation, microcephaly, and congenital malformations are elevated. Preconception and intragestational dietary treatment can apparently improve the outcome of such pregnancies. In the absence of predictive mechanisms for pregnancies at risk and preventive measures involving reproductive counseling and treatment, there could be a rebound in the population frequency of mental retardation related to disorders of phenylalanine metabolism in subsequent generations. We describe a program serving a population of six million that includes screening, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling of the hyperphenylalaninemias. The program has recently added a simple dedicated register for males and females with hyperphenylalaninemia to supplement traditional methods for continuous surveillance of probands. We registered 153 patients: 43 females and 56 males with phenylketonuria, 23 females and 31 males with benign hyperphenylalaninemia, of which 22, 7, 27 and 5, respectively, had reached their 12th birthday in an 1981. Regional centers in the program provided counseling about the consequences of maternal hyperphenylalaninemia and the options to prevent them. No family has rejected the principle or fact of the Register and its goals. PMID:7137436
González, Gabriel; Raggio, Víctor; Boidi, María; Tapié, Alejandra; Roche, Leda
Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, metabolic diseases in 1-5% and multifactor causes in 3-12%. The family history, the detailed medical records required by dysmorphology and the neurological examination will make it possible to establish or suspect a diagnosis in two thirds of the cases and, in the others, scanning tests will be able to confirm an aetiology. The order of the studies will be guided by the clinical picture: karyotype if a chromosome pathology is suspected, neuroimaging if there is some abnormality in the neurological examination and specific genetic or neurometabolic studies to confirm the clinical presumption. The estimated diagnostic performance of the different techniques is: karyotype, 9%; fragile X, 5%; subtelomeric abnormalities, 4%; neurometabolic diseases, 1%, and new microarray techniques, 19%. As a result of the higher performance and cost-benefit ratio, today the recommended procedure, as the first line of treatment for unexplainable cases of mental retardation, is the study of microarrays. Although the outcomes of these tests are complex and require confirmation and careful interpretation by a specialist in medical genetics, the advances in their technological development and resolution, together with lower costs make this technique a fundamental tool in the identification of the aetiology in these children.
Galvan, Ashley M; Galvez, Roberto
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited mental retardation. To date, the most prominent neuronal phenotype associated with the syndrome is an abundance of long thin spines exhibiting an immature morphology. However, in addition to synaptic abnormalities, recent case studies have demonstrated that Fragile X (FX) patients also exhibit abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF). To examine the role of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in altering CBF, we examined blood vessel density (BVD) in the visual cortex of Adult and Middle-aged FX mice. Analysis of Middle-aged FX mice demonstrated elevated BVD compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that FX mice exhibit a lack of age-induced BVD plasticity. However, Adult FX and wildtype mice did not exhibit consistent differences in BVD. These data demonstrate that FMRP is required for age-induced neocortical vasculature plasticity. Furthermore, these data suggest a new role for FMRP in blood vessel regulation that would have profound implications towards appropriately timed delivery of neuronal nutrients, thus contributing to or exacerbating FX cognitive and neuronal abnormalities.
Springer, Ninfa Saturnino, Ed.
The conference, planned primarily for nutritionists and dieticians, dealt with the role of nutrition in the prevention and management of mental retardation. Proceedings include an overview of mental retardation, an examination of nutrition manpower needs in the fields of mental health and mental retardation on both the national and state levels,…
Oliver, Matthew N I; Miller, Trisha T; Skillman, Gemma D
Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members recognized and differentiated psychopathology of varying levels of clinical severity. Results also suggest that paraprofessionals are more likely to initiate making a referral when professionals are perceived as being competent in treating individuals with mental retardation, and when providers' interventions are consistent with the referring agency's philosophy.
Sailer, Angela B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Johnson, Brigitte; Zetocha, Kim; Egemo, Kristin; Hegstad, Holly
Obesity is a major problem for people in the United States. Individuals with mental retardation also are prone to obesity. The most successful programs for treating obesity typically are treatment packages consisting of multiple behavioral components. Research in the area of weight loss and mental retardation has not evaluated programs for…
Remis, Robert S.; And Others
Teaching Staff in day schools for mentally retarded students with direct classroom contact may carry an occupational risk of HBV infection. A seroepidemiologic study associated the prevalence of HBV markers with classroom contact with an HBsAg-positive student, duration of employment at school, and previous work with mentally retarded individuals.…
Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne
Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…
WOOD, NANCY E.
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPETENCE IN COMMUNICATION AND LEARNING POTENTIAL OF APPROXIMATELY 500 MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN, AGES 3 TO 9, WAS CONDUCTED. CONCERN WITH CARELESS DESIGNATION OF MENTAL RETARDATION AS A CAUSE OF DELAYED SPEECH LED TO A STUDY OF 1,200 CASE HISTORIES. MANY OF THESE CASE HISTORIES WERE DIAGNOSED…
Heller, Tamar; And Others
Interviews with 22 adults with mental retardation suggest that, although they and other individuals with mental retardation have participated in various roles in research and training, there are many barriers to meaningful consumer involvement (such as professional jargon) and there is a need to bring out individuals' strengths and capabilities.…
Espie, Colin A.; Paul, Audrey; McFie, Joyce; Amos, Pat; Hamilton, David; McColl, John H.; And Others
A study of the sleep patterns of 28 people with severe or profound mental retardation and epilepsy found atypical sleep stages with significant depletion of REM sleep and a predominance of indiscriminate non-REM sleep. Sleep diaries completed by caregivers reveal lengthy sleep periods, especially among those with profound mental retardation.…
The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…
The contributions of the families of John Kennedy and Robert Cooke to national policies on mental retardation research and services are explored. The course of federal funding from 1950-1985 for mental retardation and developmental disabilities is traced for six program categories: services, training, information/coordination, income maintenance,…
ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.
PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…
Bishop, Andrew C.
A six-point program of diagnostic inquiry and treatment strategy for individuals with behavior disorders in addition to severe or profound mental retardation is presented, which allows alternate etiological hypotheses to be tested in a clinical setting. This format is intended to unify psychopharmacy practice in mental retardation and in general…
Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.
The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…
Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa
Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…
Kelchner, Thomas A.
Many aspects of discipline-based art education (DBAE) can be used with mentally retarded students and the effects of this approach can be exciting and fulfilling for them. Art criticism activities improve mentally retarded students' visual awareness, verbal skills, and ability to think independently. They are able to progress through the steps of…
DeMatteo, David; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Pich, Michele
In Atkins v. Virginia 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Eighth Amendment prohibits executing offenders who are mentally retarded. Rather than adopting a uniform definition of mental retardation, the court charged each state with defining mental retardation in a manner that enforces the constitutional restriction. An unanswered question is how states define mental retardation after Atkins, which has implications for capital defendants and forensic evaluators who conduct capital mitigation evaluations. This project identified the statutory definitions of mental retardation in each state, and grouped the definitions based on consistency with accepted clinical criteria for mental retardation. Results show that definitions of mental retardation vary considerably by state. The large majority of states, both overall and specifically among death penalty states, use criteria for mental retardation that are not entirely consistent with accepted clinical standards. As such, it is not clear whether the majority of states are effectuating the intent of Atkins. The implications of these findings for both policy and practice are discussed.
Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole
A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…
The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…
Poling, Alan; LeSage, Mark
Journal articles dealing with drug treatment of individuals with mental retardation were examined to determine treatment goals and outcomes of treating behavior problems. Analysis of articles published from 1987 to 1993 in 5 major journals revealed that none of the 68 articles concerned with the psychopharmacology of mental retardation reported…
Blacher, Jan, Ed.; Baker, Bruce L., Ed.
This volume brings together 32 papers on families and mental retardation. The papers were first published in journals of the American Association on Mental Retardation and date from 1935 through 1999. The papers are divided into four units within which the papers are presented chronologically. Essays introduce each unit. The first unit,…
Leffert, James S.; Siperstein, Gary N.; Millikan, Emily
A study involving 117 children with and without mental retardation in grades 1 through 5 found children with mental retardation had difficulty recognizing benign intention social cues that accompanied a negative event, had difficulty varying their social strategies to fit the social conflict, and often suggested appealing to authority. (Contains…
Leffert, James S.; Siperstein, Gary N.; Millikan, Emily
This study examined the ability of 56 children with mental retardation and 58 children (grades 1-5) without mental retardation to perform two key social cognitive processes: social perception (the encoding and interpretation of social cues) and the generation of strategies for resolving social conflicts. These processes were assessed as children…
Freedman, Ruth I.
After a brief review of the history of research with individuals with mental retardation, this article examines critical ethical issues related to informed consent and surrogate decision-making. It then discusses ways to facilitate the research decision-making process for individuals with mental retardation and their families, including enhancing…
Phelps, William R.
The purpose of this paper is to present one approach to providing vocational rehabilitation for the mentally retarded public offender. The rehabilitation process for prison inmates is described, one southeastern state program is reviewed from an operational point of view, and some traits and characteristics of the mentally retarded public offender…
Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki
Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…
Data reports from South Carolina's 92 independent school districts during 1980-81 were used to calculate prevalence rates of mental retardation and learning disabilities. These prevalence rates were 41.66/1,000 children enrolled for mental retardation and 33.21/1,000 children enrolled for learning disabilities. Additional analysis showed that…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…
Bodfish, James W.; And Others
The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…
Newell, Karl M.; Incledon, Thomas; Bodfish, James W.; Sprague, Robert L.
The variability of stereotypic body-rocking motions of eight adults with severe/profound mental retardation was examined through kinematic analysis and compared to a matched nonretarded group of adults. Inter- and intra-individual variability was, on average, higher for the individuals with mental retardation. Results suggest that low variability…
Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.
In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…
Connor, Steven A.; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric; Nguyen, Peter V.
Silencing of a single gene, FMR1, is linked to a highly prevalent form of mental retardation, characterized by social and cognitive impairments, known as fragile X syndrome (FXS). The FMR1 gene encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which negatively regulates translation. Knockout of Fmr1 in mice results in enhanced long-term…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation describes 12 exemplary programs which focus on the prevention of mental retardation or the returning of institutionalized persons to the community, and offers six recommendations for federal action. Introductory material examines trends such as increased public recognition of the…
Merrill, Edward C.
Persons with mental retardation often exhibit greater interference in visual selective attention tasks than do persons matched with them on CA. My goal here was to evaluate whether differences in distractor interference between persons with and without mental retardation may be related to differences in negative priming. Fifteen participants with…
Schupf, Nicole; And Others
Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…
Rhoades, Jeffrey A.; Altman, Barbara M.
A study involving 3,920 individuals with mental retardation from 665 residential facilities found ownership, facility size, facility services, and location were factors associated with higher expenditures. Individuals with a greater number of activity of daily living limitations, developmental disabilities, and more severe mental retardation had…
Calnen, Terrence; Blackman, Leonard S.
This paper responds to a court brief of amici curiae asserting that mental retardation reduces culpability in capital offenses. The paper argues that the position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability, and undermines respect and value…
Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…
Denning, Christopher B.; Chamberlain, Jolie A.; Polloway, Edward A.
A study investigated the impact of the American Association on Mental Retardation's 1992 manual that provided an alternative approach to mental retardation definition and classification. Forty-four states indicated they based their guidelines on the 1983 manual, four states reported using the 1992 manual, and three used neither model. (Contains…
Polloway, Edward A.; Chamberlain, Jolie; Denning, Christopher B.; Smith, J. David; Smith, Tom E. C.
Analyzes the application of levels of deficits or supports in the classification of mental retardation in published research. Analysis of data from three professional journals indicated that the supports model of classification has had no significant impact in subject descriptions reported in mental-retardation research. Implications for teacher…
La Malfa, Giampaolo; Notarelli, Antonella; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Bertelli, Marco; Cabras, Pier Luigi
The incidence of psychopathology was studied in 176 Italian adults with mental retardation. Prevalence of answers relating to anxiety, tendency to live apart, and body complaints in individuals with mild mental retardation was documented. For people with severe intellectual impairments, mood disturbance with inconsistent behaviors was more…
Kurtz, Michael B.; And Others
Fifty-eight people (ages 2 to 66) receiving residential or other services for idiopathic mental retardation were evaluated for evidence of metabolic disease. Five (8%) demonstrated symptoms pointing to specific genetic metabolic defects, suggesting the need for evaluation of other similar populations with idiopathic mental retardation. (Author/DB)
Siperstein, Gary N.; And Others
Forty-six intermediate grade students expressed their attitudes toward an unknown mentally retarded student presented in a videotape, and indicated their social acceptance, rejection, or neglect of a mentally retarded peer in their classroom. Children's attitudes toward the videotaped child were related to their sociometric choices of the retarded…
Santolaya, J M; Grijalbo, A; Delgado, A; Erdozaín, G
We report on a 3-1/2-year-old Spanish girl with the Neuhäuser megalocornea and mental retardation syndrome. A review shows that megalocornea, mental retardation, and, presumably, hypotonia, are the major manifestations for diagnosis. The facial appearance of the typical cases is characterised by frontal bossing, broad nasal bridge, mild hypertelorism, long upper lip, and small mandible.
Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna
Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.
We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…
Ushiyama, M; Hosokawa, T; Tanaka, A; Okuzumi, H
The purpose of this study was to assess the reaching strategies of individuals with mental retardation under different conditions. Much about reaching has been studied from the points of view of the optimization of the reading performance and the adaptation to the object's attributes. Few studies, however, have concerned reaching among individuals with mental retardation. Eight right-handed individuals with mental retardation reached for two types of glasses, one empty and the other filled with water. We translated the position of the index finger into X-Y-Z coordinate values and examined movement time, length of trajectory, and tangential velocity under the empty and filled conditions. There was no difference between conditions on any of the variables thought in many studies for individuals without mental retardation to indicate differences between attributes. This suggests that the present individuals with mental retardation might have difficulty in using information or context for planning movement and in optimizing their reaching movement for different conditions.
Stein, Z; Durkin, M; Belmont, L
In this paper we first present methods and preliminary results of pilot surveys of "serious" mental retardation (IQ less than or equal to 55); the surveys included screening and diagnostic components and were carried out in the less-developed world. Next we discuss two problems raised by these surveys: one is the diagnosis of a case and its clinical dimensions, and the other is the interpretation of prevalence. In the next section we illustrate epidemiological approaches to the analysis of such data, in particular their relevance to prevention. Lastly, we propose that the two-stage survey approach developed in the course of the pilot work can provide a valuable basis for planning and prevention, if certain key conditions can be met.
Xin, Wang; Xiaohua, Ni; Peilin, Chen; Xin, Chen; Yaqiong, Sun; Qihan, Wu
The mutation of human cereblon gene (CRBN) is revealed to be related with mild mental retardation. Since the molecular characteristics of CRBN have not been well presented, we investigated the general properties of CRBN. We analyzed its gene structure and protein homologues. The CRBN protein might belong to a family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Lon protease. We also found that CRBN was widely expressed in different tissues, and the expression level in testis is significantly higher than other tissues. This may suggested it could play some important roles in several other tissues besides brain. Transient transfection experiment in AD 293 cell lines suggested that both CRBN and CRBN mutant (nucleotide position 1,274(C > T)) are located in the whole cells. This may suggest new functions of CRBN in cell nucleolus besides its mitochondria protease activity in cytoplasm.
Murdock, J Y; Garcia, E E; Hardman, M L
A multiple-baseline technique was used to evaluate generalization effects during articulation training with trainable mentally retarded subjects. Four target words were selected for each subject on the basis of whether the subject could articulate the word correctly when it was modelled but could not articulate the word correctly in response to a picture of it. Five different settings were selected for generalization probing and training for each subject. In Setting 1, Experimenter 1 initiated training sequentially on all four target words for each subject. Other experimenters probed for correct articulation generalization in four other settings. Training was initiated in these four other settings sequentially only if correct responding failed to generalize to a setting. Results indicated that it was necessary to initiate training on at least three of the four selected target words in at least one additional setting with an additional trainer before correct responding generalized to untrained settings. PMID:599115
Kim, Miri; Ceman, Stephanie
We begin by reviewing the first characterization of fragile X syndrome, which ultimately led to cloning of the FMR1 gene. Discovery of the molecular basis of this disorder, including expansion of a trinucleotide repeat, gave insight not only into fragile X syndrome but also into the premutation syndromes. Features of fragile X syndrome are discussed including the patient phenotype down to the neuronal phenotype. The domain features of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP are described, as are the mRNAs bound by FMRP and the role of post-translational modifications as regulators of FMRP function. The relatively new role of FMRP in progenitor cells is reviewed, as is FMRP localization in cells and how FMRP is regulated by glutamatergic signaling in the brain. Understanding how metabotropic glutamate receptors impact FMRP has led to novel therapeutic approaches in treating this disorder.
Zigler, Edward; Bennett-Gates, Dianne; Hodapp, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C
Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negative Reaction Tendency, Effectance Motivation, Expectancy of Success, and Outerdirectedness and identified two additional factors of Curiosity/Creativity and Obedience. Separate studies were conducted to establish the concurrent and construct validity of the instrument. Reliability was examined through split-half and test-retest analyses. All psychometric indices were within acceptable levels, resulting in an instrument with potential applications in research, education, and clinical settings.
Dorvil, H; Benoit, M
The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.
Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.
This document presents data on three studies requested by Virginia State Senate Joint Resolution No. 148 and carried out by the Virginia Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation in cooperation with other agencies. The three studies included in the report are: (1) an assessment of the appropriateness of housing young adults (ages 18-22)…
Thompson, T; Robinson, J; Dietrich, M; Farris, M; Sinclair, V
Architects, group home administrators, people with mental retardation, family members of people with mental retardation, and college undergraduates substantially agreed regarding the rated homelikeness of slides of interiors of 20 community residences for people with mental retardation ranging from institutional to homey, mean r = .87. Clusters of physical features identified using an architectural inventory were found to be associated with homelikeness ratings. Adjectives applied to rooms with these features were determined using a Q-sort method. Two factors were identified from Q-sort correlations: Homelikeness-Institutionality and Spatial Organization as well as a third variable, privacy.
Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo
Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports.
Liu, Baosong; Li, Lijun; Chen, Juan; Wang, Zefen; Li, Zhiqiang; Wan, Qi
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The deficiency of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is implicated in FXS. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the effect of FMRP on GABAARs, we transfected FMRP cDNAs in rat cortical neurons. We measured the protein expression of GABAARs and phosphatase PTEN, and recorded GABAAR-mediated whole-cell currents in the transfected neurons. We show that the transfection of FMRP cDNAs causes increased protein expression of GABAARs in cortical neurons, but GABAAR-mediated whole-cell currents are not potentiated by FMRP transfection. These results suggest the possibility that intracellular signaling antagonizing GABAAR activity may play a role in inhibiting GABAAR function in FMRP-transfected neurons. We further show that FMRP transfection results in an enhanced protein expression of PTEN, which contributes to the inhibition of GABAAR function in FMRP-transfected neurons. These results indicate that GABAARs are regulated by FMRP through both an up-regulation of GABAAR expression and a PTEN enhancement-induced inhibition of GABAAR function, suggesting that an abnormal regulation of GABAAR and PTEN by the loss of FMRP underlies the pathogenesis of FXS.
Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; Wehmeyer, Michael L
Achieving greater independence for individuals with mental retardation depends upon the acquisition of several key skills, including time-management and scheduling skills. The ability to perform tasks according to a schedule is essential to domains like independent living and employment. The use of a portable schedule prompting system to increase independence and self-regulation in time-management for individuals with mental retardation was examined. Twelve people with mental retardation participated in a comparison of their use of the technology system to perform tasks on a schedule with use of a written schedule. Results demonstrated the utility of a Palmtop computer with schedule prompting software to increase independence in the performance of vocational and daily living tasks by individuals with mental retardation.
O'Brien, Patrick J.; Schiller, William J.
A comparative study was made of 18 mentally retarded, multiply handicapped high school students who attended a work study program and 12 students who were traditionally serviced in the academic program. (CL)
MacMillan, Donald L.; And Others
The position is taken that the system identification of educable mentally retarded (EMR) children is designed to find children for service delivery and is not intended to identify a population with known parameters. (Author)
Baskin, Barbara Holland
Discusses the valuable services the librarian can provide in an institution for the mentally retarded, including educational service to students and literature for the staff. Part of a series edited by Genevieve Casey. (JS)
Described are the Vocational Interest and Sophistication Assessment and the Vocational Information and Training Assessment, two tools used in evaluating specific job knowledge and interest of secondary educable mentally retarded students. (KW)
Mar, Harvey H.; Glidden, Laraine Masters
Investigated were the abilities of 98 educable mentally retarded adolescents to encode and retrieve words using semantic and acoustic cues in a free and cued recall task. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)
Cattey, Tommy J.
Puretone auditory assessment of 21 adults with severe to profound mental retardation indicated that a bivariate plotting procedure of predicting hearing sensitivity from the acoustic reflexes should be included in an audiological test battery for this population. (CL)
Rosa's Law, which changed references of "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability" within federal legislation, marked recognition by the federal government that the term "mental retardation" is outdated and pejorative. However, Rosa's Law did not apply to many notable federal programs related to disability, such as Medicaid. This article explores if and how the term "mental retardation" was used within Medicaid Home and Community Based Services 1915(c) waivers, as they are the most prevalent provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Waivers provide some of the most advanced community services and the language used in them should reflect this. Although an overwhelming majority of waivers used "mental retardation," we found that the term was used less for later benchmark dates.
Lusthaus, Evelyn W.
The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)
Mental Retardation, 1981
Four articles address the 1978 Wyatt v. Hardin proceedings which debated the issues of the training/habilitation potential of institutionalized mentally retarded persons and the feasibility of placing these persons in community-based living facilities. (SB)
Ellis, James W.; Luckasson, Ruth A.
The authors review the Supreme Court's decision in the City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center which addressed issues of discriminatory zoning laws directed toward group homes and the Constitution's protection of mentally retarded persons. (CL)
Li, Yujing; Lin, Li; Jin, Peng
Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the functional loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a newly discovered class of small noncoding RNAs, have been implicated in multiple biological processes through posttranscriptional gene regulation. Recent evidence supports this view in terms of the biochemical and genetic interaction found between FMRP and the miRNA pathway, providing deeper insight into the molecular pathogenesis of mental retardation. This review briefly summarizes the progress towards an understanding of the role miRNAs play in neurological disorders, with a focus on the mechanism of interaction between FMRP and the miRNA pathway in the context of fragile X syndrome. In addition, we go on to discuss how the miRNA pathway may be involved in mental retardation. PMID:18687414
Leisti, S.; Iianainen, M.
To determine whether moderate enlargement of the third brain ventricle or the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, 15 mentally retarded Ss (ages 12-25 years) with such characteristics were studies. (DLS)
Phelps, William R.
Presented for vocational counselors is an overview of mental retardation, including the definition, and etiology. Described are the prenatal factors of heredity (including familial retardation and cranial anomalies), infections (including syphilis and encephalitis), radiation, blood group incompatibility, and unknown or variable etiological…
Prater, Rex J.
Spontaneous speech samples were elicited from eight mentally retarded children (three to six years old). Examples of consonant assimilation and reduplication found in their speech samples were separately analyzed to examine how these phonological processes function in the phonologies of retarded children. (Author)
Beaman, Florence N.; Hollingworth, Leta S.; Berry, Charles Scott; Kugler, Edna M.; Bryne, May E.; Moore, Thomas V.; Dickson, Virgil E.; Post, Meta Anderson; Greene, Ransom A.; Race, Henrietta V.; Hoff, Lillian M.; Schlotter, Bertha E.; Wygant, Alice W.
This handbook is a cooperative project, the outcome of a conference called by the United States Office of Education to consider the problems of curriculum adjustment for mentally retarded children. The members of the conference are the joint authors of this bulletin. In October 1934, 13 leaders in the education of retarded children, working in…
McCaffrey, Robert J.; Isaac, Walter
The performance of 10 retarded adults was examined using the Luria-Christensen neuropsychological assessment battery. The general finding was signs of frontal lobe dysfunction in all Ss. In addition, the results of three of the cases were suggestive of a vascular etiology. Implications for diagnosis and classification of mental retardation are…
Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.
Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)
Examined was the relationship between dependency behavior and learning in educable mentally retarded (EMR) children. Population included 120 subjects equally divided by sex into two groups of retardates and normals and subdivided into socially reinforced and non-reinforced Ss. The task measured overt or instrumental dependency (ID). Electronic…
MUELLER, MAX W.
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY OF INTELLIGENCE AND OTHER TESTS USED IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RETARDED CHILDREN WAS PERFORMED. EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLES CONSISTED OF 101 CHILDREN SELECTED FROM SPECIAL CLASSES FOR EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED (EMR) WHOSE AGES RANGED FROM 6.9 TO 10 YEARS AND WHOSE IQ SCORES RANGED FROM 50 TO 80. THE TESTS EVALUATED WERE (1)…
Takahashi, Teruko; And Others
Analysis of saccadic eye movements in 10 normal and 10 mentally retarded children (ages 13-15) suggested that retarded children may have difficulty in visual orientation. They followed a visual target on fewer than 50 percent of the trials, displaying frequent undershoot patterns and an average rising latency that was much longer than that of…
Meyen, Edward L.; And Others
Life Experience Units are presented as an approach to teaching educable mentally retarded children; direction for the development of units is also considered. A general discussion of curriculum for the retarded discusses the role of the teacher in material preparation and use. Five criticisms of the unit method are stated and six core areas of…
Williams, Robert F.
Analysis of questionnaire results of college students (N=78) concerning attitudes toward the mentally retarded and interest in volunteering service with the retarded indicated that the importance students placed on such values as equality was the best predictor of volunteer interest. (Author/DB)
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
Presented by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation are an analysis of architectural barriers and a summary of new state cases, updated information on previously reported cases, and a listing of cases all concerned with the legal rights of the retarded. Architectural barriers are considered in terms of statutory actions and constitutional…
Krishef, Curtis H.
With deinstitutionalization of the retarded, there is greater opportunity for them to be subjected to possible misuse of alcoholic products. Findings indicated that the mentally retarded population under study did not differ significantly from the general public as far as the number of problems associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages.…
Willerman, Lee; Schultz, Robert T.
The relationship between mental retardation and brain size is discussed. Research suggests that a common path for many otherwise idiopathic mild retardation cases (genetic or environmental) could be small brain size, indicating reduced information processing capacity. Suggestions are made for further research on neuron number. (SLD)
Deutsch, Henri; Placona, Michael
Fifty-one professionals from fields of education, psychology, nursing, counseling, social work, and direct care completed a questionnaire intended to examine therapeutic approaches used with mentally retarded persons who are also emotionally disturbed. Questionnaires were accompanied by case studies of three mildly retarded young men. Treatments…
Alden, Jerome; Johnesse, Adaline
The play, which involves a mentally retarded youth, his parents, and a rehabilitation counselor, gives dramatic emphasis to the youth's problems in adjusting to the outside world and to the adjustment problems of the parents. The character of Joey is used to demonstrate that the retarded can be helped to lead useful and productive lives and to…
Hemayattalab, Rasool; Movahedi, Ahmadreza
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of five variations of imagery and physical practice on learning of Basketball free throws in adolescents with mental retardation (AWMR). Forty AWMR were randomly assigned to five groups and performed a variation of practice: physical practice, mental practice, physical practice followed by…
Legg, Wendi; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi
Objective. FM is a disorder of altered pain regulation and is characterized by pain, fatigue, poor sleep and psychological impairments; thus, it is classified as a central sensitivity syndrome. Female carriers of a premutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene frequently have widespread musculoskeletal pain and sometimes have been diagnosed with FM, especially if they have the motor signs of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Studies suggest that FM occurs in persons with a genetic predisposition. We describe the clinical features of female FMR1 premutation carriers with symptoms of FM. Methods. A sample of patients was selected that participated in studies at two tertiary referral academic centres on the phenotype and therapy of FXTAS. Results. This selected sample of patients, five female premutation carriers, has FM symptoms or diagnoses and other central sensitivity syndromes. Conclusion. Since FM affects 2–4% of the world's population and about 1 in 250 females are FMR1 carriers, a study screening females with FM for the presence of the FMR1 premutation is worthwhile. A finding of increased prevalence of FMR1 carriers among females with FM would impact the standard evaluation of FM. Presently, guidelines for FMR1 genetic testing includes early menopause, congenital intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, tremor or ataxia, and a family history of FXTAS or fragile X syndrome. The latter is a common cause of autism and developmental delay. Such testing is important because female carriers are at risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome. PMID:21926154
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…
Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.
This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)
Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.
Evaluated were 500 male inmates admitted to the Texas Department of Corrections over a 2-month period. The study was part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and…
Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.
Presented are the summary and recommendations of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and incarceration of the MR offender. Noted…
The guide offers numerous practical suggestions for training mentally retarded children in self care skills, and catalogs developmental characteristics of children from birth to a mental age of 11 years. Included are brief sections on the management of neurologically impaired children and mongoloid babies, the importance of speech stimulation, and…
Butler, Gordon S.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael
Describes two experiments conducted to explain why retarded children of younger mental age appear to be more selective on discrimination tasks containing relevant redundant cues than do children of older mental age. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the latter group of children are overselective because they tend to solve…
van Walleghem, M.
Described are educational services, residential programs, and financial support for individuals with mental retardation in Belgium. The services are available from several government agencies and cover the entire life cycle of the individual. The situation of the mentally handicapped person with psychiatric problems is also briefly reviewed. (JDD)
Mississippi Univ. for Women, Columbus.
Proceedings are presented from three workshops concerning physical education for the mentally retarded held at Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and University of Southern Mississippi in 1967. Topics covered in the workshops include program development of physical education with the mentally handicapped, reports of research…
Ramsey, Bette; Fifield, Marvin
Six career exploration work simulation units (plumbing, electrical house wiring, photography, brake repair, metal fabrication, and printing) were evaluated with eight mentally retarded adults from a sheltered workshop. Results demonstrated that units designed for nondisabled elementary school children can be used effectively by mentally retarded…
Scott, Keith G.; Urbano, Richard C.
In two experiments with mentally retarded children, digit span had a significant effect on dichotic listening performance, while practice and mental age did not. The first study was submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of the M.A. requirements at the University of Illinois. (MH)
Nickel, B; Hoyt, C S
Thirty-one patients had Leber's congenital amaurosis. Only one was severely retarded, and three demonstrated hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis on computed tomographic scanning. These findings are in contrast to those of previous investigators, who have emphasized the high incidence of psychomotor retardation associated with Leber's amaurosis. Much of the psychomotor retardation that has been reported is probably secondary to the sensory deprivation and not necessarily a sign of structural CNS dysfunction. The diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis does not, therefore, portend severe intellectual impairment and poor educability.
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
Significant changes in the diagnosis, study, and treatment of mental retardation are documented, and the long-range trend toward including mental retardation services in programs for all handicapped persons is described. Recommendations are made in three major need areas: residential care for the retarded, manpower for mental retardation programs,…
Pincus, S H; Schoenbaum, E E; Webber, M
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adults who are mentally retarded is not known. Policies for those in residential settings are being established despite incomplete information. Knowledge regarding HIV seroprevalence would enable administrators to make more effective policy decisions concerning testing and HIV prevention. Discarded sera from mentally retarded adults were anonymously tested for HIV antibody. Sera were collected from a health facility in Westchester County, NY, that provides care to developmentally disabled adults. After identifications were removed, sera were coded and linked to demographic and clinical variables from hospital and laboratory records. Sera came from individuals living in both institutional and less restrictive community settings in metropolitan New York City and more distant locations in New York State, all of whom were seen by the above facility. No HIV antibody was detected in sera from 241 mentally retarded adults. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIV antibody in mentally retarded adults is not high. Mandatory screening programs may not be appropriate for these individuals. Monies might be better spent on educational programs directed at AIDS prevention, and further development of ethical and safe policies for those who are mentally retarded.
RUMFORD, JOHN C.
THE NUMBER OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED PERSONS REHABILITATED THROUGH STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AGENCIES INCREASED EACH YEAR FROM 1958 TO 1963. MENTALLY HANDICAPPED REHABILITANTS WERE YOUNGER THAN THOSE WITH OTHER DISABILITIES. THERE WERE MORE MALE THAN FEMALE, AND MORE WHITE THAN NEGRO MENTALLY HANDICAPPED REHABILITANTS, ALTHOUGH THE PROPORTION…
Goldstein, H; Mousetis, L
In this study, we investigated the conditions that contribute to observational learning of generalized language in children with severe mental retardation. Matrix-training strategies were used to teach 6 children with mental retardation to combine known words into two- or three-word utterances consistent with syntactic rules. Subsequently, the children learned two or more unknown words concurrently, inducing word-referent relations consistent with these word order rules. Generalized learning of responses not taught directly was shown to be under experimental control using a multiple baseline design across submatrices. Expressive modeling of only four or five responses was sufficient to promote recombinative generalization in the expressive and receptive modalities. Thus, 95% to 98% of subjects' learning was attributed to generalization processes. This study demonstrates how the efficiency of language training with children with mental retardation might be enhanced by coupling observational learning and matrix-training strategies. PMID:2793632
Van Buggenhout, Griet; Fryns, Jean-Pierre
The Lujan-Fryns syndrome or X-linked mental retardation with marfanoid habitus syndrome is a syndromal X-linked form of mental retardation, affecting predominantly males. The prevalence is not known for the general population. The syndrome is associated with mild to moderate mental retardation, distinct facial dysmorphism (long narrow face, maxillary hypoplasia, small mandible and prominent forehead), tall marfanoid stature and long slender extremities, and behavioural problems. The genetic defect is not known. The diagnosis is based on the presence of the clinical manifestations. Genetic counselling is according to X-linked recessive inheritance. Prenatal testing is not possible. There is no specific treatment for this condition. Patients need special education and psychological follow-up, and attention should be given to diagnose early psychiatric disorders.
GOLDBERG, B; SOPER, H H
A relatively large percentage of children seen at a mental retardation clinic demonstrated psychotic symptoms. The entire group with psychotic manifestations, 62 in all, were reviewed in order to clarify the diagnosis of childhood psychosis or mental retardation. The 1961 British criteria for childhood psychosis were used and are advocated by the authors. Childhood psychosis was the primary diagnosis in 38 cases, and psychosis secondary to brain damage in 24 cases. Onset of the condition under the age of three years and a poor prognosis for social recovery were characteristic of the entire group.Obvious emotional disorder was present in 21 mothers and 14 fathers. There was a continuum in terms of number of psychotic symptoms, level of intelligence and presence of organic signs. It is concluded that there is an overlap between the entities of childhood psychosis and mental retardation.
Slayter, Elspeth M
People with mental retardation have experienced increasing levels of freedom and access to community living over the past 40 years. This has included access to alcohol, illicit drugs and the potential for developing substance abuse and related problems. The manner in which people with mental retardation have handled this access has been recognized since the de institutionalization era began. Despite this recognition, documented barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment for people with mental retardation exist and there is an overarching lack of knowledge about accessible treatment approaches for this population. Policy and practice recommendations are presented for disability and rehabilitation social workers in order to better understand and combat barriers to substance abuse treatment.
Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.
The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…
WALDEN, ROYCE B.
PREPARED BY TEACHERS OF THE RETARDED, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES AN ELEMENTARY ACTIVITY UNIT ON HOME AND COMMUNITY LIVING AND A SECONDARY UNIT ON THE CITRUS INDUSTRY. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE LISTED. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES ON CLASS UNITS, STUDENT PLACEMENT, AND TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ARE INCLUDED. (MY)
Stott, Thomas W.
Evaluated was the effectiveness of the TAC (Training in Attention and Concentration) Program with seven trainable retarded persons, 8- to 20-years-old. Pre- and posttest data were obtained on the Maze-trial test, a picture discrimination test, buttons test, and object sort test. The TAC Program consisted of 10 structured lessons on such tasks as…
The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…
Matson, Johnny L.; Long, Sue
Three moderately/mildly retarded adults were trained in adaptive community skills. Treatment involved instructions, performance feedback, social reinforcement, in-vivo modeling, self-evaluation, and social and tangible reinforcement. Rapid and dramatic improvements occurred soon after treatment began. Skills generalized to other shopping…
Butler, F M; Miller, S P; Lee, K H; Pierce, T
A systematic search of the literature from 1989 through 1998 was conducted to identify and analyze mathematics interventions for students with mild-to-moderate mental retardation. We found that the focus of instruction has shifted from basic skills instruction to computation and problem-solving instruction. Techniques such as constant-time delay, peer tutoring, time trials, and direct instruction proved beneficial in improving mathematics skills. Further, students with mental retardation learned to employ cognitive strategies successfully when these techniques were included. Although this information is promising, we recommend that further studies be conducted in secondary schools and in inclusive settings.
Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Arc, a national organization on mental retardation, conducted an educational program for members, many of whom have a family member with a genetic condition causing mental retardation. The project informed members about the Human Genome scientific efforts, conducted training regarding ethical, legal and social implications and involved members in issue discussions. Short reports and fact sheets on genetic and ELSI topics were disseminated to 2,200 of the Arc's leaders across the country and to other interested individuals. Materials produced by the project can e found on the Arc's web site, TheArc.org.
Everington, C; Fulero, S M
Groups of individuals with or without mental retardation, all of whom were currently on probation, were tested with measures of comprehension of Miranda rights and of suggestibility. As in previous work, participants with mental retardation were found to be less able to comprehend their Miranda rights. In addition, they were significantly more likely to respond to suggestive questioning and to change their answers. Significant correlations were found between measures of comprehension of Miranda rights and measures of suggestibility. Implications of these results were discussed.
Agran, M; Salzberg, C L; Martella, R C
Although the social validation methodology has been found useful in identifying work skills associated with job success, it is uncertain as to whether respondents who have had experience working with persons with mental retardation respond differentially to surveys than individuals without previous experience. In the present study, the responses of respondents who had prior experience working with employees with mental retardation were compared to those of persons without such experience. Also, the effects of specified verbal referents in surveys were investigated. The findings revealed that prior experience did not appear to affect ratings; however, several differences were identified. The findings are discussed in respect to employment preparation programs.
Fils, David H.; Attwell, Arthur A.
Written in question and answer form, the guide for parents of mentally handicapped children provides information in the areas of health and medical concerns, assessment of the child's mental ability, parent-child-family relationships, education, psychological and psychiatric adjustments of both child and parent, improving communication, and…
Filho, Alceu Gomes Correia; Bodanese, Rafael; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Alvares, Julia Paglioza; Aman, Michael; Rohde, Luis Augusto
Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. Method: In a 4-week, single-blind, parallel-group trial, 45 subjects with moderate mental retardation and…
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…
ALLEN, ROBERT M.; ALLEN, SUE P.
DESIGNED FOR THE PSYCHOLOGIST, THE HANDBOOK DESCRIBES INSTRUMENTS COMMONLY USED FOR INTELLECTUAL EVALUATION OF CHILDREN SUSPECTED OF BEING MENTALLY RETARDED. INFORMATION IS GIVEN CONCERNING DEFIITIONS, IDENTIFICATION, AND CHARACTERISITICS OF MENTAL RETARDATION, TEST SELECTION, AND THE TEST SITUATION. TESTS DESCRIBED AND DISCUSSED INCLUDE…
Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca
Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization…
Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.
DURING 1963-1964, 418 SPECIAL CLASSES FOR EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED (EMR) AND 70 CLASSES FOR TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED (TMR) CHILDREN WERE SPONSORED BY 141 SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND 57 COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION IN IOWA. COUNTY BOARDS AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS SPONSORING THESE PROGRAMS RESPONDED TO A STATE QUESTIONNAIRE ON SALARY DIFFERENTIALS PAID TO…
Oliver, Matthew N.; Anthony, Aaron; Leimkuhl, Trisha T.; Skillman, Gemma D.
This study evaluated attitudinal discrepancies among non-disabled community members regarding the acceptability of socio-sexual expression for persons with and without mental retardation. Overall, discrepancies between adults with and without mental retardation primarily concern attitudes toward marriage and parenthood. Older adults, both…
Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.
Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…
This report outlines emerging paradigms of service for mentally retarded adults emerging from a nationwide search for innovative programs and practices. It was prompted by the consistent finding of a Pennsylvania longitudinal study that mentally retarded school completers tend to live indefinitely with parents or guardians. The study found the…
da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…
Dagseven Emecen, Deniz
This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…
Klein, Nancy K.; Safford, Philip L.
The performance of 22 trainable mentally handicapped Ss (6-12 years old) given training in the identification and utilization in object sorting of dimensional properties of form, size, and color was compared with nontrained controls. (Author)
Caselli, R; Speciale, C; Pescucci, C; Uliana, V; Sampieri, K; Bruttini, M; Longo, I; De Francesco, S; Pramparo, T; Zuffardi, O; Frezzotti, R; Acquaviva, A; Hadjistilianou, T; Renieri, A; Mari, F
We describe three patients with retinoblastoma, dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Patients 1 and 2 have high and broad forehead, deeply grooved philtrum, thick anteverted lobes and thick helix. Patient 1 also has dolicocephaly, sacral pit/dimple and toe crowding; patient 2 shows intrauterine growth retardation and short fifth toe. Both patients have partial agenesis of corpus callosum. Patient 3 has growth retardation, microcephaly, thick lower lip and micrognathia. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we identified a 13q14 de novo deletion in patients 1 and 2, while patient 3 had a 7q11.21 maternally inherited deletion, probably not related to the disease. Our results confirm that a distinct facial phenotype is related to a 13q14 deletion. Patients with retinoblastoma and malformations without a peculiar facial phenotype may have a different deletion syndrome or a casual association of mental retardation and retinoblastoma. Using array-CGH, we defined a critical region for mental retardation and dysmorphic features. We compared this deletion with a smaller one in a patient with retinoblastoma (case 4) and identified two distinct critical regions, containing 30 genes. Four genes appear to be good functional candidates for the neurological phenotype: NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein 1), HTR2A (serotonin receptor 2A), PCDH8 (prothocaderin 8) and PCDH17 (prothocaderin 17).
Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Garay, Isabel; Oltra, Silvestre; Moltó, María Dolores; Orellana, Carmen; Monfort, Sandra; Prieto, Félix; Tejada, Isabel
Clinical and molecular studies are reported on a Basque family (MRX82) with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in five affected males. A total of 38 microsatellite markers were typed. The XLMR locus has been linked to DXS8067, DXS1001, DXS425, DXS7877, and DXS1183 with a maximum LOD score of 2.4. The haplotype studies and multipoint linkage analysis suggest a localization of the MRX82 locus to an interval of 7.6 Mb defined by markers DXS6805 and DXS7346, in Xq24 and Xq25, respectively. No gene contained in this interval has been so far associated with nonsyndromic mental retardation, except for GRIA3, disrupted by a balanced translocation in a female patient with bipolar affective disorder and mental retardation. However, the search for mutations of this gene did not showed a pathogenic mutation in the present family. Given that there are other eight MRX families overlapping this interval, none of them with known mutation, we conclude that at least one new gene responsible for nonsyndromic mental retardation is located in this region.
Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Turner, Samantha J.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Bayly, Marta A.; Friend, Kathryn; Hodgson, Bree; Burrows, Linda; Shaw, Marie; Wei, Chen; Ullmann, Reinhard; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Szepetowski, Pierre; Haan, Eric; Mazarib, Aziz; Afawi, Zaid; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Andrews, P. Ian; Wallace, Geoffrey; Kivity, Sara; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Derry, Christopher P.; Korczyn, Amos D.; Gecz, Jozef; Mulley, John C.; Berkovic, Samuel F.
Epilepsy and Mental Retardation limited to Females (EFMR) which links to Xq22 has been reported in only one family. We aimed to determine if there was a distinctive phenotype that would enhance recognition of this disorder. We ascertained four unrelated families (two Australian, two Israeli) where seizures in females were transmitted through…
Hertlein, Forest; And Others
Described in the paper by F. Hertlein, D. Konopasek, and S. Stile are the planning, implementation, and evaluation of a 3-day workshop to train professionals and paraprofessionals about mental retardation. An overview of workshop content (including sessions on normalization and behavior management) is given, and considerations in planning,…
Holowinsky, Ivan Z.
This report considers potential effects of the 1986 nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear reactor. Approximately 17 million people, of whom 2.5 million were below the age of 5, are thought to have suffered some radioactive contamination. Many of these children are at high risk for mental retardation and learning disorders.…
Fuchs, Carola; Benson, Betsey A.
The social information-processing skills of 16 aggressive and 19 nonaggressive men with borderline-to-moderate mental retardation were examined. The two groups did not differ in their ability to generate multiple solutions or provide appropriate responses. K. Dodge's social information-processing model is considered. (Author/SW)
Mayer, William V., Ed.
Presented are guidelines based on five federally funded projects for planning and developing curriculum for the mentally retarded. Discussed are the initial steps of identifying the target population, needs, and objectives. Examples of curriculum design, including the rationale and conceptual framework, are provided. Considered are elements of…
Carlin, Michael T.; Hobbs, Kathryn L.; Bud, Melissa J.; Soraci, Sal A.
Tested 8 individuals with mental retardation or autism and 16 individuals without either condition for their ability to detect a form in a random-dot kinematogram. The presence and generalization of training effects in those who initially did not meet criterion performance suggests that initial failures may be due in part to postperceptual…
Dickerson, Martha Ufford; And Others
The volume is intended to help mentally retarded adults learn how to interact with infants and children in a caring and safe manner. The manual may be used by counselors or trainers in one-to-one or small group sessions. Each unit includes line drawings to illustrate proper techniques; the drawings have been designed for the trainees' use and are…
Restifo, Linda L.
"Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…
Arc, Arlington, TX.
This fact sheet on assistive technology for people with mental retardation (MR) defines assistive technology, notes how it can benefit people with MR, discusses how it is used by people with MR, lists factors to consider before using assistive technology, outlines barriers in obtaining assistive technology for people with MR, and mentions two…
Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.
A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…
Isett, Robert; Roszkowski, Michael
Results of a survey of staff of a short-term residential facility serving mentally retarded clients indicate that recommendations and social competency information are perceived to be the most important sections of psychological reports while projective test personality interpretation and IQ test results are considered to have the least value.…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Office of Mental Retardation Coordination.
The mental retardation programs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare are arranged and explained according to the categories of preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of personnel, research, construction, and income maintenance. Then follow eight agency reports that generally contain introductory information,…
Burkett, Lee N.; And Others
Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Special Education Section.
A guide for the special education instructional program gives directions, scope and sequence, subject matter skills, and teaching suggestions for educable mentally retarded elementary students. At the primary level, activities are centered around readiness materials, motor and sensory training, personal hygiene, habit training, speech improvement…
Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.
The changing perspectives of mental retardation require the use of assessment techniques that reveal strengths and weaknesses in the individual's present level of functioning and highlight the areas and intensity of needed supports. Portfolios provide such a method of assessment because they are sensitive to small improvements in functioning,…
Mao, Rong; Pevsner, Jonathan
Mental retardation affects 2 to 3% of the US population. It is defined by broad criteria, including significantly subaverage intelligence, onset by age 18, and impaired function in a group of adaptive skills. A myriad of genetic and environmental causes have been described, but for approximately half of individuals diagnosed with mental…
An experimental vocational rehabilitation program for the mentally retarded (mean IQ=65.8, mean level of academic achievement=3rd grade) was conducted by Goodwill Industries from December 1958 to November 1962. Of 371 clients who were evaluated for occupational, academic, and vocational abilities, 337 completed the full diagnostic phase of the…
Langee, Harvey R.
Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…
Wheeler, John J.; Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan; Menendez, Anthony L.; Huang, Ann
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with persons with mental retardation operationally defined the independent variables and evaluated and reported measures of treatment integrity. The study expands the previous work in this area reported by Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and…
Neuhäuser, G; Kaveggia, E G; France, T D; Opitz, J M
A previously apparently undescribed "syndrome" is reported in which megalocornea and iris anomalies are accompanied by minor facial and skeletal anomalies, severe mental retardation, hypotonia, and seizures. The condition was found in 3 siblings of one family and in 4 sporadic cases; it is thought to be recessively inherited.
Dixon, J L
This study evaluated the concurrent validity of Koppitz' revised Bender-Gestalt Emotional Indicators among 44 women with mental retardation. The concurrent validity of the Emotional Indicator total score was not supported when compared with responses on two widely used and accepted screening inventories, the Reiss Screen and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning.
Janicki, Matthew P.; And Others
A survey of each state's mental retardation/developmental disablity agency determined results such as that each state has group home programs, that at least 57,494 persons reside in 6,302 group homes, and that 42,212 persons were in group homes of 15 persons or less. (Author/MC)
Caffrey, Erin; Fuchs, Douglas
We reviewed eight studies that described learning differences between students with learning disabilities (LD) and students with mild mental retardation (MMR). A total of 639 students, 6-20 years old, participated in these studies. Study authors examined students' inductive reasoning and their performance during guided inquiry and more lengthy…
Cantu, Eduardo S.; And Others
The cytogenetic survey of 67 individuals previously identified as having mental retardation and autistic behaviors revealed only 1.5 percent with the fragile X chromosome. The finding suggests that most persons with fragile X syndrome do not have autistic behaviors severe enough to be identified as a secondary psychiatric diagnosis. (Author/DB)
And Others; Aman, Michael G.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of methylphenidate and different doses of fenfluramine in 30 children (ages 5-14) with mental retardation or borderline IQ and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted. Parents and teachers cited more improvement with fenfluramine; however, fenfluramine had more side effects,…
Sprague, Robert L.; Deutsch, Katherine M.; Newell, Karl M.
The characteristic slowness of movement initiation and execution in adult individuals with mental retardation may be driven by the slower frequency profile of the dynamics of the system. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the resting and postural finger tremor frequency profile (single and dual limb) of adults as a function of level of…
Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf
The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…
Cohen, Seth A.; Ihrig, Kristin; Lott, Rex S.; Kerrick, Jill M.
Describes the use of risperidone in eight adult patients with moderate to profound mental retardation and markedly aberrant behaviors. Risperidone in these individuals was associated with significant reduction in aggression and self-injurious behavior. Side effects were primarily those of sedation and restlessness. (Author/CR)
Citing relevant studies and providing statistical data in 29 figures and 28 tables in the text and 15 appended tables, the report describes the characteristics of Texas' three major ethnic groups, Anglos, Latin Americans, and Negroes; discusses mental retardation in relation to socio-cultural factors, deprivation, health factors, education and…
Draheim, Christopher C.
This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…
Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J
A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.
THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…
Burgio, L D; Willis, K; Burgio, K L
The use of contingent social and edible reinforcement and physical guidance-without desensitization-in the treatment of stair avoidance behavior by a severely mentally retarded adult was tested. Results indicate that this operantly based procedure was effective in increasing stair use, both ascent and descent, in staircases containing 5 and 11 stairs.
Thomas, M. Angele, Ed.
Dr. Michael Begab, head of the research centers program in the mental retardation branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Dr. Carl Haywood, director of the John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development at George Peabody College, express their views on relevant issues and describe some…
The study was designed to determine whether 16 aggressive mentally retarded adults could reduce their resting electromyographic (EMG) levels through relaxation training techniques. Ss were selected from a large state institution. Ss were divided into two groups--the experimental group received six training sessions which included whole body…
Lichtenstein, Stephen; Michaelides, Nike
These 4 case studies examine the last years of high school and postschool experiences of 4 21-year-olds labeled mentally retarded. Issues discussed include school compliance with legislation concerning Individualized Education Programs, influence of parental involvement, adult services, and necessary employment supports. (JDD)
Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others
Analysis of the 1977 and 1985 National Nursing Home Surveys with respect to residents with mental retardation found little change in the size of the population; resident characteristics (such as other disabling conditions and functional limitations and primary source of payment); and level of services received. Challenges in implementing Public…
Jaswal, Shivani; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.; Gupta, Seema; Kaur, Harjeet
Objective: Pediatrician is the first contact in the Pathway to Care in children with Mental retardation (MR). Following the recent advancements in the area of molecular genetics, understanding of specific conditions of MR or Developmental Delay (DD) is expanding. Hypothyroidism is a treatable metabolic/endocrinological cause of MR. The aim of this…
Schwarz, Sharon M.; Schellenberg, Richard P.
Ninety-four persons employed in direct care positions in a community-based agency that serves adults with mental retardation completed self-report questionnaires assessing relationships between social support and the adaptive outcomes of mood, perceived competence, and self-efficacy. Findings indicated that: (1) negative mood was negatively…
Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Recruiting and Examining.
Summarized in this report are efforts employed to secure for mentally retarded persons increased job opportunities in the Federal Service. Before actuating the project, extensive studies and job training programs were conducted, and the information obtained widely disseminated. Services of state vocational rehabilitation departments were used in…
Timmerman, William J.; Doctor, Allan C.
The research project's objectives were: survey of the field, development of new approaches and techniques, investigation of factors in the employment of the trainable mentally retarded (TMR), development of objective measurement of work adjustment behaviors, selective application of new methods, and development of a model vocational evaluation…
Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.
Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…
Hellings, Jessica A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Reese, R. Matthew; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Marquis, Janet G.; Fleming, Kandace K.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
Risperidone has shown safety and efficacy for aggressive and destructive behaviors in short-term studies. This longer-duration study includes a broad sample. Forty subjects, aged 8-56 years (mean=22), all with mental retardation and 36 with autism spectrum disorders participated in this 22-week crossover study, with 24 weeks of open maintenance…
Lofts, Ronald H.; And Others
Of 806 institutionalized adults with mental retardation, 15.5 percent exhibited pica. Fifty-four percent of the pica group had serum zinc levels below normal range, whereas 7 percent of a control group had serum zinc levels below the normal range. After supplementation with chelated zinc, residents had significant reductions in pica. (Author/JDD)
Roebel, Amanda M.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Previous research indicates that abnormal stereotyped movements are associated with central dopamine dysfunction and that eye-blink rate is a noninvasive, in vivo measure of dopamine function. We measured the spontaneous eye-blinking and stereotyped behavior of older adults with severe/profound mental retardation living in a state mental…
Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Xiaogang; Jaffrey, Samie R
A nonsense mutation in cereblon (CRBN) causes autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Cereblon is a substrate receptor for the Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex and couples the ubiquitin ligase to specific ubiquitination targets. The CRBN nonsense mutation (R419X) results in a protein lacking 24 amino acids at its C terminus. Although this mutation has been linked to mild mental retardation, the mechanism by which the mutation affects CRBN function is unknown. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric approaches to explore the function of this mutant. We show that the protein retains its ability to assemble into a Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex and catalyzes the ubiquitination of CRBN-target proteins. However, we find that this mutant exhibits markedly increased levels of autoubiquitination and is more readily degraded by the proteasome than the wild type protein. We also show that the level of the mutant protein can be restored by a treatment of cells with a clinically utilized proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that this agent may be useful for the treatment of mental retardation associated with the CRBN R419X mutation. These data demonstrate that enhanced autoubiquitination and degradation account for the defect in CRBN activity that leads to mental retardation.
Gadow, Kenneth D.
Intended for caregivers, the book provides basic information about the use of medication for children with hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation. The main emphasis is on psychotropic drug use for hyperactivity and aggressiveness. Chapter 1 explains fundamental terms and concepts relating to drug therapy. Major stresses…
Smail, Karen M.; Horvat, Michael
The relationship of muscular strength on work performance measures in high school students with mild mental retardation was investigated. Ten students from a self contained Special Education class were matched according to age, gender, height, and weight then randomly assigned to either the treatment group or control group. The treatment group…
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Special Education Section.
To help prepare the junior high student for personal and social adjustment, units and activities are geared to provide functional learning experiences in situations that will benefit the educable mentally retarded in his daily life. Units covered in grades 7, 8, and 9 include social studies, functional English, functional mathematics, functional…
Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn
There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…
Spreat, Scott; Conroy, James W.; Fullerton, Amanda
The use of psychotropic medication with persons who have mental retardation was surveyed. Data were collected on a large sample of Oklahomans in both 1994 and 2000. Analysis revealed that the use of antidepressant medication increased dramatically over the course of the study, apparently as a function of increased use of SSRI medications.…
Jacobsen, Karl; Grottland, Havar; Flaten, Magne Arve
Assessment of visual acuity, using Teller Acuity Cards, was combined with observations of behavioral state to indicate central nervous system activation in 24 individuals with mental retardation. Results indicate that forced-choice preferential-looking technique can be used to test visual acuity in this population unless the participant is drowsy.…
Li, Huijun; Morris, Richard J
The purpose of the present study was to examine self-reported fears and related anxieties in children and adolescents (7-18 years of age) having learning disabilities (LD) or mild mental retardation (MIMR), and whether these fears and related anxieties differ based on gender and age. Students responded to two well validated instruments, The…
ANDERSON, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EDUCATION OF MENTALLY RETARDED DEAF (MRD) CHILDREN IN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF, THE STUDY AIMED TO DESCRIBE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR ADMISSION, SPECIAL ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL PROVISIONS, AND QUALIFICATIONS OF CLASSROOM TEACHERS. ADDITIONAL PURPOSES WERE TO ESTIMATE PREVALENCE AND TO ASSESS ADMINISTRATIVE…
Danforth, Scot; Slocum, Laura; Dunkle, Jennifer
It is often assumed that current disability constructs exist in conceptual isolation from one another. This article explores the tangled historical relationship between "mental retardation" and learning disability in the writings and speeches of special education pioneer Samuel A. Kirk. Beginning in the 1950s, Kirk repeatedly told an educability…
Glidden, Laraine Masters
Demographic and background characteristics, pre-adoption motivation, and post-adoptive adjustment of 20 British families who had, among them, adopted 23 mentally retarded children were explored through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Children in the sample had been in their adoptive homes an average of 17 months; 48% were under 5…
Cha, Kyeong-Ho; Merrill, Edward C.
Adolescents identified letters presented to them on the basis of color. Subjects (n=20) with mental retardation exhibited facilitation when the target was identical to the target on the preceding trial but did not exhibit inhibition when it had been a distractor on the preceding trial. Inefficient suppression processes may result in performance…
Pary, Robert J.
Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…
Draheim, Christopher C.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.
The dietary intake of adults with mental retardation among three different community residential settings was described and compared. Two dietary screeners were administered to 325 adults. The women's Fruit and Vegetable Screener scores from group homes were significantly higher than scores from those with family members and in semi-independent…
Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others
Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…
Although there have always been people considered to have mental retardation (MR), the category has proven surprisingly difficult to define adequately. This is because it includes a subcategory of mild MR whose members are part of a larger population of marginally competent people, some of whom may be considered to have other forms of disability…
A survey investigated aging in 37 men and 28 women with mental retardation in three age groups: 40-49, 50-59, and 60+ living in group homes and apartments in Israel. Results indicate declines as early as age 40 in physical health. The most common ailment is diabetes, followed by weight problems. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Davies, Janet Mansfield; Ball, Daniel W.
A total of 207 educable mentally retarded students was involved in this study. Investigated was the effects of the Elementary Science Study Curriculum (ESS) on selected science skills including communicating, observing and inferring. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ESS group performed significantly better than did the non-ESS group. (HM)
Salzberg, Charles L.; And Others
A review of 13 studies examining job loss in mentally retarded workers found reasons for loss broadly distributed across both social and nonsocial domains. Factors included job responsibility (poor attendance and punctuality), task production (inadequate quality and work rate), social skill deficits, and personal-social inadequacies. Training…
Huguenin, Nancy H.
A study investigated whether computer touch-screen technology could improve the attentional skills of three adolescents with severe mental retardation. Initially, prior reinforcement contingencies of individual stimuli failed to control their attention. Extended exposure to single stimulus training and conflict compounds, however, alleviated…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.
Part II of a two-part publication listing mental retardation grants awarded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in fiscal year 1968 (July 1, 1967, to June 30, 1968), the text includes grants awarded in the areas of research and demonstration. (Part I covers grants in training and construction.) Grants are arranged according to…
Soraci, Sal A., Jr.; And Others
Five preschool children at risk for mental retardation were taught to choose an odd stimulus which varied in one important dimension (e.g., form, color, or size) from other stimuli in a set. Oddity responding was shown to transfer across stimulus types, and learning was maintained for a minimum of six weeks. (Author/JW)
Niswander, Paul S.; Ruth, Roger A.
The ability of the sensitivity prediction from acoustic reflex (SPAR) technique to estimate hearing loss in 32 trainable mentally retarded Ss (adults and young adults with normal to profound hearing loss) was investigated by comparing measured pure-tone thresholds determined through tangible-reinforcement operant-conditioning audiometry with…
Rogers, B.; And Others
This study found chronic regurgitation in 23 of 220 institutionalized adults with severe mental retardation. A high prevalence of dysphagia and gastroesophageal abnormalities was found, suggesting the importance of full evaluation and treatment prior to a diagnosis of rumination in this population. (Author/DB)
Rotundo, N.; Johnson, E. G.
Results supported A. Luria's contention that the development of mentally retarded children, regardless of etiology, is arrested at the second (asemantic) stage and that their performance deficiencies are even greater than might be predicted simply on the basis of their developmental level. (Author/SB)
Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.
Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)
This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)
Smith, J. David
This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…
Smith, J. David
A review of secondary education and college biology textbooks published from 1900 through 1950 finds strong support for eugenics and Social Darwinism. These attitudes are related to effects of such recent books as "The Bell Curve" (by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray) for people with mental retardation. (DB)
CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.
THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A COGNITIVE TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE MENTALLY RETARDED AND NORMAL SUBJECTS' PERFORMANCES ON FLEXIBILITY-TYPE TASKS AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS. A TEST BATTERY OF FIVE TESTS (STENCIL DESIGN, EMBEDDED FIGURES, PICTURE ANOMALIES, OBJECT SORTING, AND TELL ABOUT THIS), DESIGNED TO MEASURE…
Bruininks, Robert H.; Rynders, John E.
Reviewed are research findings on special class placement for educable mentally retarded children and proposed are administrative and curricular alternatives. Research on special class placement is described as inconclusive and relying on untested assumptions. Normalization and individualization are seen as underlying principles in assigning…
Davies, Sara; Hastings, Richard P.
Review of the literature on computer technology in clinical psychology services for people with mental retardation is organized around stages of a scientist-practitioner working model: assessment, formulation, and intervention. Examples of technologies to facilitate work at each stage are given. Practical difficulties with implementation of…
Burt, Tammy L.; Porretta, David L.; Klein, Richard E.
This study investigated the use of adapted bicycles on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conventional cycling by seven children with mild mental retardation. Feedback was used in addition to the adapted bicycles and consisted of pedal rate, head position, and steering participation. A multiple probe design was used. Participants…
Singh, Ashvind N.; Matson, Johnny L.; Cooper, Christopher L.; Dixon, Dennis; Sturmey, Peter
Since their introduction, antipsychotic medications have been used widely to treat conditions other than psychiatric disorders, especially among individuals with mental retardation. Researchers have shown that the prevalence rates of psychotropic medication prescriptions among this population are extremely high. Given the limited empirical data to…
Ewing, Gary; McDermott, Suzanne; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Whitner, Wendy; Pierce, Kristen
An evaluation was conducted to compare the impact of an 8-week cardiovascular disease risk reduction group teaching program for 92 individuals with mental retardation (MR; IQ less than 70) and 97 normal learners. The curriculum emphasized exercise, nutritional choices, and stress reduction. Body Mass Index (BMI; weight in kilograms, divided by…
The guide contains basic information for establishing a work activity center, a work-oriented facility providing compensatory pre-vocational and vocational education and training programs for men and women of post-school age. The center serves those mentally retarded adults not developmentally prepared to enter a sheltered workshop program. The…
Elia, M.; And Others
Clinical and neurophysiological findings for 28 patients (mean age 15 years) with mental retardation, autism, and epilepsy were described, including classification of seizure type and epileptic syndrome, etiology, severity of autism and epilepsy, electroencephalography findings, and neuroimaging findings. No particular epileptic syndrome…
Ilhan, Ekrem Levent
The purpose of this research is to determine the levels of job satisfaction of sports coaches who are providing education to mentally retarded children and to examine as well as their job satisfaction according to different variables. Survey method was preferred as the data collection tool and "Minnesota Satisfaction…
Gold, Edwin M., Ed.
The conference proceedings on the prevention of mental retardation through improved maternity care consist of six major papers which are followed by panel discussions with two to five participants. Epidemiology of prematurity, topic of the first paper, is discussed in terms of cigarette smoking, asymptomatic bacertiuria, maternal heart volume,…
Odero, Orao Remi
Learners with mental retardation pose a unique problem to the education system, one not presented by any other exceptionality. In view of the challenges and limitations of these learners, modification of both social and educational environment is fundamental in-order to attain effective schooling for them. One of the best proven medium of teaching…
Burd, Larry; And Others
The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)
Kelman, William P.; Whiteley, John H.
Generalization of habituation along a form dimension was investigated with 12 nonambulatory, profoundly mentally retarded children. Fixation times decreased over habituation trials and increased during test trials. No differences in fixation times to test stimuli were found in the group data, and analyses of individual subject data indicated that…
Diken, Ibrahim H.
The purpose of this paper was to understand how Turkish mothers make meaning of the disability of their children with Mental Retardation (MR). Thirteen Turkish mothers who had at least one child with MR were the participants of the study. A qualitative interpretive framework was used for collecting and analyzing the data. The data were gathered…
Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne
Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…
Prout, H. Thompson; Schaefer, Bianca M.
Thirty-seven institutionalized profoundly mentally retarded adults were studied to determine whether thyroid medication is an essential component of a recently introduced nutritional supplementation treatment. Biochemical assessments confirmed that compliance with the treatments was adequate; however, no significant IQ improvements were observed.…
LASSERS, LEON; LOW, GORDON
SPEECH IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR MENTAL RETARDATES WERE EXAMINED USING COMMUNICATION-CENTERED SPEECH THERAPY TO ENHANCE ARTICULATION AND GENERAL ORAL PRODUCTION AND TO IMPROVE SUCH RELATIONSHIP ATTRIBUTES AS COMMUNICATIVE INITIATIVE AND EASE IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS. A BATTERY OF TEST DEVICES WAS DEVELOPED, INCLUDING THE SAN FRANCISCO INVENTORY OF…
This study investigated whether or not Sights and Sounds, a filmstrip-record series originally designed for speech-hearing handicapped children, could produce perceptual discrimination learning of familiar sounds in primary level educable mentally retarded (EMR) children and whether EMR children were susceptible to perceptual learning via…
Matson, Johnny L.; Smiroldo, Brandi B.; Bamburg, Jay W.
The relationships between social skills and psychopathology in 846 individuals with severe mental retardation was examined. Results showed that increases in psychopathological symptoms were related to increases in negative behaviors. Those without stereotypic movement disorders had greater general positive and positive nonverbal behaviors than…
Sprague, R. L.; And Others
The facial stereotypies of adults diagnosed as having mental retardation and tardive dyskinesia were examined through a kinematic analysis of videotaped lip and tongue movements. The high degree of movement variability found suggests that low variability of discrete properties of movement kinematics may not be a defining feature of stereotypies.…
Haydar, Tarik F.
Studies on human patients and animal models of disease have shown that disruptions in prenatal and early postnatal brain development are a root cause of mental retardation. Since proper brain development is achieved by a strict spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis, cell migration, and patterning of synapses, abnormalities in one or more of these…
Brodin, Jane; Magnusson, Magnus
This two-section report presents a review of European research on the use of videotelephone technology by people with mental retardation. The first section examines relevant research concerning those with speech and language disabilities in general. Considered are visual communication including augmentative and alternative communication systems,…
Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.
The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…
Drain, Theodore R.; And Others
Provided are 225 instructional activities for educable and trainable mentally retarded children from primary through secondary levels in the areas of social skills, communication skills, and number skills. Each page of the kit is divided into the following headings: activities (listed from simplest to most difficult), correlated activities (to…
Martin, James E.; And Others
The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…
Educable mental retardation is a delay in acquiring basic reading, writing and counting skills emerging through late speaking and linguistic development along with social, emotional or behavioral problems. It is pointed out that such children have intelligence in the 45-74 range, and that they are incompetent in terms of language skills,…
Frederick, Joseph; And Others
A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…
Twenty predictions about the future of residential services to the mentally retarded are presented. These changes imply: (1) an entirely new model of residential services; (2) increasing continuity between residential and nonresidential services; and (3) increasing acceptance of cost-benefit rationales in the decision to offer residential or other…
Pearson, Deborah A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Lane, David M.; Jerger, Susan W.; Roache, John D.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lachar, David; Faria, Laura P.; Payne, Christa D.; Cleveland, Lynne A.
Objective: Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years)…
RIGRODSKY, S.; AND OTHERS
A SPEECH THERAPY METHOD FOR MENTAL RETARDATES WAS DEVELOPED AND EVALUATED. THE METHOD WAS BASED UPON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FAVORABLE ASSOCIATIONS IN THE CHILD BETWEEN THE WORDS AND SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE AND THE PRODUCER OF THE LANGUAGE, USING STIMULUS-REWARD AND SITUATION-REWARD PRINCIPLES. TRADITIONAL METHODS OF SPEECH THERAPY WERE ADMINISTERED,…
Corcoran, James R.
Affect Abilities Training (AAT) illustrates the kinds of concrete methods which can be used to further the affective development of persons with mental retardation. The objective of AAT is to develop those emotional behaviors upon which the individual (and society) place value while decreasing those responses which are counterproductive to…
A CLINIC TEAM CONSISTING OF A PEDIATRICIAN, SOCIAL WORKER, PSYCHOLOGIST, AND PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE PROVIDED EVALUATIVE SERVICES. THE PURPOSES WERE TO DEMONSTRATE A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS AND PARENT COUNSELING, TO TRAIN AND STIMULATE INTEREST OF OTHER PROFESSIONS IN MENTAL RETARDATION, AND TO HELP COMMUNITIES DEVELOP THEIR OWN…
Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.
Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…
Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Special Education.
Presented is a curriculum guide for educable mentally retarded secondary school students in Georgia which features functional academics, physical development, social skills, and prevocational and vocational skills. Included are a work-study schedule for five levels (freshman through graduate), an explanation of school and work station sites,…
Wehmeyer, Michael L.
This book is intended as a text or resource for preservice or inservice training of general and special education teachers, and has an orientation for the education of the mentally retarded that is values-based, issues-oriented, and practice-oriented. The 17 chapters are organized into four sections. The first two chapters are introductory and…
Dever, Richard B.; Knapczyk, Dennis R.
This text addresses curriculum development for students with mental retardation based on the premise that it is the primary job of educators to teach these individuals independence skills and also based on criticism of the academic focus of most current instructional approaches. Individual chapters consider the following topics: (1) an overview of…
Indiana State Dept. of Mental Health, Indianapolis. Div. of Mental Retardation.
The report is said to provide a plan for meeting the total needs (educational, personal, and vocational) of the mentally retarded for both service and residential living in Indiana. The plan proposes to bring the state hospital and community closer together and to offer several options that include the natural, foster, and small group home and the…
Brown, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc
A quantitative method for typing psychopathology of youngsters with mental retardation was assessed. Parents of 601 students in special educational placements rated them with the ABC. The sample was randomly divided into two subgroups. We used Ward's hierarchical method of cluster analysis and derived eight clusters in Subsample 1 and satisfactory…
Berry, Roy S.
Examined in the end of project year report were the effects of a developmental physical education program on the fitness and adapted game participation of 83 trainable mentally retarded children in a special school. Student knowledge of rules, safety procedures, and health habits for adapted activities exceeded anticipated levels; and data on six…
Musher, Deborah A.
This article reviews the literature advocating or opposing a universal ban on capital punishment for people diagnosed with mental retardation and also offers the author's own views. It is argued that the realities of the American legal and penal systems require such a ban until each case can be examined thoroughly by individuals well informed…
Fornes, Sandra L.
This research provides an analysis of factors predicting job retention (JR), job satisfaction (JS), and job performance (JP) of workers with mental retardation (MR). The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in influencing three important employee's outcomes, JR, JS, and JP. The intent of the study was to develop job retention…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.
Superseding the 1966 issue of "Mental Retardation Publications" and its supplement of 1967, this bibliography annotates 189 items. No publications of private agencies or state and local governments are included. The bibliography is organized into the following sections: general; legislative and federal programs; specific hand capping conditions…
This article presents the author's comments on Simon and Lichten's "Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life and Death." Lichten and Simon (2007) argued for the use of a Total Quotient (TQ) that combines existing IQ and adaptive functioning scores into a single index. They proposed that the TQ index will improve the accuracy of mental…
Osborne, Norman; Williams, Robert
Factors related to staff turnover in a camp for mentally retarded persons were examined during 1971-1977. Staff were live-in college or graduate school counselors with special education or related majors. Not being able to cope and poor performance occurred in small proportion to total number of reasons documented. (Author/RD)
Stone, James A.
A model to serve rural (Kentucky) mentally retarded adults age 50 and over incorporates generic community resources such as residential, nutritional, medical, recreational, and transportation services with age appropriate activities and programs. The system is intended to provide an alternative to the life-long work setting of the workshop or work…
Pace, Gary M.; Toyer, Edward A.
The effects of a common multiple vitamin on the pica of a 9-year-old with severe mental retardation and anemia were evaluated. A BAB design revealed that pica was decreased by the vitamin. Further research investigating the generality of this finding and effects of combining biological and behavioral interventions are discussed. (Contains five…
Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.
The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)
Longo, Julie; And Others
The article reviews the use and limitations of medical and behavioral approaches (restraints, shock, drugs, punishment and aversive stimulation, reinforcement of incompatible behaviors, and overcorrection) to reduce self injury in visually impaired, mentally retarded persons. Legal and ethical considerations are pointed out. (Author/CL)
This paper proposes a definition of social skills in order to operationalize the components that need to be considered when teaching social skills to individuals with mental retardation in employment settings. It also presents current approaches to teaching social skills in employment settings. Social skills are defined as goal-oriented,…
Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.
A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…
Starr, Elizabeth; Berument, Sibel Kazak; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Bailey, Anthony; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Rutter, Michael
A study involving 47 families of individuals (ages 4-34) with autism and severe mental retardation found the familial loading for autism and for the broader phenotype was closely comparable to that in a study of children with higher IQ autism, and different from that for children with Down syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Bailey, Carol D.; And Others
The curriculum guide suggests ideas, activities, procedures, and materials for teaching the educable mentally retarded at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. For the elementary level, the guide covers the areas of maturational skills and concepts and social skills, reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, social relationships (life…
Leiss, Robert H.; Proger, Barton B.
To determine the most effective language training activities for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children, the variables of degree of previous language training, IQ, Peabody language treatment program versus Distar language treatment program, pretest versus posttest, and sex were examined with 122 TMR Ss (7 to 14 years old). Results of the…
Aman, Michael G.
This working bibliography was compiled as part of an extensive review of instruments used for assessing behavioral and emotional disorders in persons with mental retardation. The literature search went back to the early 1970s and included computer searches as well as survey responses from 50 prominent workers in the field, responses from…
Crawford, Katheryn Alice; Siegel, Paul S.
Eighty-two educable and trainable mentally retarded children (6-18 years old) judged whether a series of visual stimuli matched a standard. With each judgment the investigator verbalized "right" or "wrong" and then provided full feedback of cue similarities and differences that supported each judgment. Trained Ss exhibited total intradimensional…
Findholt, Nancy E.; Emmett, Catherine G.
A multidisciplinary team, including representatives from medicine, psychology, and residential living, examined 436 mentally retarded residents' regimen of psychotropic medications, with the goal of finding the least restrictive method of behavior management and lowest drug dosage. Significant reductions in psychotropic drug use were observed,…
Bodfish, James W.; Madison, James T.
Ten adults with compulsive behavior disorder and six comparison subjects, all with mental retardation, were treated using the medication fluoxetine. Seven of the 10 experimental subjects responded favorably to fluoxetine treatment; none of the comparison subjects responded favorably to the medication. There appeared to be a relation between…
Hagopian, L P; Crockett, J L; Keeney, K M
Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia (BIIP) is a subtype of specific phobia, characterized by fear and avoidance of seeing blood, an injury, or receiving an injection. In the current case report, we describe the treatment of BIIP in a young man with mental retardation. The multicomponent treatment consisted of fading (graduated exposure), modeling, noncontingent and differential reinforcement, presession anxiolytic medication, and topical analgesic cream.
McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth
Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…
Harris, Nancy G., Comp.
Titles and prices for filmstrips with records, filmstrips, films, cassettes, film loops, disc recordings for utilization as audiovisual resources for library services for the mentally retarded are listed. A list of publishers and distributors of suitable educational and library materials is also provided. (AB)
Vadney, V.; And Others
This study evaluated effects on 77 institutionalized patients with mental retardation of changing from anticonvulsant Depakote to the similar drug, Depakene. Results showed no changes in seizure control, less lethargy on Depakene, but some increase in diarrhea and some changes in psychiatric symptoms. Substantial cost savings were achieved by the…
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Gifsh, Limor
Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 Israeli adolescents and young adults with mild mental retardation to examine their perceptions of the world of work. A consensual qualitative strategy of analysis (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997) yielded 4 domains (Definitions of Work, Reasons for Working, Self-Awareness,…
Anderson, J. Warren; And Others
Data were obtained on the reasoning processes of 92 normal seventh graders (IQ range, 90-130), 14 adjusted seventh graders (IQ range, 70-90), and 54 educable mentally retarded (EMR) junior high students (IQ range, 55-80) to determine whether spatial imagery differentially influenced the solution of three-term series problems, to determine the…
Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth A.; Shogren, Karrie A.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the shift to the term "intellectual disability." At the heart of that shift is the understanding that this term covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, and duration of the disability and the need of people with this…
Draheim, Christopher C.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Daniel P.
A study compared components of insulin resistance syndrome between 75 adults with Down syndrome and 70 with mental retardation. Women with Down syndrome had lower fasting plasma glucose and lower systolic blood pressure than comparison women. Men with Down syndrome had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than comparison men. (Contains…
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2005
This document is the quadrennial report of the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (MRDD) Branch to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council. The MRDD Branch is a vital, evolving entity within the Center for Developmental Biology and Perinatal Medicine (CDBPM) at the National Institute of Child …
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Branch.
This report highlights some of the projects supported by the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (MRDD) Branch of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development since its last report in January 1997. The MRDD Branch provides support for research, research training,…
Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D.; Morrison, Jessica B.; White, Jessika
The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new…
Bodfish, James W.; And Others
Akathisia, a state of uncontrollable motor restlessness, is a side effect of neuroleptic treatment. The prevalence rate of akathisia in 94 adults with mental retardation was estimated to be 5% in neuroleptic-free subjects, 17% in neuroleptic-maintenance subjects, and 25% in neuroleptic-reduction subjects. Akathisia was also related to dyskinesia…
Granger, Douglas A.; And Others
Dyskinesia, abnormal involuntary movements associated with long-term neuroleptic drug use, was evaluated with 344 institutionalized profoundly mentally retarded adults using the Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale. Results indicated performance deficits on activation tasks associated with intelligence quotients, neuroleptic…
Szurek, S.A.; Berlin, I.N.
The reciprocal relationship between the child's emotional state and physiological disturbances is explored, and the effect of emotional disturbance on varieties of mental retardation or on obvious brain damage resulting from genetic metabolic disorders is assessed. Psychosomatic disorders of childhood are discussed in six papers on genetic…
Rojahn, Johannes; Matson, Johnny L.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Mayville, Erik
Adults with predominantly severe and profound mental retardation (N = 180) who lived in a developmental center were assessed with the Behavior Problems Inventory and the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II. Individuals with self-injurious, stereotyped, or aggressive/destructive behavior had generally higher psychopathology scores…
Dewson, Michael R. J.; Whiteley, John H.
Two experiments examined the reinforcing value of response contingent sensory events consisting of combinations of visual, auditory, and vibratory stimulation with 10 nonambulatory profoundly mentally retarded individuals. Results indicated that systematically varying a multimodal sensory event is an effective way to identify positive reinforcers…
Keyes, Joseph B.; Karst, Ralph R.
This study examined the relationship between the functionality of training objectives established in Individual Program Plans (IPPs) and Individual Education Plans (IEPs) of persons with severe and profound mental retardation and different service delivery environments. Each training objective in the IPPs and IEPs of 78 individuals was classified…