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Sample records for mentally ill veterans

  1. Posttransplantation Outcomes in Veterans With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lianna D; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Morissette, Sandra B; MacCarthy, Andrea A; Sako, Edward Y; Lappin, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Valerie A; MacCarthy, Daniel J; Copeland, Laurel A

    2015-08-01

    Anticipating poor recovery due to impaired self-management and appointment-keeping, clinicians may consider serious mental illness (SMI) a significant concern in organ transplantation. However, little empirical evidence exists regarding posttransplantation outcomes for patients with SMI. This study analyzed health services data to evaluate posttransplantation 3-year survival by SMI status in a nationwide cohort of patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). A total of 960 recipients of solid organ or bone marrow transplants were identified from Veterans Health Administration administrative data extracts for fiscal years 2006 to 2009. Of these, 164 (17%) had an SMI diagnosis before transplantation (schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress, major depressive, and bipolar disorders); 301 (31%) had some other mental illness diagnosis (such as anxiety, adjustment reactions, or substance abuse); and 495 (52%) had no mental health diagnosis. Twenty-two patients (2%) required retransplantation and 208 patients (22%) died during follow-up. Data on whether these were primary or repeat transplantations were unavailable. Rates of attendance at postoperative outpatient visits and number of months for which immunosuppressive drugs fills were recorded were similar among mental illness groups, as were rates of diagnosed immunological rejection. Three-year mortality was equivalent among mental health groups: no mental health (19%) versus other mental illness (23%) versus SMI (27%; χ(2) = 5.11; df = 2; P = .08). In adjusted survival models, no effect of mental health status was observed. Serious mental illness diagnosis does not appear to be associated with adverse transplantation outcomes over the first 3 years; however, a potentially diverging survival curve may portend higher mortality at 5 years.

  2. Differences in Suicide and Death Ideation Among Veterans and Nonveterans With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Danielle R; Muralidharan, Anjana; Drapalski, Amy L; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Li Juan; Lucksted, Alicia

    2017-03-13

    Individuals with serious mental illness and veterans are two populations at elevated risk for suicide; however, research has not examined whether veterans with serious mental illness may be at higher suicide risk than nonveterans with serious mental illness. Additionally, overlapping risk factors for suicide in these populations may account for differences in suicide-related outcomes between these groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differences in death ideation and suicide ideation among veterans and nonveterans with serious mental illness. We also aimed to explore these effects after adjusting for potentially shared risk factors. We found that veterans with serious mental illness reported death ideation and suicide ideation more than twice as often as nonveterans with serious mental illness. After adjusting for demographic, psychiatric, and theory-driven risk factors, the effect of veteran status on death ideation remained significant, though the effect on suicide ideation was no longer significant. Depressive and psychotic symptoms were significant predictors of death ideation; depressive symptoms and hostility were significant predictors of suicide ideation. Clinicians should particularly monitor death ideation and suicide ideation in veterans with serious mental illness, as well as associated clinical risk factors such as depression, psychotic symptoms, and hostility. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Racial Differences in Mental Health Recovery among Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2017-04-14

    Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p < .05), had higher baseline psychosis (p < .05), higher mental health recovery (p < .05), and perceived less non-supportive clinician input (p < .01) than white participants. Regression analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among race, psychosis, and positive collaboration (p < .01). Greater positive collaboration attenuated the negative effect of higher levels of psychosis on mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may

  4. Psychiatric services and prescription fills among veterans with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Marienfeld, Carla; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidity and co-prescription patterns of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance may complicate their treatment and have not been studied. The goal of this study was to examine the care and characteristics of people with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment nationally in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using national VHA data from FY2012, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare veterans in methadone maintenance treatment wo had a serious mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major affective disorder) to patients in methadone maintenance treatment without serious mental illness and patients with serious mental illness who were not in methadone maintenance treatment. Only a small fraction of patients with serious mental illness were receiving methadone maintenance treatment (0.65%), but a relatively large proportion in methadone maintenance treatment had a serious mental illness (33.2%). Compared to patients without serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have been homeless, to have had a recent psychiatric hospitalization, to be over 50% disabled, and to have had more fills for more classes of psychotropic drugs. Compared to other patients with serious mental illness, patients with serious mental illness in methadone maintenance treatment were more likely to have a drug abuse diagnosis and to reside in large urban areas. One-third of patients in methadone maintenance treatment have serious mental illness and more frequent psychiatric comorbidity, and they are more likely to use psychiatric and general health services and fill more types of psychiatric prescriptions. Further study and clinical awareness of potential drug-drug interactions in this high medication and service using population are needed.

  5. Access to and Use of the Internet by Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Record, Elizabeth J; Medoff, Deborah R; Dixon, Lisa B; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Hack, Samantha; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Li Juan; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated internet use among 239 veterans with serious mental illness who completed questionnaires assessing demographics and internet use in 2010-2011. The majority of individuals (70 %) reported having accessed the internet and among those, 79 % had accessed it within the previous 30 days. Those who were younger and more educated were more likely to have accessed the internet, as were those with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, compared to individuals with PTSD. Veterans with serious mental illness commonly use the internet, including to obtain health information, though use varies across demographic characteristics and clinical diagnosis.

  6. Contraceptive adherence among women Veterans with mental illness and substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Lisa S; Zhao, Xinhua; Nelson, Karin M; Borrero, Sonya

    2015-05-01

    Emerging data suggest that mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) are important risk factors for inconsistent contraceptive use. We investigated whether mental illness without or with SUD is associated with contraceptive adherence and continuation of hormonal methods among women Veterans. We conducted a retrospective analysis of national Veteran's Administration data among women aged 18-45 with a hormonal contraceptive prescription (pill/patch/ring/injectable) during the first week of fiscal year 2013. We tested associations between mental illness diagnoses (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, adjustment disorder) without or with SUD diagnoses (drug/alcohol abuse) and 12-month contraceptive adherence (number and length of gaps ≥7 days between refills and months of contraceptive coverage) using multivariable regression models. Among 9780 Veterans, 43.6% had mental illness alone, 9.4% comorbid mental illness and SUD, and 47.0% neither diagnosis. In adjusted analyses, compared to women with neither diagnosis, women with mental illness alone had a similar rate of gaps but increased odds of having gaps longer than 30 days [odds ratio (OR): 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.52] and fewer months of contraceptive coverage (β_coefficient: -0.39, 95% CI: -0.56 to -0.23). Women with mental illness and SUD experienced more gaps (incidence rate ratio: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21), increased odds of gaps longer than 30 days (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.10-1.79), fewer months of contraceptive coverage (β_coefficient: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.62) and reduced odds of continuous 12-month coverage (adjusted OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93). Mental illness, particularly with comorbid SUD, is associated with reduced contraceptive adherence and continuation among women Veterans. Women with these risk factors could potentially benefit from use of long-acting reversible methods. Women Veterans have a high burden of mental illness

  7. Outreach to Veterans With Serious Mental Illness Who Are Lost to Care: Predictors of Outreach Contact.

    PubMed

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Abraham, Kristen M; Grindle, Chelsea M; Visnic, Stephanie; Hack, Samantha M; McCarthy, John F; Bowersox, Nicholas W

    2017-03-13

    This evaluation identified factors associated with outreach contact to veterans with serious mental illness (SMI) who were lost to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. From March 2012 through September 2013, the VHA SMI Re-Engage initiative identified 4,241 veterans for reengagement outreach; 31% of whom were successfully contacted. Higher odds of contact was associated with older age, married status, no history of homelessness, bipolar disorder diagnosis, having no recent inpatient stay, living closer to a VHA medical center, fewer years since last visit, and having a service-connected disability. Several factors are associated with recontact with veterans with SMI who are lost to VHA care. These may promote treatment engagement and retention. Study findings may inform outreach interventions to enhance access for these veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Associations of mental illness and substance use disorders with prescription contraception use among women veterans.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Lisa S; Zhao, Xinhua; Nelson, Karin M; Lehavot, Keren; Bradley, Katharine A; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) are associated with having a prescription contraceptive method among women veterans. We conducted a retrospective analysis of National Veterans Administration (VA) administrative and clinical data for women veterans aged 18-45 years who made at least one primary care visit in 2008. We assessed associations between mental illness (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and adjustment disorder) and SUD (drug/alcohol use disorder) with having a prescription contraceptive method from VA (pill, patch, ring, injection, implant and intrauterine device) using multivariable logistic regression with random effects for VA facility, adjusting for confounders. Among 94,115 reproductive aged women, 36.5% had mental illness only, 0.6% had SUD only, 5.3% had both mental illness and SUD and 57.7% had neither diagnosis. In these groups, 22.1%, 14.6%, 18.2% and 17.7% (p<0.001), respectively, had documentation in 2008 of prescription contraception. After adjusting for potential confounders, women with mental illness only were as likely as women with neither diagnosis to have a prescription method and were more likely to use a highly effective prescription method (implant or intrauterine device) if using contraception [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.27]. Women with SUD (with or without mental illness) were significantly less likely to have a prescription method than women with neither diagnosis (aOR 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95 and aOR 0.79, 95% CI = 0.73-0.86, respectively). Women veterans with SUD are less likely to have prescription contraception compared to other women, which may increase their risk of unintended pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Paternal history of mental illness associated with posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Kelley, Michelle L; Katon, Jodie G; Curry, John F; Goldstein, Karen M; Brancu, Mira; Wagner, H Ryan; Fecteau, Teresa E; Van Houtven, Courtney H

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the association between parent and family reported history of non-PTSD mental illness (MI), PTSD specifically, and substance use problems, and participant clinical diagnosis of PTSD. Participants were drawn from the US Department of Veterans Affairs Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Post-Deployment Mental Health (PDMH) study (n = 3191), an ongoing multi-site cohort study of US Afghanistan and Iraq conflict era veterans. Participants who recalled a father history of PTSD had a 26-percentage point higher likelihood of meeting criteria for PTSD; while participants reporting any family history of PTSD had a 15-percentage point higher probability of endorsing symptoms consistent with PTSD. Mother history of substance use problems was associated with Veteran current PTSD, but results were sensitive to model specification. Current PTSD was not associated with family/parent history of non-PTSD mental illness, mother history of PTSD, or family/father history of substance use problems. Family history of PTSD may increase PTSD risk among veterans exposed to trauma, particularly when a father history is reported. Knowledge of family history could improve clinical decision-making for trauma-exposed individuals and allow for more effective targeting of programs and clinical services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery.

  11. Reengaging veterans with serious mental illness into care: preliminary results from a national randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Goodrich, David E; Lai, Zongshan; Almirall, Daniel; Nord, Kristina M; Bowersox, Nicholas W; Abraham, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared effectiveness of an enhanced versus standard implementation strategy (Replicating Effective Programs [REP]) on site-level uptake of Re-Engage, a national program for veterans with serious mental illness. Mental health providers at 158 Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities were given REP-based manuals and training in Re-Engage, which involved identifying veterans who had not been seen in VA care for at least one year, documenting their clinical status, and coordinating further health care. After six months, facilities not responding to REP (N=88) were randomized to receive six months of facilitation (enhanced REP) or continued standard REP. Site-level uptake was defined as percentage of patients (N=1,531) with updated documentation or with whom contact was attempted. Rate of Re-Engage uptake was greater for enhanced REP sites compared with standard REP sites (41% versus 31%, p=.01). Total REP facilitation time was 7.3 hours per site for six months. Added facilitation improved short-term uptake of a national mental health program.

  12. Helping veterans with mental illness overcome civil legal issues: collaboration between a veterans affairs psychosocial rehabilitation center and a nonprofit legal center.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine F; Tsai, Jack; Klee, Anne; Udell, Howard R; Harkness, Laurie; Middleton, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the collaboration between a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) community-based psychosocial rehabilitation center and a nonprofit legal center that primarily addresses the civil legal issues of veterans who have mental illness and/or are homeless. The legal center is located on-site at the VA psychosocial rehabilitation center and serves veterans who receive VA mental health treatment and other social services. Once veterans establish contact with the legal center and authorize the release of their health information, legal center staff members work closely with VA clinicians to help veterans address legal issues that may be obstacles to recovery. Development of this collaboration is described, along with the legal center's funding, clientele, and operations. The most common types of civil legal matters the legal center handles are also briefly described. Experiences of the legal center suggest that professional aid for civil legal problems provided within VA facilities may be beneficial for veterans and warrants empirical study.

  13. Knowledge and risks of human immunodeficiency virus transmission among veterans with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jennifer L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Stechuchak, Karen M; Meador, Keith M; Butterfield, Marian I

    2006-04-01

    This study is among the first to examine knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and behavioral risks for HIV transmission among veterans with severe mental illness (SMI), a group at high risk for HIV infection. This study examined associations between accuracy of HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and clinical and demographic characteristics in a sample of male veteran psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with SMI (N = 353). Results showed high rates of inaccurate HIV knowledge, with > 40% of patients demonstrating some inaccuracies, particularly those related to the progression and symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Inaccurate HIV knowledge was associated with older age, minority status, education level, marital status, no homelessness within the previous 6 months, and no reported history of illicit intranasal drug use. There is a need for more effective HIV prevention interventions for persons with SMI.

  14. Cognitive impairment as barrier to engagement in vocational services among veterans with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maureen K; Mueller, Lisa; Van Ormer, Alice; Drake, Robert; Penk, Walter; Rosenheck, Robert; Semiatin, Alicia; Drebing, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    Vocational services (VS), particularly supported employment models, have clear advantages for assisting adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in returning to the workplace, but a majority of eligible individuals with SMI do not receive any type of VS. The reasons for nonparticipation in VS remain poorly understood, and the potential contribution of cognitive impairment as a barrier to entry has not been explored. The present study uses a pathways-to-care design to examine the specific contribution of cognitive functioning to entry into VS among veterans with SMI. We examined 179 veterans with both SMI and un- or underemployment who completed a work history, the Pathways To Care Inventory, and the Trail-Making Test, Part B. Analysis revealed that veterans with SMI and moderate to severe cognitive impairment took significantly longer to progress through pathways-to-care than those with SMI and mild or no cognitive impairment. These results suggest that identifying veterans with SMI and cognitive impairment early and providing them with integrated and adjunct services may help them navigate VS.

  15. Predictors of smoking cessation group treatment engagement among veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Letitia E; Li, Lan; Brown, Clayton H; Bennett, Melanie E

    2017-12-01

    High prevalence rates of tobacco use, particularly cigarettes, pose a serious health threat for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), and research has demonstrated the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions to reduce tobacco use in this group. However, few studies have considered predictors of tobacco cessation treatment engagement among individuals with SMI. The current study examined predictors of engagement in smoking cessation groups among veterans with SMI engaged in mental health services at three VA medical centers. All veterans were participating in a smoking cessation treatment study. Of 178 veterans who completed baseline assessments, 127 (83.6%) engaged in treatment, defined as attending at least three group sessions. Forty-one (N=41) predictors across five domains (demographics, psychiatric concerns, medical concerns, smoking history, and self-efficacy to quit smoking) were identified based on previous research and clinical expertise. Using backward elimination to determine a final multivariable logistic regression model, three predictors were found to be significantly related to treatment engagement: marital status (never-married individuals more likely to engage); previous engagement in group smoking cessation services; and greater severity of positive symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. When included in the multivariable logistic regression model, the full model discriminates between engagers and non-engagers reasonably well (c statistic=0.73). Major considerations based on these findings are: individuals with SMI appear to be interested in smoking cessation services; and serious psychiatric symptomatology should not discourage treatment providers from encouraging engagement in smoking cessation services. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... questionnaire to help answer these questions. Determining which mental illness you have Sometimes it's difficult to find out ... insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. Classes of mental illness The main classes of mental illness are: Neurodevelopmental ...

  17. Interest in technology-based therapies hampered by access: A survey of veterans with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Klee, Anne; Stacy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert; Harkness, Laurie; Tsai, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Computer technology is used in various ways to deliver and enhance health care. It is therefore important to understand technology use patterns among underserved populations such as persons with serious mental illnesses who often experience inequitable care. A survey was administered to 210 veterans with serious mental illnesses attending programs at a Department of Veterans Affairs community care center, with data collected on demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, access, use, and willingness to use cell phones, smart phones, Internet-based online social networking, and computerized therapies. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine utilization and interest in different technologies. Although 80.4% of the respondents reported owning a cellphone, only 30.3% reported they had a computer and 13.1% reported owning a smartphone. Although 56.7% reported using the Internet and 47.6% indicated they used e-mail, 68.6% of respondents reported that they were interested in using computer programs for mental health-related problems. Older, less educated veterans, and those with alcohol use disorders were less likely to use the Internet. Veterans who were White or had PTSD diagnoses were less willing to use any computerized therapy. Lower rates of computer use, Internet, and cell phone technologies were observed among veterans with serious mental illnesses compared to general population surveys. Sociodemographic barriers likely impede access to technology among veterans with serious mental illnesses. Providing financial resources and associated education and training to veterans with serious mental illnesses could increase access to helpful technology-based interventions in a population that traditionally experiences service gaps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mental health disorders and the risk of AIDS-defining illness and death in HIV-infected veterans.

    PubMed

    Nurutdinova, Diana; Chrusciel, Timothy; Zeringue, Angelique; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Al-Aly, Ziyad; McDonald, Jay R; Overton, Edgar T

    2012-01-14

    Mental health comorbidities are common in HIV-infected veterans and can impact clinical outcomes for HIV. We examined the impact of mental health diagnoses on progression to AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and death in a large cohort of HIV-infected veterans who accessed care between 2001 and 2006. Retrospective cohort study using the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HIV Clinical Case Registry. We identified HIV-infected veterans initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) within the VHA between 2000 and 2006. The prevalences of the following mental health diagnoses were examined: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and substance use disorder. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the relationship between mental health conditions and two outcomes, all-cause mortality and ADI. Models were computed before and after adjusting for confounding factors including age, race, baseline CD4 cell count, comorbidities and cART adherence. Among 9003 veterans receiving cART, 31% had no mental health diagnosis. Age, race, baseline comorbidity score, CD4, and cART adherence were associated with shorter time to ADI or death. All-cause mortality was more likely among veterans with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and substance use, and ADI was more likely to occur among veterans with substance use disorder. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of mental health diagnoses among HIV-infected veterans. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, presence of psychiatric diagnoses impacted survival and development of ADI. More aggressive measures addressing substance abuse and severe mental illness in HIV-infected veterans are necessary.

  19. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals.

  20. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes: Impact on Weight, Quality of Life, and Psychiatric Symptoms in Veterans With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jillian M; Erickson, Zachary D; Meyer, Hilary B; Baker, Matthew R; Gelberg, Hollie A; Arnold, Irina Y; Kwan, Crystal; Chamberlin, Valery; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lewis, Melissa M; Nguyen, Charles; Sachinvala, Neena; Amrami, Binyamin; Pierre, Joseph M; Ames, Donna

    2017-09-01

    Veterans with mental illness tend to have shorter life spans and suboptimal physical health because of a variety of factors. These factors include poor nutrition, being overweight, and smoking cigarettes. Nonphysical contributors that may affect quality of life are the stigma associated with mental illness, social difficulties, and spiritual crises. Current mental health treatment focuses primarily on the delivery of medication and evidence-based psychotherapies, which may not affect all the above areas of a Veteran's life as they focus primarily on improving psychological symptoms. Clinicians may find greater success using integrative, comprehensive, multifaceted programs to treat these problems spanning the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual domains. These pilot studies test an adjunctive, holistic, behavioral approach to treat mental illness. This pilot work explores the hypotheses that engagement in a greater number of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) leads to improvement in quality of life, reduction of psychiatric symptoms, and weight loss. Institutional Review Boards for human subjects at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Greater Los Angeles and Long Beach Healthcare Systems approved pilot study activities at their sites. Pilot Study 1 was a prospective survey study of Veterans with mental illness, who gained weight on an atypical antipsychotic medication regimen, participating in a weight management study. At each session of the 1-year study, researchers asked a convenience sample of 55 Veterans in the treatment arm whether they engaged in each of the eight TLCs: exercise, nutrition/diet, stress management and relaxation, time in nature, relationships, service to others, religious or spiritual involvement, and recreation. Pilot Study 2 applied the TLC behavioral intervention and examined 19 Veterans with mental illness, who attended four classes about TLCs, received individual counseling over 9 weeks, and maintained journals to track TLC practice

  1. Veterans Affairs Health System and Mental Health Treatment Retention among Patients with Serious Mental Illness: Evaluating Accessibility and Availability Barriers

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John F; Blow, Frederic C; Valenstein, Marcia; Fischer, Ellen P; Owen, Richard R; Barry, Kristen L; Hudson, Teresa J; Ignacio, Rosalinda V

    2007-01-01

    Objective We examine the impact of two dimensions of access—geographic accessibility and availability—on VA health system and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Methods Among 156,631 patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in fiscal year 1998 (FY98), we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to first 12-month gap in health system utilization, and in mental health services utilization, by the end of FY02. Geographic accessibility was operationalized as straight-line distance to nearest VA service site or VA psychiatric service site, respectively. Service availability was assessed using county-level VA hospital beds and non-VA beds per 1,000 county residents. Patients who died without a prior gap in care were censored. Results There were 32, 943 patients (21 percent) with a 12-month gap in health system utilization; 65,386 (42 percent) had a 12-month gap in mental health services utilization. Gaps in VA health system utilization were more likely if patients were younger, nonwhite, unmarried, homeless, nonservice-connected, if they had bipolar disorder, less medical morbidity, an inpatient stay in FY98, or if they lived farther from care or in a county with fewer VA inpatient beds. Similar relationships were observed for mental health, however being older, female, and having greater morbidity were associated with increased risks of gaps, and number of VA beds was not significant. Conclusions Geographic accessibility and resource availability measures were associated with long-term continuity of care among patients with SMI. Increased distance from providers was associated with greater risks of 12-month gaps in health system and mental health services utilization. Lower VA inpatient bed availability was associated with increased risks of gaps in health system utilization. Study findings may inform efforts to improve treatment retention. PMID

  2. The mental health of veterans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Iversen, A; Greenberg, N

    2008-06-01

    For the majority service in the Armed Forces is beneficial and, in the main, military veterans have successful lives. However, a minority have a bleaker outlook as a result of on-going ill health and social exclusion. Whilst the media focuses on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, in reality the most frequent mental health problems for veterans are alcohol problems, depression and anxiety disorders. These difficulties are difficult to manage as veterans, particularly those who are unwell, demonstrate a reticence to seek help for mental health problems. Another issue is that many veterans are now reserve personnel who have been found to be at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their regular counterparts. Steps to improve the knowledge and expertise of primary care services about veteran's mental health issues and increasing the availability of treatment options are important and are underway.

  3. Prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease in veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Osamah; Ashraf, Hasan; Malouf, Marc; Slade, Eric P; Medoff, Deborah R; Li, Lan; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    To compare the prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease and eye disease treatment between Veteran's Administration (VA) patients with and without serious mental illness (SMI). Retrospective comparison of diagnosed ocular disease and treatment prevalence among patients with and without diagnosed SMI in fiscal year 2011 in the VA Capitol Health Care System (VISN 5). We identified 6462 VA patients with SMI and 137,933 without SMI. The prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease was 22.7% in SMI patients and 35.4% in non-SMI patients (P<.001). Those with SMI had a higher prevalence of glaucoma (10.2% vs. 7.1%, P<.0001), cataract (12.6% vs. 9.2%, P<.0001) and dry eye (4.0% vs. 2.7%, P<.0001). Less than half (34.3%) of SMI subjects had been seen in ophthalmology or optometry vs. 23.0% of controls (P<.0001). VA patients with SMI have a greater prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease, particularly cataract, glaucoma and dry eye. While SMI patients utilize eye care services at a higher rate than the general VA population, the majority of subjects with SMI do not get recommended annual eye examinations. More consistent annual ocular screening among VA patients with SMI may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Burden of Mental Illness Among Veterans: Use of VHA Health Care Services by Those With Service-connected Conditions.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Charles; Batten, Adam; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D

    2017-09-19

    Little is known about how Veterans with service-connected conditions use health care provided by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To ascertain what proportion of Veterans with service-connected conditions used VHA health care and whether it varied according to type of condition, combined disability rating, age, sex, military rank, or other characteristics and whether there were differences in receipt of inpatient and outpatient care. Cross-sectional analysis of administrative benefits and claims data for 2015 and 2016. In total, 4,029,672 Veterans who had an active award status for service-connected conditions in October 2016. Independent variables included age, sex, military rank, service branch, combined disability rating, Agent Orange exposure, and type of service-connected condition. The key-dependent variable was VHA health care use including specific types of health care utilization such as inpatient and outpatient services. In total, 52% of those with service-connected conditions used VHA health care. Type of condition and disability rating were associated with use. Over 65% of those with major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Agent Orange exposure, or diabetes used VHA health care, as did 76% of those with a 100% rating. Almost one third of users of VHA health care were compensated for PTSD. In general, both inpatient and outpatient mental health services were frequently used by Veterans with service-connected mental health conditions. Veterans with service-connected conditions, particularly those with diabetes or mental illness such as depression or PTSD, depend heavily upon VHA for health care, including mental health services.

  5. Gender differences in antipsychotics prescribed to veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Elana; Charlotte, Melanie; Slade, Eric; Medoff, Deborah; Li, Lan; Dixon, Lisa; Kilbourne, Amy; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To examine gender differences in prescribing of antipsychotic medications (APMs) according to their liability for weight gain and other metabolic side effects. We identified 4510 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders receiving usual care in a Veterans Affairs (VA) health care network in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region who initiated treatment with an APM between October 2006 and September 2011. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine gender differences in the likelihood of incident prescription of APMs with low versus medium/high metabolic risk, adjusting for fiscal year of prescribing and selected Veteran demographic, mental health and physical health characteristics. Overall, 58% of women were prescribed an APM with a low risk of metabolic side effects compared to 45% of men (P<.001). In multivariable analysis, women Veterans were 1.47 times as likely as men to be prescribed a low-metabolic-risk APM (95% confidence interval: 1.26-1.73, P<.001). Several demographic and clinical covariates were also independently related to prescribing of APMs by level of metabolic risk. The results may suggest that prescribing choices for APMs by VA mental health prescribers and female Veterans reflect a growing awareness of the potential adverse health consequences of these treatments in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

  7. Benefits of a primary care clinic co-located and integrated in a mental health setting for veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Pirraglia, Paul A; Rowland, Emily; Wu, Wen-Chih; Friedmann, Peter D; O'Toole, Thomas P; Cohen, Lisa B; Taveira, Tracey H

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy trials have shown that primary care co-located in the mental health setting improves the receipt of high-quality medical care among people with serious mental illness. We tested whether implementation of such a program affected health service use and cardiovascular risk factor control among veterans with serious mental illness who had previously demonstrated limited primary care engagement. We performed a cohort study of veterans enrolled in a co-located, integrated primary care clinic in the mental health outpatient unit through targeted chart review. Two successive 6-month periods in the year before and in the year following enrollment in the co-located primary care clinic were examined for primary care and emergency department use and for goal attainment of blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, body mass index (BMI), and, among patients with diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We used repeated-measures logistic regression to analyze goal attainment and repeated measures Poisson regression to analyze service use. Compared with the period before enrollment, the 97 veterans enrolled in the clinic had significantly more primary care visits during 6 months and significantly improved goal attainment for blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and BMI. Changes with regard to goal attainment for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c were not significant. Enrollment in a co-located, integrated clinic was associated with increased primary care use and improved attainment of some cardiovascular risk goals among veterans with serious mental illness. Such a clinic can be implemented effectively in the mental health setting.

  8. Gender differences in mood stabilizer medications prescribed to Veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Charlotte, Melanie; Schwartz, Elana; Slade, Eric; Medoff, Deborah; Li, Lan; Dixon, Lisa; Kilbourne, Amy M; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Mood stabilizer medications (MSMs) can induce significant weight gain and other metabolic side effects. Research suggests that women are more susceptible to psychotropic medication-induced metabolic side effects than men. We examined gender differences in the likelihood of receiving an MSM with a lower liability for weight gain using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. We identified 3823 VA patients with a schizophrenia or bipolar disorder diagnosis who initiated treatment with a MSM between 10/2006 and 9/2011. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine gender differences in the likelihood of incident prescription of MSMs with low versus medium/high metabolic risk, adjusting for fiscal year of prescribing and demographic, mental health, and physical health characteristics. Overall, 47% of women were prescribed a low metabolic risk MSM compared to 26% of men (p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, women were 2.19 times as likely as men to be prescribed a low metabolic risk MSM (95% CI: 1.84-2.60, p<0.0001). Several demographic and clinical covariates were also independently related to prescribing of MSMs by level of metabolic risk. This study used retrospective administrative data collected from a VA healthcare system database, which does not allow us to understand the context in which MSM treatment decisions were made. Prescribing choices for MSMs by VA mental health prescribers and female Veterans may reflect a growing awareness of the potential adverse health consequences of these treatments in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annie B; Meyer, Eric C; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the authors explored gender differences in attitudinal barriers to and facilitators of care for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and examined the relationship of those factors with VA mental health service use among female and male veterans with probable mental health conditions. Data were collected as part of a national cross-sectional survey of OEF/OIF veterans; the current sample was limited to participants with a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse (N = 278). Although negligible gender differences were observed in attitudes about VA care and perceived fit in the VA setting, men reported slightly more negative beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment than women. In addition, logistic regressions revealed different associations with VA mental health service use for women and men. For women only, positive perceptions of VA care were associated with increased likelihood of seeking mental health treatment. For men only, perceived similarity to other VA care users and negative beliefs about mental health treatment were associated with increased likelihood of service use, whereas negative beliefs about mental illness were associated with lower likelihood of service use. For both women and men, perceived entitlement to VA care was associated with increased likelihood of service use and negative beliefs about treatment-seeking were associated with a reduced likelihood of seeking mental health care in the past 6 months. Results support the need for tailored outreach to address unique barriers to mental health treatment for female and male OEF/OIF veterans.

  10. Sex Differences in Weight Loss among Veterans with Serious Mental Illness: Observational Study of a National Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, David E; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Verchinina, Lilia; Goldberg, Richard W; Littman, Alyson J; Janney, Carol A; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Maguen, Shira; Hoerster, Katherine D; Owen, Richard R; Holleman, Robert G; Roman, Pia; Lai, Zongshan; Bowersox, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Obesity disproportionately burdens individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), especially women. This observational study investigated whether there were sex differences in weight loss and program participation among veterans with SMI enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) MOVE! weight management program. Participants were identified from a national cohort of 148,254 veterans enrolled in MOVE! during fiscal years 2008 through 2012 who attended two or more sessions within 12 months of enrollment. The cohort included those with International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnoses for SMI, age less than 70 years, and weight data at baseline and one or more follow-up timepoints within approximately 1 year of enrollment (n = 8,943 men; n = 2,245 women). Linear mixed models assessed associations of sex with 6- and 12-month weight change from baseline, adjusting for demographic- and site-level variables. Both sexes averaged 6.4 (standard deviation, 4.6) sessions within 12 months; however, women with and without SMI participated at rates double their respective proportion rates among all VHA users. Participants averaged statistically significant weight loss at 6 months (men, -2.5 lb [95% CI, -2.8 to -2.1]; women, -2.4 lb [95% CI, -3.1 to -1.7]) and 12 months (men, -2.5 lb [95% CI, -2.8 to -2.2]; women, -2.9 lb [95% CI, -3.6 to -2.2]), but no sex-based difference in absolute weight loss at either timepoint. Slightly more women achieved 5% or greater (clinically significant) weight loss at the 12-month follow-up than did men (25.7% vs. 23.0%; p < .05). Women with SMI participated in MOVE! at rates equivalent to or greater than men with SMI, with comparable weight loss. More women were Black, single, had bipolar and posttraumatic stress disorder, and higher service-connected disability, suggesting areas for program customization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Mortality after cardiac or vascular operations by preexisting serious mental illness status in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Laurel A; Sako, Edward Y; Zeber, John E; Pugh, Mary Jo; Wang, Chen-Pin; MacCarthy, Andrea A; Restrepo, Marcos I; Mortensen, Eric M; Lawrence, Valerie A

    2014-01-01

    To estimate 1-year mortality risk associated with preoperative serious mental illness (SMI) as defined by the Veterans Health Administration (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], major depression) following nonambulatory cardiac or vascular surgical procedures compared to patients without SMI. Cardiac/vascular operations were selected because patients with SMI are known to be at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Retrospective analysis of system-wide data from electronic medical records of patients undergoing nonambulatory surgery (inpatient or day-of-surgery admission) October 2005-September 2009 with 1-year follow-up (N=55,864; 99% male; <30 days of postoperative hospitalization). Death was hypothesized to be more common among patients with preoperative SMI. One in nine patients had SMI, mostly PTSD (6%). One-year mortality varied by procedure type and SMI status. Patients had vascular operations (64%; 23% died), coronary artery bypass graft (26%; 10% died) or other cardiac operations (11%; 15%-18% died). Fourteen percent of patients with PTSD died, 20% without SMI and 24% with schizophrenia, with other groups intermediate. In multivariable stratified models, SMI was associated with increased mortality only for patients with bipolar disorder following cardiac operations. Bipolar disorder and PTSD were negatively associated with death following vascular operations. SMI is not consistently associated with postoperative mortality in covariate-adjusted analyses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Associations Between Psychiatric Inpatient Bed Supply and the Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness in Veterans Affairs Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Benjamin J.; McCarthy, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether reductions in inpatient psychiatric beds resulted in transinstitutionalization to nursing home care of patients with serious mental illness (SMI) within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods. We assessed trends in national and site-level inpatient psychiatric beds and nursing home patient demographics, service use, and functioning from the VHA National Patient Care Database, VHA Service Support Center Bed Control, and VHA Minimum Data Set. We estimated nursing home admission appropriateness using propensity score analyses based on Michigan Medicaid Nursing Facility Level of Care Determinations ratings. Results. From 1999 to 2007, the number of VHA inpatient psychiatric beds declined (43 894–40 928), the average inpatient length of stay decreased (33.1–19.0 days), and the prevalence of SMI in nursing homes rose (29.4%–43.8%). At site level, psychiatric inpatient bed availability was unrelated to SMI prevalence in nursing home admissions. However, nursing home residents with SMI were more likely to be inappropriately admitted than were residents without SMI (4.0% vs 3.2%). Conclusions. These results suggest the need for increased attention to the long-term care needs of individuals with SMI. Additional steps need to be taken to ensure that patients with SMI are offered appropriate alternatives to nursing home care and receive adequate screening before admission to nursing home treatment. PMID:23078462

  13. Predictors of patient communication in psychiatric medication encounters among veterans with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Hack, Samantha M; Medoff, Deborah R; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered psychiatric services rely on consumers actively sharing personal information, opinions, and preferences with their providers. This research examined predictors of consumer communication during appointments for psychiatric medication prescriptions. The Roter Interaction Analysis System was used to code recorded Veterans Affairs psychiatric appointments with 175 consumers and 21 psychiatric medication prescribers and categorize communication by purpose: biomedical, psychosocial, facilitation, or rapport-building. Regression analyses found that greater provider communication, symptomology, orientation to psychiatric recovery, and functioning on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Attention and Language indices, as well as consumer diagnostic label, were positive predictors of consumer communication, though the types of communication impacted varied. Provider communication is the easiest variable to intervene on to create changes in consumer communication. Future research should also consider how cognitive and symptom factors may impact specific types of consumer communication in order to identify subgroups for targeted interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you or someone you know has a mental illness, there are ways to get help. Use these ... Support Alliance Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer ...

  15. Stigma, career worry, and mental illness symptomatology: Factors influencing treatment-seeking for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers and veterans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas B; Bruce, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Mental health related stigma, as well as mental illness symptomatology, have been shown to negatively impact treatment-seeking within military populations. However, few studies have delineated the 2 forms of stigma (self-stigma and public stigma), and none have differentiated between stigma and career-related consequences (career worry). The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of low treatment-seeking rates among soldiers and veterans by expanding upon previous measurements of the stigma construct and examining factors influencing willingness to seek treatment. The sample consisted of 276 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) soldiers and veterans. Individual levels of self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry were measured, as were levels of willingness to seek treatment. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and substance abuse were also evaluated to account for the influence of mental illness on treatment-seeking. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor model including self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry fit the data significantly better than a 1- or 2- factor model. A multiple regression analysis also revealed that these 3 factors, combined with mental illness symptomatology, significantly predicted individual levels of willingness to seek treatment. Career worry was the strongest predictor, particularly for individuals with no treatment history. This study confirmed that career worry is a factor independent of self-stigma and public stigma. Findings indicate that a fear of negatively affecting one's career is the most influential factor in determining willingness to seek mental health treatment for the military population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Military sexual trauma as a determinant in the development of mental and physical illness in male and female veterans.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Betsy S; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Military Sexual Trauma (MST) is defined as sexual harassment and or sexual assault experienced by a military service member. It is much more widespread and common than reported. It is associated with pre-combat traumatic experiences and pathologic sequelae including mental and medical illness. An electronic search of the major behavioral science databases was conducted to retrieve studies detailing the social, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of MST and its relationship to psychiatric and medical illness. Studies indicate that military sexual trauma is related to an increase in psychiatric pathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse and dependence, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and suicidal behavior. MST is also related to an increase in medical illness, primarily pain-related symptoms involving multiple organ systems, including gastrointestinal, neurological, genitourinary and musculoskeletal. MST is associated with an increased prevalence of mental and physical illness. Although there are some gender differences in the reported rates of MST and there may be some variables, such as prior traumatic experiences, that may make an individual more vulnerable to the psychiatric and medical sequela of MST, it is clear that MST is a major healthcare issue that affects both sexes and warrants further attention and an increase in clinical resources devoted to it. Some preventive measures for decreasing the prevalence of MST may include increasing education and legal prosecution of perpetrators in the military, and increasing access to mental health services for individuals who have suffered from MST.

  17. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... anxiety disorder, are the most common class of mental disorders present in the general population. 5 The estimated ...

  18. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  19. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  20. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.

  1. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The second...

  2. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The Gulf...

  3. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The third...

  4. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  5. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  6. 77 FR 12522 - Tentative Eligibility Determinations; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than...; Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and other mental illness.'' Copies of comments received will be...

  7. Linking Returning Veterans in Rural Community Colleges to Mental Health Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Community Colleges, Veterans 3 Introduction The onset of mental illness typically occurs before age 241 and these disorders account for about...half of the overall burden of illness for adolescents and young adults.2 Early detection and treatment is critical because, if left untreated, mental ...15,16 Another important reason to better understand mental illness on community college campuses is that a substantial number of veterans from

  8. Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Prognosis of Mental Health Among US Veterans.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ranak B; Post, Edward P; Sun, Haili; Pomerantz, Andrew; Saxon, Andrew J; Piette, John D; Maynard, Charles; Arnow, Bruce; Curtis, Idamay; Fihn, Stephan D; Nelson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the association of mental illnesses with clinical outcomes among US veterans and evaluated the effects of Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PCMHI). A total of 4 461 208 veterans were seen in the Veterans Health Administration's patient-centered medical homes called Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) in 2010 and 2011, of whom 1 147 022 had at least 1 diagnosis of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), anxiety disorder, or serious mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia or bipolar disorder). We estimated 1-year risk of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and mortality by mental illness category and by PCMHI involvement. A quarter of all PACT patients reported 1 or more mental illnesses. Depression, SMI, and SUD were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or death. PTSD was associated with lower odds of ED visits and mortality. Having 1 or more contact with PCMHI was associated with better outcomes. Mental illnesses are associated with poor outcomes, but integrating mental health treatment in primary care may be associated with lower risk of those outcomes.

  9. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  10. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  11. Mental Health Among Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Treven; Rothman, David; Crawford, Eric F; Brancu, Mira; Fairbank, John A; Kudler, Harold S

    2015-01-01

    This commentary describes the prevalence of mental health problems affecting military service members and veterans in North Carolina and the rest of the nation, with a special emphasis on those who served in the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Approximately 1.9 million of these veterans have become eligible for Veterans Affairs health care since 2002, and an estimated 1.16 million veterans have registered for this care.

  12. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  13. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  14. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  15. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  16. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    MedlinePlus

    ... others and how to recognize the symptoms of mental illness in yourself or someone else. Who Should I ... emotional conditions. The Dangers of Not Disclosing Untreated mental illness can, however, damage your career. If the symptoms ...

  17. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  18. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  19. Systematic review of women veterans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices.

  1. Mental illness and criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, J A; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    1998-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between criminal violence and mental illness. Our data suggest that mentally ill persons tend to have an increased risk for committing violent offenses, and that the violent offending by these individuals tends to be recidivistic. Our findings suggest that parents who have both committed violent offenses and experienced a psychiatric hospitalization increase the risk of violent offending among their offspring. We propose the hypothesis that mentally ill parents transmit a biological characteristic which may genetically predispose their child towards criminal violence. Prenatal disturbances during critical periods of fetal development may provide clues regarding the etiology of criminal violence.

  2. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William J. Meggs, MD...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09...that many with Gulf War Illness could enter either the naltrexone or dextromethorphan arm but not both. We are applying to allow subjects to enter

  3. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  4. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  5. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  6. Mental health risk and social ecological variables associated with educational attainment for gulf war veterans: implications for veterans returning to civilian life.

    PubMed

    Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2009-12-01

    This study examines how post-secondary educational attainment among young veterans of the first gulf war affects their mental health status. The all-volunteer military attracts recruits by offering them veterans' educational benefits. Education should help veterans adjust to civilian life. Few studies have shown whether education following military service helps improve veterans' mental health, however. Viewing resiliency, life span and life course, and social geography theories through the lens of social ecology, it is hypothesized that selected contextual factors in the personal, interpersonal, and organizational domains could mediate or moderate the relationship between education and veterans' mental health. Informational social networks showed an association with obtaining mental illness treatment. Recent treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed an association with use of veterans' educational benefits. Residing with a small nuclear family in conjunction with having higher levels of health and educational benefits and a higher family income was associated with higher educational attainment.

  7. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  8. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... of benign genes ID’s ASD suspects More Additional Mental Health Information from NIMH Medications Statistics Clinical Trials Coping ... Finder Publicaciones en Español The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

  9. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and treatment issues. Recovery from depression takes time, but treatment can improve the quality of life even if you have a medical illness. Treatments for depression include: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or talk therapy, ...

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  11. [Creativity and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  12. Mental Health Care Utilization: How Race, Ethnicity and Veteran Status are Associated with Seeking Help.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Hentschel, Elizabeth A W; King, Erika; Amen, Sally

    2016-02-01

    As veterans disproportionately experience higher rates of mental illness than civilians, conflicting results surround the impact of race/ethnicity on treatment utilization. This study utilized the CDC's Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, a random-digit dialed telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults. A subset of Texas respondents (n = 8563) were asked questions related to mental health treatment, stigma, help-seeking attitudes and emotional support. While no differences were found in health care utilization between non-Hispanic white veterans and non-veterans, there were distinct patterns among racial/ethnic minority veterans and non-veterans. Black and Latino non-veterans reported significantly lower health care utilization compared to non-Hispanic white non-veterans. Among veterans, there were no differences in reported utilization rates comparing non-Hispanic whites and Latinos and also non-Hispanic whites and Blacks. Our study adds to the literature by examining health care utilization among a diverse group of veterans by focusing on Veterans Administration (VA) and non-VA services to veterans.

  13. Mental Illness Disclosure Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rohini; Fulginiti, Anthony; Brekke, John S; Rice, Eric

    2017-04-10

    Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) by Greene (2009) to better understand the processes of mental illness disclosure preference and selective disclosure for individuals with SMI (n = 60) using multivariate random intercept logistic regression with an emphasis on the constituent factors of disclosure preference at both individual and relational levels. The majority of participants were found to practice selective disclosure, with 68% of the participants identifying at least 1 network member to whom they could disclose. Family members and friends were central to the selective disclosure process, comprising the greatest proportion of network members who, both were and were not identified as preferred confidants. Women were found to show higher odds of preference for mental illness disclosure than men. Having lower perceived social support was associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Among relational factors, greater relationship availability and lower dyadic tangible social support were associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Practice and research implications of using social network analysis to get a deeper understanding of disclosure and disclosure preference are discussed, including implications for future interventions targeting stigma reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  15. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness.

  16. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  17. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  18. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  19. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.

  20. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  1. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  2. Violence and mental illness: an overview.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-06-01

    THIS PAPER EVALUATES THE RELATIONSHIP OF MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENCE BY ASKING THREE QUESTIONS: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not. Therefore, early identification and treatment of substance abuse problems, and greater attention to the diagnosis and management of concurrent substance abuse disorders among seriously mentally ill, may be potential violence prevention strategies. Members of the public exaggerate both the strength of the association between mental illness and violence and their own personal risk. Finally, too little is known about the social contextual determinants of violence, but research supports the view the mentally ill are more often victims than perpetrators of violence.

  3. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  4. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  5. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  6. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  7. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  8. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Mental illness False beliefs about mental illness can cause significant problems. Learn what you can do about stigma. By Mayo Clinic ... as someone making a negative remark about your mental illness or your treatment. Or it may be unintentional ...

  9. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness; an innovative framework, which considers family members' experiences and responses to mental illness. There is an acknowledged discourse noting parental experiences of mental illness alongside a growing body of knowledge acknowledging children's needs while living with parental mental illness. However, there is a paucity of literature that makes reference to the concept of familial mental illness and the cyclic interface of parental and child distress and symptoms. The model is supported by published research studies from several differing disciplines to demonstrate the relationship between parent and child experiences and to synthesise the published short- and longer-term possible impact of familial mental illness. An extensive search of the literature using recognised search engines, keywords and phrases has been undertaken, to generate an appropriate literature base for this work. This literature demonstrates how a child's possible emotional distancing as a response to parental mental illness could increase parental distress. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness adopts the underpinning philosophy of a Stress Vulnerability Model of Mental Illness, which assumes that predisposing factors and increased stress for a parent may have possible links to exacerbation of parental mental distress and symptomology. We advocate for further research of familial mental illness, and argue for a family approach to mental health assessment and treatment in mainstream health and social care sectors.

  10. 75 FR 28686 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 28-29, 2010, in room 230 at... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses...

  11. 75 FR 8789 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on March 1-2, 2010, in room 230 at... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War veterans' illnesses...

  12. 75 FR 65405 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on November 1-2, 2010, in the Boston... Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities related to Gulf War veterans' illnesses...

  13. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Bringing the war back home: mental health disorders among 103,788 US veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan seen at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Bertenthal, Daniel; Miner, Christian R; Sen, Saunak; Marmar, Charles

    2007-03-12

    Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) have endured high combat stress and are eligible for 2 years of free military service-related health care through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, yet little is known about the burden and clinical circumstances of mental health diagnoses among OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA facilities. US veterans separated from OEF/OIF military service and first seen at VA health care facilities between September 30, 2001 (US invasion of Afghanistan), and September 30, 2005, were included. Mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were assessed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The prevalence and clinical circumstances of and subgroups at greatest risk for mental health disorders are described herein. Of 103 788 OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA health care facilities, 25 658 (25%) received mental health diagnosis(es); 56% of whom had 2 or more distinct mental health diagnoses. Overall, 32 010 (31%) received mental health and/or psychosocial diagnoses. Mental health diagnoses were detected soon after the first VA clinic visit (median of 13 days), and most initial mental health diagnoses (60%) were made in nonmental health clinics, mostly primary care settings. The youngest group of OEF/OIF veterans (age, 18-24 years) were at greatest risk for receiving mental health or posttraumatic stress disorder diagnoses compared with veterans 40 years or older. Co-occurring mental health diagnoses and psychosocial problems were detected early and in primary care medical settings in a substantial proportion of OEF/OIF veterans seen at VA facilities. Targeted early detection and intervention beginning in primary care settings are needed to prevent chronic mental illness and disability.

  15. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  16. [Pets for the mentally ill].

    PubMed

    Jonas, C; Feline, A

    1981-07-01

    After studying the historical importance of the domestic animal through the ages and the role of the "pet" animal in the contemporary world, the authors present an analysis of the literature dealing with the function of the animal in child development and the use of animals as therapeutic "tools". The author's then consider, based on a series of observations, the relationship certain mentally ill patients may establish with one or several pet animals and the significance this object relation may have for the patient : animals become invested as counter depressive or delusional objects, auxiliary means for identification and projection, symbiotic relationship, as well as encouraging feeling of security and responsibility.

  17. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  18. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  19. Trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs health care, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Metzler, Thomas J; Gima, Kristian S; Bertenthal, Daniel; Maguen, Shira; Marmar, Charles R

    2009-09-01

    We sought to investigate longitudinal trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We determined the prevalence and predictors of mental health diagnoses among 289,328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans entering Veterans Affairs (VA) health care from 2002 to 2008 using national VA data. Of 289,328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, 106,726 (36.9%) received mental health diagnoses; 62,929 (21.8%) were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 50 432 (17.4%) with depression. Adjusted 2-year prevalence rates of PTSD increased 4 to 7 times after the invasion of Iraq. Active duty veterans younger than 25 years had higher rates of PTSD and alcohol and drug use disorder diagnoses compared with active duty veterans older than 40 years (adjusted relative risk = 2.0 and 4.9, respectively). Women were at higher risk for depression than were men, but men had over twice the risk for drug use disorders. Greater combat exposure was associated with higher risk for PTSD. Mental health diagnoses increased substantially after the start of the Iraq War among specific subgroups of returned veterans entering VA health care. Early targeted interventions may prevent chronic mental illness.

  20. Mental Health Services Use Trends in Canadian Veterans: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Alyson L; Aiken, Alice B; Cramm, Heidi; Whitehead, Marlo; Groome, Patti; Kurdyak, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A substantial evidence base in the peer-reviewed literature exists investigating mental illness in the military, but relatively less is documented about mental illness in veterans. This study uses provincial, administrative data to study the use of mental health services by Canadian veterans in Ontario. This was a retrospective cohort study of Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police veterans who were released between 1990 and 2013 and resided in Ontario. Mental health-related primary care physician, psychiatrist, emergency department (ED) visits, and psychiatric hospitalisations were counted. Repeated measures were presented in 5-year intervals, stratified by age at release. The cohort included 23,818 veterans. In the first 5 years following entry into the health care system, 28.9% of veterans had ≥1 mental health-related primary care physician visit, 5.8% visited a psychiatrist at least once, and 2.4% received acute mental health services at an ED. The use of mental health services was consistent over time. Almost 8% of veterans aged 30 to 39 years saw a psychiatrist in the first 5 years after release, compared to 3.5% of veterans aged ≥50 years at release. The youngest veterans at release (<30 years) were the most frequent users of ED services for a mental health-related reason (5.1% had at least 1 ED visit). Understanding how veterans use the health care system for mental health problems is an important step to ensuring needs are met during the transition to civilian life.

  1. Mental illness: media perpetuation of stigma.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Taylor, J

    1995-03-01

    Content analysis of 83 newspaper articles from February 1991 to January 1993 was the chosen method to determine the role of newspapers in the portrayal of the mentally ill. Two emergent themes arose: the closure of a mental health hospital was viewed negatively; and the stereotypical perception of the mentally ill as violent and unpredictable was reinforced. Over the two year period of the study the shift in focus from the ideology of de-institutionalisation, funding issues, crisis and chaos in the mental health hospital eventuated in an emphasis on the negativity associated with mental illness.

  2. Mental health provider perspectives regarding integrated medical care for patients with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Bauer, Mark S; Charns, Martin P; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2012-11-01

    Integrated care for medical conditions is essential for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). This qualitative study describes mental health provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators of integrated care for patients with SMI. We interviewed providers from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that scored in the top or bottom percentile in medical care quality. Providers from high-performing sites reported substantial in-person contacts with general medical providers, while providers from low-performing sites reported stigma and limited communication with medical providers as major concerns. Interventions to improve mental health and medical provider communication may facilitate integrated care for persons with SMI.

  3. Mental Health and Medical Health Disparities in 5135 Transgender Veterans Receiving Healthcare in the Veterans Health Administration: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, George R; Jones, Kenneth T

    2016-04-01

    There are no large controlled studies of health disparities in transgender (TG) or gender dysphoric patients. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is the largest healthcare system in the United States and was an early adopter of electronic health records. We sought to determine whether medical and/or mental health disparities exist in VHA for clinically diagnosed TG veterans compared to matched veterans without a clinical diagnosis consistent with TG status. Using four ICD-9-CM codes consistent with TG identification, a cohort of 5135 TG veterans treated in VHA between 1996 and 2013 was identified. Veterans without one of these diagnoses were matched 1:3 in a case-control design to determine if medical and/or mental health disparities exist in the TG veteran population. In 2013, the prevalence of TG veterans with a qualifying clinical diagnosis was 58/100,000 patients. Statistically significant disparities were present in the TG cohort for all 10 mental health conditions examined, including depression, suicidality, serious mental illnesses, and post-traumatic stress disorder. TG Veterans were more likely to have been homeless, to have reported sexual trauma while on active duty, and to have been incarcerated. Significant disparities in the prevalence of medical diagnoses for TG veterans were also detected for 16/17 diagnoses examined, with HIV disease representing the largest disparity between groups. This is the first study to examine a large cohort of clinically diagnosed TG patients for psychiatric and medical health outcome disparities using longitudinal, retrospective medical chart data with a matched control group. TG veterans were found to have global disparities in psychiatric and medical diagnoses compared to matched non-TG veterans. These findings have significant implications for policy, healthcare screening, and service delivery in VHA and potentially other healthcare systems.

  4. Mental health-related beliefs as a barrier to service use for military personnel and veterans: a review.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dawne

    2011-02-01

    Although military personnel are at high risk of mental health problems, research findings indicate that many military personnel and veterans do not seek needed mental health care. Thus it is critical to identify factors that interfere with the use of mental health services for this population, and where possible, intervene to reduce barriers to care. The overarching goal of this review was to examine what is known with regard to concerns about public stigma and personal beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment as potential barriers to service use in military and veteran populations and to provide recommendations for future research on this topic. Fifteen empirical articles on mental health beliefs and service use were identified via a review of the military and veteran literature included in PsycINFO and PubMed databases. Although results suggest that mental health beliefs may be an important predictor of service use for this population, several gaps were identified in the current literature. Limitations include a lack of attention to the association between mental health beliefs and service use, a limited focus on personal beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment, and the application of measures of mental health beliefs with questionable or undocumented psychometric properties. Studies that attend to these important issues and that examine mental health beliefs in the broader context within which decisions about seeking health care are made can be used to best target resources to engage military personnel and veterans in health care.

  5. Mental and physical health and acculturation among Hispanic Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A N; Rosenheck, R

    2001-10-01

    This study tested the associations between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanic Vietnam veterans. Secondary data analyses of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Survey, an epidemiological study of a representative sample of veterans who served during the Vietnam era (N = 1,195), were conducted. An acculturation index was constructed using standard acculturation measures (range, 0-13), and its predictive validity was tested using nine outcome measures of physical health and eight measures of mental health. Among Puerto Rican and Mexican-American veterans, the scores on the acculturation index ranged from 0 to 12. Hispanic veterans were distributed across the acculturation continuum as follows: 0 to 3 (24%), 4 to 7 (59%), 8 to 12 (17%). The acculturation scores were not associated with mental or physical health risks for Hispanic veterans. Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans did not differ in mental or physical health risk compared with non-Hispanic whites. The association between acculturation and mental and physical health among Hispanics may not be generalized to Hispanic veterans. Hispanics who have been through an intensive assimilating experience, such as being in the military, appear to have health outcomes similar to whites.

  6. Moral injury, meaning making, and mental health in returning veterans.

    PubMed

    Currier, Joseph M; Holland, Jason M; Malott, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether exposure to morally injurious experiences (MIEs) contribute to mental health problems among returning Veterans via meaning made of possible traumas. A total of 131 Iraq and/or Afghanistan Veterans completed assessments of exposure to possible warzone traumas, meaning made of a salient stressor from their lives, and mental health symptomatology (e.g., posttraumatic stress, depression, suicidality). Structural equation modeling findings revealed that MIEs were indirectly linked with mental health outcomes via the extent to which Veterans were able to make meaning of their identified stressors. However, we also found that the direct path from MIEs to mental health problems was statistically significant. These findings provide preliminary evidence that difficulties with meaning making could serve as a mediating pathway for how MIEs increase the risk for adjustment problems after warzone service, but that other factors associated with moral injury also have a bearing on psychological functioning among Veterans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  8. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  9. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  10. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. Participants: A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven…

  11. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. Participants: A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven…

  12. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... serious mental illness, including veterans who are homeless.'' One of VA's national priorities is a... from serious mental illness or a substance use disorder. Many of the veterans for whom the HCHV program... system. Through the HCHV program, VA identifies homeless veterans with serious mental illness and/or...

  13. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advancing care, treatment for patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Moy, Clifford

    2015-02-01

    Publication of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition and subsequent editions vastly increased innovation of psychiatric treatment and clarified diagnosis in a wide range of practice settings. Current treatment is now more objective, consistent, and effective than in days past. Our new challenge is to reach more patients with proportionately smaller mental health resources. As we see media headlines of the tragedies of undiagnosed and untreated mental illness, this edition's articles address the pressing needs of children and adolescents, patients with chronic pain, and our military veterans. These are cause for careful consideration and risk for all physicians, not only psychiatrists. The articles in the Symposium on Mental Health will increase awareness and guide treatment and management of frequently seen conditions in primary care and general settings. The intersection of public and private treatment care settings may further complicate the sensitive and timely referral of patients as access to care necessarily adapts to available resources.

  15. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    PubMed Central

    STUART, HEATHER

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not. Therefore, early identification and treatment of substance abuse problems, and greater attention to the diagnosis and management of concurrent substance abuse disorders among seriously mentally ill, may be potential violence prevention strategies. Members of the public exaggerate both the strength of the association between mental illness and violence and their own personal risk. Finally, too little is known about the social contextual determinants of violence, but research supports the view the mentally ill are more often victims than perpetrators of violence. PMID:16946914

  16. Department of Veterans Affairs Gulf War VeteransIllnesses Task Force to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    stimulatory molecules during vaccination of mice with Leishmania major antigen and cytokine adjuvants. The investigators hypothesized that distinct...Examine the role of SIRPU expression on astrocytoma responses to mitogenic stimuli, motility, and adhesion; (3) Identify molecules associated with the...Illness Research Program within CDMRP (DoD). A clinical study to examine the effects of aspirin and Clopidogrel on biomarkers of Gulf War Veterans

  17. Risk factors for mental, physical, and functional health in Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Bolton, Elisa E; Knight, Jeffrey A; Vogt, Dawne S

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors associated with war-zone events and circumstances are implicated in the health and adjustment of military veterans. We assessed a national stratified sample of community-residing veterans of the Gulf War (N = 357) using scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, along with an array of mental (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety), physical (symptom and condition indicators especially pertinent to Gulf War illnesses), and functional (both mental and physical dimensions) health outcomes. We found that perceived threat or fear of bodily harm in the war zone and self-reported or perceived exposures to environmental hazards may play a critical role in all measured aspects of health. Moreover, a synergistic effect of these two risk factors was observed in the prediction of mental health and mental health functional status.

  18. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  19. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & Families ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Warning Signs of Mental ...

  20. Mental illness in Disney animated films.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Andrea; Fouts, Gregory

    2004-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of verbalizations about mental illness in the animated feature films of The Walt Disney Company (TWDC). We discuss the results within the context of children's repeated exposure to popular animated movies and their learning of labels and stereotypes associated with mental illness. We recommend further research on this topic. We coded 34 animated feature films produced by TWDC for mental illness references (for example, "crazy" or "nuts"). We developed a coding manual to systematize the content analysis, to ensure accuracy of the data, and to ascertain intercoder reliability. Most of the films (that is, 85%) contain verbal references to mental illness, with an average of 4.6 references per film. The references were mainly used to set apart and denigrate the characters to whom they referred. Twenty-one percent of the principal characters were referred to as mentally ill. We discuss the contributions and limitations of the study. The findings have implications for child viewers in terms of their potentially learning prejudicial attitudes and distancing behaviours toward individuals perceived as being mentally ill. To further verify this connection, an assessment of the incidence of Disney film exposure and attitudes toward people with a mental illness, using a sample of school-aged children, is needed.

  1. Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness.

    PubMed

    Manderscheid, Ronald W; Ryff, Carol D; Freeman, Elsie J; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Dhingra, Satvinder; Strine, Tara W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  2. Electrotherapy and mental illness: then and now.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2008-09-01

    Today electrotherapy has reappeared as a therapy of choice for the treatment of depression and other forms of mental illness. It had de facto vanished from allopathic medicine from the 1920s to the end of the century. The debates about electrotherapy mirror the question of whether mental illness was somatic and to be treated by somatic means or psychological to be treated with psychotherapy. Sigmund Freud's move from an advocate to an opponent of electrotherapy is exemplary for a shift in attitude and the decline of electrotherapy. With the re-somaticization of mental illness over the past decades has come the reappearance of somatic therapies such as electrotherapy.

  3. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  4. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  5. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  6. Stigmatization of mental illness among Nigerian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella, Tolulope; Atitola, Olayinka

    2010-09-01

    Despite the fact that about 10% of children experience mental health problems, they tend to hold negative views about mental illness. The objective of this study was to investigate the views of Nigerian schoolchildren towards individuals with mental illness or mental health problems. A cross-sectional design was used. Junior and senior secondary schoolchildren from rural and urban southwest Nigeria were asked: 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' The responses were tabulated, grouped and interpreted by qualitative thematic analysis. Of 164 students, 132 (80.5%) responded to the question. Six major themes emerged from the answers. The most popular descriptions were 'derogatory terms' (33%). This was followed by 'abnormal appearance and behaviour' (29.6%); 'don't know' answers (13.6%); 'physical illness and disability' (13.6%); 'negative emotional states' (6.8%); and 'language and communication difficulties' (3.4%). The results suggest that, similar to findings elsewhere, stigmatization of mental illness is highly prevalent among Nigerian children. This may be underpinned by lack of knowledge regarding mental health problems and/or fuelled by the media. Educational interventions and encouraging contact with mentally ill persons could play a role in reducing stigma among schoolchildren.

  7. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives.

  8. Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Seizure Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…

  9. Timing of mental illness onset and motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Carol T; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The timing of mental illness onset in relationship to birth of children was explored as a possible indicator of the extent to which mothers experienced difficulties in parenting and functioning. Analyses employed data from a longitudinal study of urban-based, primarily minority mothers with mental illness (N = 379) who had parenting responsibility for their minor children. We found that women who were parents first and experienced mental illness onset after the birth of all their children showed the most positive trajectories over the study course. Mothers whose mental illness onset occurred before the birth of any of their children also showed improvements in functioning and symptomatology over time. In contrast, mothers whose mental illness onset had occurred in temporal proximity to the birth of a child showed little improvement. They also were younger, on average, at first birth, and had the largest number of children. Thus, timing of mental illness onset and childbirth may be predictive of longer-term maternal functioning and therefore may be useful in clinical assessment and treatment.

  10. Programmes for parents with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, A; Maybery, D

    2011-04-01

    Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Mental illness and the dental patient.

    PubMed

    Longley, Alison J; Doyle, Patricia E

    2003-01-01

    Virtually every oral health care practice includes patients with mental illness. This continuing education (CE) course gives a practical overview of common psychiatric disorders, their effects on oral and dental health, and conditions associated with mental illness that affect oral health treatment. Following a brief description of mental illnesses, information on conducting a mental health interview and making a psychiatric referral are provided. Oral health problems associated with mental illness and factors affecting treatment delivery are discussed, as well as ideas for avoiding potentially dangerous medication interactions and working with fearful, suspicious, or cognitively impaired patients. Ways in which dental hygienists can work with case managers to provide much needed oral health care to patients whose illness is severe or chronic are covered. Examples are given of work with clients illustrating principles described in the text. The purpose of this course is to provide oral health personnel the information they need to knowledgeably care for patients who have mental illness. Successful completion will be assessed with a post-test to be completed after reading the article in its entirety, including figures and case-reports. Two continuing education course credit hours will be awarded following successful completion of the post-test.

  12. Rural Veterans Mental Health Care Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT

    2013-06-12

    Senate - 10/30/2013 Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 113-280. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    MedlinePlus

    ... support program for returning vets. Maintaining a Strong Body and Mind Here are some important tips and suggestions for maintaining a strong body and mind: Reach out to other veterans or veterans’ groups. ...

  14. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  15. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  16. Adult Sex Roles and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Walter R.; Tudor, Jeannette F.

    1973-01-01

    Patterned variations in the rates of mental illness among men and women have been described suggesting that the ordering of these rates is a reflection of the position of men and women in society, with womens roles contributing to their higher incidence of illness. (Author/JB)

  17. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  18. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  19. The Victimization of the Homeless Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    An indication of the failure of the mental health system in this country is reflected in the increasingly visible homeless population, many of whom suffer from some form of untreated mental illness. Public policy priorities have shifted from proactive, treatment-oriented policies to reactive, punitive institutionalization. The…

  20. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  1. How the Media Cover Mental Illnesses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zexin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Mental illness has become an important public health issue in society, and media are the most common sources of information about mental illnesses. Thus, it is important to review research on mental illnesses and media. The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of studies on mental illnesses in the media and identifies…

  2. 76 FR 9407 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program, and National Institute for Health research programs. The... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on February 28- March 1, 2011....

  3. 78 FR 77205 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on January 7-8, 2014. The meeting... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program...

  4. 77 FR 2353 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on January 31 and February 1, 2012... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program...

  5. 78 FR 5871 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory ] Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will conduct a telephone conference call... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will discuss its annual report...

  6. 76 FR 31018 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses; Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 27-28, 2011. On June 27, the... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program...

  7. Veterans' Mental Health in Higher Education Settings: Services and Clinician Education Needs.

    PubMed

    Niv, Noosha; Bennett, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Utilization of the GI Bill and attendance at higher education institutions among student veterans have significantly increased since passage of the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Campus counseling centers should be prepared to meet the mental health needs of student veterans. This study identified the mental health resources and services that colleges provide student veterans and the education needs of clinical staff on how to serve student veterans. Directors of mental health services from 80 California colleges completed a semistructured phone interview. Few schools track the number, demographic characteristics, or presenting needs of student veterans who utilize campus mental health services or offer priority access or special mental health services for veterans. Directors wanted centers to receive education for an average of 5.8 veteran-related mental health topics and preferred workshops and lectures to handouts and online training. Significant training needs exist among clinical staff of campus mental health services to meet the needs of student veterans.

  8. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  9. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  10. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  11. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  12. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  13. A Bibliography for Schools on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…

  14. A Bibliography for Families on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for families lists 44 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1987 through 1994. The list is organized into the following categories: directories and bibliographies, other print resources, and information in Spanish. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of…

  15. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  16. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  17. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed.

  18. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  19. Mental health nurses' attitudes towards severe perinatal mental illness.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Susan; Whitford, Heather

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the experiences and attitudes of generic mental health nurses towards care of women with severe mental illness during the perinatal period. Severe mental disorder in the perinatal period is a global public health concern. However, there are concerns that mental health nurses other than dedicated perinatal mental health teams may lack knowledge, skills and experience in caring for such disorders, because of their low prevalence. Sixteen generic Registered Mental Nurses working in public adult mental health services participated in three focus groups during 2007. Participants did not perceive any difference between symptoms during perinatal and non-perinatal periods. There were mixed attitudes towards caring for women with severe mental illness in the perinatal period. Fear and anxiety was expressed by the nurses when caring or feeling responsible for the babies of clients. Lack of communication between professional groups and decreased clinical decision-making following the introduction of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale caused frustration. Confidence was displayed when working with known and trusted colleagues. Generic mental health nurses would benefit from more education on perinatal mental health and there may be a need for them to be supported by specialist perinatal mental health practitioners.

  20. Mental health services for parents affected by mental illness.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Silvia; Becker, Thomas; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2013-07-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of support needs of families affected by parental mental illness, there is a lack of adequate mental healthcare provision for parents. As contemporary mental health services are both user-focused and evidence based, the present review focuses on knowledge regarding the subjective perspective on parenting issues among affected parents and the evidence base for parenting programs. There has been a shift in the research focus from adverse effects of parental mental illness on children toward inclusion and the subjective perspective in affected mothers and, more recently, fathers with mental health problems. Parents report on role conflicts, parenting difficulties, and stigma. Despite a broad spectrum of parental needs, many parents are reluctant to use services. There is an increasing evidence base for intervention programs. Adequate care for parents affected by mental illness requires sensitivity for parents' subjective perspective, interagency collaboration, standard intake practice, high level of professional knowledge and skills, provision of family-friendly environments, evidence-based parenting programs comprising both individual and group approaches and peer support. There is a lack of research on other parenting needs such as desire for children, coping with custody loss, and childlessness related to mental illness.

  1. Mental illness, stigma, and the media.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    Society is ingrained with prejudice toward mental illness, and sufferers are often widely perceived to be dangerous or unpredictable. Reinforcement of these popular myths through the media can perpetuate the stigma surrounding mental illness, precipitating shame, self-blame, and secrecy, all of which discourage affected individuals from seeking treatment. Efforts aimed at countering stigma in mental illness are faced with the challenge of centuries of discrimination and must, therefore, replace existing stereotypes with coverage of positive outcomes, as a first step in achieving the daunting task of overcoming these negative stereotypes. Long-term anti-stigma campaigns that encompass human-rights-based, normalization, and educational approaches are needed. The involvement of the media is essential for success, but, in order for the media to be used effectively, its motivations and limitations must first be recognized and understood.

  2. Sex-dependent mental illnesses and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Akiko; Rappeneau, Virginie

    2017-03-06

    The prevalence of some mental illnesses, including major depression, anxiety-, trauma-, and stress-related disorders, some substance use disorders, and later onset of schizophrenia, is higher in women than men. While the higher prevalence in women could simply be explained by socioeconomic determinants, such as income, social status, or cultural background, extensive studies show sex differences in biological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological factors contribute to females' vulnerability to these mental illnesses. In this review, we focus on estrogens, chronic stress, and neurotoxicity from behavioral, pharmacological, biological, and molecular perspectives to delineate the sex differences in these mental illnesses. Particularly, we investigate a possible role of mitochondrial function, including biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and signaling, on mediating the sex differences in psychiatric disorders.

  3. Development of Dietary Polyphenol Preparations for Treating Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0599 TITLE: Development of Dietary Polyphenol Preparations for Treating Veterans with Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Dietary Polyphenol Preparations for Treating Veterans with Gulf War Illness ...treatments for Gulf War Illness (GWI) and there is an urgent need to develop novel interventions either to resolve underlying GWI mechanisms, or to

  4. Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611

  5. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Stigmatizing of persons with a mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-04-18

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.

  7. Law & psychiatry: Murder, inheritance, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.

  8. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster.

  9. Neighborhood Characteristics and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Harold F.; Manderscheid, Ronald W.; Holzer, Charles E., III

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of incorporating both individual and neighborhood risk factors into predictive mental health needs assessment models. Data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey and the 1980 Census suggest that, with the exception of neighborhood social rank, neighborhood social area dimensions rarely make substantive contributions…

  10. "Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

  11. "Alternative to Prison" Programs for the Mentally Ill Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…

  12. Discrimination, poor mental health, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination is a major public health issue. Discrimination is known and well recognized to be associated with poor physical and mental health, as well as creating social divisions and fear that undermines the success of society and economic progress. Policies to eradicate discrimination and prejudice in the public sphere, and in public life, need thoughtful and careful planning and engagement by all public institutions and in the way they conduct their business. This forms the basis of social justice. Employers, politicians, and public servants, as well as other stakeholders, irrespective of their professional status, all have ethical responsibilities to uphold such actions and policies, values, and supporting behaviours, as a core principle of successful societies.

  13. Prevalence of probable mental disorders and help-seeking behaviors among veteran and non-veteran community college students.

    PubMed

    Fortney, John C; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hunt, Justin B; Cheney, Ann M; Lu, Liya; Valenstein, Marcia; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of disadvantaged youth and returning veterans are enrolled in community colleges. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and help-seeking behaviors among community college students. Veterans (n=211) and non-veterans (n=554) were recruited from 11 community colleges and administered screeners for depression (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), posttraumatic stress disorder (PC-PTSD), non-lethal self-injury, suicide ideation and suicide intent. The survey also asked about the perceived need for, barriers to and utilization of services. Regression analysis was used to compare prevalence between non-veterans and veterans adjusting for non-modifiable factors (age, gender and race/ethnicity). A large proportion of student veterans and non-veterans screened positive and unadjusted bivariate comparisons indicated that student veterans had a significantly higher prevalence of positive depression screens (33.1% versus 19.5%, P<.01), positive PTSD screens (25.7% versus 12.6%, P<.01) and suicide ideation (19.2% versus 10.6%, P=.01). Adjusting for age, gender and race/ethnicity, veterans were significantly more likely than non-veterans to screen positive for depression (OR=2.10, P=.01) and suicide ideation (OR=2.31, P=.03). Student veterans had significantly higher odds of perceiving a need for treatment than non-veterans (OR=1.93, P=.02) but were more likely to perceive stigma (beta=0.28, P=.02). Despite greater need among veterans, there were no significant differences between veterans and non-veterans in use of psychotropic medications, although veterans were more likely to receive psychotherapy (OR=2.35, P=.046). Findings highlight the substantial gap between the prevalence of probable mental health disorders and treatment seeking among community college students. Interventions are needed to link community college students to services, especially for student veterans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. State regulations for nursing home residents with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Street, Debra; Molinari, Victor; Cohen, Donna

    2013-08-01

    To identify state regulations for nursing home residents with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). We reviewed state regulations for policies relating to nursing home residents with SMI, and conducted interviews with expert stakeholders. A framework for analyzing state regulations was generated by identifying four discrete categories: States with specific mental illness regulations, Alzheimer's or dementia regulations, minor mention of mental illness, and no mention of mental illness. A large majority of the states have little or no mention of mental illness in their nursing home regulations, suggesting limited attention to all forms of mental illness by most state regulatory bodies.

  15. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  16. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  17. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  18. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  19. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  20. Smoking, Mental Illness, and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C

    2016-12-16

    Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. Serious mental illness and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2006-07-01

    Persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are faced with substantial challenges to their health. This population is two to three times more likely to smoke cigarettes than persons who do not suffer from mental illness. In particular, young adults are at high risk for vulnerability to both SMI and cigarette smoking. Although there are proven methods for smoking cessation, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions show limited usefulness for SMI who smoke. Alternative health care options as well as support groups and physical exercise are discussed as methods that may be useful in smoking cessation. Finally, integration of smoking cessation programming into existing mental health treatment services may offer the greatest opportunity for client success.

  2. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ..., including halfway houses)'' to ``veterans suffering from serious mental illness, including veterans who are... who are homeless and suffering from serious mental illness or a substance use disorder. Many of the... serious mental illness and/or substance use disorder, usually through medical intervention, and offers...

  3. [Stigma and related factors basing on mental illness stigma].

    PubMed

    Dyduch, Agnieszka; Grzywa, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Stigmatization is a common problem to overcome for people suffering from chronic diseases. It usually follows infectious diseases, disabilities and mental disorders. In our study we explained basic concepts concerning stigma, particularly health-related one, and then we presented the most important socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards mentally ill people exemplifying them by scientific literature on mental illness stigma. Profession, frequency of contact with mentally ill persons, level of mental health literacy, own experience, education level, culture-related factors, overall value orientation, gender and age are the most relevant factors which influence perception of people suffering from mental disorders. A review of surveys on dependencies between those factors and attitudes towards mentally ill people and tendencies to stigmatize with mental illness was presented. Mental health literacy is the most easily modifiable factor among all the presented here. Majority of campaigns concerning change of attitude towards mentally ill people consist in enhancement of mental health awareness in society.

  4. Mental illness among us: a new curriculum to reduce mental illness stigma among medical students.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anuj K; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2013-11-01

    Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us (MIAU)," would reduce stigma of mental illness. In 2010 and 2011, students completed voluntary pre- and post-MIAU surveys measuring attitudes regarding mental illness in relation to MIAU. Also, in 2011, the authors categorized topics mentioned in student responses to an open-ended, free-response question on the course final examination. Of 298 enrolled students, 250 submitted surveys that were matched pre- and post-intervention. Participants in the curriculum showed a significant difference in Social Distance, indicating an increased willingness to interact with individuals with mental illness, and a significant difference in the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (MICA) score representing a stronger agreement with positive statements regarding mental illness. The non-participants' scores showed no changes in measures from pre- to post. Respondents most frequently reported that the neuroscience course prepared them to be a physician because it taught about compassion and the importance of treating the whole patient. The results indicate that participation in MIAU leads to a decrease in stigmatization of mental illness and a greater sense of compassion among UCSF medical students. This finding is consistent with previous research suggesting social and cognitive congruence among peers and peer-teachers can result in meaningful learning experiences. MIAU may represent a sustainable model to supplement current systems to promote well-being of medical trainees.

  5. Many with Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163139.html Many With Mental Illness Miss Out on HIV Tests Rates of infection ... Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- People with severe mental illness are only slightly more likely to be screened ...

  6. Most Smokers with Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163073.html Most Smokers With Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit But psychiatrists and ... News) -- Nearly six in 10 Americans with severe mental illness smoke, and a new study suggests that many ...

  7. Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People with Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Half of Opioid Prescriptions Go to People With Mental Illness Those with psychological conditions more likely to overdose ... United States, 60 million are for adults with mental illness, according to the researchers. "Despite representing only 16 ...

  8. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  9. Applying behavior change theory to technology promoting veteran mental health care seeking.

    PubMed

    Whealin, Julia M; Kuhn, Eric; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Despite the availability of effective mental health interventions, the vast majority of veterans with a mental disorder underutilize psychological services. Contemporary research has revealed that several factors such as low education, stigma, stoicism, lack of knowledge, and negative beliefs about mental health services are associated with veterans' underutilization of services. In this article, the authors provide an overview of factors that affect symptomatic veterans' decisions about whether to seek mental health services. Second, they describe the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), a useful model for understanding mental health care seeking that can inform the development of technology-based interventions designed to increase veterans' willingness to seek psychological services. Third, the authors describe the development of Considering Professional Help, a personalized web-based tool developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which has been designed to promote mental health care seeking in veterans with mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Mentally Ill Offender: Punishment or Treatment? Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Kissell, Michelle

    1986-01-01

    The problem of mentally ill offenders is discussed in this report. Mentally ill offenders are described as generally not violent, with their behavior resulting in charges such as shoplifting, vagrancy, and trespassing. Factors increasing the number of mentally ill offenders are discussed, including the inability of families and communities to…

  11. The Mentally Ill Offender: Punishment or Treatment. Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Kissell, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The vast majority of mentally ill offenders are not violent, although their illness necessarily manifests itself in ways that society often finds unacceptable. The number of mentally ill offenders is growing because needed mental health care is not available to those who are no longer hospitalized due to the deinstitutionalization movement and the…

  12. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  13. Gender differences in mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans enrolled in veterans affairs health care.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Ren, Li; Bosch, Jeane O; Marmar, Charles R; Seal, Karen H

    2010-12-01

    We examined gender differences in sociodemographic, military service, and mental health characteristics among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. We evaluated associations between these sociodemographic and service characteristics and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we used univariate descriptive statistics and log binominal regression analyses of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data on 329 049 OEF and OIF veterans seeking VA health care from April 1, 2002, through March 31, 2008. Female veterans were younger and more likely to be Black and to receive depression diagnoses than were male veterans, who were more frequently diagnosed with PTSD and alcohol use disorders. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of PTSD and depression diagnoses among women but not among men. Consideration of gender differences among OEF and OIF veterans seeking health care at the VA will facilitate more targeted prevention and treatment services for these newly returning veterans.

  14. The changing face of newspaper representations of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Neil A; Fatoye, Francis; Wibberley, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Negative stereotypes presented in the media may contribute to the stigma associated with mental illness. People's attitudes towards the mentally ill are initially influenced and subsequently maintained in part by the frequent media presentation of negative stereotypes of mental illness. This could result in social rejection of individuals with mental illnesses. To explore how four main U.K. national newspapers reported on mental health/mental illness stories over a 10-year period. This study utilised content analysis to identify words, themes and trends of representation related to the mentally ill in articles from the four newspapers. The findings indicated that there was an increase in the number of articles related to mental health/illness over the time of the study. The rate of increase was far greater than that for the increase in the total number of articles carried in the press over this time period. It was also identified that pejorative terms were used, in a number of the articles, to describe the mentally ill person. Many of the newspaper reports highlighted the need for protection of the general public from the mentally ill, and that the mentally ill were in some way different to the general public. In particular, both the words "violence" and "drugs" were linked to mental health/mental illness in these articles.

  15. Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dorothy L.

    1982-01-01

    According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

  16. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  17. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Results: Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers. PMID:20390058

  18. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-03-24

    Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers.

  19. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  20. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  1. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  2. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health staff... evidence presented by mental health staff. ... Discipline Hearing Officer will make this decision based on evidence, including evidence presented by...

  3. How children stigmatize people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2007-11-01

    Many advocates have called for more anti-stigma programs targeting the attitudes of children towards people with mental illness as a way to forestall subsequent prejudice and discrimination as they age and develop. In order to better understand how children stigmatize people with mental illness, we reviewed the substantial literature on social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice. This literature suggests a curvilinear relationship. Children as young as three show some endorsement of stereotypes about people of color, which slowly increases and seems to peak around age five to six. Older children, interestingly, show lower rates of ethnic prejudice. Differences between mental illness and ethnicity-related stigma may influence the form of this relationship and we provide some hypotheses representing this difference. We then summarize the literature on stigma change, focusing on how specific strategies interact with what is known about social cognitive development and prejudice. Strategies that are reviewed include education, contact, social cognitive skills training, role play for empathy, peer interaction, protest and consequences. Implications for continued research in this area are highlighted throughout the article.

  4. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  5. Small business employers' views on hiring individuals with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hand, Carri; Tryssenaar, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the beliefs of small business employers regarding hiring individuals with mental illness. Fifty-eight participants completed mail-in questionnaires concerning beliefs and willingness to hire persons with mental illness. Employers were most concerned regarding the social and emotional skills of individuals with mental illness. Those employers who reported positive beliefs, had positive interactions with individuals with mental illness, or operated in public/social services, stated greater willingness to hire a person with mental illness. Methods to decrease stigma are discussed.

  6. Enhancing services response to crisis incidents involving veterans: a role for law enforcement and mental health collaboration.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher M; Joseph, David; Dongon, Shara N; Fairweather, Amy; Ruzek, Josef I

    2013-02-01

    When crisis situations involving veterans occur, responding police officers find themselves playing an important role in the spectrum of health and mental health services for those veterans. Crisis response training can help officers respond in a manner that increases safety and optimizes outcomes for all people involved. Yet, current crisis response police training models are only accessible to select officers. Nor do they emphasize the unique challenges and strengths that impact veterans who experience acute symptoms of mental illness. In the current study, we report the results from the first generation of training, collaboratively designed to enhance officers' (a) knowledge of relevant topics, including posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury, (b) attitudes about veterans, and (c) and skills helpful in identifying and deescalating veterans and referring them to treatment. Officers completed in-class evaluations (N = 314), and a subsample (n = 53) completed 3-month follow-up evaluations. Pre- versus posttest comparisons indicated significant improvements in total score, and individually in knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Consistent with previous literature, the specific in-class gains were not retained on follow-up. However, responding officers widely endorsed use of de-escalation techniques during, and a positive impact of the training on, their interactions with veterans in the 3 months following the training. Implications for future training and policy are discussed.

  7. Evidence of poorer life-course mental health outcomes among veterans of the Korean War cohort.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew Stephen; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Comparing the outcomes of veterans who served in Korea and those who served elsewhere, we examined the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental health conditions, psychiatric treatment locations, and six mental health well-being measures. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative data from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans (NSV). Analyses included multiple logistic regressions that controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. Korean era veterans in the NSV (n = 4030): 1498 served in Korea; 2532 elsewhere during the era. Veterans who served in Korea have notably poorer mental health than those who served elsewhere. These results suggest higher resource needs among aging Korean era veterans. Clinicians, policy makers and the Department of Veterans Affairs should focus on mental health services to older veterans.

  8. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  9. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your ‘cluster’ of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development. PMID:28250821

  10. Religious Beliefs About Mental Illness Influence Social Support Preferences.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Eric D; Day, Magin; Graziano, William G; Doherty, Eileen F

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that social support facilitates recovery from a mental illness. Stigma negatively impacts the social support available to persons with mental illness (PWMIs). We investigated how religious beliefs about mental illness influenced the types of social support individuals would be willing to give PWMIs. Christian participants indicated their denominational affiliation and their religious beliefs about mental illness. We then asked participants to imagine a situation in which their friend had depression. Participants indicated their willingness to give secular and spiritual social support (e.g., secular: recommending medication; spiritual: recommending prayer). Christians' beliefs that mental illness results from immorality/sinfulness and that mental illnesses have spiritual causes/treatments both predicted preference for giving spiritual social support. Evangelical Christians endorsed more beliefs that mental illnesses have spiritual causes/treatments than Mainline Protestant and Roman Catholic Christians, and they endorsed more preference for giving spiritual social support than Roman Catholic Christians.

  11. An Exploratory Study of Student Service Members/Veterans' Mental Health Characteristics by Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Pelts, Michael D; Albright, David L

    2015-01-01

    Explore the mental health differences of student veterans by sexual orientation. Student service members/veterans (N = 702) from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment. Descriptive statistics and 2-sample proportion and mean tests were used to compare mental health characteristics. Student veterans who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure had higher levels of mental health symptoms and treatment. Results suggest a need for continued examination of student service members/veterans as related to disparities in mental health by sexual orientation.

  12. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: a Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Aikins, Ross D.; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City’s low-income neighborhoods. Participants A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent driven sampling. Methods Logistic regression analysis of variation in characteristics of those veterans attending college; linear regression examining effects of college attendance on life satisfaction. Results Having a traumatic brain injury or disability was positively associated with college attendance. Being married, employed, or in college was predictive of overall life satisfaction. SSM/V were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression or drug use disorder. African American veterans were significantly less likely to attend college than White or Hispanic veterans. Conclusion Substance use and some mental health disorders do not preclude inner-city veterans from entering higher education. This study contributes to the sparse literature on African American veterans and SSM/V. PMID:26367215

  13. Readjustment of Urban Veterans: A Mental Health and Substance Use Profile of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans in Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Ross D; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of substance use and mental health problems among veterans and student service members/veterans (SSM/V) returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to New York City's low-income neighborhoods. A sample of 122 veterans attending college and 116 veterans not enrolled recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Logistic regression analysis of variation in characteristics of those veterans attending college; linear regression examining effects of college attendance on life satisfaction. Having a traumatic brain injury or disability was positively associated with college attendance. Being married, employed, or in college was predictive of overall life satisfaction. SSM/V were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression or drug use disorder. African American veterans were significantly less likely to attend college than white or Hispanic veterans. Substance use and some mental health disorders do not preclude inner-city veterans from entering higher education. This study contributes to the sparse literature on African American veterans and SSM/V.

  14. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  15. Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher J; Matyas, Gary R; Hansen, Christian J; Alving, Carl R; Smith, Tyler C; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2009-06-12

    Since the end of the 1991 Gulf War, there have been reports of unexplained, multisymptom illnesses afflicting veterans who consistently report more symptoms than do nondeployed veterans. One of the many possible exposures suspected of causing chronic multisymptom illnesses Gulf War veterans is squalene, thought to be present in anthrax vaccine. We examined the relationship between squalene antibodies and chronic symptoms reported by Navy construction workers (Seabees), n=579. 30.2% were deployers, 7.4% were defined as ill, and 43.5% were positive for squalene antibodies. We found no association between squalene antibody status and chronic multisymptom illness (p=0.465). The etiology of Gulf War syndrome remains unknown, but should not include squalene antibody status.

  16. Farming and mental health problems and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Fraser, C E; Smith, K B; Judd, F; Humphreys, J S; Fragar, L J; Henderson, A

    2005-12-01

    Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and identifies areas for further research. A literature review (Medline, Science Direct, Ingenta, Proquest and PsychINFO) was carried out using the words 'farmers', 'agriculture', 'depression', 'mental health', 'mental illness', 'stress', and 'suicide', as well as a review of relevant papers and publications known to the authors. (Papers not written in English and those published prior to 1985 were excluded.) Fifty-two papers were identified with the majority focusing on stress and coping styles in farmers (24). A number of studies also focused on neuropsychological functioning and agricultural chemical use (7), depression (7), suicide (9), general mental health (4) and injury and mental health (1). This body of research studied male farmers, female farmers, farm workers, farming families, and young people living on farms. Research to date indicates that farmers, farm workers and their respective families face an array of stressors related to the physical environment, structure of farming families and the economic difficulties and uncertainties associated with farming which may be detrimental to their mental health. Whilst suicide rates in some groups of farmers are higher than the general population, conclusive data do not exist to indicate whether farmers and farming families experience higher rates of mental health problems compared with the non-farming community. It is clear, however, that farming is associated with a unique set of characteristics that is potentially hazardous to mental health and requires further research.

  17. Help-Seeking Stigma and Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Young Adult Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Corrigan, Patrick; Marshall, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Veterans underutilize mental health services. We investigated the association between treatment seeking stigma and utilization of mental health services in a sample of 812 young adult veterans. Higher perceived public stigma of treatment seeking was significantly related to lower treatment utilization. Although many veterans were concerned about negative perceptions if they were to seek treatment, a much smaller number of them endorsed that they would judge a fellow veteran negatively in similar situation. Targeting perceived public stigma of treatment seeking, through perceived norms interventions, might help in narrowing the gap between the need and receipt of help among veterans. PMID:26664795

  18. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care.

  19. Fathers with mental illness: implications for clinicians and health services.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard J; Maharaj, O'Neil N; Fletcher Watson, Chloe H; May, Chris; Skeates, Nigel; Gruenert, Stefan

    2013-08-05

    A significant proportion of fathers living with their natural, adopted, step or foster children experience mental illness. Psychiatric illness among fathers can have a devastating impact on children's wellbeing, and even milder forms of paternal mental illness can have serious developmental effects on children. While several pathways linking paternal mental illness with poor child outcomes have been identified, fathers' impaired parenting is an important, potentially malleable factor. Clinicians can assist fathers with mental illness and their families by proactively inquiring about children and by exploring fathering-focused psychological support.

  20. Influence of southern spiritual beliefs on perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E F; Thornton, K A

    1999-01-01

    Cultural religious beliefs influence perceptions of mental illness, and any clinician interested in treating mentally ill people and their families must consider these beliefs so that he or she can develop culturally specific interventions. This article reports on the results of interviews with African American experts, mentally ill persons, and nurses caring for the mentally ill. A case study is used to illustrate the influence of southern religious beliefs on perceptions of mental illness and the behaviors of people who are mentally ill. Although many issues are considered in this analysis (i.e., ethnicity, geographic location, and religion), it is the influence of three religious traditions in the South--voodoo, slave religion, and evangelical Protestantism--that takes precedence in the analysis. Mental health professionals, especially psychiatric nurses, will find this information helpful when assisting hospitalized patients.

  1. 75 FR 54028 - Technical Revisions To Conform With the Veterans' Mental Health Care Act of 2008 and Other Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Technical Revisions To Conform With the Veterans' Mental Health Care Act of 2008 and Other Laws AGENCY... law made by the Homeless Veterans Comprehensive Assistance Act of 2001; the Veterans Health Care, Capital Asset, and Business Improvement Act of 2003; and the Veterans' Mental Health and Other Care...

  2. Community Perceptions of Mental Illness in Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sangeeta, S J; Mathew, K J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding and perceptions about mental illness vary among individuals based on their experience with the illness or their contact with the people affected by it. These may be further influenced by the individuals' sociocultural background. This study aimed to understand the differences in the beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations for mental illness between different population groups of Jharkhand, India. During July 2014 to February 2016, we recruited the following 3 groups of individuals aged between 18 and 60 years: individuals with mental illness (group 1, n = 240), relatives of individuals with mental illness (group 2, n = 240), and the general public (group 3, n = 240). Qualitative and quantitative findings were combined in this study, and participants were asked about their beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations about mental illness. Individuals with mental illness and their relatives shared similar beliefs whereas the general public held a different opinion in various domains. There were significant differences among all groups in their understanding of various aspects of mental illnesses including the definition, causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. Individuals' perception towards different aspects of mental illness varies, despite they are sharing the same sociocultural milieu. Differences in beliefs, understanding, and explanations may lead to conflicts in treatment goals and expectations, and hamper the intervention strategies that promote mental health and patient care. Focused strategies to develop uniformity in beliefs and explanations about various aspects of mental illness may help to develop collaboration with different community groups that may in turn help in developing effective interventions and treatment.

  3. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  4. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.

  5. Veteran Stereotypes: A Closer Look

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    confidently links PTSD with a propensity for violence. Many people think of mental health illnesses in binary terms—either you have it or you do not...But mental health illnesses are complex and best represented on a continuum. While some of those affected by post-traumatic stress will experience...volunteer force. The Prevailing Perspective – Common Stereotypes About Veterans Mental Health Stereotype: veterans suffer disproportionately from

  6. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    low dose naltrexone have established benefits in syndromes related to Gulf War Illness such as fibromyalgia. We have successfully enrolled 41 subjects...09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War Veterans Illnesses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William J. Meggs, MD, PhD...Dextromethorphan and Naltrexone for Gulf War Veterens’ Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  7. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    veterans: current status of research findings. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24:218-227. 105. Barth S. Neurological and all-cause mortality among U.S. veterans...proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1280-1285. 563. Haley RW, Hom J, Roland PS, et al...True Democracy. Spring 2000;2(2). 1304. Roland PS, Haley RW, Yellin W, Owens K, Shoup AG. Vestibular dysfunction in Gulf War syndrome. Otolaryngol

  8. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  9. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  10. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  11. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  12. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  13. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  14. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  15. Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

  16. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mantler, Ed; Szeto, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Mental illness-related stigma, including that which exists in the healthcare system and among healthcare providers, creates serious barriers to access and quality care. It is also a major concern for healthcare practitioners themselves, both as a workplace culture issue and as a barrier for help seeking. This article provides an overview of the main barriers to access and quality care created by stigmatization in healthcare, a consideration of contributing factors, and a summary of Canadian-based research into promising practices and approaches to combatting stigma in healthcare environments.

  17. The rights of americans with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Talbott, John A

    2011-08-01

    This contribution to the literature starts by summarizing the history of psychiatric services in America from the time of our colonization to the present. It then discusses the Bill of Rights and the subsequent "rights" gained by the mentally ill, largely through state legislative or legal actions. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how the entire area of rights has been swept up in a larger attempt to achieve a federal Bill of Patients' Rights and then a Health Reform Act in 2010.

  18. FMRI reveals abnormal central processing of sensory and pain stimuli in ill Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Gandhi, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Jiang, Lei; Fang, Yan; Ouyang, Luo; Ganji, Sandeepkumar; Buhner, David; Ringe, Wendy; Spence, Jeffrey; Biggs, Melanie; Briggs, Richard; Haley, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Many veterans chronically ill from the 1991 Gulf War exhibit symptoms of altered sensation, including chronic pain. In this study of 55 veterans of a Construction Battalion previously examined in 1995-1996 and 1997-1998, brain activation to innocuous and noxious heat stimuli was assessed in 2008-2009 with a quantitative sensory testing fMRI protocol in control veterans and groups representing three syndrome variants. Testing outside the scanner revealed no significant differences in warm detection or heat pain threshold among the four groups. In the fMRI study, Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 2, but not Syndrome 3, exhibited hypo-activation to innocuous heat and hyper-activation to noxious heat stimuli compared to controls. The results indicate abnormal central processing of sensory and painful stimuli in 2 of 3 variants of Gulf War illness and call for a more comprehensive study with a larger, representative sample of veterans.

  19. [Women and mental illness : a cultural problem?].

    PubMed

    Lamarre, S

    1979-01-01

    The author tries with the help of a cultural model to explain the increase of mental illnessess in women since the last world war. Her parameters, taken from Bateson, are ; group systems (complementary, symetrical and reciprocal différenciation) and some aspects : cultural, structural, pragmatical and ethological linked to conformism, needs and emotions. Following her analysis she concludes that four factors are responsible for this increase of feminine mental illness : 1) change in social aspirations now more oriented towards self-fullfilment than usefulness 2) necessity to be happy for two in marriage without the benifice of an autonomous position 3) difficulty to self-assert and know her own needs 4) repression of the anger caused by the frustrations of her situation. The author ends her thesis with helping suggestions on how to live this transitory period.

  20. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation.

  1. [Taking care of the sick veteran--mental health care within the Department of Veterans Affairs, USA].

    PubMed

    Gedzior, Joanna S; DePry, Dwayne R

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the functioning of the system of mental health care for veterans in the U.S. on the example of the state of California. Two clinical cases illustrating the issue of mental health disorders in this population of patients have also been presented. Veterans as well as active duty soldiers and civilian employees of the military compose a group of patients suffering from mental health problems, requiring increased attention of clinicians not only in the U.S. but in all countries that are engaged in military missions.

  2. A cluster of occupational mental illness in an NHS trust.

    PubMed

    Poole, C J M; Basheer, S

    2007-08-01

    A cluster of clinical cases of occupational mental illness has not previously been reported. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients referred for examination and advice about rehabilitation was undertaken to ascertain a variety of employer's rates of occupational mental illness. A background rate of referral for occupational mental illness of 3.1/1,000 employees per year was found apart from in one NHS trust where the rate was 25.6/1,000. Most patients were nurses and diagnoses were anxiety and/or depression with a median length of time off work of four months. There was no evidence that patients from this employer were vulnerable to mental illness. The high rate of occupational mental illness was associated with organisational change and a hostile working climate. This study shows that NHS trusts may be associated with unhealthy working practices. A cluster of occupational mental illness should be statutorily reportable to the Health and Safety Executive for further investigation.

  3. Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Feinglass, Joseph; Corrigan, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to examine whether racial/ethnic differences exist in stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among community college students. Multiple regression models were used to investigate racial/ethnic differences in students' perceived dangerousness and desire for segregation from persons with mental illness both before and after participation in an antistigma intervention. At baseline, African Americans and Asians perceived people with mental illness as more dangerous and wanted more segregation than Caucasians, and Latinos perceived people with mental illness as less dangerous and wanted less segregation than Caucasians. Similar patterns emerged postintervention, except that Asians' perceptions changed significantly such that they tended to perceive people with mental illness as least dangerous of all the racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that racial/ethnic background may help to shape mental illness stigma, and that targeting antistigma interventions to racial/ethnic background of participants may be helpful.

  4. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

  5. Smoking and mental illness: a population study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Miller, Caroline L; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-01

    To examine smoking prevalence and smoking behaviour among South Australians with a mental illness and compare findings to those with no mental illness. Data were collected in three cross-sectional representative population surveys of South Australians aged ≥15 years from 2005 to 2007. Merged data yielded a total sample size of 8417. The main outcome measures were: smoking prevalence, measures of tobacco dependence, awareness of the health effects of active and passive smoking, smoke-free homes and cars, awareness of health warnings, and use of cessation aids by two measures of mental illness status. Overall 26.4% of the population with a general mental illness and 51.2% of the population with a severe mental illness smoked, compared to 18.7% of the population without a mental illness. People with a mental illness, particularly severe mental illness displayed higher measures of tobacco dependence. Smokers with a severe mental illness were less likely to have smoke-free homes (OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.16-0.55). Television was an effective medium to present the health effects of smoking to all groups. Those with a general mental illness were more likely than those with no mental illness to have asked a general practitioner for advice to help them quit in the past year (OR = 2.02, 95%CI 1.07-3.84). Whilst smokers with a mental illness are more dependent on their smoking; they are interested in quitting. There are a number of mainstream tobacco control strategies that could be further utilized (e.g. mass media and health professional referrals to the Quitline) to increase cessation among this disadvantaged group.

  6. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gwini, Stella M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R; Kelsall, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multisymptom illness (MSI) in 1990 to 1991 Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. Electronic databases were searched from January 1990, June 2014 for studies on MSI prevalence in Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MSI case definition, and which included a military comparison group. Seven studies were identified among US, UK, and Australian Gulf War veterans; no studies were identified in Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. MSI prevalence in Gulf War veterans and comparison groups ranged from 26 to 65% and from 12 to 37%, respectively. More recent studies were larger, with improved designs. The pooled odds ratio comparing Gulf War veterans to other military groups was 2.74 (95% confidence interval 2.15 to 3.51). The systematic review showed that MSI was most prevalent in Gulf War veterans, emphasizing the health burden of MSI in this veteran population.

  8. Increasing physical activity for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program: A community-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and

  9. Adolescent construction of mental illness: implication for engagement and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Greenfield, Sheila; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2016-05-11

    Understanding how adolescents perceive mental illness is important for clinicians wishing to improve engagement, and for the development of educational programmes and health-behaviour directed policies. The current research aimed to develop a preliminary model of how adolescents perceive mental illness and construct their understanding of mental health. Forty-six participants aged 11-18 from six schools in Birmingham, UK, took part in one of 12 group interviews. A thematic analysis highlighted a dual perception of mental illness. Adolescents discussed stereotypes and extreme examples of illness, but also displayed an insightful understanding of mental distress which had developed through participants' own experiences. Participants attempted to reconcile and negotiate these conflicting perceptions by creating distinctions between concepts of 'craziness' and 'normality', and reported experiencing negative emotions relating to both perceptions of illness. The findings suggest that once media stereotypes have been acknowledged, adolescents demonstrate a relatively sophisticated understanding of mental illness, although one which differed at times from the diagnostic medical model of mental illness. Focusing on individual symptoms, prevalence rates and prior contact adolescents have had with individuals with mental illnesses provides a framework to discuss mental health and ill-health with adolescents. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-05-01

    Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking.

  11. Providers' Personal and Professional Contact With Persons With Mental Illness: Relationship to Clinical Expectations.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Dinesh; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T; Reaves, Christina; Chekuri, Lakshminarayana; Han, Xiaotong; Corrigan, Patrick; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-01-01

    Providers share many stigmatizing attitudes with the general public regarding persons with mental illness. These attitudes may contribute to suboptimal general medical care for patients with schizophrenia. This study tested the hypothesis that provider contact (personal and professional) with persons with mental illness would be associated with clinical expectations and that this relationship would be mediated by provider stigmatizing attitudes. Between August 2011 and April 2012, 192 health care providers from five Veterans Affairs medical centers responded to a clinical vignette describing a patient with schizophrenia who is seeking treatment for back pain. Providers completed a survey to determine their expectations regarding the vignette patient's treatment adherence, ability to read and understand health education materials, and social and vocational functioning. Self-report data on the amount of contact each provider had with persons with mental illness in their practices and in their personal lives were also collected. Structural equation modeling showed that providers with greater professional contact with patients with mental illness in their clinical practice and greater personal contact with individuals with mental illness exhibited significantly lower stigmatizing attitudes toward the patient with schizophrenia in the vignette and were more likely to expect the vignette patient to have better treatment adherence, a better understanding of educational material, and higher social and vocational functioning. Greater personal and professional contact with persons with mental illness was associated with lower provider stigma and higher expectations of patient adherence, increased ability to understand educational material, and higher social and vocational functioning. It is possible that interventions involving contact with persons with mental illness could reduce providers' stigma.

  12. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  13. Perception of and attitude towards mental illness in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Adawi, Samir; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Ismaily, Suad S; Al-Ghafry, Dalal A; Al-Noobi, Balquis Z; Al-Salmi, Ahmed; Burke, David T; Shah, Mrugeshkumar K; Ghassany, Harith; Chand, Suma P

    2002-12-01

    As conceptions of mental illness are often dictated by prevailing socio-cultural factors and the philosophy of the time, there is little research to substantiate how mental illness is perceived in the Arab world in the light of both traditional and more recent modernization and acculturation processes. To examine whether social factors exert an influence on a person's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) in the rapidly changing country of Oman. This study compares the response elicited from medical students, relatives of psychiatric patients and the general Omani public on the causes of mental illness, attitudes toward PWMI and the care and management of people with mental illness. This study found no relationship between attitudes towards PWMI, and demographic variables such as age, educational level, marital status, sex and personal exposure to people with mental illness. Both medical students and the public rejected a genetic factor as the cause of mental illness; instead they favoured the role of spirits as the aetiological factor for mental illness. There were favourable responses on statements regarding value of life, family life, decision-making ability, and the management and care of mental illness. However, both medical students and the public thought that PWMI tend to have peculiar and stereotypical appearances and the majority preferred that facilities for psychiatric care should be located away from the community. Although the relatives of psychiatric patients were concerned about the welfare of mental patients, their responses varied and were often contingent upon their expectations. The data suggest that neither socio-demographic factors nor previous exposure to PWMI was related to attitudes towards PWMI. Although the attitudes of Omanis toward PWMI appear to fluctuate in complex ways, traditional beliefs on mental illness have yet to be eroded by exposure to a biomedical model of mental illness. This study largely supports the view that

  14. Changing attitude to mental illness among community mental health volunteers in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, O; Adelufosi, Ao; Olajide, A

    2013-09-01

    Community-based mental health services may be impaired by stigmatization and social distance towards persons with mental illness. Little is known about the impact of education on the attitude of volunteers for mental health programmes. This study aimed to examine the effect of an educational programme on the attitude of community volunteers towards mental illness. Thirty-one volunteers for a community mental health programme completed the Familiarity with Mental Illness Questionnaire and a modified version of the Bogardus Social Distance Scale (Bogardus, 1925) before and after an educational programme. At the end of the educational session, perceived dangerousness was significantly reduced and attitude (social distance) towards persons with mental illness showed significant improvement. Attitudes of community volunteers towards persons with mental illness improve with educational programmes. This may lead to improved treatment and care of individuals who are mentally ill.

  15. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  16. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed. PMID:20802840

  17. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Do beliefs about causation influence attitudes to mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; OLLEY, BENJAMIN OLADAPO; OLUSOLA, EPHRAIM-OLUWANUGA; KOLA, LOLA

    2006-01-01

    Studies indicate that stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness are rampant in the community worldwide. It is unclear whether views about the causation of mental disorders identify persons with more negative attitudes. Using data collected as part of a community study of knowledge of and attitudes to mental illness in Nigeria, we examined the relationships between views about causation and attitudes. Persons holding exclusively biopsychosocial views of causation were not different from those holding exclusively religious-magical views in regard to socio-demographic attributes, and the two groups were not very dissimilar when general knowledge of the nature of mental illness was compared. However, religious-magical views of causation were more associated with negative and stigmatizing attitudes to the mentally ill. Findings demonstrate the challenge of developing and delivering an educational program to change public attitudes to mental illness. PMID:16946952

  19. Veterans' mental health beliefs: Facilitators and barriers to primary care-mental health use.

    PubMed

    Wray, Laura O; Pikoff, Emily; King, Paul R; Hutchison, Dezarie; Beehler, Gregory P; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) program aims to increase availability and acceptability of mental health (MH) care by integrating these services into primary care. Little is known about veterans' perceptions of this of method MH care delivery. This study explored the range of veterans' beliefs and perceptions of MH and MH services with the aim of describing potential facilitators and barriers to the uptake of PC-MHI services. Team-based qualitative analysis of proceedings from focus groups. Participants included 41 veterans from across service eras. Focus groups were organized by service era and use of PC-MHI services. Codes pertaining to beliefs about MH and MH treatment were identified, grouped into subthemes, and then larger organizing themes. Barriers and facilitators to treatment seeking were identified. Although our study was focused on veteran perceptions of PC-MHI, participants did not appear to discriminate between PC-MHI and other MH services when discussing their decisions to seek services. Facilitators and barriers to MH treatment-seeking included systems, personal and social influences. Stigma was mentioned infrequently relative to other beliefs. Veterans with and without experience of PC-MHI services described a variety of beliefs about MH without regard to whether this service location. These findings suggest that while integration increases access, it may not in itself decrease some barriers to seeking treatment. These findings suggest that more work is needed to address the way potential PC-MHI patients decide whether or not to engage in care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Pastoral Care Use among Post-9/11 Veterans who Screen Positive for Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwsma, Jason A.; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K.; Jackson, George L.; Meador, Keith G.; Beckham, Jean C.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461) – defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse – 20.2% reported talking to a “pastoral counselor” in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve. PMID:24933105

  1. Pastoral care use among post-9/11 veterans who screen positive for mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K; Jackson, George L; Meador, Keith G; Beckham, Jean C; Elbogen, Eric B

    2014-08-01

    As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461)-defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse-20.2% reported talking to a "pastoral counselor" in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve.

  2. Establishing a 1991 Veterans Research Network to Improve Characterization of Gulf War Illness and Provide a National Resource for Veterans and Investigators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    projects. This project addresses these challenges with a coordinated research effort. Investigators will use a multifaceted survey research strategy... questionnaires by mail or online, and to participate in the 1991 Veterans Research and Information Network (91VetNet), a national research and information...SUBJECT TERMS Gulf War veterans, Gulf War illness, epidemiology, survey research , case definition, research network 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  3. Situating mental health work in place: Qualitative findings from interviews with Veterans in Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Traci H; Koenig, Christopher J; Zamora, Kara; Hill, Coleen; Uddo, Madeline; Kelly, Adam P; Hamilton, Michelle F; Curran, Geoffrey M; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H

    2017-09-01

    Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being. Through these findings, we advocate for a situated notion of health work that is mindful of how health-related behaviors are shaped by place and the attributes that constitute place. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The physical and mental health of Australian Vietnam veterans 3 decades after the war and its relation to military service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Brian I; Catts, Stanley V; Outram, Sue; Pierse, Katherine R; Cockburn, Jill

    2009-08-01

    The long-term health consequences of war service remain unclear, despite burgeoning scientific interest. A longitudinal cohort study of a random sample of Australian Vietnam veterans was designed to assess veterans' postwar physical and mental health 36 years after the war (2005-2006) and to examine its relation to Army service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed 14 years previously (1990-1993). Prevalences in veterans (n = 450) were compared with those in the Australian general population. Veterans' Army service and data from the first assessments were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression prediction modeling. Veterans' general health and some health risk factors were poorer and medical consultation rates were higher than Australian population expectations. Of 67 long-term conditions, the prevalences of 47 were higher and the prevalences of 4 were lower when compared with population expectations. Half of all veterans took some form of medication for mental well-being. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses exceeded Australian population expectations. Military and war service characteristics and age were the most frequent predictors of physical health endpoints, while PTSD was most strongly associated with psychiatric diagnoses. Draftees had better physical health than regular enlistees but no better mental health. Army service and war-related PTSD are associated with risk of illness in later life among Australian Vietnam veterans.

  5. Discrimination in health care against people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses factors associated with low rates of help-seeking and poorer quality of physical healthcare among people with mental illnesses. Evidence is reviewed on the associations between low rates of mental health literacy, negative attitudes towards people with mental illness, and reluctance to seek help by people who consider that they may have a mental disorder. People with mental illness often report encountering negative attitudes among mental health staff about their prognosis, associated in part with 'physician bias'. 'Diagnostic overshadowing' appears to be common in general health care settings, meaning the misattribution of physical illness signs and symptoms to concurrent mental disorders, leading to underdiagnosis and mistreatment of the physical conditions.

  6. Shared Decision Making and Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, Irma H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined medication decision making by 84 persons with serious mental illness, specifically examining relationships among perceived coercion, decisional capacity, preferences for involvement and actual participation, and the outcomes of medication adherence and QoL. Multiple and logistic regression analysis were used in this cross-sectional, descriptive study, controlling for demographic, socio-economic and utilization variables. Appreciation was positively related to medication adherence behaviors for the past six months. Females, older individuals and those living independently were more likely to have taken all their medications over the past six months. Neither client participation, preference, nor preference-participation agreement was found to be associated with better medication adherence or QoL. PMID:15305278

  7. Do biogenetic causal beliefs reduce mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and in mental health professionals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkings, Josephine S; Brown, Patricia M

    2017-09-24

    Viewing mental illness as an 'illness like any other' and promoting biogenetic causes have been explored as a stigma-reduction strategy. The relationship between causal beliefs and mental illness stigma has been researched extensively in the general public, but has gained less attention in more clinically-relevant populations (i.e. people with mental illness and mental health professionals). A systematic review examining whether endorsing biogenetic causes decreases mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and mental health professionals was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Multiple databases were searched, and studies that explored the relationship between biogenetic causal beliefs and mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals were considered. Studies were included if they focussed on depression, schizophrenia, or mental illness in general, were in English, and had adult participants. The search identified 11 journal articles reporting on 15 studies, which were included in this review. Of these, only two provided evidence that endorsing biogenetic causes was associated with less mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals. The majority of studies in the present review (n = 10) found that biogenetic causal beliefs were associated with increased stigma or negative attitudes towards mental illness. The present review highlights the lack of research exploring the impacts of endorsing biogenetic causes in people with mental illness and mental health professionals. Clinical implications associated with these results are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research that examines the relationship between causal beliefs and treatment variables. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Improving access to disability benefits among homeless persons with mental illness: an agency-specific approach to services integration.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, R; Frisman, L; Kasprow, W

    1999-04-01

    This study evaluated a joint initiative of the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to improve access to Social Security disability benefits among homeless veterans with mental illness. Social Security personnel were colocated with VA clinical staff at 4 of the VA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) programs. Intake assessment data were merged with SSA administrative data to determine the proportion of veterans who filed applications and who received disability awards at the 4 SSA-VA Joint Outreach Initiative sites (n = 6709) and at 34 comparison HCHV sites (n = 27 722) during the 2 years before and after implementation of the program. During the 2 years after the initiative began, higher proportions of veterans applied for disability (18.9% vs 11.1%; P < .001) and were awarded benefits (11.4% vs 7.2%, P < .001) at SSA-VA Joint Initiative sites. A colocation approach to service system integration can improve access to disability entitlements among homeless persons with mental illness. Almost twice as many veterans were eligible for this entitlement as received it through a standard outreach program.

  9. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  10. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  11. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  12. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  13. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  14. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  15. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  16. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  17. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  18. Comorbidity of Mental Illness and Substance Use in Jail Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales-Portalatin, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the incidence of substance use and mental illness among jail inmates by analyzing differences and similarities in demographic characteristics and detention status in a sample of 5,785 subjects. Significant associations were found between membership in one of the substance use and/or mental illness categories and variables reflecting…

  19. Perception of stigma toward mental illness in South India

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Bhumika T.; Andrews, Teddy; Mayya, Sreemathi S.; Singh, Mannat M.; Parsekar, Shradha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stigma associated with mental illnesses is one of the principal causes for mentally ill people not receiving adequate mental health care and treatment. The study was conducted to assess the extent of stigma associated with mental illness and knowledge of mental illness among the community. Materials and Methods: Community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 445 respondents from Udupi district; the community attitude toward the mentally ill (CAMI) scale was used to assess stigma. The probability proportional to sampling size technique was adopted to select the wards/blocks. Household from blocks/wards were selected using convenience sampling. Self- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Results: Of the total 445 respondents, the prevalence of stigma toward mentally ill people was 74.61% (95% confidence interval, 0.7057, 0.7866). The prevalence of stigma was high under all the four domains of CAMI scale. High prevalence of stigma was seen among females and people with higher income. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stigma toward PWMI was found to be high. The stigma toward PWMI was associated with gender with respect to AU, BE and CMHI. Hence, the study suggests that there is a strong need to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness to improve the mental health status of the region. PMID:26288791

  20. Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick; Thompson, Vetta; Lambert, David; Sangster, Yvette; Noel, Jeffrey G; Campbell, Jean

    2003-08-01

    The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation. A total of 1,824 persons with serious mental illness who participated in a baseline interview for a multistate study on consumer-operated services completed a two-part discrimination questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire assessed participants' perceptions about discrimination due to mental illness as well as more than half a dozen other group characteristics. The second part of the questionnaire asked participants who reported some experience with discrimination to identify areas in which this discrimination occurred, such as employment, education, and housing. More than half of the study participants (949 participants, or 53 percent) reported some experience with discrimination. The most frequent sources of this discrimination were mental disability, race, sexual orientation, and physical disability. Areas in which discrimination frequently occurred included employment, housing, and interactions with law enforcement. Areas in which discrimination was experienced did not significantly differ among groups of study participants characterized by mental disability, race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical disability. Discrimination based on group characteristics other than mental illness does not diminish the impact of stigma associated with mental illness. Antistigma programs need to target not only discrimination related to mental illness but also that associated with other group characteristics, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability.

  1. The national alliance for the mentally ill: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, A B

    1991-04-01

    The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) was conceived a decade ago in the tradition of self-organized parents' groups for handicapped and chronically ill children. The character of the organization and its rapid growth are thought to be due to its clear identity as a "mental illness" group, its control and direction by parents and relatives of people suffering from mental illness, and its relationships with staff and professionals. The author believes that the NAMI movement is at an important juncture in its development and identifies factors that could influence its character in the next decade.

  2. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  3. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  4. Occupational risk factors for ill health in Gulf veterans of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, K.; Blatchley, N.; Hotopf, M.; Hull, L.; Palmer, I.; Unwin, C.; David, A.; Wessely, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the association between occupational factors specific to the Armed Forces (rank, functional roles, Service, regular or reservist status and deployment factors) and symptomatic health problems in Gulf veterans, after sociodemographic and lifestyle factors have been accounted for.
DESIGN—A postal cross sectional survey of randomly selected UK Gulf veterans was conducted six to seven years after the Gulf conflict. Physical ill health was measured using the Fatigue Questionnaire and a measure of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) multi-symptom syndrome. Psychological ill health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire and a post-traumatic stress measure.
SETTING—Population of servicemen who were serving in the UK Armed Forces during the Gulf conflict between 1 September 1990 and 30 June 1991.
PARTICIPANTS—3297 Gulf veterans.
MAIN RESULTS—In multivariate logistic regression, there was an inverse relation between higher rank and psychological and physical ill health (test of trend: General Health Questionnaire, p=0.004 ; post-traumatic stress, p=0.002; fatigue, p=0.015; CDC case, p=0.002). Having left the Armed Forces was associated with a two to three times increase in reporting ill health. Of the deployment factors, there was a weak association between being deployed as an individual reinforcement in a combat role and post-traumatic stress but there was no association between receiving pre-deployment training or post-deployment leave and ill health. Marital status and smoking were associated with psychological and physical ill health.
CONCLUSIONS—Rank was the main occupational factor associated with both psychological and physical ill health in Gulf veterans. This may parallel the associations between socioeconomic status and morbidity in civilian populations. Ill health seems to be greater in those who return to civilian life. Sociodemographic factors also seem to be important in ill health in

  5. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials

  6. Health Literacy Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Whitney; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Bill Baerentzen, M; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-05-01

    People diagnosed with a mental illness are at higher risk of developing preventable chronic diseases; thus, health literacy improvements may have great potential to impact health outcomes for this typically underserved population. However, there is a dearth of research on health literacy of persons with severe mental illness. The purpose of this research was to investigate aspects of health literacy and identify factors associated with low literacy among adults with severe mental illness using three literacy assessment tools. Seventy-one adults with serious mental illness were assessed and a high proportion had limited literacy levels: 42% with the Single Item Literacy Screener, 50% with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form, and 67% with the Newest Vital Sign. Findings suggest that individuals with certain mental illnesses and lower functioning may have more difficulty understanding health information and have limited numerical literacy.

  7. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder.

  8. E-mental health preferences of Veterans with and without probable posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Whealin, Julia M; Seibert-Hatalsky, L Alana; Howell, Jennifer Willett; Tsai, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care practices supported by electronic communication, referred to as e-mental health, offer ways to increase access to mental health resources. In recent years, e-mental health interventions using clinical video teleconferencing, Internet-based interventions, social networking sites, and telephones have emerged as viable, cost-effective methods to augment traditional service delivery. Whereas some research evaluates attitudes about e-mental health, few studies have assessed interest in using these approaches in a contemporary sample of U.S. Veterans. This study sought to understand willingness to use e-mental health in a diverse group of Veterans residing in Hawaii. Mailed surveys were completed by 600 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans and National Guard members. Results suggest that overall willingness to use e-mental health ranged from 32.2% to 56.7% depending on modality type. Importantly, Veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were significantly less likely to report willingness to use each e-mental health modality than their peers without PTSD, despite their greater desire for mental health services. These results suggest that despite solutions to logistical barriers afforded via e-mental health services, certain barriers to mental health care may persist, especially among Veterans who screen positive for PTSD.

  9. Mental illness from the perspective of theoretical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Thagard, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical neuroscience, which characterizes neural mechanisms using mathematical and computational models, is highly relevant to central problems in the philosophy of psychiatry. These models can help to solve the explanation problem of causally connecting neural processes with the behaviors and experiences found in mental illnesses. Such explanations will also be useful for generating better classifications and treatments of psychiatric disorders. The result should help to eliminate concerns that mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia are not objectively real. A philosophical approach to mental illness based on neuroscience need not neglect the inherently social and historical nature of mental phenomena.

  10. Recovery from serious mental illness: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Brennaman, Laura; Lobo, Marie L

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of recovery in the context of serious mental illness. The analysis uses literature from multiple health care disciplines and different uses of "recovery" in every- day language, technical applications, and popular culture. This iterative process concludes with a definition of recovery from serious mental illness: a nonlinear process of self-organization and adaptation that offsets the personal disintegration of mental illness and enables the individual to reconceive his or her sense of self and well-being on all biopsychosocial levels. The relevance of the concept is reevaluated with this definition for potential usage in the mental health care setting.

  11. Mental illness and violence: lessons from the evidence.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders.

  12. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua

    2016-09-02

    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  13. Department of Veterans Affairs, Gulf War VeteransIllnesses Task Force to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    molecules during vaccination of mice with Leishmania major antigen and cytokine adjuvants. The investigators hypothesized that distinct...the role of SIRPU expression on astrocytoma responses to mitogenic stimuli, motility, and adhesion; (3) Identify molecules associated with the...Research Program within CDMRP (DoD). A clinical study to examine the effects of aspirin and Clopidogrel on biomarkers of Gulf War Veterans

  14. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  15. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  16. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  17. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  18. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  19. Gender differences in veterans health administration mental health service use: effects of age and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sharmila; Rath, Maria E; Spiro, Avron; Eisen, Susan; Sloan, Kevin L; Rosen, Amy K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare gender differences in mental health disease burden and outpatient mental health utilization among veterans utilizing Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health services in fiscal year 1999 (FY99), after the first Gulf War and significant restructuring of VHA services. We used logistic regression to examine the relationships among gender, age, diagnostic groups, and utilization of mental health and specialty mental health services in a national sample of veterans. The sample included 782,789 veterans with at least 1 outpatient visit in the VHA in FY99 associated with a mental health or substance abuse (SA) diagnosis. Subgroup analyses were performed for 4 diagnostic categories: 1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 2) SA disorders, 3) bipolar and psychotic disorders, and 4) mood and anxiety disorders. Younger women veterans (<35 years old) were significantly less likely and older women (> or =35) more likely to use any mental health services in comparison with their male counterparts. Similar findings were observed for younger women diagnosed with SA or mood and anxiety disorders, but not among veterans with PTSD or bipolar and psychotic disorders, among whom no there were no gender or age differences. In the case of specialized services for SA or PTSD, women younger than 55 with SA or PTSD were significantly less likely to use services than men. Women veterans underutilized specialty mental health services in relation to men but receipt of mental health care overall in FY99 varied by age and diagnosis. Examining gender differences alone, without taking other factors into account, may not provide an adequate picture of women veterans' current mental health service needs.

  20. Describing the profile of a population of UK veterans seeking support for mental health difficulties.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dominic; Ashwick, Rachel; Palmer, Emily; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-10-06

    Evidence suggests that veterans with mental health issues have poorer treatment outcomes than civilian counterparts. Understanding the difficulties faced by veterans could help focus treatments and improve outcomes. To survey a representative sample of treatment-seeking veterans to explore their mental health needs. A random sample of UK veterans who had engaged with a national mental health charity in the UK was drawn. Individuals completed questionnaires about their health, military experiences and pre-enlistment vulnerabilities. Four hundred and three out of six hundred (67.2%) participants returned completed questionnaires. PTSD was the most commonly endorsed mental health difficulty (82%), followed by problems with anger (74%), common mental health difficulties (72%) and alcohol misuse (43%). Comorbidity was frequent; with 32% of those with PTSD meeting criteria for three other health outcomes versus only 5% with PTSD alone. Results indicate the complexity of presentations within treatment seeking veterans. These difficulties may partly explain the poorer treatment outcomes reported in veterans in comparison to the general public. As such, it would be prudent for interventions targeted at veterans with mental health difficulties to attempt to address the range of issues faced by this population rather than focus on a particular presenting problem.

  1. Physical health, mental health, and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine services among Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; Hull, Amanda; Lockwood, Courtney; Eickhoff, Christine; Sullivan, Patrick; Reinhard, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Gulf War veterans represent a unique subset of the veteran population. It has been challenging to identify interventions that result in improvements in physical and mental health for this population. Recently, there has been recognition of a potential role for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. This paper examines the characteristics of Gulf War and non-Gulf War veterans referred to a CAM clinic, and explores the utilization of services by this population. Participants included 226 veterans enrolled in a CAM clinic at a Veterans Affairs medical center, 42 of whom were Gulf War veterans. Self-report measures of physical/mental health were administered, and service utilization was obtained from participants' medical records for a 6-month period. Gulf War veterans enrolled in the program reported more severe physical and mental health symptoms than non-Gulf War veterans. However, examining only veterans who participated in services in the 6 months following enrollment, the 2 groups reported similar symptom severity. Both groups were similar in their attendance of individual acupuncture and iRest yoga nidra, although Gulf War veterans attended fewer sessions of group acupuncture. Although Gulf War veterans who enroll in a CAM program may have more severe symptoms than non-Gulf War veterans, those who actually participate in services are similar to non-Gulf War veterans on these measures. These groups also differ in their pattern of service utilization. Future research should explore the reasons for these differences, and to identify ways to promote treatment engagement with this population.

  2. Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination

  3. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    PubMed

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes.

  4. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  5. Use of Veterans Health Administration Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment After Exiting Prison: The Health Care for Reentry Veterans Program.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Stimmel, Matthew; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Rosenthal, Joel; McGuire, Jim; Binswanger, Ingrid; Smelson, David; Harris, Alex H S; Frayne, Susan M; Bowe, Tom; Timko, Christine

    2017-03-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) program links veterans exiting prison with treatment. Among veterans served by HCRV, national VA clinical data were used to describe contact with VA health care, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment use. Of veterans seen for an HCRV outreach visit, 56 % had contact with VA health care. Prevalence of mental health disorders was 57 %; of whom 77 % entered mental health treatment within a month of diagnosis. Prevalence of substance use disorders was 49 %; of whom 37 % entered substance use disorder treatment within a month of diagnosis. For veterans exiting prison, increasing access to VA health care, especially for rural veterans, and for substance use disorder treatment, are important quality improvement targets.

  6. Pregnancy and mental health among women veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Skanderson, Melissa; Goulet, Joseph L; Brandt, Cynthia; Womack, Julie; Krebs, Erin; Desai, Rani; Justice, Amy; Yano, Elizabeth; Haskell, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) may experience significant stress during military service that can have lingering effects. Little is known about mental health problems or treatment among pregnant OEF/OIF women veterans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental health problems among veterans who received pregnancy-related care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. Data from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) deployment roster of military discharges from October 1, 2001, through April 30, 2008, were used to assemble an administrative cohort of female OEF/OIF veterans enrolled in care at the VHA (n = 43,078). Pregnancy and mental health conditions were quantified according to ICD-9-CM codes and specifications. Mental healthcare use and prenatal care were assessed by analyzing VHA stop codes. During the study period, 2966 (7%) women received at least one episode of pregnancy-related care, and 32% of veterans with a pregnancy and 21% without a pregnancy received one or more mental health diagnoses (p < 0.0001). Veterans with a pregnancy were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia as those without a pregnancy. Women OEF/OIF veterans commonly experience mental health problems after military service. The burden of mental health conditions is higher among women with an identified instance of pregnancy than among those without. Because women do not receive pregnancy care at the VHA, however, little is known about ongoing concomitant prenatal and mental healthcare or about pregnancy outcomes among these women veterans.

  7. Mental health treatment preferences and challenges of living with multimorbidity from the veteran perspective.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Cinna, Christopher; Whiteman, Karen L; Fox, Lauren; Appelt, Cathleen J; Kasckow, John

    2016-10-01

    To explore middle-aged and older veterans' current disease-management practices, mental health treatment preferences, and challenges of living with multiple chronic health conditions (i.e., multimorbidity). Semi-structured qualitative interviews and self-report measures were collected from 28 middle-aged and older (50 years of age or older) veterans with multimorbidity. Our sample of veterans with multimorbidity was, on average, mildly depressed and anxious with elevated stress and disability. Veterans acknowledged the interaction of physical and emotional symptoms, which caused greater difficulty with health care management and daily functioning. Veterans had many concerns regarding their physical and emotional health conditions, such as continued disease progression and the addition of other emotional and physical health complications. Veterans also identified specific self-care approaches for disease management (e.g., medication, healthy lifestyle practices, and psychological stress management techniques), as well as barriers to engaging in care (e.g., money, transportation, and stigma). Participants preferred a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and healthy lifestyle practices for mental health treatment. The majority of participants (88.5%) agreed that these mental health treatments would be beneficial to integrate into disease management for older veterans with multimorbidity. Lastly, veterans provided an array of recommendations for improving Veteran's Administration services and reducing mental health stigma. These findings provide support for patient-centered approaches and integrated mental and physical health self-management in the Veteran's Administration for middle-aged and older veterans with multiple chronic conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  9. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Melissa R; Monin, Joan K; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support-perceived support, structural support, and community integration-and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Cross-sectional Web survey of younger and older male veterans recruited from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age: 37.0 years, SD: 6.9, range: 21-46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age: 81.7 years, SD: 3.2, range: 78-96). Participants completed measures of sociodemographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may help promote mental health in older veterans, whereas promotion of functional social support may help promote mental health in younger veterans. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  10. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Melissa R.; Monin, Joan K.; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support—perceived support, structural support, and community integration—and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Design Cross-sectional web survey of younger and older male veterans drawn from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Setting Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Participants Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age=37.0, SD=6.9, range=21–46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age=81.7, SD=3.2, range=78–96). Measurements Participants completed measures of socio-demographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. Results In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Conclusion Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may protect mental health in older veterans, while promotion of functional social support may protect mental health in younger veterans. PMID:26880612

  11. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Understanding Barriers to Mental Health Care for Recent War Veterans Through Photovoice.

    PubMed

    True, Gala; Rigg, Khary K; Butler, Anneliese

    2015-10-01

    Despite an urgent need for mental health care among U.S. service members returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, many veterans do not receive timely or adequate treatment. We used photovoice methods to engage veterans in identifying barriers to utilizing mental health services. Veterans described how key aspects of military culture and identity, highly adaptive during deployment, can deter help-seeking behavior and hinder recovery. Veterans' photographs highlighted how mental health symptoms and self-coping strategies operated as barriers to care. Many veterans' photos and stories revealed how negative health care encounters contributed to avoidance and abandonment of treatment; some veterans described these experiences as re-traumatizing. Visual methods can be a powerful tool for engaging recent war veterans in research. In particular, community-based participatory research approaches, which have rarely been used with veterans, hold great promise for informing effective interventions to improve access and enhance provision of patient-centered care for veterans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  14. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  15. Attitudes toward Mental Illness: The Construction of the Libertarian Mental Health Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, James

    1980-01-01

    The study was an attempt to construct an attitude scale to measure the radical psychosocial or libertarian position about "mental illness" and mental health practices. The factor analysis defined four scale factors: mental illness mythology, antimedical model, social deviance control, and anti-coercive treatment. (Author)

  16. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  17. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  18. Parental Mental Illness. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Victoria; Daly, Kathleen

    Families are the principal influence on development in the first years of life, so the mental health of parents is an issue that affects every child in California. The most common mental health concerns facing parents involve stress and anxiety. These needs can be addressed through public health messages that de-stigmatize mental illness and…

  19. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  20. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  1. Intensive case management for severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Bergman, Hanna; Khokhar, Mariam A; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2017-01-06

    Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community-based package of care aiming to provide long-term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. Intensive Case Management evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (fewer than 20) and high-intensity input. To assess the effects of ICM as a means of caring for severely mentally ill people in the community in comparison with non-ICM (caseload greater than 20) and with standard community care. We did not distinguish between models of ICM. In addition, to assess whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation (mean number of days per month in hospital) is influenced by the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and by the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted (baseline level of hospital use). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search 10 April 2015). All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community care setting, where ICM is compared to non-ICM or standard care. At least two review authors independently selected trials, assessed quality, and extracted data. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses.We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention's fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. We assessed overall quality for clinically important outcomes using the GRADE approach and investigated possible risk of bias within included trials. The 2016 update included two more

  2. Persistent Serious Mental Illness Among Former Applicants for VA PTSD Disability Benefits and Long-Term Outcomes: Symptoms, Functioning, and Employment.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Maureen; Spoont, Michele Roxanne; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon Marie; Harwood, Eileen Mae; Sayer, Nina Aileen; Clothier, Barbara Ann; Bangerter, Ann Kay

    2017-02-01

    Millions of U.S. veterans have returned from military service with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for which a substantial number receive U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Although PTSD is treatable, comorbid serious mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar spectrum disorders) could complicate these veterans' recovery. Using VA administrative data, we examined the burden of persistent serious mental illness in a nationally representative cohort of 1,067 men and 1,513 women who applied for VA PTSD disability benefits between 1994 and 1998 and served during or after the Vietnam conflict. Self-reported outcomes were restricted to the 713 men and 1,015 women who returned surveys at each of 3 collection points. More than 10.0% of men and 20.0% of women had persistent serious mental illness; of these, more than 80.0% also had persistent PTSD. On repeated measures modeling, those with persistent serious mental illness consistently reported more severe PTSD symptoms and poorer functioning in comparison to other participants (ps < .001); their employment rate did not exceed 21.0%. Interactions between persistent serious mental illness and PTSD were significant only for employment (p = .002). Persistent serious mental illness in this population was almost 2 to 19 times higher than in the general U.S. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2006-10-01

    Up to one in four individuals in the US meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness in any given year and a significant proportion have severe or recurring illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia). Despite this prevalence, mental health services remain poorly funded, mental illness remains misunderstood and individuals with recurring illness are constrained to live lives characterized by isolation, under-employment, stigma and denial of rights. Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power amongst interest groups, which, combined with the relatively wide distribution of the 'interest' of mental illness, has the paradoxical result that mental health interest groups do not command political power proportional to the number affected; (ii) systematic exclusion of the mentally ill from full participation in civic, social and political life (structural violence), resulting in a lack of emphasis on mental health on political agendas and the exclusion of certain policy options as possible responses and (iii) difficulties the mentally ill may experience recognizing or articulating their own needs the absence of effective health-care systems, and the absence of knowledge about alternative systems. I argue that the enhancement of individual agency is central to efforts to address this power gap, including: (i) rights-based approaches, involving the enhancement of national mental health legislation, improvement of advocacy, empowerment and guardianship processes and development of governance, accountability and quality procedures in mental health services; (ii) approaches based on enhancing direct political participation, including voter-registration programmes and development of larger, more effective interest groups and (iii) additional approaches, including increasing accountability throughout services

  4. The mental health of partners of Australian Vietnam veterans three decades after the war and its relation to veteran military service, combat, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Brian I; Outram, Sue; Catts, Stanley V; Pierse, Katherine R

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed psychiatric diagnoses in female partners of Australian Vietnam veterans, compared these with national Australian population statistics, and assessed their relationship with veterans' military service and mental health. Independent assessments of 240 veteran-partner couples used standardized physical and psychiatric diagnostic interviews that permitted comparison with Australian population data. Multivariate regression modeling examined associations of veterans' war service, combat, and psychiatric status with women's mental health. Anxiety disorders and severe recurrent depression were among 11 of 17 psychiatric diagnoses that were significantly in excess of population expectations. Veterans' combat and post-traumatic stress disorder were significant predictors of women's depressive disorder, particularly severe depression. We conclude that veterans' war service and mental health sequelae including post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with higher rates of mental disorder in their female partners 3 decades after the war.

  5. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  6. Lack of access to mental health services contributing to the high suicide rates among veterans.

    PubMed

    Hester, Ronald D

    2017-01-01

    The United States has become a country that is constantly at war. This situation has created a crisis amongst our veterans. The current uneven access to appropriate mental health services that returning U.S. veterans encounter echoes the disparities in access to quality mental health services for the general population. The information presented here shows that the shortcomings of our health care system in addressing the mental health needs for our returning veterans may lead to the high suicide rates. Addressing the problem of inadequate access to quality mental health services is critical in any efforts to reforming the U.S. health care system. Our findings suggest that mental health disparities are often a leading factor to the high suicide rates among veterans who experience depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. To improve the health and well-being of our veterans who have served this nation, requires a collaboration between public and non-profit mental health providers at the State and local levels. It is imperative that we increase the availability of crisis intervention and mental health services for all veterans that have served this nation.

  7. Acceptance of mental illness: core components of a multifaceted construct.

    PubMed

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka; Millner, Uma Chandrika

    2014-02-01

    The recovery movement has identified acceptance of mental illness as critical to quality of life and illness management. However, there is a general lack of research on the acceptance of mental illness. The present qualitative study was conducted with 30 participants with mental illness to clarify the construct of acceptance. Grounded theory methodology is utilized to analyze the 30 semistructured interviews. Results in the present study reveal acceptance to be a multifaceted construct composed of several core characteristics, including the: (1) identity component, (2) cognitive component, (3) emotional component, (4) behavioral component, and (5) relational component. In addition, when asked to define acceptance of mental illness, some participants noted negative connotations to acceptance. Implications for psychological services and future research will be discussed to guide additional study and practice in this area. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  9. Cigarette smoking and mental illness: a study of nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Giovino, Gary A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2014-02-01

    We compared prevalence, severity, and specific symptom profiles for nicotine withdrawal across categories of mental illness. We also examined the influence of nicotine withdrawal on efforts to quit smoking among those with mental illness. We analyzed data from 2 sources: wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, limiting the sample to current smokers (2001-2002; n = 9913); and a 2-wave cohort telephone survey of a national sample of adult smokers (2004-2006; n = 751). Mental illness was associated with a substantially greater likelihood of nicotine withdrawal syndrome; approximately 44% of nicotine withdrawal syndrome diagnoses were attributable to mental illness. Symptom profiles were highly comparable between mental illness categories, although anxiety-related symptoms were better markers of withdrawal for those with an internalizing disorder. Smokers with mental illness were motivated to quit but were less likely to be successful in their quit attempts, and both dependence and withdrawal independently accounted for this lower likelihood of success. Nicotine withdrawal may be a particularly important target for intervention among those with mental illness who smoke cigarettes.

  10. Components of Implicit Stigma against Mental Illness among Chinese Students

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

    2012-01-01

    Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

  11. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  12. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An integrative review of the mental health of partners of veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Yambo, Teresa; Johnson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an integrative review of the mental health of veteran partners living with veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Living with a veteran with PTSD affects the psychological well-being and health outcomes of a veteran partner. Fourteen research articles that focused on the mental health of military partners, which directly influence the psychological well-being of veteran partners, were reviewed. Findings indicate that a range of mental health concerns exist among veteran partners living with veterans with PTSD. The mental well-being of veteran partners is affected by the emotional strain of living and caring for veterans with PTSD. For years, the partner's presence has been overlooked in the PTSD treatment. However, to promote the comprehensive health of veterans with PTSD, it is paramount to understand the mental health state of veteran partners. Understanding the mental health state of veteran partners will provide a broader perspective to the plight of veteran partners.

  14. Educating law enforcement officers about mental illness: nurses as teachers.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeannine S

    2013-07-01

    With the advent of new psychotherapeutic agents, many individuals with mental illness are living successfully in communities. However, they may become involved in situations with law enforcement officers, which may lead to potentially negative experiences. During police academy training, new officers may receive training focused on optimizing interactions with people with physical/mental disabilities; however, this may be inadequate to enable effective communication between officers and individuals with mental illness. Given the growing prevalence of mental illness, it is increasingly likely that officers will encounter such individuals. An exemplar educational program geared to staff police officers in the city of Orange, California is described. This program provides law enforcement officers with training about psychiatric disorders and affected individuals, effective communication skills, and interventions that may assist in management of field contacts with individuals with mental illness.

  15. "Knowledge is power": educating children about their parent's mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, Andrea E; Maybery, Darryl

    2010-01-01

    Given the prevalence and associated vulnerabilities of children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) it is essential to develop appropriate interventions. While education is an important component in many interventions, little is known about what topics are covered, delivery mode, and the efficacy in meeting the needs of this target group. Eighteen facilitators responsible for delivering COPMI programs across Australia were interviewed, fifteen of whom include education about mental illness in their treatment programs. According to program facilitators, education about mental health was important because they believed that knowledge equates to power, and can be cathartic. Education chiefly consisted of signs, symptoms, and treatments of various mental illnesses. The dominant mode of delivery was small and large group discussion. When delivering education, there was some consideration for children's ages. However, there was less differentiation in programs according to the diagnosis of parents' mental illness. Clinical and research implications conclude the article.

  16. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Art promoting mental health literacy and a positive attitude towards people with experience of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.

  18. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness.

  19. Television coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess television news coverage of mental illness in Canadian media, including change over time. Data consist of news clips mentioning terms including 'mental illness' (N = 579). These were systematically collected and coded over 3 years (2013-2015) using a media retrieval software. Trend analysis indicated a significant linear increase for positively oriented coverage. In 2013, less than 10% of clips had a positive overall tone, whereas in 2015, this figure reached over 40%. Articles linking mental illness to violence significantly decreased, though these remain over 50%. Improvement may be due to educational initiatives targeted at journalists.

  20. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  1. The workplace and nurses with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Terry; McMillan, Margaret; Hazelton, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore workplace experiences of nurses who have a mental illness. Interview transcripts from 29 nurses in New South Wales, Australia were subjected to discourse analysis. One significant finding was a theme depicting the need for support and trust. This superordinate theme encompassed four subelements: declaring mental illnesses, collegial support, managerial support, and enhancing support. Most of the participants portrayed their workplace as an unsupportive and negative environment. A number of colleagues were depicted as having little regard for the codes for professional nursing practice. This paper shows how nurses in the study dealt with the workplace support associated with mental illness.

  2. Linking Returning Veterans in Rural Community Colleges to Mental Health Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    with mental health problems to care in order to promote successful re-integration into a productive, civilian life. One reintegration domain that is...student veteransmental health needs as they reintegrate and attend two-year community colleges. A concurrent challenge is that many returning student...Linking these suffering student veterans to quality care is critical to their educational success on the new GI bill and their successful re

  3. Mental health and other risk factors for jail incarceration among male veterans.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2009-03-01

    Data derived from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails and the 2000 National Survey of Veterans show that having mental health problems in addition to such sociodemographic characteristics as being a member of a minority group, not being married, having less education, and being younger are risk factors for incarceration among veterans, as they are for the general population. As in previous studies veterans who served during the Vietnam Era and to an even greater extent, those who served in the early years of the All Volunteer Force were at greater risk of incarceration than veterans from the most recent period of the AVF, after controlling for age and other factors.

  4. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the problem...and occupational and environmental exposures for validated illness in a series of nested case - control studies . Year 2 of 4 the grant has just been

  5. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  6. "I'm Coming Home, Tell the World I'm Coming Home". The Long Homecoming and Mental Health Treatment of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

    PubMed

    Rozanova, Julia; Noulas, Paraskevi; Smart, Kathleen; Roy, Alicia; Southwick, Steven M; Davidson, Larry; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the journey of American armed forces personnel from their decision to join the service, through their service in an active military conflict and how these factors may be associated with potential resistance for mental healthcare. The data came from qualitative interviews with 46 OIF/OEF/OND active-duty military, reservists, and discharged veterans of the average age of 25 years, who presented for a new episode of mental health treatment to a large Veterans Affairs Hospital (VAH) in Northeastern United States in 2011-2012. Qualitative analysis of veterans' perceptions revealed several major themes describing how a mental health diagnosis would negatively impact both their sense of identity and pragmatic career-building goals: enlisting as a career-building avenue, 'noble superhero' identity, escaping from hardship, and mental illness as a career-killer. Findings suggest that factors making young veterans resist mental healthcare may be reduced by partnering VAH psychiatrists with career counselors, and by enhancing military leadership's awareness and understanding about how to support soldiers with emotional and mental health needs, with a goal to eliminating stigma.

  7. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  8. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra M; Shaw, Jenny J; Abel, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  9. Effect of center-based counseling for veterans and veterans' families on long-term mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Meaghan; Varker, Tracey; Perry, Desmond; Phelps, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The Veterans and Veterans Families Counselling Service (VVCS), established by the Australian government, plays a pivotal role in providing mental health services to veterans and their families. This research explored the impact of center-based psychological counseling on depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use severity. A stratified sample of VVCS clients were invited to participate in this study. Data were collected on intake to the program, at the fifth counseling session, and 12 months after the commencement of counseling. Repeated-measures general linear model analyses were conducted to examine the impact of center-based counseling on depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol severity over time. VVCS center-based counseling resulted in a significant reduction in depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use severity after five sessions, and these improvements were maintained over the next 12 months. Despite these improvements, however, participants continued to report moderate-to-severe levels of mental health problems. VVCS center-based counseling successfully reduced depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use symptom severity of veterans and their families. However, the clinical profiles of this population are often complex and challenges remain in terms of addressing the mental health needs of this group.

  10. Mental illness in elementary-school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Chabra, A; Chávez, G F; Harris, E S

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1992 hospital discharge data to determine the incidence of mental illness hospitalizations among elementary-school-aged children and to analyze differences in hospital use by selected population characteristics. We analyzed population-based records of hospitalizations of 6- to 12-year-olds (n = 4,460) with a principal diagnosis of mental illness and calculated relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization by sex, race/ethnicity, and payment source. Mental illnesses accounted for 8.1% of hospitalizations and 28.9% of hospital days for 6- to 12-year-olds. Hospital charges totaled $85 million. Boys had a higher risk of mental illness hospitalization than girls (RR 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-2.08). Latino children had a lower risk than whites (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.20-0.24), as did children in the "Asian/other" group (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.10-0.15). Inpatient hospitalizations for mental illness have a major impact on hospital morbidity for elementary-school-age children. Boys are overrepresented and Latinos and Asians/others are underrepresented among mental illness hospitalizations. Clinical implications for these findings and barriers to the delivery of inpatient mental health care are discussed. PMID:9926733

  11. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students’. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115) and not exposed (n = 61) to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students’ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013) and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009) domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students’ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems. PMID:26167018

  12. Is mental illness complex? From behavior to brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2013-08-01

    A defining but elusive feature of the human brain is its astonishing complexity. This complexity arises from the interaction of numerous neuronal circuits that operate over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, enabling the brain to adapt to the constantly changing environment and to perform various amazing mental functions. In mentally ill patients, such adaptability is often impaired, leading to either ordered or random patterns of behavior. Quantification and classification of these abnormal human behaviors exhibited during mental illness is one of the major challenges of contemporary psychiatric medicine. In the past few decades, attempts have been made to apply concepts adopted from complexity science to better understand complex human behavior. Although considerable effort has been devoted to studying the abnormal dynamic processes involved in mental illness, unfortunately, the primary features of complexity science are typically presented in a form suitable for mathematicians, physicists, and engineers; thus, they are difficult for practicing psychiatrists or neuroscientists to comprehend. Therefore, this paper introduces recent applications of methods derived from complexity science for examining mental illness. We propose that mental illness is loss of brain complexity and the complexity of mental illness can be studied under a general framework by quantifying the order and randomness of dynamic macroscopic human behavior and microscopic neuronal activity. Additionally, substantial effort is required to identify the link between macroscopic behaviors and microscopic changes in the neuronal dynamics within the brain.

  13. [Community integrated services for persons with mental illness].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Anti-psychotic medications have changed the lives and treatment of persons with mental illness for the better since the social isolation of the 1950s and earlier. Community support programs break down barriers surrounding mental patients, but the stigma and negative attitudes about mental illness continue to block the development of community-based services. Individuals struggling to overcome a mental health issue find themselves facing a constant series of rejections and exclusions. Now that the Mental Health Law and Physically and Mentally Disabled Citizens Protection Act have been amended by The Legislative Yuan, the government will need to review the design of the Mental Health Care Network Project and to promote and facilitate friendly supportive communities for the mentally ill. All of us have to face these challenges to find a new balance between the civil rights of the public and the mentally ill. This paper examines issues concerning the gap between the development of the mental health system and the needs of patients and their families in the last two decades. The system often falls short of meeting needs. To meet the mental health needs of the people and make effective use of resources, changes must be made in the way services are designed, organized and delivered. The process of reforming mental health services, moreover, must not take money away from other services. Instead, changes must be made by reallocating funds. Following the revised Mental Health Law, the government should begin now to develop implementation planning guidelines to establish a comprehensive and integrated mental health services system, especially for the 80?% of patients with mild or moderate mental health problems who live in the community. We will monitor the process carefully, and ensure that patients and their families get the services they need, and help them remain in their communities as far as possible.

  14. Community case management for mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Stephens, I

    1999-05-01

    These case vignettes clearly illustrate the complexity which is modern psychiatric case management. In the case of Mr D, one of the salient facets of case management was medication monitoring in the context of the introduction of a new depot injection. This was a function in which nursing knowledge of medications and their side effects was undoubtedly advantageous. Any adverse experience with medication is likely to have negative ramifications regarding future compliance. Therefore, a nurse case manager is ideally suited to provide the appropriate information on psychotropic medications and to confidently answer most questions about these medications, and promptly identify any possible emerging side effects. In the case of Mr X, the management began with a practical and crisis focus involving suicide prevention. This developed into supportive psychotherapy, which required sensitive but proactive intervention and, ultimately, significant counselling skills. Mr L's case management had a different focus again, characterised by the development of a new and comprehensive case formulation and a creative nurturing of an individual's identified strength in music. The vignettes not only serve to highlight the well-established heterogeneity of mental illness, but they also importantly illuminate the heterogeneity of case management, a reality obscured in the descriptions of case management models which perhaps misleadingly have given the impression of the process as being merely a number of clearly defined tasks or functions. In actual fact, though the coordination of care appears to represent a common feature, the case management relationship remains an ever changing one, with adaptability, refined clinical skills and practical problem solving skills being the essential requisites of an effective case manager. Therefore, attempts to present this important activity in terms of any one model seem to miss the point. For the consumers of psychiatric services, the experience of

  15. Sex differences in mental health and substance use disorders and treatment entry among justice-involved Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Andrea K; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Smelson, David; Sawh, Leon; McGuire, Jim; Rosenthal, Joel; Blue-Howells, Jessica; Timko, Christine; Blodgett, Janet C; Harris, Alex H S; Asch, Steven M; Frayne, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Over half of veterans in the criminal justice system have mental health or substance use disorders. However, there is a critical lack of information about female veterans in the criminal justice system and how diagnosis prevalence and treatment entry differ by sex. To document prevalence of mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment entry rates among female veterans compared with male veterans in the justice system. Retrospective cohort study using national Veterans Health Administration clinical/administrative data from veterans seen by Veterans Justice Outreach Specialists in fiscal years 2010-2012. A total of 1535 females and 30,478 male veterans were included. Demographic characteristics (eg, sex, age, residence, homeless status), mental health disorders (eg, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), substance use disorders (eg, alcohol and opioid use disorders), and treatment entry (eg, outpatient, residential, pharmacotherapy). Among female veterans, prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders was 88% and 58%, respectively, compared with 76% and 72% among male veterans. Women had higher odds of being diagnosed with a mental health disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.34] and lower odds of being diagnosed with a substance use disorder (AOR=0.50; 95% CI, 0.45-0.56) compared with men. Women had lower odds of entering mental health residential treatment (AOR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.83). Female veterans involved in the justice system have a high burden of mental health disorders (88%) and more than half have substance use disorders (58%). Entry to mental health residential treatment for women is an important quality improvement target.

  16. California Veterans Receive Inadequate Treatment to Address their Mental Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-01-01

    Data from the 2011 to 2013 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were pooled to estimate prevalence of mental health need (serious psychological distress and impairment in one or more life domains), minimally adequate treatment (having four or more visits with a health professional in the past 12 months and use of prescription medication for mental health problems in the past 12 months), and suicide ideation among veterans living in California. Numbers and percentages were weighted to the CA population using a large sample size (N=6,952), and for comparison purposes, veterans and nonveterans were standardized to the age and gender distribution of veterans in the sample. Although differences in mental health need were similar between veterans and nonveterans after adjustment, over three-quarters of veterans did not receive minimally adequate treatment needed to address their mental health needs. Suicide ideation was significantly higher among veterans than nonveterans. Male veterans at all ages were more vulnerable to thinking about suicide compared to their nonveteran counterparts. PMID:27570802

  17. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  18. Using facebook to recruit young adult veterans: online mental health research.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Helmuth, Eric D; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; PunKay, Marc; Kurz, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more than half screening positive for

  19. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  20. Comorbid mental illness and criminalness implications for housing and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Nicole R; Morgan, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between mental illness, violence, and criminal behavior is complex, and involves a multifaceted interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes. In this article, we review the emerging research that examines the neurobiological and psychological factors that distinguish between persons with mental illness who do and who do not engage in crime and violence. Additionally, a novel model for understanding the interaction between mental illness and criminalness is proposed. (As defined by Morgan and colleagues, criminalness is defined as behavior that breaks laws and social conventions and/or violates the rights and wellbeing of others.) Stemming from this model and outlined research, we argue that management and treatment approaches should target the co-occurring domains of mental illness and criminalness to improve criminal and psychiatric outcomes. Specifically, we discuss and propose effective housing (management) and biopsychosocial intervention strategies for improving outcomes.

  1. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  2. Mental illness stigma and disclosure in college students.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Markowitz, Fred; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Conlon, Bridget; Rees, Jo; Rosenberg, Jessica; Ellefson, Sarah; Al-Khouja, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness identity, shame, secrecy, public stigma, and disclosure amongst college students. Participants included 1393 college students from five postsecondary institutions. Structural equation modeling was used to examine two path models predicting disclosure and desire to join a program aiding with disclosure. Variables found to be significant in predicting disclosure included mental illness identity and public stigma. In turn, desire for disclosure predicted desire to join a program aiding in disclosure. Gender and race/ethnic differences were observed, with men and Whites more likely to want to disclose a mental illness or join a program aiding with disclosure compared with women and non-Whites, respectively. These findings suggest that some college students may find programs aiding in disclosure useful in assisting them to achieve their desire to be "out" with their mental illness.

  3. The impact of an educational mental health intervention on adolescents' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Sourander, A; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, in many countries, mental health care is primarily community based. Community perceptions of mental illness are an essential issue for the quality of life of people with mental health problems and the promotion of mental health in general. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of mental illness and to examine the extent to which those perceptions changed after an educational mental health intervention. The data were collected twice, before and after the educational mental health intervention. Fifty-nine pupils from two Greek secondary schools were individually interviewed, and data were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The findings show that adolescents can provide a rich description of mental illness in a multidimensional way. After the intervention, they provide different descriptions, identify various forms of mental illness and express opinions on what mentally ill people need and how they should be treated. It is concluded that mental health educational interventions in schools can be effective in changing adolescents' perceptions towards mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The quality of mental health care for veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Woodroffe, Abigail; Watkins, Katherine E; Sorbero, Melony E; Smith, Brad; Mannle, Thomas E; Solomon, Jacob; Pincus, Harold A

    2013-01-01

    Some Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans experience serious mental health (MH) problems. As OEF/OIF soldiers leave active military duty, their growing numbers pose a challenge to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in delivering high-quality mental health/substance-use disorder (MH/SUD) care. To determine whether the quality of MH/SUD care provided by the VA differs by OEF/OIF veteran status. Veterans with selected MH/SUDs were identified from administrative records using diagnostic codes. OEF/OIF service was determined based on Defense Manpower Data Center separation files. Eleven processes of care and 7 utilization performance indicators were examined. Regression analyses were adjusted for veteran demographic and clinical characteristics to test for differences in care by OEF/OIF status. Of the 836,699 veterans with selected diagnoses who received MH/SUD treatment in FY2007, 52,870 (6.3%) were OEF/OIF veterans. In unadjusted analyses, OEF/OIF veterans were more likely to receive evidence-based care processes captured by 6 of the 11 dichotomous performance indicators examined; however, among those receiving psychotherapy encounters, OEF/OIF veterans received significantly fewer visits (6.9 vs. 9.7, P<0.0001). In adjusted analyses, only postdischarge follow-up remained meaningfully higher for OEF/OIF veterans. Efforts to maintain and/or increase OEF/OIF veteran participation in VA MH/SUD services should be informed by their characteristics, such as younger age and better physical health relative to other veterans.

  5. Accomplishments of 77 VA mental health professionals with a lived experience of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Zeiss, Antonette; Reddy, Shilpa; Skinner, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports and first-person accounts by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and nurses with lived experience of mental illness ("prosumers") indicate that they can be effective in these roles, but little is known about the extent, nature, or contributions of this group. Competently functioning prosumers are in a unique position to increase hope for recovery and reduce stigma and discrimination across the mental health field, to the ultimate benefit of consumers. The study surveyed a convenience sample of 77 prosumers working for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We present descriptive productivity metrics such as publications, presentations, funding, initiating and leading programs, training and supervising other clinicians, and performing community work outside VHA. Very few have asked for accommodations at work. Two thirds have not disclosed their lived experience to any of their patients. On average, respondents have disclosed to only 16% of their colleagues, and about one third have not disclosed to any of their colleagues. Qualitative data show that participants see their lived experience as an asset, whether or not they disclose it. They advocate being conscientious about self-care to remain work-ready. Although the group sees many advantages to being open about their lived experience, and many are proud to stand up and be counted, others cite reasons to be cautious about disclosure. It is hoped that this survey will provide inspiration and encouragement to mental health workers with lived experience and that it will help foster a welcoming and inclusive work environment for this capable group of colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Supporting the Mental Health Needs of Veterans in the Metro Detroit Area.

    PubMed

    Tanielian, Terri; Hansen, Michael L; Martin, Laurie T; Grimm, Geoffrey; Ogletree, Cordaye

    2016-06-20

    Supporting the mental health needs of veterans is a national priority. Over the past decade, there have been several studies describing the needs of the veteran population, particularly those who served in the post-9/11 era, calling for improved access to high-quality mental health services. In response, the federal government has expanded funding and services to meet increasing demand. At the same time, there has also been a proliferation of nongovernmental support to improve services for veterans in local communities. Often, in an attempt to deploy resources quickly, new programs and services are implemented without a full understanding of the specific needs of the population. This article discusses findings and recommendations from a study designed to gather information on the mental health-related needs facing veterans in the Detroit metropolitan area to identify gaps in the support landscape and inform future investments for community-level resources to fill the identified gaps.

  7. Supporting the Mental Health Needs of Veterans in the Metro Detroit Area

    PubMed Central

    Tanielian, Terri; Hansen, Michael L.; Martin, Laurie T.; Grimm, Geoffrey; Ogletree, Cordaye

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Supporting the mental health needs of veterans is a national priority. Over the past decade, there have been several studies describing the needs of the veteran population, particularly those who served in the post-9/11 era, calling for improved access to high-quality mental health services. In response, the federal government has expanded funding and services to meet increasing demand. At the same time, there has also been a proliferation of nongovernmental support to improve services for veterans in local communities. Often, in an attempt to deploy resources quickly, new programs and services are implemented without a full understanding of the specific needs of the population. This article discusses findings and recommendations from a study designed to gather information on the mental health–related needs facing veterans in the Detroit metropolitan area to identify gaps in the support landscape and inform future investments for community-level resources to fill the identified gaps. PMID:28083443

  8. Swept Away: Use of General Medical and Mental Health Services Among Veterans Displaced By Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Druss, Benjamin G.; Henderson, Kathy L.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study examined national patterns of outpatient service use by veterans from regions affected by Hurricane Katrina. Methods Analyses tracked use of general medical and mental/substance use services in September and October through December 2005 in New Orleans and Biloxi-Gulfport compared to a cohort receiving care during the same months in the previous 2 years. Results In adjusted models, veterans from New Orleans and Biloxi-Gulfport were, respectively, 73% and 41% less likely in September 2005 to use any outpatient services as were cohorts from 2003–2004. Particularly in New Orleans, the relative decline in service use was substantially greater for specialty mental health and substance use services than for general medical services. Conclusions Although many veterans were able to obtain care after Hurricane Katrina, there was a substantial disruption in delivery of Veterans Administration services, with disproportionate declines in mental health and substance use care. PMID:17202558

  9. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Ai-Ling; Minas, Harry; Cohen, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH) has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the features of this transformation, which, over the past 20 years, has aimed to help extended stay inpatients with severe mental illness to integrate into the local community of Yuli even though it is not their original home. Methods Using historical documents and oral narratives from Yuli inhabitants, workers and patients of YVH, we will offer a case study of the Yuli model. Results There are four main components of the Yuli model: holistic medical support, vocational rehabilitation, case management, and the residential program. The four components help patients recover two essential features of their lives: vocational life and ordinary daily routines. As the process of recovery evolves, patients gradually regain inner stability, dignity, self-confidence, and a sense of control. The four components are critical to rebuild the structure and order of life of the patients and are indispensable and interdependent parts of one service package. They operate simultaneously to benefit the patients to the greatest degree possible. Discussion There are many challenges to the further development and financial viability of the model of services developed at YVH. There are also important questions concerning the replicability of the Yuli model in other sociocultural and service system contexts. Conclusion This case study reveals the possibility of transforming a custodial mental hospital into a hospital providing high quality care. Hospital and community are not in opposition. They are part of a

  10. California law enforcement agencies and the mentally ill offender.

    PubMed

    Husted, J R; Charter, R A; Perrou, B

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of California law enforcement agencies, designed to assess the experience of these agencies with mentally ill offenders (MIOs) and the training of their officers to interact with this population. The results suggest that most law enforcement officers are given insufficient training to identify, manage, and appropriately refer the MIOs they are increasingly likely to encounter. The data indicate that, in contrast to their training and expectations, peace officers are as likely to be called to a mental illness crisis as to a robbery. The MIO is likely to be arrested for nonviolent misdemeanors and to be screened by officers with little of the training or knowledge needed to divert them to appropriate mental health treatment. Respondents report that increased communication and cooperation between law enforcement and mental health professionals is the single greatest improvement needed for handling mental illness crises.

  11. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress.

  12. The social context of mental illness and violence.

    PubMed

    Hiday, V A

    1995-06-01

    For years a debate existed in the literature concerning whether or not mentally ill persons were more dangerous than others. Empirical work was hampered by conceptual and methodological shortcomings, and was therefore unable to settle the debate. Recently, methodologically sophisticated studies have produced evidence which indicates a modest association between active major mental disorders and violence. While some interpret this association to mean that mental illness or particular symptoms directly cause unwarranted physical aggression, this paper examines the case for the social context establishing socializing and environmental conditions which are causal in both violence and the development of mental disorder. It reviews the literature, indicating lacunae in our knowledge base, and posits a causal model which links social stratification with both mental illness and violence through the structured types of strains, events, situations and persons an individual experiences as an integral part of life.

  13. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  14. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan ...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065 5c...Sciences has demonstrated that Morphine-related analogs, including Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan , have great potency in anti-inflammation and

  15. Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0065 TITLE: Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Trial of Naltrexone and Dextromethorphan for Gulf War VeteransIllness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0065...ABSTRACT Approval to separate the study into a separate dextromethorphan arm and naltrexone arm from the Department of Defense Institutional Review

  16. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    PubMed

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  17. Sin and mental illness in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1984-08-01

    The modern stereotype that in the Middle Ages there was a general belief that mental illness was caused by sin is reviewed. The authors examined 57 descriptions of mental illness (madness, possession, alcoholism, epilepsy, and combinations thereof) from pre-Crusade chronicles and saints' lives. In only 9 (16%) of these descriptions did the sources attribute the mental illness to sin or wrongdoing, and in these cases the medieval authors appeared to use this attribution for its propaganda value against an enemy of their patron saints, their monastery lands, or their religious values. The medieval sources indicate that the authors were well aware of the proximate causes of mental illness, such as humoral imbalance, intemperate diet and alcohol intake, overwork, and grief. The banality that, since God causes all things he also causes mental illness, was only used by medieval authors under special circumstances and in a minority of cases. It does not constitute evidence of superstitious and primitive notions about mental illness in the early Middle Ages.

  18. Graphic Depictions: Portrayals of Mental Illness in Video Games.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Samuel; Rotter, Merrill

    2016-11-01

    Although studies have examined portrayals of mental illness in the mass media, little attention has been paid to such portrayals in video games. In this descriptive study, the fifty highest-selling video games in each year from 2011 to 2013 were surveyed through application of search terms to the Wikia search engine, with subsequent review of relevant footage on YouTube. Depiction categories were then assigned based on the extent of portrayal and qualitative characteristics compared against mental illness stereotypes in cinema. Twenty-three of the 96 surveyed games depicted at least one character with mental illness. Forty-two characters were identified as portraying mental illness, with most characters classified under a "homicidal maniac" stereotype, although many characters did not clearly reflect cinema stereotypes and were subcategorized based on the shared traits. Video games contain frequent and varied portrayals of mental illness, with depictions most commonly linking mental illness to dangerous and violent behaviors. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Lara; Stefancic, Ana; Cummingham, Amy T.; Hurley, Katelyn E.; Cabassa, Leopodo; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    People with mental illness die decades earlier in our country when compared to the general public Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. We conducted an integrative review in order to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. While multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review was able to find only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. Based on our review of the literature and the experience and expertise of the authors, we conclude each section with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy level that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. PMID:26663383

  20. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. Interpersonal violence and mental illness: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Donna; O'brien, Louise

    2006-05-01

    There is a perception that people with a mental illness are dangerous. However, there are still arguments in the research literature as to whether the evidence supports this perception. The major aim of this paper is to review the findings of these studies in regard to the risk of violent behaviour in people with mental illness. An additional aim is to give an overview of the risk factors for violence in people with a mental illness. This systematic search of the literature resulted in good evidence that diagnoses such as schizophrenia and personality disorder are associated with an increased risk of violent behaviour. Substance abuse was the risk factor most associated with an increase in the risk of violent behaviour in people with a mental illness. However, there are substantial differences in the methods used in studies of the risk in violence in people with mental illness resulting in a large variability in the estimates of risk. One of the major causes of variation may be due to the different definitions of violence that are used. The need remains, therefore, for a meta-analysis of this literature based on clear definitions of violence in order to get a more accurate estimate of the risk of violence in people with a mental illness.

  2. Gender, mental illness and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

    PubMed

    Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Shields, Laura; Bunders, Joske F G; Sagade, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Section 5(ii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA) states that under certain circumstances, mental illness is accepted as a ground for the annulment of marriage, while Section 13(1) (iii) states that mental illness is a ground for divorce. There is little data on how this provision is used and applied in matrimonial petitions. This paper assesses judicial practices in divorce cases, exploring the extent to which gender and the diagnosis of mental illness affect the decision to grant annulment or divorce. The paper analyses judgments related to annulment and divorce at the Family Court in Pune and at the High Courts in India. In the Family Court at Pune, 85% of the cases were filed by husbands, who alleged that their spouse was mentally ill. Medical evidence of mental illness was presented in only 36% of the cases and in many cases, divorce/nullity was granted even in the absence of medical evidence. In 14% of the cases, nullity/divorce was granted even when both spouses were not present. Of the Family Court cases reaching the High Court, 95% were filed by male petitioners. The High Courts reversed the lower courts' judgments in 50% of the cases. Our analysis highlights the need for standardised guidelines for lower courts on what constitutes adequate medical proof of mental illness when hearing a petition related to nullity or divorce under HMA. It also provides a critical review of Section 5(ii) of HMA.

  3. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  4. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  5. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  6. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  7. Mental health utilization of new-to-care Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans following suicidal ideation assessment.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K

    2014-07-30

    We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care.

  8. [Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents].

    PubMed

    Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold

    2017-10-01

    Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.

  9. Mental health nursing staff's attitudes towards mental illness: an analysis of related factors

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, G; Jacobsson, J W; Engström, M

    2014-01-01

    Accessible summary Employer/workplaces have an impact on mental health nursing staff's general attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Staff have more positive attitudes if their knowledge about mental illness is less stigmatized and currently have or have once had a close friend with mental problem. More favourable attitudes among staff towards persons with mental illness could be developed and transmitted in the subculture at work places. Abstract There is growing awareness that mental illness is surrounded by negative attitudes and stigmas. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with mental health nursing staff's attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Data were collected from 256 mental health nursing staff employed by one county council and 10 municipalities. The findings show that staff have more positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness if their knowledge about mental illness is less stigmatized, their work places are in the county council, and they currently have or have once had a close friend with mental health problems. The multiple regression model explained 16% of the variance; stigma-related knowledge and employer had significant Beta-coefficients. To account for unknown correlations in data, a linear generalized estimating equation was performed. In this model, stigma-related knowledge and employer remained significant, but a new significant factor also emerged: personal contact, i.e. currently having or having once had a close friend with mental health problems. This indicates correlations at unit level in the county council and in the municipalities. The conclusion is that more favourable attitudes among staff towards persons with mental illness could be developed and transmitted in the subculture at work places. PMID:24654776

  10. Insight into mental illness, self-stigma, and the family burden of parents of persons with a severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Levy, Itamar; Kravetz, Shlomo; Vollanski-Narkis, Adi; Roe, David

    2011-01-01

    Parents of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) often experience burden due to the illness of their daughter or son. In the present study, the possibility that parents' self-stigma moderates the relationship between the parents' insight into a daughter's or son's illness and the parents' sense of burden was investigated. Levels of insight into a daughter's or son's mental illness, parent self-stigma, and parent burden of 127 parents of persons with an SMI were assessed. Regression analysis was used to test the putative moderating role of parents' self-stigma. Self-stigma was found to mediate rather than moderate the relationship between insight and burden. Accordingly, parent insight into the mental illness of a daughter or son appears to increase parent burden because it increases parent self-stigma. The implications of these findings for practice, theory, and future research are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Mixed Methods to Examine the Role of Veterans' Illness Perceptions on Depression Treatment Utilization and HEDIS Concordance.

    PubMed

    Elwy, A Rani; Glickman, Mark E; Bokhour, Barbara G; Dell, Natalie S; Mueller, Nora M; Zhao, Shibei; Osei-Bonsu, Princess E; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Coldwell, Craig M; Ngo, Tu A; Schlosser, James; Vielhauer, Melanie J; Pirraglia, Paul A; Eisen, Susan V

    2016-06-01

    Although depression screening occurs annually in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care, many veterans may not be receiving guideline-concordant depression treatment. To determine whether veterans' illness perceptions of depression may be serving as barriers to guideline-concordant treatment. We used a prospective, observational design involving a mailed questionnaire and chart review data collection to assess depression treatment utilization and concordance with Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set guidelines adopted by the VA. The Self-Regulation Model of Illness Behavior guided the study. Veterans who screened positive for a new episode of depression at 3 VA primary care clinics in the US northeast. The Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised, measuring patients' perceptions of their symptoms, cause, timeline, consequences, cure or controllability, and coherence of depression and its symptoms, was our primary measure to calculate veterans' illness perceptions. Treatment utilization was assessed 3 months after the positive depression screen through chart review. Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) guideline-concordant treatment was determined according to a checklist created for the study. A total of 839 veterans screened positive for a new episode of depression from May 2009-June 2011; 275 (32.8%) completed the survey. Ninety-two (33.9%) received HEDIS guideline-concordant depression treatment. Veterans' illness perceptions of their symptoms, cause, timeline, and controllability of depression predicted receiving guideline-concordant treatment. Many veterans are not receiving guideline-concordant treatment for depression. HEDIS guideline measures may not be assessing all aspects of quality depression care. Conversations about veterans' illness perceptions and their specific needs are encouraged to ensure that appropriate treatment is achieved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of supported housing for homeless persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert; Kasprow, Wesley; Frisman, Linda; Liu-Mares, Wen

    2003-09-01

    Supported housing, integrating clinical and housing services, is a widely advocated intervention for homeless people with mental illness. In 1992, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the HUD-VA Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Homeless veterans with psychiatric and/or substance abuse disorders or both (N = 460) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) HUD-VASH, with Section 8 vouchers (rent subsidies) and intensive case management (n = 182); (2) case management only, without special access to Section 8 vouchers (n = 90); and (3) standard VA care (n = 188) Primary outcomes were days housed and days homeless. Secondary outcomes were mental health status, community adjustment, and costs from 4 perspectives. During a 3-year follow-up, HUD-VASH veterans had 16% more days housed than the case management-only group and 25% more days housed than the standard care group (P<.001 for both). The case management-only group had only 7% more days housed than the standard care group (P =.29). The HUD-VASH group also experienced 35% and 36% fewer days homeless than each of the control groups (P<.005 for both). There were no significant differences on any measures of psychiatric or substance abuse status or community adjustment, although HUD-VASH clients had larger social networks. From the societal perspective, HUD-VASH was 6200 US dollars (15%) more costly than standard care. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios suggest that HUD-VASH cost 45 US dollars more than standard care for each additional day housed (95% confidence interval, -19 US dollars to 108 US dollars). Supported housing for homeless people with mental illness results in superior housing outcomes than intensive case management alone or standard care and modestly increases societal costs.

  13. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  14. Predictors of exercise compliance in individuals with Gulf War veterans illnesses: Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 470.

    PubMed

    Mori, DeAnna L; Sogg, Stephanie; Guarino, Peter; Skinner, James; Williams, David; Barkhuizen, Andre; Engel, Charles; Clauw, Daniel; Donta, Sam; Peduzzi, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Although the health benefits of exercise for individuals with Persian Gulf War veterans illnesses (GWVI) are documented, many of these individuals do not exercise regularly enough to obtain benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors predicting exercise compliance among individuals with GWVI in a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Participants were 1,092 veterans who reported at least two of the following cardinal symptoms of GWVI: (1) fatigue, (2) musculoskeletal pain, and (3) cognitive problems. Participants received exercise alone or exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The overall level of compliance was relatively low during the exercise treatment phase (46.2%) and decreased by one-half during the follow-up period (23.0%). Predictors of compliance during treatment included less pain and greater age, motivation, and body mass index. Predictors of compliance during the follow-up period included less pain and greater age. The results highlight factors that affect adoption and maintenance of physical activity in a population with GWVI.

  15. Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

  16. Domestic violence: the hidden epidemic associated with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kelsey

    2011-03-01

    Despite domestic violence being a very common problem in individuals with severe mental illness, there is very little research in this setting. Multiple barriers exist to disclosure by users and enquiry by providers. Training and systems for identification and responding to domestic violence are urgently needed in mental health clinics.

  17. Religious Education and Mental Illness: A Higher Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govig, Stewart D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a special curriculum that combines religious studies and social science resources to offer a better understanding and acceptance of persons suffering from long-term mental disorders. Utilizes recent scientific research and sacred texts to investigate biological causes of mental illness and the ensuing cultural stigmatization. (MJP)

  18. [Employees with mental illness - possibilities and barriers in professional activity].

    PubMed

    Cybula-Fujiwara, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Wiszniewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In Poland patients with psychiatric problems form a large group; in 2010 there were almost 1.5 million people for whom outpatient psychiatric care was provided, whereas approximately 200 thousand ill individuals were treated in 24-h psychiatric wards. Only 17% of the mentally disabled are professionally active. The results of many researches show that despite the detrimental influence of mental disorders on the employment (e.g., lower productivity, absenteeism, presenteism, increased risk of accidents at the workplace), professional activity can play a key role in the7stabilization of the mental state, it can also help in disease recovery. People with mental disorders are a social group that is at the higher risk of exclusion from the job market. The opinion prevailing among employers is that mentally ill individuals have decreased ability to conduct professional activity, and social attitudes towards them tend to be based on marking and stigmatizing. This review tackles the advantages of working during the illness, barriers which people with mental disorders face on the job market when they want to either start or continue work, and professional functioning of people with diagnosed depression (e.g., affective disorders) and schizophrenia (representing psychotic disorders). The analysis of existing data show that to improve the situation of mentally ill people present on the job market close cooperation between the representatives of various medical specializations is necessary, as well as their active participation in the process of social and professional rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders.

  19. Lived experiences of family caregivers of mentally ill relatives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kam Hock; Horrocks, Stephen

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a study conducted to explore the meanings of the lived experiences that Chinese family caregivers in Malaysia ascribed to the care they provided to relatives with severe and persistent mental illness. In the past, many researchers have used quantitative approaches to explore the experiences of family caregivers of relatives with severe and persistent mental illness. However, the results of these studies have been far from conclusive because of serious methodological flaws. In addition, a large majority of these studies were conducted in western cultures, and it has been difficult to transfer the results to family caregivers in oriental cultures. The philosophy of Martin Heidegger underpinned the study. Qualitative data were collected mainly through in-depth interviews with 19 criterion-selected Chinese family caregivers of relatives with severe and persistent mental illness in 2002. We present the emergent themes reflecting the meaning structures of managing, enduring, and surviving the day-to-day experiences of the Chinese family caregivers. The impact of the stigma of the relatives' mental illness on family caregivers and families is pervasive and strong. As a result, family caregivers tried to avoid talking about their relative's mental illness with extended family or friends in order to protect their families from 'losing face'. In addition, most family caregivers believed that adopting positive behaviours and attitudes helped them cope with caregiving. Mental health nurses need to help Chinese family caregivers to cope with the stresses and stigmas of their relatives' mental illnesses through psychosocial education or family intervention, and to provide them with culturally-congruent care. They should also educate the public about mental health and ill health through health promotion and education.

  20. Long-term effects of military service on mental health among veterans of the Vietnam War era.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-06-01

    Comparing outcomes of veterans who served in Vietnam and those who served elsewhere, we examined treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, treatment of other mental health conditions, psychiatric treatment location, and six mental health well-being measures. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative data from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression that controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. Of Vietnam War-era veterans in the National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,914), 3,937 served in Vietnam and 3,977 served elsewhere. These veterans were stratified into < 60 years of age (N = 6,141) and > or = 60 years of age (N = 1,766). Veterans who served in Vietnam had notably poorer mental health than did those who served elsewhere. There were striking mental health differences between younger and older veterans; younger veterans had substantially worse measures of mental health. These results suggest greater resource needs among younger Vietnam War veterans. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should focus on mental health services for younger veterans.

  1. Anxiety disorders, physical illnesses, and health care utilization in older male veterans with Parkinson disease and comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Salah U; Amspoker, Amber B; Calleo, Jessica S; Kunik, Mark E; Marsh, Laura

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the rates of anxiety and depressive disorders, physical illnesses, and health service use in male patients 55 years or older with a diagnosis of Parkinson disease who were seen at least twice at the 10 medical centers in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare Network of the South Central region of the United States. Of the 273 male patients diagnosed between October 1, 1997, and September 30, 2009, 62 (22.7%) had a depressive disorder. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders was 12.8%; patients with comorbid depression had a 5-fold greater prevalence of anxiety disorders than those without depression (35.5% vs 6.2%, P<.0001). Patients with comorbid depression also had increased prevalence of all physical illnesses examined and more outpatient clinic and mental health visits. Patients with Parkinson disease and comorbid depression are more likely to have anxiety disorders and several physical illnesses, to be using antipsychotic and dementia medicines, and to have increased health service utilization than those without depression.

  2. Prevalence of mental illness within families in a regional child-focussed mental health service.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Michael F A; Maybery, Darryl J; Goodyear, Melinda

    2017-09-19

    Nearly 50% of all mental illnesses begin in childhood before the age of 14 years, and over 20% of parents have a mental illness. Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of mental illnesses in parents and children. In the present study, we examined the extent of mental illness within families of 152 clients attending an Australian regional child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). A cross-sectional study design was employed involving a case record review and clinician-completed questionnaire of the children and youth attending a CAMHS. It was found that 79% of these children were living with a parent with mental illness. The predominant diagnosis of both child and parent was an anxiety or mood disorder, and many families had co-occurring risk factors of domestic violence and limited social supports. The findings in this Australian cohort are similar to those of other international research. While novel in nature, the present study has highlighted the extent of both mental illness and scarce supports for both children and parents in the same family. The findings indicate the need for a coordinated multiservice delivery of appropriate and consistent family-focussed interventions, responding to both mental illness and social supports for children and parents. Further research should examine specific components of family need and support, as seen through the eyes of the child and their parent. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. INSTRUMENT TO ASSESS BURDEN ON CAREGIVERS OF CHRONIC MENTALLY ILL

    PubMed Central

    Thara, R.; Padmavati, R.; Kumar, Shuba; Srinivasan, Latha

    1998-01-01

    The family is a major source of support for the mentally ill in India. Although Indian families show tremendous resilience in caring for their ill relatives, they experience a lot of physical and emotional distress. The burden assessment schedule (BAS) aims to assess both objective and subjective burden experienced by the primary care givers of chronic mentally ill patients. Stepwise ethnographic exploration has been used in the development of this 40 item instrument. Reliability exercises have been carried out throughout the development of this schedule. Criterion validity has been established by comparing with another standardized instrument to assess burden, which has been developed in India. PMID:21494438

  4. Delivering Mental Health Services to OEF/OIF Veterans: A VHA Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Signoracci, Gina M; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Matarazzo, Bridget B; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H; Brenner, Lisa A

    2014-09-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health (MH) professionals are providing care to increasing numbers of veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). This study aimed to describe MH clinicians' views of OEF/OIF veteran needs and how providers meet those needs within a large system of care. Qualitative research methodology, specifically qualitative description, was used to explore VHA MH clinicians' experiences providing MH services to OEF/OIF veterans. Thirteen VA MH providers participated in semistructured interviews, which included questions regarding the following areas: psychiatric needs of OEF/OIF veterans; collaboration and referral; needs and resources; and the personal/professional impact of providing services to this cohort. Themes emerged which highlighted complex challenges faced by OEF/OIF veterans, barriers associated with matching the unique needs of these veterans with existing treatments, and the challenges and rewards associated with providing care to members of this population. Capturing provider perspectives within MH services suggest potential areas for innovation aimed at providing patient-centered care to this cohort of veterans. Results may also inform future work aimed at meeting the needs of both OEF/OIF veterans and MH providers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Delivery of mental health treatment to combat veterans with psychiatric diagnoses and TBI histories

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shannon R.; Harik, Juliette M.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Mignogna, Joseph; Pastorek, Nicholas J.; Thompson, Karin E.; Freshour, Jessica S.; Yu, Hong J.; Cully, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health (MH) disorders are prevalent in combat veterans returning from Afghanistan and/or Iraq (hereafter referred to as returning veterans). Accurate estimates of service utilization for veterans with and without TBI exposure (referred to as TBI history) are imperative in order to provide high quality healthcare to returning veterans. We examined associations between TBI history and MH service utilization in a subsample of returning veterans who were newly diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety in the 2010 fiscal year (N = 55,458). Data were extracted from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Patient Care Database. Veterans with MH diagnoses and TBI histories attended significantly more psychotherapy visits, (M = 8.32 visits, SD = 17.15) and were more likely to attend at least 8 psychotherapy visits, (15.7%) than veterans with MH diagnoses but no TBI history (M = 6.48 visits, SD = 12.12; 10.1% attended at least 8 sessions). PTSD and TBI history, but not depression or anxiety, were associated with a greater number of psychotherapy visits when controlling for demographic and clinical variables. PTSD, anxiety, depression, and TBI history were associated with number of psychotropic medication-management visits. TBI history was related to greater MH service utilization, independent of MH diagnoses. Future research should examine what MH services are being utilized and if these services are helping veterans recover from their disorders. PMID:28886114

  6. Alcohol use and craving among Veterans with mental health disorders and mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Herrold, Amy A; Jordan, Neil; High, Walter M; Babcock-Parziale, Judi; Chambers, R Andrew; Smith, Bridget; Evans, Charlesnika T; Li, Xue; Mallinson, Trudy; Jenkins, Shonna; Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders (MHDs), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are endemic among recent Veterans, resulting in a population with heterogeneous, co-occurring conditions. While alcohol craving negatively affects rehabilitation and leads to relapse, no studies have examined alcohol craving among Veterans with co-occurring MHDs and mTBI. The purpose of this preliminary cohort study is to describe alcohol craving in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (n = 48), including those exposed to traumatic events and experiencing active symptoms. Veterans completed weekly telephone interviews that included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, consumption questions (AUDIT-C) (week 1) and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) (weeks 1-6). Sixty percent of the sample screened positive on the AUDIT-C for probable AUD. Using Rasch analysis, the person separation reliability of the PACS was strong (0.87) among AUDIT-C positive Veterans. Higher PACS scores were reported among AUDIT-C positive versus AUDIT-C negative Veterans (mixed effects analysis, p < 0.001). PACS scores were higher among AUDIT-C positive Veterans with MHDs with and without mTBI versus AUDIT-C positive combat comparison Veterans (pairwise comparison, p < 0.001). Rates of hazardous alcohol use are high among Iraq and Afghanistan conflict Veterans and suggest that alcohol craving is elevated among those with MHDs with and without mTBI.

  7. Burden and mental health among caregivers of veterans with traumatic brain injury/polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joan M; Lee, Minji K; Bangerter, Lauren R; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Friedemann-Sánchez, Greta; Phelan, Sean M; Carlson, Kathleen F; Meis, Laura A

    2017-01-01

    Veterans who survive multiple traumatic injuries, including traumatic brain injuries (TBI), must often rely on family caregivers for ongoing care and support with reintegration. Understanding factors associated with caregiving that help or harm caregivers' health is critical for identifying appropriate and effective interventions that support caregiver health and promote the provision of quality care to veterans. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the Family and Caregiver Experiences Study, a survey of 564 caregivers caring for veterans who served after September 11, 2001, survived TBI/polytrauma during service, and received inpatient rehabilitation care in a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between caregiver stress (i.e., veterans' neurobehavioral problems and intensity of care required), and caregiver well-being (i.e., caregiver burden and mental health). Analyses also examined how intrapersonal, family or social, and financial resources mediate and moderate the relationship between caregiver stress and well-being. Results indicate that veterans' neurobehavioral problems and intensity of required care were associated with more caregiver burden, and more burden was associated with poor mental health. Intrapersonal and family or social resources mediated the relationship between veteran functioning and mental health. Family or social resources also moderated the relationship between care intensity and burden. The model explained a moderate amount of variability in burden (59%) and a substantial amount in mental health (75%). We conclude that caregivers of veterans with neurobehavioral problems who require intense care are at risk for burden and poor mental health. Increasing resources to bolster family or social resources may reduce risks. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Sexual trauma in the military: Exploring PTSD and mental health care utilization in female veterans.

    PubMed

    Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Ray-Letourneau, Diana; Ozuna, Sara M; Munch, Christopher; Xintarianos, Elizabeth; Hasson, Anthony M; Castro, Carl A

    2015-11-01

    Sexual trauma remains a pervasive problem in the military. The deleterious mental health outcomes related to incidents of sexual assault have been well-documented in the literature, with particular attention given to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and utilization of mental health services. Much effort has focused on addressing issues of sexual trauma in the military. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidences of sexual assault in female veterans, the relationship to PTSD and mental health care utilization. The research explored differences in pre- and post-9/11 veterans. Data were collected using a 6-prong recruitment strategy to reach veterans living in Southern California. A total of 2,583 veterans completed online and in-person surveys, of which 325 female veterans were identified for inclusion in the analysis. Forty percent of the sample reported experiencing sexual assault during their military service. A history of military sexual trauma was found to be a substantial contributor to symptoms of PTSD. A majority of female veterans who indicated being sexually assaulted during their military service met the cutoff for a diagnosis of PTSD. Although only a minority of participants who indicated being a victim of sexual assault reported receiving immediate care after the incident, most had received mental health counseling within the past 12 months. Findings point to the need for additional prevention programs within the military and opportunities for care for victims of military sexual assault. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. AIDS risk and prevention for the chronic mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Carmen, E; Brady, S M

    1990-06-01

    Some chronic mentally ill populations are at high risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The authors argue that stereotypes of the mentally ill as asexual or neutered have had dangerous consequences, namely the absence of sex education and AIDS prevention as an integral part of treatment. To counter this neglect, the authors developed an AIDS prevention program in a large inner-city mental health center that serves primarily black and Latino patients. Prevention efforts include individual risk assessments and an innovative drop-in group. Central to effective patient education are the distribution of condoms and concrete instruction in their use.

  10. Screening for novel central nervous system biomarkers in veterans with Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed B; Conboy, Lisa A; Kokkotou, Efi; Jacobson, Eric; Elmasry, Eman M; Elkafrawy, Passent; Neely, Megan; Bass, Cameron R 'Dale'; Sullivan, Kimberly

    2017-03-09

    Gulf War illness (GWI) is primarily diagnosed by symptom report; objective biomarkers are needed that distinguish those with GWI. Prior chemical exposures during deployment have been associated in epidemiologic studies with altered central nervous system functioning in veterans with GWI. Previous studies from our group have demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies to essential neuronal and glial proteins in patients with brain injury and autoantibodies have been identified as candidate objective markers that may distinguish GWI. Here, we screened the serum of 20 veterans with GWI and 10 non-veteran symptomatic (low back pain) controls for the presence of such autoantibodies using Western blot analysis against the following proteins: neurofilament triplet proteins (NFP), tubulin, microtubule associated tau proteins (Tau), microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and glial S-100B protein. Serum reactivity was measured as arbitrary chemiluminescence units. As a group, veterans with GWI had statistically significantly higher levels of autoantibody reactivity in all proteins examined except S-100B. Fold increase of the cases relative to controls in descending order were: CaMKII 9.27, GFAP 6.60, Tau 4.83, Tubulin 4.41, MAG 3.60, MBP 2.50, NFP 2.45, MAP-2 2.30, S-100B 1.03. These results confirm the continuing presence of neuronal injury/gliosis in these veterans and are in agreement with the recent reports indicating that 25years after the war, the health of veterans with GWI is not improving and may be getting worse. Such serum autoantibodies may prove useful as biomarkers of GWI, upon validation of the findings using larger cohorts.

  11. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives.

  12. Severe Mental Illness in LGBT Populations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. The aim of this review was to map out the existing base of knowledge in these areas to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the following question: What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed by using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. A total of 27 publications were identified for review. Mental health services research indicated generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence regarding specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk of severe mental illness in LGBT populations, an association between this increased risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be "out" in all aspects of themselves. There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination.

  13. [Mental illness--problems with definition, diagnosis and legal regulations].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of literature and events in psychiatry in the course of past centurie show that the term mental illness even though it had played a positive role in the development of knowledge of psychic disorders and the place of psychiatry as part of clinical medicine has become an anachronic term in time. Because its content and form were never precisely defined, it began to serve as a means of hiding the lack of knowledge of the causes of mental disorders It was abused against its initial aim, e.g. used to 'label' persons whose behaviour did not fit socially accepted conventions. At times it caused a permanent exclusion of those persons. These circumstanc es were a means of giving up on the term mental illness in the modern diagnostic-classification systems of psychic disorders (DSM-IV, ICD-10). Retaining of the term mental illness, and its derivatives menatlly ill, a mentally ill person are anchronisms in the Polish legislation, which can be a cause of serious misunderstanings and abuse. The author believes that these terms should disappear from the Polish legislation and the mental health act. They should be replaced by terms adequate for legal regulations but also be compliant with modern psychiatric terminology.

  14. Smoking and mental illness. An update for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Colin P; Kirby, Dianne P; Castle, David J

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to review research on smoking and mental illness and provide evidence-based guidelines for psychiatrists to help smoking patients quit. We undertook a narrative review of the literature with a special focus on the Australian context. Although one in three people with mental illness smoke tobacco, smoking is often neglected in psychiatric practice. Smoking is a significant contributor to the health gap between people with mental illness and the general population. Smokers with mental illness are motivated to quit and are able to do so, albeit with lower quit rates. Quitting can lead to substantial improvements in mental wellbeing and physical health and does not exacerbate pre-existing mental illness. Psychiatrists should advise all smokers to quit and provide counselling, medication and support, based on the 5As framework. Approved pharmacotherapy - nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion - is recommended for nicotine-dependent smokers. Smoking induces the metabolism of certain psychotropic drugs such as clozapine and olanzapine and dose reductions may be necessary after cessation. Psychiatrists have a duty of care to identify the smoking status of their patients and to provide evidence-based support to quit. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  15. Severe Mental Illness among LGBT Populations: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sean; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E.; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and a widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for gender and sexual minority individuals. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. This review is intended to map out the existing base of knowledge in this area to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. Method A review of the literature was conducted to answer the question, ‘What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for sexual and gender minority individuals experiencing severe mental illness?’ A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. Results A total of 27 publications were identified in this review. Mental health services research revealed generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence for specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk for severe mental illness among LGBT populations, an association between risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be ‘out’ in all aspects of themselves. Conclusions There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination. PMID:26927576

  16. Perceived and measured stigma among workers with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Marjorie L; Marcus, Steven C

    2006-03-01

    This research analyzed the extent to which self-reports of job-related discrimination by persons with serious mental illness are associated with econometric measures of discrimination. Data were from the 1994-1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement. Data for workers with mood, psychotic, or anxiety disorders (N=1,139) were compared with data for those without such disorders (N=66,341). The main outcome measures were self-reports of wages and stigmatizing experiences in the workplace. After the analyses controlled for functional limitations and job characteristics, no significant difference in mean wages was found between workers with serious mental illness who did not report experiencing stigma and those with no mental illness. In contrast, for all types of mental disorders examined, mean wages for workers with serious mental illness who reported experiencing stigma were significantly lower than mean wages for those with no mental illness. Workers' self-reports of stigmatizing experiences in the labor market appear to be consistent with econometric measures of the effect of stigma on wages, suggesting that workers know when they are being discriminated against.

  17. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie

    2015-03-01

    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  18. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after hospital discharge to examine the presence of disparities in mental health outcomes between African American and white individuals diagnosed with a severe psychiatric condition. Results from a series of individual growth curve models indicated that African American individuals with severe mental illness experienced significantly less improvement in global functioning, activation, and anergia symptoms and were less likely to return to work in the year following hospitalization. Racial disparities persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic and diagnostic confounders and were largely consistent across gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric diagnosis. Implications for social work research and practice with minorities with severe mental illness are discussed. PMID:24049433

  19. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  20. Self-esteem among persons with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, C J

    1998-01-01

    There has been little research to substantiate the nature and degree of self-esteem among persons with mental illness. The results reported here are from a study involving 92 clients with severe mental illness. The study explored the relation between work status and quality of life, drug attitudes, and self-esteem. In this analysis, positive self-esteem was found among all subjects and was significantly higher in workers than in nonworkers. In stepwise multiple regression analysis, feelings regarding functioning, valuing of work, social relationships, and activities with family explained 50% of the variance in self-esteem. Mental health professionals should not assume that clients with mental illness experience low self-esteem.

  1. Effects of a Unit in Mental Health on Rural Adolescents' Attitudes about Seeking Help and Concepts of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; And Others

    One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…

  2. A Comparison of Sleep Difficulties among Iraq/Afghanistan Theater Veterans with and without Mental Health Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Christi S.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Germain, Anne E.; Voils, Corrine I.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Illness Research Education and Clinical Center Registry Workgroup. A comparison of sleep difficulties among Iraq/Afghanistan theater veterans with and without mental health diagnoses. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):995–1005. PMID:26094928

  3. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-08-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population.

  4. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J.; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008–2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63–2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49–1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46–0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243

  5. HIV prevention advice for people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Akhtar, Athfah; Tosh, Graeme E; Clifton, Andrew V

    2016-09-09

    People with serious mental illness have rates of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection higher than expected in the general population for the same demographic area. Despite this elevated prevalence, UK national strategies around sexual health and HIV prevention do not state that people with serious mental illness are a high risk group. However, a significant proportion in this group are sexually active and engage in HIV-risk behaviours including having multiple sexual partners, infrequent use of condoms and trading sex for money or drugs. Therefore we propose the provision of HIV prevention advice could enhance the physical and social well being of this population. To assess the effects of HIV prevention advice in reducing morbidity, mortality and preserving the quality of life in people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (24 January 2012; 4 July 2016). We planned to include all randomised controlled trials focusing on HIV prevention advice versus standard care or comparing HIV prevention advice with other more focused methods of delivering care or information for people with serious mental illness. Review authors (NW, AC, AA, GT) independently screened search results and did not identify any studies that fulfilled the review's criteria. We did not identify any randomised studies that evaluated advice regarding HIV for people with serious mental illness. The excluded studies illustrate that randomisation of packages of care relevant to both people with serious mental illness and HIV risk are possible. Policy makers, clinicians, researchers and service users need to collaborate to produce guidance on how best to provide advice for people with serious mental illness in preventing the spread of HIV infection. It is entirely feasible that this could be within the context of a well-designed simple large randomised study.

  6. Attitudes towards mental illness in the Athens area: implications for community mental health intervention.

    PubMed

    Madianos, M G; Madianou, D; Vlachonikolis, J; Stefanis, C N

    1987-02-01

    Attitudes towards mental illness were measured in a probability sample of 1574 male and female adults, residents of two boroughs in the greater Athens area before the development of community mental health services in the area. The objective of this study was to identify the components of these attitudes, taking into account the fact that public opinions about mental illness influence the utilization of community mental health services and the level of reintegration of the mentally disabled into society. The instrument used to measure attitudinal dimensions was the Cohen and Struening Opinion about Mental Illness (O.M.I.) scale. Factor analysis revealed five attitude dimensions: social discrimination, social restriction, social care, integration, and etiology. Among the socio-demographic variables age, education, occupational status and place of residence up to 18 years of age affected the factors mainly, reflecting social discrimination and restriction. O.M.I. factor scores underlying the need for social care and reintegration of the mentally ill into society were found to be socially invariant, implying the need for social care and more humane treatment methods for mental patients. Certain population groups responded with rejection or suspicion and considerable fear of the mentally ill, indicating the necessity for the planning of appropriate community mental health intervention programs parallel to the development of community mental health services and psychiatric reforms in Greece.

  7. Labor market conditions and employment of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Ralph; Drake, Robert E.; Becker, Deborah R.; Clark, Robin E.

    1999-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health services literature includes assertions that workers with mental illness are at earlier risk of unemployment than other workers when the economy contracts. This possibility is important for several reasons. One is that such a phenomenon would support the argument that the lives of mentally ill persons are made unnecessarily stressful by the stigma of mental illness. Another is that the phenomenon could distort comparisons of the effectiveness of programs designed to prepare persons with severe mental illness for work. Despite its importance, the assertion that severely mentally ill workers are at early risk of unemployment has never been empirically tested. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to test the hypothesis that unemployment among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) increases before job loss among other workers. METHODS: We test the hypothesis by applying Granger causality methods to time-series data collected in two communities in the United States (i.e., Concord and Manchester, NH) over 131 weeks beginning on 12 May 1991. RESULTS: We find no relationship between job loss in the labor market and the likelihood that persons with SMI will be unemployed. DISCUSSION: We speculate that persons with SMI participate in the secondary labor market and that their employment status is unlikely to be well described by data gathered in the primary labor market. This implies that widely available measures of labor market status, which are designed to describe the primary labor market, cannot be used to improve the evaluation of programs intended to prepare the mentally ill for work. We also discuss the possibility that persons with SMI may have needs that are better met by the secondary than by the primary labor market. CONCLUSIONS: The intuition that workers with severe mental illness are affected earlier than other workers by labor market contraction may not be correct. We infer that persons with severe mental illness may participate in the

  8. Physical and Mental Health and Access to Care among Nonmetropolitan Veterans Health Administration Patients Younger than 65 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan; Weeks, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…

  9. Physical and Mental Health and Access to Care among Nonmetropolitan Veterans Health Administration Patients Younger than 65 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan; Weeks, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…

  10. Mental disorder prevalence among U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatients with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Scott D; Mickens, Melody N; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Mutchler, Brian J; Ellwood, Michael S; Castillo, Teodoro A

    2017-03-13

    Depression and other mental disorders are more prevalent among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in the community at large, and have a strong association with quality of life. Yet little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among U.S. military Veterans living with SCI. The primary aim of this study was to present an estimate of mental disorder point prevalence in this population. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of mental disorders to demographics, injury characteristics, and other clinically relevant features such as impairment from mental health problems and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional. A SCI & Disorders Center at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Administrative and medical records of 280 Veterans who attended annual comprehensive SCI evaluations were evaluated. Demographics, injury characteristics, self-reported mental and emotional functioning (i.e. SF-8 Health Survey), and clinician-determined mental disorder diagnoses were attained. Overall, 40% of patients received at least one mental disorder diagnosis, most commonly depressive disorders (19%), posttraumatic stress disorder (12%), and substance or alcohol use disorders (11%). Several patient characteristics predicted mental disorders, including age, racial minority identity, non-traumatic SCI etiology, and incomplete (i.e. AIS D) vs. complete injury. Mental disorders were associated with greater impairment from health and mental health-related problems and less satisfaction with life. Mental disorders are common among outpatients receiving VA specialty care for SCI. These findings highlight the importance of having adequate and effective available mental health services available for Veterans with SCI.

  11. Nearly 1 in 5 U.S. Adults Has Mental Illness or Drug Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Nearly 1 in 5 U.S. Adults Has Mental Illness or Drug Problem New Jersey is the mentally ... 1 in 5 American adults deals with a mental illness or substance abuse problem each year, a U.S. ...

  12. The interaction of mental illness, criminal behavior and culture: native Alaskan mentally ill criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Inui, T S

    1986-06-01

    The rapid changes experienced by non-Western ethnic groups as they become "acculturated" to Western life-styles are frequently associated with disintegration of the traditional cultures and psychosocial dysfunction of the groups' members. How culture changes lead to maladaptation remains a mystery. As a first step in clarifying this relationship, this paper proposes a method for analyzing the interaction of cultural change and psychosocial maladjustment. It uses Native Alaskans as a paradigmatic example of a group that is undergoing rapid changes and describes in detail a maladjusted subgroup of Native Alaskans--mentally ill criminal offenders. It compares 567 Native Alaskan criminal offenders who were referred to mental health professionals (from 1977 thru 1981) to 939 White Alaskan offenders. We find that alcohol abuse, the dominant social problem for Native Alaskans, is not clearly associated with the degree of sociocultural change. Residence in larger communities and higher educational achievement are associated with greater psychosocial maladjustment. The region of residence (i.e., Native Corporation) has a stronger influence on the rate and type of maladjustment than the ethnic group (i.e., Eskimo, Indian, or Aleut) or the "ethnic density" of the community of residence (i.e., the proportion of Native Alaskans in the population). We emphasize the importance of using such quantitative findings to focus the questions that should be addressed by ethnographic research.

  13. Integration of military and veteran health in a psychiatric mental health BSN curriculum: A mindful analysis.

    PubMed

    Magpantay-Monroe, Edna Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    The military and veteran populations in the U. S. state of Hawaii have a strong presence in the local communities. It was this substantial presence that provided the impetus to integrate military and veteran health into a Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN) curriculum. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between the integration of military and veteran health into a psychiatric mental health BSN curriculum and nursing students' understanding of the many facets of military veterans' health. The concepts related to military and veterans' health was infused in didactic, seminar, simulation and clinical instruction. Examples of approaches to teaching include guest speakers from military clinical partners, inclusion of military/military families in simulation, the reading of evidence-based articles focusing on the military and veteran population, use of identification of problem based learning and clinical placements in hospital(s) and community agencies specific to servicing military and veterans and their families. Students were encouraged to record their reflections which provided some insight on the value of integration of this important segment into the curriculum. Classroom discussions and reflections were analyzed using an exploratory method of inquiry by categorizing themes which revealed some biases about the military and veteran population and how working with this population helped students to understand their health needs. Although the data is limited, it an important foundation for further exploration into the significance of the integration of military and veterans' health in a psychiatric mental health BSN nursing curriculum. The recommendation is to further include military and veterans' health across the curriculum in order to help future nursing graduates understand and evaluate their role in working with this distinctive population, recognize challenges and opportunities in working with this population and identify available

  14. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  15. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  16. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  17. Parents Caring For Adult Children With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Kathryn Y; Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    Parents often become the caregivers for their adult children with serious mental illness (SMI) due to the chronic and debilitating course of the illness and shortages in funding for community mental health services and residential placements. To examine parents' management styles when caring for adult children with SMI and parents' perspectives on what type of community-based mental health interventions would support and/or enhance overall family functioning. A qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews with parents caring for adult children with SMI. The study was undergirded by Knafl and Deatrick's Family Management Style Framework. Four major themes emerged from the data describing prolonged and difficult phases that parents and the family undergo in caring for an adult child with SMI. Successful management of these phases must include increasing access to mental health information, mental health screening, early interventions, and violence prevention for adult children and their families.

  18. Terrorism and mental illness: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Weatherston, David; Moran, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    This article examines the connections between mental illness and terrorism. Most social scientists have discounted a causal relationship between mental illness and terrorism. This is not necessarily always the case within terrorism studies, the media, or political circles where the psychology of terrorism is often expressed in the language of mentalisms, and theories of pathologisation continue to exist. This article reaffirms the view that apart from certain pathological cases, there is no causal connection between an individual's mental disorder and engagement in terrorist activity. The individual terrorist's motivations can be explained by other factors, including behavioural psychology. However, there may be a connection between an individual engaging in terrorist activity and developing a mental disorder[s]. Certain stressors that occur because of terrorist activity may result in psychological disturbance in terrorist individuals. These factors may partially explain terrorist group instability and should be taken into account when detaining and interrogating terrorist suspects.

  19. E-cigarette Use in Veterans Seeking Mental Health and/or Substance Use Services.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn; Rosenheck, Robert; Merrel, Jeremy; Coffman, Marcedes; Valentine, Gerry; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mental illness and substance use disorders smoke at elevated rates and tend to have greater difficulty quitting smoking as compared to the general population. Some believe that e-cigarettes may reduce harm associated with smoking, but little is known about e-cigarette use, perceptions, and motivations for their use among individuals with mental health and/or substance use disorders. Rates and correlates of e-cigarette use, perceptions, and sources of information about e-cigarettes among smokers seeking mental health and/or substance use services (N = 188) at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System were assessed via a brief survey. The Pearson χ(2) test of independence was used to compare veterans who currently used e-cigarettes with those who did not. Logistic regression was used to examine independent attitudinal differences controlling for potentially confounding variables. Participants were generally male (90%), Caucasian (54%), and older than 50 (69%), with high rates of at least one mental health condition (82%), at least one substance use disorder (73%), and comorbid mental health and substance use disorders (55%). A relatively high proportion of the sample (30.9%) used e-cigarettes. These participants, compared to those who did not use e-cigarettes, were more likely to have a mental health disorder and less likely to have a substance use disorder, started smoking later in life, spent less money on smoking, and were more likely to have tried to quit "cold turkey." Knowledge of e-cigarettes originated most often from TV, radio, or personal contacts. Respondents held generally positive perceptions and motivations regarding e-cigarette use (i.e., it is socially acceptable, may help reduce/quit smoking, less harmful to others). Despite positive attributions, rates of dual use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes was high (86.2%), and very few people using e-cigarettes (6.9%) indicated that e-cigarettes actually helped them quit smoking

  20. The relationship between body mass index and mental health among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Madden, Erin; Cohen, Beth; Bertenthal, Daniel; Neylan, Thomas; Talbot, Lisa; Grunfeld, Carl; Seal, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is becoming an epidemic among veterans in the post-deployment period. To explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, and to evaluate trajectories of change in BMI over 3 years. Retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of veterans' health records A total of 496,722 veterans (59,790 female and 436,932 male veterans) whose height and weight were recorded at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system at least once after the end of their last deployment and whose first post-deployment outpatient encounter at the VA was at least 1 year prior to the end of the study period (December 31, 2011). BMI, mental health diagnoses. Seventy-five percent of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans were either overweight or obese at baseline. Four trajectories were observed: "stable overweight" represented the largest class; followed by "stable obese;" "overweight/obese gaining;" and "obese losing." During the 3-year ascertainment period, those with PTSD and depression in particular were at the greatest risk of being either obese without weight loss or overweight or obese and continuing to gain weight. Adjustment for demographics and antipsychotic medication attenuated the relationship between BMI and certain mental health diagnoses. Although BMI trajectories were similar in men and women, some gender differences were observed. For example, the risk of being in the persistently obese class in men was highest for those with PTSD, whereas for women, the risk was highest among those with depression. The growing number of overweight or obese returning veterans is a concerning problem for clinicians who work with these patients. Successful intervention to reduce the prevalence of obesity will require integrated efforts from primary care and mental health to treat underlying mental health causes and assist with engagement in weight

  1. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  3. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  4. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  5. Chronic widespread pain, mental health, and physical role function in OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Helmer, Drew A; Chandler, Helena K; Quigley, Karen S; Blatt, Melissa; Teichman, Ronald; Lange, Gudrun

    2009-10-01

    Describe the associations among pain, mental health concerns, and function in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Retrospective review of self-reported, standardized clinical intake surveys. A multidisciplinary deployment health clinic at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. The first 429 veterans of OEF/OIF presenting for clinical evaluation at a deployment health clinic. Function, measured with the Role Physical (RP) scale of the Veterans RAND (VR)-36 survey, was compared for veterans with and without chronic widespread pain (CWP). After controlling for age, sex, and positive screens for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the presence of CWP had a significant, clinically relevant, and independent effect on VR-36 RP (-6.2 points, DeltaR(2) = 0.052, P < 0.001). Mean VR-36 RP normed score was 43.3 (standard deviation 11.9). CWP was common (29%), as were positive mental health screens (PTSD 53%, depression 60%, alcohol misuse 63%). In this sample of OEF/OIF veterans, the majority of whom reported good or better general health, CWP was common and related to poorer physical role function, independent of comorbid mental health concerns.

  6. Mental Health and Self-directed Violence Among Student Service Members/Veterans in Postsecondary Education.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Kopacz, Marek S; McCarten, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of student service members/veterans, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and suicide-related outcomes and the association of hazardous duty with mental health. Data are from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (N = 27,774). Logistic regression was used to examine (1) the association of student service member/veteran status with mental health outcomes and (2) the association of hazardous duty with mental health outcomes among student service members/veterans (n = 706). Student service members/veterans had higher odds of self-harm than students without military experience. Among student service members/veterans, hazardous duty was positively associated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.30, 3.07]) with having a psychiatric diagnosis but negatively associated (OR = 0.41, 95% CI [0.20, 0.85]) with suicidal ideation. Self-harm may be a unique phenomenon among service members/veterans. Suicide prevention with this population should include information about self-harm, and future research should explore whether suicidal intent underlies self-harm.

  7. Mental Health and Self-directed Violence Among Student Service Members/Veterans in Postsecondary Education

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Kopacz, Marek S.; McCarten, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using a sample of student service members/veterans, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and suicide-related outcomes and the association of hazardous duty with mental health. Participants Data are from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (n=27,774). Methods Logistic regression was used to examine (1) the association of student service member/veteran status with mental health outcomes and (2) the association of hazardous duty with mental health outcomes among student service members/veterans (n=706). Results Student service members/veterans had higher odds of self-harm than students without military experience. Among student service members/veterans, hazardous duty was positively associated (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.30–3.07) with having a psychiatric diagnosis but negatively associated (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.20–0.85) with suicidal ideation. Conclusions Self-harm may be a unique phenomenon among service members/veterans. Suicide prevention with this population should include information about self-harm, and future research should explore whether suicidal intent underlies self-harm. PMID:24918517

  8. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, S J

    1992-01-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  9. Interventions and Models of Their Delivery to Reduce the Burden of Mental Illness: Reply to Commentaries.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, Alan E; Blase, Stacey L

    2011-09-01

    Our article in the January issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science (Kazdin & Blase, 2011) recommended developing a portfolio of models to deliver psychotherapeutic interventions with the goals of reaching a larger and more diverse segment of the population in need of mental health services and reducing the burden of mental illness. The commentaries offer several novel extensions to advance the goals. Among the topics raised in the commentaries are the role of moderating influences, the importance of a public health model for intervention research and application, the need to organize and manage our knowledge base and current treatments more effectively, the potential utility of priming-based interventions, the importance of cost measures, and novel applications to extend treatment broadly to veterans in need of services. The commentaries stimulated additional points to address the original goals including the utility of identifying interventions (e.g., lifestyle changes) that can reach many people in need and that can have broad outcome effects on mental and physical health, the importance of "disruptive innovations" (i.e., innovations that qualitatively change the nature of what and how services are delivered) from a business perspective, and the need for improved assessment to track the burden of mental illness in an ongoing way and to evaluate subgroups not being reached with our current interventions. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.

  10. Veterans Mental Health Treatment First Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Burr, Richard [R-NC

    2013-04-25

    Senate - 06/12/2013 Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 113-111. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Meyer, Joel N; Hill, Helene Z; Lange, Gudrun; Condon, Michael R; Klein, Jacquelyn C; Ndirangu, Duncan; Falvo, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders-i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained in all participants and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based assay was performed to quantify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesion frequency and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNAcn) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Samples were also used to analyze nuclear DNA lesion frequency and enzyme activity for mitochondrial complexes I and IV. Both mtDNA lesion frequency (p = 0.015, d = 1.13) and mtDNAcn (p = 0.001; d = 1.69) were elevated in veterans with GWI relative to controls. Nuclear DNA lesion frequency was also elevated in veterans with GWI (p = 0.344; d = 1.41), but did not reach statistical significance. Complex I and IV activity (p > 0.05) were similar between groups and greater mtDNA lesion frequency was associated with reduced complex I (r2 = -0.35, p = 0.007) and IV (r2 = -0.28, p < 0.01) enzyme activity. In conclusion, veterans with GWI exhibit greater mtDNA damage which is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Meyer, Joel N.; Hill, Helene Z.; Lange, Gudrun; Condon, Michael R.; Klein, Jacquelyn C.; Ndirangu, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990–1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders–i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained in all participants and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based assay was performed to quantify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA lesion frequency and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNAcn) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Samples were also used to analyze nuclear DNA lesion frequency and enzyme activity for mitochondrial complexes I and IV. Both mtDNA lesion frequency (p = 0.015, d = 1.13) and mtDNAcn (p = 0.001; d = 1.69) were elevated in veterans with GWI relative to controls. Nuclear DNA lesion frequency was also elevated in veterans with GWI (p = 0.344; d = 1.41), but did not reach statistical significance. Complex I and IV activity (p > 0.05) were similar between groups and greater mtDNA lesion frequency was associated with reduced complex I (r2 = -0.35, p = 0.007) and IV (r2 = -0.28, p < 0.01) enzyme activity. In conclusion, veterans with GWI exhibit greater mtDNA damage which is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28910366

  13. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    PubMed

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  14. Impact of Mental Health Care Bill on caregivers of mentally ill: Boon or bane.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Tiwari, Rashmi

    2014-12-01

    To improvise the shortcomings of existing of mental health legislation (The Mental Health Act, 1987) of India, amendments have been made which ultimately conceptualized, to form the Mental Health Care Bill. Mental Health Care Bill has brought a revolutionary change in the existing mental health legislation which is in its final phase of approval. Many of the changes brought by the Mental Health Care Bill has been appreciated at different level, at the same time it has received robust criticism for over-legalizing and complicating the delivery of mental health care. Caregivers play a pivotal role in the management of psychiatric illness in developing countries like India and they face a lot of challenges for providing support to the mentally ill patients. The social, economical, physical as well as the psychological wellbeing of the caregivers are significantly affected while providing care to the mentally ill. The forthcoming Mental Health Care Bill is likely to have a noteworthy impact on the caregivers. It's high time to analyze, its projected impact on the caregivers of patients suffering from mental illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Perceptions of VA Mental Health Providers are Associated With Treatment Retention Among Veterans With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Spoont, Michele; Nelson, David; van Ryn, Michelle; Alegria, Margarita

    2017-09-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who seek mental health care in the Veterans Health Administration frequently discontinue treatment prematurely. Early discontinuation of mental health treatment is more common among Veterans with PTSD who are of minority race or ethnicity. To determine whether retention in individual therapy or pharmacotherapy among Veterans with PTSD are associated with patients' ratings of their mental health providers, and if those associations differ depending on Veteran race or ethnicity. Latino, African American, and white Veterans (n=2452) who participated in a prospective national cohort study of Veterans with PTSD at the beginning of an episode of care were surveyed immediately following Veterans' PTSD diagnoses and 6 months later. Pharmacy and mental health service utilization were abstracted from Veterans Health Administration administrative databases for 6 months postdiagnosis. Retention in treatments were modeled using logistic regression among Veterans who initiated individual therapy or pharmacotherapy. Demographics, treatment need, treatment-related beliefs, treatment process measures, and ratings of mental health providers were considered as predictors. Ratings of mental health providers, more than treatment beliefs, were associated with treatment retention. Among African American Veterans, retention in pharmacotherapy was reduced if the provider was perceived as not having helped manage medication side-effects (odds ratio, 0.36; confidence interval, 0.16-0.80). All Latino Veterans but one (99% or n=64) who rated their therapist as not caring discontinued individual psychotherapy. Ratings of mental health providers were associated with treatment retention. The salience of specific provider behaviors to treatment retention varied by Veteran race or ethnicity.

  16. Exercise for mental illness: a systematic review of inpatient studies.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the role of exercise interventions for people with a mental illness. However, much of this literature is conducted using outpatient and community-based populations. We undertook a systematic review examining the effect of exercise interventions on the health of people hospitalized with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Several studies show positive health outcomes from short-term and long-term interventions for people hospitalized due to depression. Although positive, the evidence for inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders is substantially less. There is an urgent need to address the paucity of literature in this area, in particular the optimal dose and delivery of exercise for people hospitalized as a result of mental illness. Standardization of reporting exercise programme variables, the assessment of mental illness, and the reporting of adverse events must accompany future studies.

  17. [Acceptance of patients with mental illness: a family perspective].

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jéssica Batistela; Mariano, Pamela Patrícia; Buriola, Aline Aparecida; Paiano, Marcelle; Waidman, Maria Angélica Pagliarini; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this descriptive and qualitative study is to analyse how acceptance of mental illness is perceived by family members of the patient and the surrounding community. This study was conducted with the help of 10 families of patients with mental disorders admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of the Municipal Hospital of Maringá, state of Parana, Brazil. Data were collected from October to December 2010, in open interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis, resulting in three categories: "Care, a constant requirement", "Living with a patient with mental illness: a whirlwind of emotions", "A wall constructed with stigma and prejudgement: the need for deconstruction". The conclusion is that an understanding of the disease is vital for acceptance of the illness itself and of the patient, and that healthcare professionals must remain close to the family to provide support, answer queries related to the disease, and help the family to face the difficulties of everyday life.

  18. Accounting for unemployment among people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Baron, Richard C; Salzer, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Persons diagnosed with a serious mental illness experience significantly high rates of unemployment compared with the general population. The explanations for this situation have included a focus on the symptoms associated with these disorders, a focus on the lack of effective vocational rehabilitation programs for this population, and, most recently, a focus on employer discrimination and the financial disincentives to employment in various public policies. The authors of this manuscript review the evolution in thought pertaining to the labor market experiences of persons with a serious mental illness and propose as an additional set of factors that should be considered, those labor market liabilities that this population shares with others without disabilities who experience similar employment histories. The authors conclude that the inclusion of these factors in our understanding of issues that persons with serious mental illness face in the competitive labor market will likely lead to a further evolution in program and policy development. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness.

  20. Behavior therapy empowers persons with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W

    1997-01-01

    Behavior therapy has been viewed by some as disempowering persons with severe mental illness (i.e., undermining their ability to make independent decisions). This is ironic because various behavioral strategies actually promote independent decision making. Behavioral interventions (a) provide a safe place for persons to consider their life decisions; (b) simplify the range of choices that comprise many of these decisions; (c) help persons with severe mental illness learn behaviors so that they can better meet the demands of independent decision making: (d) teach family members skills so that they can provide more resources to support independent decision making; and (e) facilitate self-control over behaviors and the settings in which they occur. Behavior therapists need to assert the important role that behavioral principles assume in empowering persons with mental illness so that these principles are not discarded by professionals who misunderstand, or otherwise stereotype, behavioral interventions.

  1. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists.

  2. Trends in rates of mental illness in homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Swinson, Nicola; Flynn, Sandra M; While, David; Roscoe, Alison; Kapur, Navneet; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The rise in homicides by those with serious mental illness is of concern, although this increase may not be continuing. To examine rates of mental illness among homicide perpetrators. A national consecutive case series of homicide perpetrators in England and Wales from 1997 to 2006. Rates of mental disorder were based on data from psychiatric reports, contact with psychiatric services, diminished responsibility verdict and hospital disposal. Of the 5884 homicides notified to the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicide perpetrators with schizophrenia increased at a rate of 4% per year, those with psychotic symptoms at the time of the offence increased by 6% per year. The number of verdicts of diminished responsibility decreased but no change was found in the number of perpetrators receiving a hospital order disposal. The likeliest explanation for the rise in homicide by people with psychosis is the misuse of drugs and/or alcohol, which our data show increased at a similar magnitude to homicides by those with psychotic symptoms. However, we are unable to demonstrate a causal association. Although the Poisson regression provides evidence of an upward trend in homicide by people with serious mental illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicides fell in the final 2 years of data collection, so these findings should be treated with caution. There appears to be a concomitant increase in drug misuse over the period, which may account for this rise in homicide. However, an increase in the number of people in contact with mental health services may suggest that access to mental health services is improving. Previous studies have used court verdicts such as diminished responsibility as a proxy measure of mental disorder. Our data indicate that this does not reflect accurately the prevalence of mental disorder in this population.

  3. Development of Veteran-Centric Competency Domains for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Residents.

    PubMed

    York, Janet; Sternke, Lisa Marie; Myrick, Donald Hugh; Lauerer, Joy; Hair, Carole

    2016-11-01

    The mental health needs of military service members, Veterans, and their families are a designated national priority; however, there has been little emphasis on the inclusion of Veteran-centric domains in competency-based nursing education for psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs). The current article describes the identification and application of Veteran-centric domains in an innovative pilot residency program for PMHNPs, funded by the Veterans Health Administration Office of Academic Affiliations. Fourteen Veteran-centric competency domains were developed from literature review, including knowledge, attitudes, and skill behaviors. Adoption and application of these domains in curricular components included the resident competency evaluation, baseline assessment of military experience, and evidence-based practice seminars and training. Methods of competency domain evaluation are presented, along with gaps related to the evaluation of competency skills. The delivery of mental health services reflecting these domains is consistent with the VA core values and goal of developing a positive service culture. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(11), 31-36.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Challenging claims that mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2012-08-01

    There has been a tendency by some social scientists and the media to claim that in advanced western societies like Britain and the US mental illness has been increasing and mental well-being declining over the period since the Second World War. In this paper I consider the evidence that is invoked in making such claims, along with the counter-evidence. In order to assess the evidence it is essential to take account of the different ways mental illness and mental well-being are measured and the definitions the measures embed. I argue that when the findings from studies using similar measures at different points in time are compared, there is little evidence of consistent secular increases in mental illness or declines in mental well-being. I suggest that such claims are encouraged by two main factors: first and most importantly, the major changes that have occurred in the official boundaries of mental disorder over the post-war period, which have also changed the ideas and perceptions of professionals and the public about mental health and illness; and second, the ready way in which data on mental health and illness can be used to support criticism of certain features of present-day society.

  5. Chaplaincy and mental health in the department of Veterans affairs and department of defense.

    PubMed

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Rhodes, Jeffrey E; Jackson, George L; Cantrell, William C; Lane, Marian E; Bates, Mark J; Dekraai, Mark B; Bulling, Denise J; Ethridge, Keith; Drescher, Kent D; Fitchett, George; Tenhula, Wendy N; Milstein, Glen; Bray, Robert M; Meador, Keith G

    2013-01-01

    Chaplains play important roles in caring for Veterans and Service members with mental health problems. As part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) Integrated Mental Health Strategy, we used a sequential approach to examining intersections between chaplaincy and mental health by gathering and building upon: 1) input from key subject matter experts; 2) quantitative data from the VA / DoD Chaplain Survey (N = 2,163; response rate of 75% in VA and 60% in DoD); and 3) qualitative data from site visits to 33 VA and DoD facilities. Findings indicate that chaplains are extensively involved in caring for individuals with mental health problems, yet integration between mental health and chaplaincy is frequently limited due to difficulties between the disciplines in establishing familiarity and trust. We present recommendations for improving integration of services, and we suggest key domains for future research.

  6. [Madness, poverty and society: When poverty becomes mental illness].

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue.

  7. Family influence in recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Whitley, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived influence of family on recovery from severe mental illness. 54 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of people with severe mental illness living in Montreal. Results indicated that family both facilitated and impeded recovery processes. Specifically, family facilitated recovery through providing (a) moral support, (b) practical support and (c) motivation to recover. However family impeded recovery through (a) acting as a stressor, (b) displaying stigma and lack of understanding, and (c) forcing hospitalization. The study indicates the importance of family psychoeducation in promoting recovery.

  8. Building a meaningful future for young people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2008-10-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is challenging for young people who have a mental illness or substance use disorder, especially those who are transitioning from institutional care. For young people with serious mental illnesses to succeed in the adult world, they need more than treatment.These youth need to be truly integrated into their communities. They need jobs that offer skills, dignity, independence, and peers. They need a responsible and caring older adult who can help them to make better choices, learn from their mistakes, and applaud their successes, no matter how small. Community providers can create these opportunities through their own programs or appropriate community collaborations.

  9. Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard

    2004-12-01

    Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.

  10. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Advocating for children and adolescents with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Ptakowski, Kristin Kroeger

    2010-01-01

    The mental health community has made tremendous strides in eradicating stigma, demanding policy change, and improving the lives of children and adolescents with mental illnesses, accomplished through advocacy at all government levels and assisted by community involvement. However, addressing access to care for children and adolescents with mental illnesses is still challenging. Legislators are often unaware of children's mental health issues. Advocacy includes working directly with legislators and policy makers, working with a school's administration to meet the unique needs of the child, appealing against the managed care company's denial of specific treatment or formulary approval, and educating and collaborating with primary care physicians. Three principles need to be understood: change takes time, persistence is absolute, and compromise is inevitable.

  12. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  13. Parenting and mental illness: a pilot group programme for parents.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Ruth; Lee, Lana; Howe, Deb; Walter, Garry

    2006-12-01

    To describe a pilot group programme for parents with a mental illness that was developed and implemented on the NSW Central Coast. The Parenting and Mental Illness Group Program is a 6-week group programme that is followed by four weekly, individual home visits. Data from the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory and Parenting Scale suggest the programme produced positive outcomes in children's behaviour and parenting practices; the programme was also viewed favourably by participants. While encouraging, these findings require replication, using larger numbers and evaluation of the programme in other sites. Supported by an evidence base, programmes such as this will be important to implement if mental health services are to improve outcomes for parents with mental health problems and their children.

  14. Humanitarian relief workers and trauma-related mental illness.

    PubMed

    Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian relief work is a growing field characterized by ongoing exposure to primary and secondary trauma, which has implications for workers' occupational mental health. This paper reviews and summarizes research to date on mental health effects of relief work. Twelve studies on relief workers and 5 studies on organizations that employ relief workers are examined to determine whether relief work is a risk factor for trauma-related mental illness. Although studies are inconsistent regarding methods and outcomes documenting trauma-related mental illness among relief workers, it appears that relief workers, compared with the general population, experience elevated trauma rates and suffer from more posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Organizations that employ relief workers have varying approaches to train for these risks, and more support in the field is needed.

  15. Mental illness and substance use: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature of service trends and practice recommendations for management of those with the dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance abuse. The method for the review was to search bibliographical data bases and hand held literature published in English between 1990 and 2007. Using the search terms dual diagnosis, and co-morbidity and mental illness, 93 abstracts were selected and reviewed. The authors concluded that a collaborative approach to care with better integration of drug and alcohol services within mental health would benefit clients with a dual diagnosis. Improved education to enhance the assessment and diagnosis of this client group is also considered essential for clinicians in both mental health and alcohol and drugs services.

  16. Promoting mental health and wellbeing for a young person with a mental illness: parent occupations.

    PubMed

    Honey, Anne; Alchin, Sarah; Hancock, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    Parenting is a critical and complex occupational role, requiring different occupations and abilities depending on the developmental stage and specific characteristics of each child. When a young adult child develops a mental illness, assisting and supporting them to overcome or adapt to the mental illness becomes a crucial aspect of this occupational role to which many parents devote a great deal of time and energy. The way parents respond to mental illness can have an important impact on young people. However, to date, research on these parents has focussed almost exclusively on their characteristics and personal coping rather than what they do to try to assist and support young people. The aims of this study were to identify the occupations parents currently engage in to promote mental health and wellbeing for a young person with a mental illness and to explore the perceived helpfulness of these occupations. Interviews with 26 young people (15-24 years old) and 32 parents were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Participants reported 78 conceptually distinct mental illness related occupations aimed at promoting: appropriate treatment; positive activities and actions; positive thoughts and feelings; and an ordinary life. Importantly, few participants could evaluate with confidence the helpfulness of individual mental illness related occupations. This research demonstrates the breadth of the mental illness related occupations parents employ and provides a framework for understanding their complexities. It highlights the need to establish an evidence base for various mental illness related occupations so that parents can have more knowledge and thus confidence in these critical occupations. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  18. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Ruta J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  19. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  20. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  1. Eating disorders and associated mental health comorbidities in female veterans

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Rasmusson, Ann; Bartlett, Brooke; Gerber, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) remain understudied among veterans, possibly due to perceptions that this primarily male population does not suffer from EDs. However, previous research suggests that male and female veterans do experience EDs. The high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obesity observed among veterans may make this group vulnerable to disordered eating. Retrospective chart review was used to obtain data from 492 female veterans who presented to a women’s primary care center at a large, urban VA medical center between 2007 and 2009. A total of 2.8% of this sample had been diagnosed with an ED. In bivariate analyses, presence of PTSD and depression were significantly associated with having an ED diagnosis. However, when these two disorders were included in a multivariate model controlling for age, only depression diagnosis and lower age were significantly related to ED status. In sum, the rate of EDs in this sample is comparable to prevalence estimates of EDs in the general population. Current findings underscore the importance of assessing for EDs among VA patients and the need for further research among veterans. PMID:25015710

  2. Military and mental health correlates of unemployment in a national sample of women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison B; Williams, Lindsay; Washington, Donna L

    2015-04-01

    The unemployment rate is currently higher among women Veterans than among male Veterans and civilian women. Employment is a key social determinant of health, with unemployment being strongly associated with adverse health. To identify military-related and health-related characteristics associated with unemployment in women Veterans. Secondary analysis of workforce participants (n=1605) in the National Survey of Women Veterans telephone survey. Demographics, mental health conditions, health care utilization, and military experiences and effects. Unemployment was defined as being in the labor force but unemployed and looking for work. The χ analyses to identify characteristics of unemployed women Veterans; logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with unemployment. Ten percent of women Veterans were unemployed. Independent correlates of unemployment were screening positive for depression [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.4], military service during wartime (OR=2.9; 95%, CI 1.1-7.3), and service in the regular military (vs. in the National Guards/Reserves only) (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 2.2-20.5). Two postactive duty perceptions related to not being respected and understood as a Veteran were each independently associated with unemployment. Whether depression underlies unemployment, is exacerbated by unemployment, or both, it is critical to identify and treat depression among women Veterans, and also to investigate women Veterans' experiences and identities in civilian life. Community-based employers may need education regarding women Veterans' unique histories and strengths. Women who served in the regular military and during wartime may benefit from job assistance before and after they leave the military. Gender-specific adaptation of employment services may be warranted.

  3. Complex factors in the etiology of Gulf War illness: wartime exposures and risk factors in veteran subgroups.

    PubMed

    Steele, Lea; Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M; Cook, Mary R

    2012-01-01

    At least one-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness (GWI). Clear determination of the causes of GWI has been hindered by many factors, including limitations in how epidemiologic studies have assessed the impact of the complex deployment environment on veterans' health. We sought to address GWI etiologic questions by evaluating the association of symptomatic illness with characteristics of veterans' deployment. We compared veteran-reported wartime experiences in a population-based sample of 304 Gulf War veterans: 144 cases who met preestablished criteria for GWI and 160 controls. Veteran subgroups and confounding among deployment variables were considered in the analyses. Deployment experiences and the prevalence of GWI differed significantly by veterans' location in theater. Among personnel who were in Iraq or Kuwait, where all battles took place, GWI was most strongly associated with using pyridostigmine bromide pills [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 7.4] and being within 1 mile of an exploding SCUD missile (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.1). For veterans who remained in support areas, GWI was significantly associated only with personal pesticide use, with increased prevalence (OR = 12.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 61.5) in the relatively small subgroup that wore pesticide-treated uniforms, nearly all of whom also used skin pesticides. Combat service was not significantly associated with GWI. Findings support a role for a limited number of wartime exposures in the etiology of GWI, which differed in importance with the deployment milieu in which veterans served.

  4. Use of outpatient mental health services by homeless veterans after hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lisa M; Barnett, Scott; Hickling, Edward; Frahm, Kathryn; Campbell, Robert R; Olney, Ronald; Schinka, John A; Casey, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the impact of hurricanes on people who are homeless at the time a disaster occurs. Although researchers have extensively studied the psychosocial consequences of disaster produced homelessness on the general population, efforts focused on understanding how homeless people fare have been limited to a few media reports and the gray literature. In the event of a hurricane, homeless veterans may be at increased risk for negative outcomes because of their cumulative vulnerabilities. Health care statistics consistently document that homeless veterans experience higher rates of medical, emotional, substance abuse, legal, and financial problems compared with the general population. This study used the 2004 to 2006 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Outpatient Medical Dataset to examine the effects of hurricanes on use of outpatient mental health services by homeless veterans. Homeless veterans residing in hurricane-affected counties were significantly more likely to participate in group psychotherapy (32.4% vs. 13.4%, p < .002), but less likely to participate in individual 30-40-min sessions with medical evaluations (3.5% vs. 17.3%, p < .001). The study findings have implications for homeless programs and the provision of VHA mental health services to homeless veterans postdisaster.

  5. Roles of physical and mental health in suicidal ideation in Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force veterans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Sweet, Jill; VanTil, Linda; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H; Hopman, Wilma H; MacLean, Mary Beth; Pedlar, Dave

    2014-04-09

    Suicide in recent veterans is an international concern. An association between mental disorders and suicide has been established, but less information is available about an association between physical health problems and suicide among veterans. This study extends this area of inquiry by examining the relationship of both physical and mental health problems with suicidal ideation in a representative national sample of Canadian veterans. Subjects were a stratified random sample of 2,658 veterans who had been released from the Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force during 1998-2007 and had participated in the 2010 Survey on Transition to Civilian Life. Associations between physical and mental health and past-year suicidal ideation were explored in multivariable regression models using three measures of physical and mental health. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0%-6.8%). After adjustment for covariates, ideation was associated with gastrointestinal disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.66, CI: 1.03-2.65), depression or anxiety (AOR 5.06, CI: 2.97-8.62) and mood disorders (AOR 2.91, CI: 1.67-5.07); number of physical (AOR 1.22, CI: 1.05-1.42) and mental conditions (AOR 2.32, CI: 2.01-2.68); and SF-12 Health Survey physical health (AOR 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99 for each 1 point increase) and mental health (AOR 0.88, CI: 0.87-0.89). Physical health was independently associated with suicidal ideation after adjustment for mental health status and socio-demographic characteristics. The findings underscore the importance of considering physical health in population-based suicide prevention efforts and in mitigating suicide risk in individual veterans.

  6. Treatment of veterans with PTSD at a VA medical center: primary care versus mental health specialty care.

    PubMed

    Vojvoda, Dolores; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    Recent military conflicts have generated significantly more demand for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as concerns about the adverse effects of stigma associated with specialty mental health care. This study examined the extent to which veterans diagnosed as having PTSD received treatment exclusively in primary care settings. Administrative data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Connecticut Healthcare System for fiscal year 2010 were used to compare the proportions and characteristics of veterans with PTSD (N=4,144) who were treated exclusively in a primary care setting or a mental health specialty clinic. Most (87%) veterans were treated in specialty mental health clinics, and 13% were treated exclusively in primary care. In contrast, 24% of veterans with any mental health diagnosis received treatment exclusively in primary care. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses were much more prevalent among those treated in mental health specialty clinics than in primary care (86% versus 14%), and psychotropic medications were far more likely to be filled in mental health specialty clinics than in primary care (80% versus 36%). The percentage of veterans with service-connected disabilities did not differ between the two treatment settings. Despite the VA's successful expansion of mental health services in primary care, the vast majority of patients with PTSD received treatment in mental health specialty clinics. Stigma does not seem to keep veterans with PTSD from receiving care in specialty mental health settings in spite of the availability of services in primary care.

  7. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination Among Californians Experiencing Mental Health Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Reports racial and ethnic differences on the California Well-Being Survey, a surveillance tool that tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination among a sample of California adults experiencing psychological distress.

  8. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  9. Mental health literacy, stigma and perception of causation of mental illness among Chinese people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Cheng, Chi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Man

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have been performed to explore mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness and their relationships with causal beliefs about mental illness among Chinese people in Taiwan. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes of Taiwanese Chinese with those found among Australian and Japanese participants in other studies and to explore how mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes relate to different perceptions of causes of mental illness. A convenience sample of 287 participants completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. A much lower percentage of Taiwanese people than Australians could correctly identify depression and schizophrenia. The Taiwanese respondents rated psychiatrists and clinical psychologists as more helpful than social workers and general practitioners (GPs) and expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness of certain medications when compared to the Australian and Japanese samples. Interestingly, Taiwanese Chinese hold similarly high levels of stigma towards schizophrenia, but lower levels of stigma towards depression when compared to the Japanese respondents. Taiwanese respondents who have higher levels of mental health literacy about schizophrenia were less willing to interact with people with schizophrenia than those with lower levels of mental health literacy. This study underlines the need for public education programmes to improve knowledge of various mental illnesses and to reduce stigmatising attitudes among Taiwanese Chinese. The aforementioned socially and culturally driven beliefs must be taken into consideration so that culturally relevant education programmes can be developed.

  10. Primary care-mental health integration and treatment retention among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsan, Jack Y; Zeber, John E; Stock, Eileen M; Sun, Fangfang; Copeland, Laurel A

    2012-11-01

    Despite the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medical comorbidity among veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan (OEF/OIF), keeping these patients engaged in health care is challenging. Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI), an initiative in the Veterans Health Administration (VA), sought to improve access to mental health care from within primary care. This study examined the lag between first PC-MHI visit and next mental/medical care visit, if any, and the relationship of PC-MHI with short-term (subsequent year) and long-term (4 years later) use of VA. We identified 2,470 OEF/OIF veterans receiving care during fiscal year 2006 (FY06) in a regional VA health care system. Unconditional survival analysis modeled time to next mental/medical visit and logistic regression modeled short- and long-term care as a function of PC-MHI, demographics, and clinical covariates. Of 181 patients in the PC-MHI program, 60%/18% returned for mental/medical care within 1 month, and 82%/74% within 1 year. Sixty-one percent (1,503) were still using the VA in FY09. Short-term mental care was related to prior-year PC-MHI. Consistent correlates of short- and long-term mental/medical care included physical comorbidity and Priority 1 status. Most patients attended mental health appointments subsequent to PC-MHI, and PC-MHI was correlated with mental health treatment retention in adjusted models for our cohort. Need for treatment, notably VA Priority 1 status and physical comorbidity, were the primary correlates of care-seeking. Developing innovative approaches to engaging new veterans in care remains imperative as multiple options will be necessary to meet the needs of these complex patients.

  11. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered.

  12. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill? PMID:15681670

  13. Reducing barriers to mental health and social services for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: outcomes of an integrated primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Cohen, Greg; Bertenthal, Daniel; Cohen, Beth E; Maguen, Shira; Daley, Aaron

    2011-10-01

    Despite high rates of post-deployment psychosocial problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, mental health and social services are under-utilized. To evaluate whether a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) integrated care (IC) clinic (established in April 2007), offering an initial three-part primary care, mental health and social services visit, improved psychosocial services utilization in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans compared to usual care (UC), a standard primary care visit with referral for psychosocial services as needed. Retrospective cohort study using VA administrative data. Five hundred and twenty-six Iraq and Afghanistan veterans initiating primary care at a VA medical center between April 1, 2005 and April 31, 2009. Multivariable models compared the independent effects of primary care clinic type (IC versus UC) on mental health and social services utilization outcomes. After 2007, compared to UC, veterans presenting to the IC primary care clinic were significantly more likely to have had a within-30-day mental health evaluation (92% versus 59%, p < 0.001) and social services evaluation [77% (IC) versus 56% (UC), p < 0.001]. This exceeded background system-wide increases in mental health services utilization that occurred in the UC Clinic after 2007 compared to before 2007. In particular, female veterans, younger veterans, and those with positive mental health screens were independently more likely to have had mental health and social service evaluations if seen in the IC versus UC clinic. Among veterans who screened positive for  ≥ 1 mental health disorder(s), there was a median of 1 follow-up specialty mental health visit within the first year in both clinics. Among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans new to primary care, an integrated primary care visit further improved the likelihood of an initial mental health and social services evaluation over background increases, but did not improve retention in specialty mental health services.

  14. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  15. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  16. [Mental illness in homeless men and women in Munich].

    PubMed

    Fichter, M; Quadflieg, N; Koniarczyk, M; Greifenhagen, A; Wolz, J; Koegel, P; Wittchen, H U

    1999-03-01

    Mental illness appears to be overrepresented among homeless individuals. The purpose of this study was the standardised assessment of mental illness in a representative sample of homeless men and of homeless women in the city of Munich, Germany. In order to get a very good estimate of the population of homeless individuals in Munich, a pre-sampling survey was conducted. On the basis of this pre-sampling survey the size and relevant characteristics of the total population of homeless individuals in Munich were defined. Individuals of the sample were randomly selected from the population. 146 men and 32 women were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Homeless men were on the average 43 years of age; most of them unmarried or divorced, had a relatively low degree of school education and a relatively long duration of homelessness. The prevalence of mental illness (lifetime) was very high: 91.8% had a substance abuse disorder (82.9% alcohol dependence), 41.8% had an affective disorder, 22.6% had an anxiety disorder and 12.4% suffered from schizophrenia. Of the homeless men in Munich 94.5% had at least one DIS/DSM-III axis I diagnosis 6-month prevalence data is also presented. The results confirm the findings of other studies in other countries of high rates of mental illness among homeless individuals. In comparison to a study in Los Angeles using the same methodology, prevalence rates were even higher in Munich. Implications for health care planning are discussed.

  17. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  18. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  19. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  20. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…