Science.gov

Sample records for mer mission results

  1. WATER ON MARS: EVIDENCE FROM MER MISSION RESULTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission landed two rovers on Mars, equipped with a highly-capable suite of science instruments. The Spirit rover landed on the inside Gusev Crater on January 5, 2004, and the Opportunity rover three weeks later on Meridiani Planum. This paper summarizes some of the findings from the MER rovers related to the NASA science strategy of investigating past and present water on Mars.

  2. Autonomous Navigation Results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark; Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg; Matthies, Larry H.

    2004-01-01

    In January, 2004, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars. Several autonomous navigation capabilities were employed in space for the first time in this mission. ]n the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase, both landers used a vision system called the, Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) to estimate horizontal velocity during the last 2000 meters (m) of descent, by tracking features on the ground with a downlooking camera, in order to control retro-rocket firing to reduce horizontal velocity before impact. During surface operations, the rovers navigate autonomously using stereo vision for local terrain mapping and a local, reactive planning algorithm called Grid-based Estimation of Surface Traversability Applied to Local Terrain (GESTALT) for obstacle avoidance. ]n areas of high slip, stereo vision-based visual odometry has been used to estimate rover motion, As of mid-June, Spirit had traversed 3405 m, of which 1253 m were done autonomously; Opportunity had traversed 1264 m, of which 224 m were autonomous. These results have contributed substantially to the success of the mission and paved the way for increased levels of autonomy in future missions.

  3. Autonomous Navigation Results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark; Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg; Matthies, Larry H.

    2004-01-01

    In January, 2004, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars. Several autonomous navigation capabilities were employed in space for the first time in this mission. ]n the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase, both landers used a vision system called the, Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) to estimate horizontal velocity during the last 2000 meters (m) of descent, by tracking features on the ground with a downlooking camera, in order to control retro-rocket firing to reduce horizontal velocity before impact. During surface operations, the rovers navigate autonomously using stereo vision for local terrain mapping and a local, reactive planning algorithm called Grid-based Estimation of Surface Traversability Applied to Local Terrain (GESTALT) for obstacle avoidance. ]n areas of high slip, stereo vision-based visual odometry has been used to estimate rover motion, As of mid-June, Spirit had traversed 3405 m, of which 1253 m were done autonomously; Opportunity had traversed 1264 m, of which 224 m were autonomous. These results have contributed substantially to the success of the mission and paved the way for increased levels of autonomy in future missions.

  4. Water on Mars: Evidence from MER Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer, or "duricrust". Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content and chlorine content consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. The soil is highly enriched in the salt-forming elements compared with rock. Analysis of the soil cementation indicates some features which may be evidence of liquid water. At both MER sites, duricrust textures revealed by the Microscopic Imager show features including the presence of fine sand-sized grains, some of which may be aggregates of fine silt and clay, surrounded by a pervasive light colored material that is associated with microtubular structures and networks of microfractures. Stereo views of undisturbed duricrust surfaces reveal rugged microrelief between 2-3 mm and minimal loose material. Comparisons of microscopic images of duricrust soils obtain before and after placement of the Mossbauer spectrometer indicate differing degrees of compaction and cementation. Two models of a transient water hypothesis are offered, a "top down" hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a "bottom up" alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water. The viability of both of these models ultimately hinges on the availability of seasonally transient liquid water for brief periods.

  5. Water on Mars: Evidence from MER Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer, or "duricrust". Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content and chlorine content consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. The soil is highly enriched in the salt-forming elements compared with rock. Analysis of the soil cementation indicates some features which may be evidence of liquid water. At both MER sites, duricrust textures revealed by the Microscopic Imager show features including the presence of fine sand-sized grains, some of which may be aggregates of fine silt and clay, surrounded by a pervasive light colored material that is associated with microtubular structures and networks of microfractures. Stereo views of undisturbed duricrust surfaces reveal rugged microrelief between 2-3 mm and minimal loose material. Comparisons of microscopic images of duricrust soils obtain before and after placement of the Mossbauer spectrometer indicate differing degrees of compaction and cementation. Two models of a transient water hypothesis are offered, a "top down" hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a "bottom up" alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water. The viability of both of these models ultimately hinges on the availability of seasonally transient liquid water for brief periods.

  6. MER ARA pyroshock test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the shock test results achieved in the MER ARA/brush motor pyroshock qualification. The results of MER flight system pyrofiring tests in comparison with the ARA shock test requirements are discussed herein. Alternate test methods were developed in an effort to qualify the critical MER equipment for adequate performance in the actual flight pyroshock condition.

  7. MER ARA pyroshock test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the shock test results achieved in the MER ARA/brush motor pyroshock qualification. The results of MER flight system pyrofiring tests in comparison with the ARA shock test requirements are discussed herein. Alternate test methods were developed in an effort to qualify the critical MER equipment for adequate performance in the actual flight pyroshock condition.

  8. Science Activity Planner for the MER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Wallick, Michael N.; Mittman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The Maestro Science Activity Planner is a computer program that assists human users in planning operations of the Mars Explorer Rover (MER) mission and visualizing scientific data returned from the MER rovers. Relative to its predecessors, this program is more powerful and easier to use. This program is built on the Java Eclipse open-source platform around a Web-browser-based user-interface paradigm to provide an intuitive user interface to Mars rovers and landers. This program affords a combination of advanced display and simulation capabilities. For example, a map view of terrain can be generated from images acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Science Explorer instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft and overlaid with images from a navigation camera (more precisely, a stereoscopic pair of cameras) aboard a rover, and an interactive, annotated rover traverse path can be incorporated into the overlay. It is also possible to construct an overhead perspective mosaic image of terrain from navigation-camera images. This program can be adapted to similar use on other outer-space missions and is potentially adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications involving analysis of data, operations of robots, and planning of such operations for acquisition of scientific data.

  9. MGS and Odyssey - Relay Satellites for the MER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Pasquale B.; Bhat, R.; Demcak, S.; Ardakab, S.; Breeden, J.; Helfrich, C.; Jefferson, D.; Stauch, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey are currently in low altitude, nearly circular and highly inclined orbits about Mars. Thus, they are available and compatible to serve as relay satellites for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Consequently, the MER project developed requirements for MGS to be overhead, at a specific time with a 30 second tolerance, during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase of both MER vehicles. The result, after execution of a single orbit synchronization maneuver (OSM) on 10/03/03, 92.4 days or 1130 orbits before Spirit's EDL, was that MGS was over Spirit 8 seconds past the required time. This maneuver, with a delta-velocity of 0.534 m/s, caused the orbital period to change by 3.34 s and resulted in a time-phasing change of 62 min 19 s in order to achieve the EDL overflight. Based on the navigation and execution of an OSM on 01/04/04, MGS was overhead for the Opportunity EDL on 01/25/04,3.5 seconds after the required epoch. Requirements also existed for the Odyssey over-flight of the MER rovers after landing and various equipment deployments had been completed. Thus, these requirements were that Odyssey should rise no earlier than specified times with respect to each of the landing sites. The Odyssey over-flights of both Spirit and Opportunity on sol 1 were equally successful. This paper will present the navigation plan, trajectory propagation accuracy and maneuver execution for the successful MGS and Odyssey over-flights of both the MER rovers.

  10. Mars Atmosphere Argon Density Measurement on MER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, T. E.

    2008-11-01

    Using the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on board Spirit and Opportunity rovers on MER mission, we were able to measure the argon density variation in the martian atmosphere as a function of seasonal changes.

  11. MGS and Odyssey - relay satellites for the MER mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Pasquale B.; Bhat, R.; Demeak, S.; Ardalan, S.; Breeden, J.; Helfrich, C.; Jefferson, D.; Stauch, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Odyssey are currently in low altitude, nearly circular and highly inclined orbits about Mars. Thus, they are available adn compartible to serve as relay satellites for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. Consequently, the MER project developed requirements for MGS to be overhead for MER-A (Spirit) at Gusev crater, at maximum elevation, mudway between lander separation and initial touchdown; in time, this was specified as 01/04/04. 04:24:55 UTC/SCET with a 30 sec tolerance.

  12. Planning Mars Memory: Learning from the MER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlotte, Linde

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses ways in which the lessons learned from a mission can be systematically remembered, retained, and applied by individuals and by an organization as a whole. The presentation cites lessons learned from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission as examples.

  13. The Ballerina Experiment on the Rømer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Soren

    The Rømer mission has recently been approved as the next mission within the Danish Small Satellite Program. The scientific payload will consist of two separate experiments, the MONS and the Ballerina payloads. The primary objective of Ballerina is to provide accurate, real-time positions relayed to ground for ~ 70 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year, and to study the temporal and spectral evolution of the early GRB X-ray afterglow. As an additional goal, Ballerina will detect and study bright X-ray transients, in particular X-ray novae and micro-quasar systems. R{\\o}mer is currently scheduled for launch in late 2003.

  14. Planning Mars Memory: Learning from the Mer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort at recognizing, preserving and transmitting learning. Each mission should be built on the learning, of both successes and failures, derived from previous missions. Knowledge management begins with learning, and the recognition that this learning has produced knowledge. The Mars Exploration Rover mission provides us with an opportunity to track how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and whether the representations of this learning will be optimally useful for subsequent missions. This paper focuses on the MER science and engineering teams during Rover operations. A NASA team conducted an observational study of the ongoing work and learning of the these teams. Learning occurred in a wide variety of areas: how to run two teams on Mars time for three months; how to use the instruments within the constraints of the martian environment, the deep space network and the mission requirements; how to plan science strategy; how best to use the available software tools. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in peoples memories, to be carried on to the next mission. It is also encoded in stones, in programming sequences, in published reports, and in lessons learned activities, Studying learning and knowledge development as it happens allows us to suggest proactive ways of capturing and using it across multiple missions and generations.

  15. Planning Mars Memory: Learning from the Mer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort at recognizing, preserving and transmitting learning. Each mission should be built on the learning, of both successes and failures, derived from previous missions. Knowledge management begins with learning, and the recognition that this learning has produced knowledge. The Mars Exploration Rover mission provides us with an opportunity to track how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and whether the representations of this learning will be optimally useful for subsequent missions. This paper focuses on the MER science and engineering teams during Rover operations. A NASA team conducted an observational study of the ongoing work and learning of the these teams. Learning occurred in a wide variety of areas: how to run two teams on Mars time for three months; how to use the instruments within the constraints of the martian environment, the deep space network and the mission requirements; how to plan science strategy; how best to use the available software tools. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in peoples memories, to be carried on to the next mission. It is also encoded in stones, in programming sequences, in published reports, and in lessons learned activities, Studying learning and knowledge development as it happens allows us to suggest proactive ways of capturing and using it across multiple missions and generations.

  16. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  17. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, there was never an intention of maintaining the pace of this process indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5- day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  18. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, the pace of this process was never intended to be continued indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5-day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  19. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, there was never an intention of maintaining the pace of this process indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5- day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  20. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, the pace of this process was never intended to be continued indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5-day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  1. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  2. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  3. Application of State Analysis and Goal-based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the system behavior in terms of state variables and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper first describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  4. Application of State Analysis and Goal-based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the system behavior in terms of state variables and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper first describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  5. MER Atmospheric Results: Pancam and Mini-TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Although at first glance, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) payload may be perceived as primarily suited to geological investigation, it is in fact quite well-suited to carry out a robust and dynamic program of atmospheric monitoring and characterization with a particular emphasis on the planetary boundary layer. More to the point, it has been doing so at both the Gusev and Meridiani locations for more than 200 days. Ongoing atmospheric observations include (1) periodic thermal infrared spectra of the Martian sky by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES). The actual sequences consist of both standard 200-second integrations and long ``stares'' of up to (almost) an hour. These data are highly diagnostic of vertical thermal structure (from 10 meters to 3-5 kilometers), aerosol optical depth along with particle size, and under the right conditions, the water column. (2) direct solar imaging using the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) and 440/880 nm + neutral density (ND5) filters, providing accurate measurement visible optical depths. (3) near-sun and ``sky-arc'' sequences using the full suite of geological filters, intended to capture the forward-diffraction peak and the phase function characteristics of the aerosol particles. (4) carbon dioxide (15 micrometer band) profiling of the Mini-TES surface observations, providing an average near-surface (1 m) air temperature. The above activities have been (and will continue to be) used to characterize diurnal and secular temporal trends and to examine the spatial variability of such trends. In addition, serendipity has provided the unique opportunities of watching the decay of a moderate dust storm from two widely-separated sites as well as of multiple simultaneous orbiter-rover observing ``campaigns.'' The latter includes thus far the Mars Express and Mars Global Surveyor over-flights. During our presentation, we will summarize the atmospheric results obtained and analyzed through the end of the first 200 days of

  6. The Amorphous Component in Martian Basaltic Soil in Global Perspective from MSL and MER Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Downs, R. T.; Gellert, R.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogy instrument CheMin onboard the MSL rover Curiosity analyzed by transmission XRD [1] the <150 microns size fraction of putative global basaltic martian soil from scoops 4 and 5 of the Rocknest aeolian bedform (sol 81-120). Here, we combine chemical (APXS) and mineralogical (Mossbauer; MB) results from the MER rovers with chemical (APXS) and mineralogical (CheMin) results from Curiosity to constrain the relative proportions of amorphous and crystalline components, the bulk chemical composition of those components, and the

  7. MER Field Geologic Traverse in Gusev Crater, Mars: Initial Results From the Perspective of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L.; Cabrol, N.; desMarais, D.; Farmer, J.; Golmbek, M.; Grant, J.; Greely, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Haskin, L.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have

  8. Using Mars and the Mer Mission to Teach Science: A Curriculum Designed for Teachers and Their Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2006-12-01

    Learning opportunities can be exceptionally successful when linked to national, newsworthy events. Planetary missions are particularly exciting in engaging teachers, and their students, because they combine the human "stories" of scientists and engineers with cutting-edge technology and new science. Planetary suface missions, such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, return beautiful and human-scale images that can virtually transport the viewer to another world. The MER mission allows children and adults to participate in the exploration of one of our nearest neighbors in space. New discoveries in the natural history of Mars have been used as the basis of a new integrated curriculum created by Museum and class-room educators designed to serve informal (family learning) and formal (classroom) audiences. The curriculum uses Mars and the MER mission as a "hook" to teach a wide range of topics that relate to all of the sciences, mathematics, social studies (history and exploration), science and society, career readiness, language and literacy, and visual arts. The curriculum, entitled "Making Tracks on Mars: Teacher Resource and Activity Guide," includes the following key features that have contributed to its success and usefulness: (1) basic information about Mars, Mars missions, and the MER mission providing teachers with the knowledge they may lack; (2) activities that follow a standardized format and include necessary information, pre-lesson preparation and post-lesson closure and extensions, and all information and/or images needed; (3) activities that cross the curriculum and can be used to address many different standards; (4) relevant state and national standards listed for each activity; (5) annotated MER image file and PowerPoint presentation for easy classroom use; (6) lists of additional Mars-related resources; (7) emphasis on local connections to the mission to enable teachers and students to feel personally connected; (8) elementary through high

  9. The Martian Soil as a Geochemical Sink for Hydrothermally Altered Crustal Rocks and Mobile Elements: Implications of Early MER Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Draper, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrothermal and aqueous alteration can explain some of the exciting results from the MER team s analyses of the martian soil, including the major elements, mobile elements, and the nickel enrichment. Published results from the five lander missions lead to the following conclusions: 1) The soil appears to be globally mixed and basaltic with only small local variations in chemistry. Relative to martian basaltic meteorites and Gusev rocks the soils are depleted in the fluid-mobile element calcium, but only slightly enriched to somewhat depleted in iron oxide. 2) The presence of olivine in the soils based on M ssbauer data argues that the soil is only partly weathered and is more akin to a lunar regolith than a terrestrial soil. 3) The presence of bromine along with sulfur and chlorine in the soils is consistent with addition of a mobile element component to the soil.

  10. Results from the Magsat mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of analyses of the data gathered by Magsat on the geomagnetic field, crustal magnetic anomalies, fields arising from external current systems, and in investigations of the earth's core, mantle, and core-mantle boundary are presented. A least squares potential function showed that the geomagnetic field was 30,000-50,000 nanoteslas at the Magsat altitude, while fields from external sources were 0-1000 nanoteslas and those from crustal sources 0-50 nanoteslas. Long-wavelength magnetic anomalies were correlated with tectonic features, sometimes reflecting undulations in the Curie isotherm at other times changes in the structure of the lower crust. Detailed anomaly maps from regional data analyses are provided, and possible future spacecraft missions for improving the resolution of contours and strengths of the anomalies are described.

  11. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Reed F.; Via, Laura E.; Kumar, Mia R.; Cornish, Joseph P.; Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L.; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Johnson, Joshua C.; Pickel, James; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2015-11-15

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. - Highlights: • Common marmosets infected with MERS-EMC and MERS-JOR did not develop lethal disease. • Infected subjects developed transient signs of clinical disease. • CT indicated few differences between the infected and control groups. • Marmosets do not faithfully replicate human MERS pathogenesis.

  12. The Planck Mission: Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Bersanelli

    2012-03-07

    The ESA Planck space mission, launched on May 14, 2009, is dedicated to high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light of the universe, both in temperature and polarization. The satellite observes the full sky from a far-Earth orbit with two cryogenic instruments in the 30-850 GHz range at the focal plane of a 1.5-meter telescope. The primary objective of Planck is to measure with unprecedented precision the key cosmological parameters and to provide accurate tests of physics in the early universe. Planck has recently completed the fifth full-sky survey. The data analysis is underway. The first cosmology results are expected in early 2013 while a number of astrophysical results have been recently delivered to the community, including galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and a rich catalogue of radio and infrared sources. These results demonstrate the excellent in-orbit performance of the instruments and give excellent prospects for the forthcoming cosmological results.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) arrives at Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) arrives at Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane lifts the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle from its stand to move it to a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane lifts the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle from its stand to move it to a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is in place to lift the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle to move it to a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane is in place to lift the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle to move it to a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With help from workers, the overhead crane lowers the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle onto a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With help from workers, the overhead crane lowers the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle onto a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The overhead crane settles the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle onto a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The overhead crane settles the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle onto a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane moves the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle across the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility toward a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An overhead crane moves the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle across the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility toward a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility help guide the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle toward a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility help guide the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2) entry vehicle toward a spin table for a dry-spin test. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch for MER-2 (MER-A) is scheduled for June 5.

  20. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  1. Mission 119 passive microwave results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Mennella, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the sea surface were made for determining surface wind speeds from the NP3A aircraft (NASA-927). Observations were made at frequencies of 1.4, 10.6, and 31.4 GHz during NASA mission 119, undertaken off Bermuda in the vicinity of Argus Island sea tower during January 1970. Passive microwave observations from Argus Island ocean showed that the surface roughness effect, dependent on wind speed, is also dependent on observational frequency, increasing with increasing frequency. The roughness effect appears to be dominant for wind speeds less than 30 to 40 knots (2).

  2. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Reed F.; Via, Laura E.; Kumar, Mia R.; Cornish, Joseph P.; Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L.; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Johnson, Joshua C.; Pickel, James; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. PMID:26342468

  3. Results from the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter

    The Phoenix mission investigated the soil-ice interface in the martian arctic for 5 months starting May 25, 2008. Major goals of the mission were the examination of physical environment as well as the soil chemistry and mineralogy to understand the role of water, if any, in their formation. An additional goal was to assess the habitability in terms of the necessary ingredients to support life as we know it on Earth. An ice layer was uncovered at an average depth of 5 cm. Both a pure ice lens and ice-cemented soil were examined; the TEGA instrument confirmed water ice. First results from the mission revealed calcium carbonate composed 5 The Phoenix mission was a collaboration between the University of Arizona, the Jet Propulsion Lab, and Lockheed Martin. An international team of scientists supported the collection and analysis of data.

  4. Role of MerC, MerE, MerF, MerT, and/or MerP in resistance to mercurials and the transport of mercurials in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sone, Yuka; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Pan-Hou, Hidemitsu; Itoh, Tomoo; Kiyono, Masako

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of bacteria take up mercury into cells via membrane potential-dependent sequence-divergent members of the mercuric ion (Mer) superfamily, i.e., a periplasmic mercuric ion scavenging protein (MerP) and one or more inner membrane-spanning proteins (MerC, MerE, MerF, and MerT), which transport mercuric ions into the cytoplasm, have been applied in engineering of bioreactor used for mercurial bioremediation. We engineered bacteria to express MerC, MerE, MerF, or MerT with or without MerP to clarify their individual role and potential in transport of mercurial. By immunoblot analysis using specific polyclonal antibody, the proteins encoded by merC, merE, merF, merT or merP, were certainly expressed and identified in the membrane fraction. Bacteria expressing MerC, MerE, MerF or MerT in the absence of MerP transported significantly more C6H5Hg(I) and Hg(II) across bacterial membrane than their isogenic strain. In vivo expression of MerP in the presence of all the transporters did not cause apparent difference to the C6H5Hg(I) transport, but gives an apparently higher Hg(II) transport than that did by MerE, MerF or MerT but not by MerC. Among the four transporters studied, MerC showed more potential to transport Hg(II) across bacterial membrane than MerE, MerF and MerT. Together these findings, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to MerE and MerT, MerF and MerC are broad-spectrum mercury transporters that mediate both Hg(II) and phenylmercury transport into cells. Our results suggested that MerC is the most efficient tool for designing mercurial bioremediation systems, because MerC is sufficient for mercurial transport into cells.

  5. Latest Results from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Kepler Mission Team

    2012-10-01

    As the Kepler Mission completes the end of its third year of science observations, calibrated time series data of increasing length are becoming available that make possible the detection of planetary candidates smaller than Earth and candidates with orbital periods nearing one year. Further, the greater capability and sophistication of the pipeline analyses improve the completeness of the results and provide better estimates of the parameter distributions. The most recent data release on 28 July 2012 (Quarters 6 through 9) adds an additional ¾ year of observations so that most planetary candidates with orbital periods as long as 273 days now show at least 3 transits. Data for an additional year (i.e., Quarters 10 through 13) are scheduled to be released on 28 October 2012. A first look at the size, period, and semi-major axis distributions of these data will be presented. Summaries of the planets confirmed, candidates that are being actively analyzed, and the methods being used to verify and confirm planets will be discussed. The Extended Kepler Mission operations begin on 1 October 2012 and many changes in mission focus and operations, data release, and science community participation are being implemented and will be outlined. Funding for this Discovery mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  7. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  8. MER Telemetry Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyun H.

    2012-01-01

    MERTELEMPROC processes telemetered data in data product format and generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for many instruments (HAZCAM, NAVCAM, PANCAM, microscopic imager, Moessbauer spectrometer, APXS, RAT, and EDLCAM) on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER). If the data is compressed, then MERTELEMPROC decompresses the data with an appropriate decompression algorithm. There are two compression algorithms (ICER and LOCO) used in MER. This program fulfills a MER specific need to generate Level 1 products within a 60-second time requirement. EDRs generated by this program are used by merinverter, marscahv, marsrad, and marsjplstereo to generate higher-level products for the mission operations. MERTELEPROC was the first GDS program to process the data product. Metadata of the data product is in XML format. The software allows user-configurable input parameters, per-product processing (not streambased processing), and fail-over is allowed if the leading image header is corrupted. It is used within the MER automated pipeline. MERTELEMPROC is part of the OPGS (Operational Product Generation Subsystem) automated pipeline, which analyzes images returned by in situ spacecraft and creates level 1 products to assist in operations, science, and outreach.

  9. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  10. The Kepler Mission and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Jenkins, Jon; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; Devore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Jenkins, Jon; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey; Monet, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Caldwell, John; Dupree, Andrea K.; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Meibom, Søren; Morrison, David; Tarter, Jill; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Rowe, Jason F.; van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Lau-Rance; Ford, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason; Welsh, William

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer designed to obtain high-precision photometric measurement for more than 3.5 years of more than 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits of exoplanets. The focal plane of the Schmidt telescope contains 42 CCDs with a total of 95 megapixels that cover 115 square degrees of sky. The single star field will be viewed for the entire duration of the mission. The photometer was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on March 6, 2009, finished its commissioning on May 12, and is now in the science operations mode. The bases for a number of the design choices are described. Although the data have not yet been fully corrected for the presence of systematic errors and artifacts, the data show the presence of thousands of eclipsing binaries and variable stars of amazing variety. The character of stellar variability allows us to distinguish dwarf stars from giants. Astrometric stability at the sub-millipixel level of the photocenters of stars allows us in many cases to distinguish transit candidates from background eclipsing binaries. Analysis of the early data shows transits, occultations and even visible light emission from the hot exoplanet HAT-P-7b. The latest results on exoplanet detections from Kepler will be presented. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Results from SMART-1 Lunar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2006-08-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It demonstrated Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) and tested new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. Launched on 27 Sept. 2003, as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger, SMART-1 has spiralled out towards lunar capture on 15 November 2004, and then towards lunar science orbit reached on 1 March 2005. The mission has been extended and is due to end with an impact on 2-3 September 2006. This is permitting science but also to prepare future international lunar exploration, in collaboration with upcoming missions. We shall present the first year lunar results from SMART-1's science and technology payload. The 19 kg payload includes a miniaturized high-resolution camera (AMIE), a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) for surface elemental composition. There is also an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addresses several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system.

  12. First Results of the SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Neira, Manuel Martin; Delwart, Steven; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bermudo, François

    2010-05-01

    acquiring data and undergoing the commissioning phase. The data quality exceeds what was expected, showing very good sensitivity and stability. The data is however very much impaired by man made emission in the protected band, ruining the measurements in several areas including parts of Europe and of China. However, many different international teams are now addressing cal val activities in various parts of the world, with notably large field campaigns either on the long time scale or over specific targets to address the specific issues. This paper thus gives an overview of the science goals of the SMOS mission, a description of its main elements, and a taste of the first results including performances at brightness temperature as well as at geophysical parameters levels.

  13. Preliminary Results from the CHIPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Sasseen, T.; Marchant, W.; Sirk, M.; UC Berkeley CHIPS Instrument Team; SpaceDev Inc. CHIPS Spacecraft Team

    2003-03-01

    We present preliminary results from the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (``CHIPS") mission. CHIPS contains a grazing incidence spectrometer optimized for diffuse emission in the extreme ultraviolet band between 90 and 260 Angstroms, with a peak resolution of about 1.4 Angstroms. The spectrometer should provide unique and important new data on hot gas within the ``local bubble" of the interstellar medium. At the time this abstract was submitted, CHIPS had been successfully launched into a polar orbit, but commissioning of the spacecraft had only just begun. CHIPS is supported by NASA grant NAG5-5213.

  14. The magnetic survey mission CHAMP: Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, H.

    2001-05-01

    On July 15, 2000 the geoscientific satellite CHAMP was launched from the Russian launch site Plesetsk into a near-polar (87.3\\deg) orbit. The mission is devoted to global investigations of the gravity, magnetic and electric fields and to atmospheric profiling. Cruising at a low, circular orbit - 460 km at the beginning, decaying to 300 km after a 5 years mission period - CHAMP promises to return a unique data set. The orbital plane moves with respect to local time at rate of about 1h per 11days, thus covering all LTs within 4.5 months. In this talk I will focus on the magnetic field investigation. The satellite is equipped with a scalar Overhauser magnetometer at the tip of a 4m boom. Half way down the boom there are two (redundant) fluxgate magnetometers mounted together with a dual-head star camera on an optical bench. This magnetometry package provides the capability of maintaining absolutely calibrated vector field measurements throughout the mission. During an extended commissioning and calibration phase of 8 months the various instruments on board have been tuned to the environmental conditions and intrinsic factors and biases are determined. The evaluation of preliminary data sets confirms that all instruments meet their specification. Initial results will be presented which allow to show the performance of the measurements. When comparing repeat tracks it is encouraging to see how well features like crustal anomalies match each other. The precision of vector field data is particularly high on the night side. Here we can make use of the simultaneous readings of the two star trackers. By combining the individual measurements we obtain a precise attitude. The quality of the vector data will be demonstrated in comparison with main field models.

  15. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  16. Human Centered Design and Development for NASA's MerBoard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the design and development process for NASA's MerBoard. These devices are large interactive display screens which can be shown on the user's computer, which will allow scientists in many locations to interpret and evaluate mission data in real-time. These tools are scheduled to be used during the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) expeditions. Topics covered include: mission overview, Mer Human Centered Computers, FIDO 2001 observations and MerBoard prototypes.

  17. Analyzing MER Uplink Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    The MER project includes two rovers working simultaneously on opposite sides of Mars each receiving commands only once a day. Creating this uplink is critical, since a failed uplink means a lost day and a waste of money. Examining the process of creating this uplink, I tracked the use of the system developed for requesting observations as well as the development, from stage to stage, in forming an activity plan. I found the system for requesting observations was commonly misused, if used at all. There are half a dozen reports to document the creation of the uplink plan and often there are discrepancies among them. Despite this, the uplink process worked very well and MER has been one of the most successful missions for NASA in recent memory. Still it is clear there is room for improvement.

  18. Analyzing MER Uplink Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    The MER project includes two rovers working simultaneously on opposite sides of Mars each receiving commands only once a day. Creating this uplink is critical, since a failed uplink means a lost day and a waste of money. Examining the process of creating this uplink, I tracked the use of the system developed for requesting observations as well as the development, from stage to stage, in forming an activity plan. I found the system for requesting observations was commonly misused, if used at all. There are half a dozen reports to document the creation of the uplink plan and often there are discrepancies among them. Despite this, the uplink process worked very well and MER has been one of the most successful missions for NASA in recent memory. Still it is clear there is room for improvement.

  19. Fermi Mission Results, Status, and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage and localization, the very large field of view enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours. With its recent launch on 11 June 2008, Fermi now opens a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including pulsars, black holes and active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, the origin of cosmic rays and supernova remnants, and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark matter annihilations. In addition to early results and the science opportunities, this talk includes a description of the instruments and the mission status and plans.

  20. Huygens Mission Overview and Results Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.

    2005-08-01

    After a 7-year interplanetary trajectory on board the Cassini Orbiter, the Huygens Probe was successfully released on 25 December 2004 for its encounter with Titan 3 weeks later on 14 January 2005. It entered the atmosphere of Titan at 9:06 UTC (Titan time) at the velocity of 6 km/s. At the end of the entry, which lasted about 4 minutes during which the Probe was slowed down to 400 m/s, the three parachutes were deployed in a 15-min sequence. The first parachute was deployed at an altitude of about 156 km. The descent under parachute lasted 2h28min. Huygens landed safely on Titan's surface and continued to function for several hours after landing. Data were transmitted over two channels to the overflying Cassini Orbiter, for on-board recording and later playback, during the whole parachute descent and for an additional 72 min after landing. The Huygens Probe descent was monitored on one of the two channels with a network of radio telescopes on Earth, all part of the Huygens Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) experiment. Several telescopes of the network were equipped with sensitive receivers that allowed real time Doppler tracking measurements from Earth. An overview of the mission is provided. The overall probe performance is discussed and a selected set of the science results is highlighted. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency

  1. Viking magnetic properties experiment - Extended mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Collinson, D. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cates, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The backhoe magnets on Viking Lander (VL) 2 were successfully cleaned, followed by a test involving successive insertions of the cleaned backhoe into the surface. Rapid saturation of the magnets confirmed evidence from primary mission results that the magnetic mineral in the Martian surface is widely distributed, most probably in the form of composite particles of magnetic and nonmagnetic minerals. An image of the VL 2 backhoe taken via the X4 magnifying mirror demonstrates the fine-grained nature of the attracted magnetic material. The presence of maghemite and its occurrence as a pigment in, or a thin coating on, all mineral particles or as discrete, finely divided and widely distributed crystallites, are consistent with data from the inorganic analysis experiments and with laboratory simulations of results of the biology experiments on Mars.

  2. Main results of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Corbard, T.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A.; Boumier, P.; Chevalier, A.; Schmutz, W.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Cessateur, G.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Salabert, D.; Rouzé, M.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Zhu, P.; Kholikov, S.; Koller, S.; Conscience, C.; Dewitte, S.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    PICARD is a mission devoted to solar variability observations through imagery and radiometric measurements. The main goal is to provide data for scientific investigation first in the area of solar physics, and second in the assessment of the influence of the solar variability on the Earth climate variability. PICARD contains a double program with in-space and on-ground measurements. The PICARD spacecraft was launched on June 15, 2010, commissioned in-flight in October of the same year and was retired in April 2014. The PICARD ground-based observatory is operational since May 2011. We shall give a short overview of the PICARD instrumentation. New estimates of the absolute values of the total solar irradiance, of the solar spectral irradiance at typical wavelengths, and of the solar oblateness will be given. We will also report about helioseismic studies. Finally, we will present our current results about solar radius variations after six years of solar observation.

  3. The MATROSHKA Experiment - First Mission Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther

    MATROSHKA is an ESA multi-user experiment unit on the International Space Station ISS for studies of depth dose distribution of the different components of the orbital radiation field at different sites of the organs, occurring in astronauts being exposed during an EVA. To accomplish that, the facility comprises an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate the human body, active and passive detectors for space radiation dosimetry, data acquisition and processing electronics and the overall mechanical housing and support structure for the MATROSHKA components. The development and manufacture was under ESA contract by DLR, Institute for Aerospace Medicine with sub-contractors Kayser Italia (Livorno) and DTM (Modena). MATROSHKA was launched within PROGRESS on January 29, 2004 and mounted shortly afterwards outside the Russian Zvezda Module of the Station. The time of outside exposure during this mission phase was 539 days. After that, the facility was returned into the Station for passive sensor exchange. After the first passive detector set was returned to ground with Soyuz for on-ground evaluation the facility is further used inside the station during two follow-on project phases. The MATROSHKA experiment delivered a unique set of data results from the evaluation of numerous detectors, such as Thermoluminescence detectors, plastic nuclear track detectors and silicon dosemeters. This paper intends to give besides a short overview of the instrumentation used inside the MATROSHKA facility selected results from the first exposure and describes the determination of organ dose equivalents from these results

  4. Two Martian Winters at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum: New Results From the MER Mossbauer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Morris, Richard V.; Schroeder, Christian; Rodionov, Daniel S.; Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Fleischer, Iris; Mittlefehldt, David W.; McCoy, Tim; hide

    2006-01-01

    After sol 511 of its mission in Gusev Crater, Spirit traversed from the top of Husband Hill to its current Winter Haven on Low Ridge. M ssbauer analyses of several rock and soil targets along the traverse yielded further evidence for the wide-spread occurrence of aqueous processes in the Columbia Hills. The rock Independence was found on the flank of Husband Hill. It has low total Fe with about 24-30 % of its iron in ilmenite. This assemblage implies alteration under aqueous conditions; some phases were altered and elements such as Fe were leached out, while less soluble Fe-bearing phases such as ilmenite remain. The soil target Dead_Sea_Samra was found in subsurface soil revealed when the wheels dug into soil during the traverse from Husband Hill to Home Plate. Its M ssbauer spectrum shows a high abundance of ferric sulfate, similar to the Paso Robles soil targets found on Husband Hill. At its current location at Winter Haven Spirit investigated the target Halley which appears to be part of a wider-spread indurated layer underlying basaltic soil. This target shows the highest abundance of hematite in all Gusev soil and rock targets investigated to date. Opportunity at Meridiani Planum traversed from the 300 m diameter buried Erebus Crater towards 800 m Victoria Crater. The main components of Meridiani Planum jarosite-bearing outcrop rocks, basaltic soil, and a hematite lag remain remarkably constant in M ssbauer spectra throughout the traverse. Cobbles (rock fragments greater than 1 cm) show variability however. A meteorite (Barberton) has been identified based on kamacite peaks in the M ssbauer spectrum. Other cobbles show Mossbauer spectra similar to jarosite-bearing outcrops, or to basaltic rock, or mixtures thereof, suggesting an origin as impact breccias. Some cobbles were investigated at the edge of the annulus of Victoria Crater from which they may have been excavated. Mossbauer spectra reveal a basaltic signature, dominated by olivine and pyroxene. In

  5. Two Martian Winters at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum: New Results From the MER Mossbauer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Morris, Richard V.; Schroeder, Christian; Rodionov, Daniel S.; Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Fleischer, Iris; Mittlefehldt, David W.; McCoy, Tim; de Souza, Paulo Jr.

    2006-01-01

    After sol 511 of its mission in Gusev Crater, Spirit traversed from the top of Husband Hill to its current Winter Haven on Low Ridge. M ssbauer analyses of several rock and soil targets along the traverse yielded further evidence for the wide-spread occurrence of aqueous processes in the Columbia Hills. The rock Independence was found on the flank of Husband Hill. It has low total Fe with about 24-30 % of its iron in ilmenite. This assemblage implies alteration under aqueous conditions; some phases were altered and elements such as Fe were leached out, while less soluble Fe-bearing phases such as ilmenite remain. The soil target Dead_Sea_Samra was found in subsurface soil revealed when the wheels dug into soil during the traverse from Husband Hill to Home Plate. Its M ssbauer spectrum shows a high abundance of ferric sulfate, similar to the Paso Robles soil targets found on Husband Hill. At its current location at Winter Haven Spirit investigated the target Halley which appears to be part of a wider-spread indurated layer underlying basaltic soil. This target shows the highest abundance of hematite in all Gusev soil and rock targets investigated to date. Opportunity at Meridiani Planum traversed from the 300 m diameter buried Erebus Crater towards 800 m Victoria Crater. The main components of Meridiani Planum jarosite-bearing outcrop rocks, basaltic soil, and a hematite lag remain remarkably constant in M ssbauer spectra throughout the traverse. Cobbles (rock fragments greater than 1 cm) show variability however. A meteorite (Barberton) has been identified based on kamacite peaks in the M ssbauer spectrum. Other cobbles show Mossbauer spectra similar to jarosite-bearing outcrops, or to basaltic rock, or mixtures thereof, suggesting an origin as impact breccias. Some cobbles were investigated at the edge of the annulus of Victoria Crater from which they may have been excavated. Mossbauer spectra reveal a basaltic signature, dominated by olivine and pyroxene. In

  6. The Mars Pathfinder Mission and Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, the first low-cost, quick Discovery class mission to be completed, successfully landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, deployed and navigated a small rover, and collected data from 3 science instruments and 10 technology experiments. The mission operated on Mars for 3 months and returned 2.3 Gbits of new data, including over 16,500 lander and 550 rover images, 16 chemical analyses of rocks and soil, and 8.5 million individual temperature, pressure and wind measurements. The rover traversed 100 m clockwise around the lander, exploring about 200 square meters of the surface. The mission captured the imagination of the public, and garnered front page headlines during the first week. A total of about 566 million internet "hits" were registered during the first month of the mission, with 47 million "hits" on July 8th alone, making the Pathfinder landing by far the largest internet event in history at the time. Pathfinder was the first mission to deploy a rover on Mars. It carried a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which provided a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The combination of spectral imaging of the landing area by the lander camera, chemical analyses aboard the rover, and close-up imaging of colors, textures and fabrics with the rover cameras offered the potential of identifying rocks (petrology and mineralogy). With this payload, a landing site in Ares Vallis was selected because it appeared acceptably safe and offered the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types expected to be deposited by catastrophic floods, which enabled addressing first-order scientific questions such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early Martian environment and its subsequent evolution. The 3 instruments and rover allowed seven areas of scientific investigation: the

  7. The Mars Pathfinder Mission and Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, the first low-cost, quick Discovery class mission to be completed, successfully landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, deployed and navigated a small rover, and collected data from 3 science instruments and 10 technology experiments. The mission operated on Mars for 3 months and returned 2.3 Gbits of new data, including over 16,500 lander and 550 rover images, 16 chemical analyses of rocks and soil, and 8.5 million individual temperature, pressure and wind measurements. The rover traversed 100 m clockwise around the lander, exploring about 200 square meters of the surface. The mission captured the imagination of the public, and garnered front page headlines during the first week. A total of about 566 million internet "hits" were registered during the first month of the mission, with 47 million "hits" on July 8th alone, making the Pathfinder landing by far the largest internet event in history at the time. Pathfinder was the first mission to deploy a rover on Mars. It carried a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which provided a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The combination of spectral imaging of the landing area by the lander camera, chemical analyses aboard the rover, and close-up imaging of colors, textures and fabrics with the rover cameras offered the potential of identifying rocks (petrology and mineralogy). With this payload, a landing site in Ares Vallis was selected because it appeared acceptably safe and offered the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types expected to be deposited by catastrophic floods, which enabled addressing first-order scientific questions such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early Martian environment and its subsequent evolution. The 3 instruments and rover allowed seven areas of scientific investigation: the

  8. The Mars Pathfinder Mission and Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, the first low-cost, quick Discovery class mission to be completed, successfully landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, deployed and navigated a small rover, and collected data from 3 science instruments and 10 technology experiments. The mission operated on Mars for 3 months and returned 2.3 Gbits of new data, including over 16,500 lander and 550 rover images, 16 chemical analyses of rocks and soil, and 8.5 million individual temperature, pressure and wind measurements. The rover traversed 100 m clockwise around the lander, exploring about 200 square meters of the surface. The mission captured the imagination of the public, and garnered front page headlines during the first week. A total of about 566 million internet "hits" were registered during the first month of the mission, with 47 million "hits" on July 8th alone, making the Pathfinder landing by far the largest internet event in history at the time. Pathfinder was the first mission to deploy a rover on Mars. It carried a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which provided a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The combination of spectral imaging of the landing area by the lander camera, chemical analyses aboard the rover, and close-up imaging of colors, textures and fabrics with the rover cameras offered the potential of identifying rocks (petrology and mineralogy). With this payload, a landing site in Ares Vallis was selected because it appeared acceptably safe and offered the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types expected to be deposited by catastrophic floods, which enabled addressing first-order scientific questions such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early Martian environment and its subsequent evolution. The 3 instruments and rover allowed seven areas of scientific investigation: the

  9. Atmospheric results from the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter

    The Phoenix Mission operated in the northern plains of Mars for 5 months starting May 25, 2008 spanning solar longitudes from 78 to 143 (summer). Throughout this period a diverse set of atmospheric measurements were taken and analyzed. The data sets provide information on the diurnal temperatures at 2 m above the surface, diurnal pressure, wind vectors, cloud properties, dust devils, the boundary layer, and humidity. In addition, coordinated observations were obtained with orbital instruments from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Odyssey, and Mars Express. The measurements have been compared with predictions from Global Climate Models and found to agree in most regards. Taken as a whole this represents a unique description of the summer weather in a heretofore unexplored region of Mars. The Canadian LIDAR experiment gives us the first direct measurement of the boundary layer height. The first 90 sols of the mission were conducted under dusty conditions and the height of the dust layer was determined as 4-5 km above the surface. After 90 sols, the dust dispersed and water ice clouds were seen at ever lower altitudes and the boundary layer dropped to as low as 3 km. Snowfall was observed and frost imaged on the surface. Winds swirled around the lander completing a full circle each sol; typical wind speeds were 5-10 m/s. From near surface humidity measurements, a diurnal cycle sublimates ice and adsorbed water from the surface soil as the Sun heats it forming water ice clouds at the boundary layer. As temperatures cool in the night the water is returned as snow and frost to the soil. Temperatures ranged from -30 C to -90 C, but never exceed the melting point; even though atmospheric pressures are always above the triple point, liquid water is not allowed at this time. The lack of dune forms and the presence of dust devils suggest that wind erosion is a strong force despite the constant dust fall observed on the spacecraft deck. Local dust storms are often seen by the

  10. Results from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.

    1986-04-01

    The major results from SMM (Solar Max Mission) are presented as they relate to the understanding of the energy release and particle transportation processes that led to the high energy X-ray aspects of solar flares. Evidence is reviewed for a 152- to 158-day periodicity in various aspects of solar activity including the rate of occurrence of hard X-ray and gamma-ray flares. The statistical properties of over 7000 hard X-ray flares detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer are presented including the spectrum of peak rates and the distribution of the photo number spectrum. A flare classification scheme is used to divide flares into three different types. Type A flares have purely thermal, compact sources with very steep hard X-ray spectra. Type B flares are impulsive bursts which show double footpoints in hard X-rays, and soft-hard-soft spectral evolution. Type C flares have gradually varying hard X-ray and microwave fluxes from high altitudes and show hardening of the X-ray spectrum through the peak and on the decay. SSM data are presented for examples of Type B and Type C events. New results are presented showing coincident hard X rays, O V, and UV continuum observations in Type B events with a time resolution of 128 ms. The subsecond variations in the hard X-ray flux during 10% of the stronger events are discussed and the fastest observed variation in a time of 20 ms is presented. The properties of Type C flares are presented as determined primarily from the non-imaged hard X-ray and microwave spectral data. A model based on the association of Type C flares and coronal mass ejections is presented to explain many of the characteristics of these gradual flares.

  11. Results from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    The major results from SMM (Solar Max Mission) are presented as they relate to the understanding of the energy release and particle transportation processes that led to the high energy X-ray aspects of solar flares. Evidence is reviewed for a 152- to 158-day periodicity in various aspects of solar activity including the rate of occurrence of hard X-ray and gamma-ray flares. The statistical properties of over 7000 hard X-ray flares detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer are presented including the spectrum of peak rates and the distribution of the photo number spectrum. A flare classification scheme is used to divide flares into three different types. Type A flares have purely thermal, compact sources with very steep hard X-ray spectra. Type B flares are impulsive bursts which show double footpoints in hard X-rays, and soft-hard-soft spectral evolution. Type C flares have gradually varying hard X-ray and microwave fluxes from high altitudes and show hardening of the X-ray spectrum through the peak and on the decay. SSM data are presented for examples of Type B and Type C events. New results are presented showing coincident hard X rays, O V, and UV continuum observations in Type B events with a time resolution of 128 ms. The subsecond variations in the hard X-ray flux during 10% of the stronger events are discussed and the fastest observed variation in a time of 20 ms is presented. The properties of Type C flares are presented as determined primarily from the non-imaged hard X-ray and microwave spectral data. A model based on the association of Type C flares and coronal mass ejections is presented to explain many of the characteristics of these gradual flares.

  12. Effects of Variable Temperature on Mossbauer Data Acquisition: Laboratory-based and MER A Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothstein, Y.; Sklute, E. C.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    Mossbauer spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers have played a valuable role in identifying mineralogy at both the Gusev and Meridiani landing sites. Key to the application of Mossbauer results is the issue of how accurately the peak positions, on which the mineral identifications are based, can be determined. Remote Mossbauer spectroscopy has by necessity some unusual experimental constraints that may influence the confidence with which peak positions can be fit. We present here an analysis of the effects of variable temperature and short duration run times on spectral resolution.

  13. Preliminary Results from the NEOWISE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnett, S.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Stevenson, R.; Nugent, C.

    2014-04-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft was restarted in December 2013. Now renamed NEOWISE, the mission has resumed surveying the infrared sky. The spacecraft's 32 months of hibernation had no significant impact on its performance. The primary science goals of NEOWISE are to detect and characterize near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies. Over its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically-derived diameters and albedos of ~ 2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. NEOWISE is currently detecting ~ 0.5 - 1.0 NEOs per day, and as of April 2014, 11 NEOs have been discovered by NEOWISE, most of them larger and darker than those typically discovered by ground-based optical facilities. The NEOWISE team is engaged in diverse small body research that makes use of the NEOWISE data, including thermophysical modeling of NEOs, thermally characterizing comets, and determining rotation properties of Jovian Trojans and Hildas.

  14. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Frerking, Margaret; Duren, Riley

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earthsize planets orbiting in Habitable Zone of Sun-like stars. Objective is to measure how frequently planets of various sizes and orbits form around stars in the Milky Way. Kepler detects planets by measuring drop in brightness of star due to "transit" of a planet Earth-size planet transiting Sunlike star causes drop in brightness of only 84 parts per million

  15. GOCE: Mission Overview and Early Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R. F.; Muzi, D.; Drinkwater, M. R.; Floberghagen, R.; Fehringer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission is the first Earth Explorer Core mission of the Living Planet Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The primary objective of the GOCE mission is to provide global and regional models of the Earth gravity field and the geoid, its reference equi-potential surface, with unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. GOCE was launched successfully on 17 March 2009 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia onboard a Rockot launch vehicle. System commissioning and payload calibration have been completed and the satellite is decaying to its initial measurement operating altitude of 255 km, which is expected to be reached in mid-September 2009. After one week of final payload calibration, GOCE will enter its first 6 month duration phase of uninterrupted science measurements at that altitude. This presentation will recall GOCE's main goals and its major development milestones. In addition, a description of the data products generated and some highlights of the satellite performance will be outlined. Artist's impression of GOCE Satellite in flight (courtesy AOES-Medialab).

  16. Scientific results of the Viking missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The two Viking missions to Mars have been extraordinarily successful. Thirteen scientific investigations yielded information about the atmosphere and surface. Two orbiters and landers operating for several months photographed the surface extensively from 1500 kilometers and directly on the surface. Measurements were made of the atmospheric composition, the surface elemental abundance, the atmospheric water vapor, temperature of the surface, and meteorological conditions; direct tests were made for organic material and living organisms. The question of life on Mars remains unanswered. The Viking spacecraft are designed to continue the investigations for at least one Mars year.

  17. Endocrine Laboratory Results Apollo Missions 14 and 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Endocrine/metabolic responses to space flight have been measured on the crewmen of Apollo missions 14 and 15. There were significant biochemical changes in the crewmen of both missions immediately postflight. However, the Apollo 15 mission results differed from Apollo 14 and preflight shown by a normal to increased urine volume with slight increases in antidiuretic hormone. Although Apollo 15 was the first mission in which the exchangeable potassium measurement was made (a decrease), results from other missions were indicative of similar conclusions.

  18. Endocrine Laboratory Results Apollo Missions 14 and 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Endocrine/metabolic responses to space flight have been measured on the crewmen of Apollo missions 14 and 15. There were significant biochemical changes in the crewmen of both missions immediately postflight. However, the Apollo 15 mission results differed from Apollo 14 and preflight shown by a normal to increased urine volume with slight increases in antidiuretic hormone. Although Apollo 15 was the first mission in which the exchangeable potassium measurement was made (a decrease), results from other missions were indicative of similar conclusions.

  19. Mapping Hydration with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam Instruments: Recent Results from Opportunity at Endeavour Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Bell, James F., III; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, James W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Squyres, Steven W.; Wang, Alian

    2013-04-01

    Using the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments, we have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites with multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) images. Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm) [1-2]. The hydration signature is based on a negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm [3] that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2ν1 + ν3 H2O combination band and/or the 3νOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms [4]. The hydration signature is sensitive to many - but not all - hydrated minerals, including silica, gypsum and water ice. At Gusev Crater, the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site [4]. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater [5], in addition to light-toned veins composed of calcium sulfate at Cape York on the rim of Endeavour Crater [6]. Recently, Opportunity has completed a traverse loop at Matijevic Hill at the southern end of Cape York and has encountered numerous small, light-toned, fracture-filling veins that may be indicative of fluid flow. Spectra of these veins are also consistent with hydrated materials, as are spectra of "Whitewater Lake" outcrops at Matijevic Hill, which may contain phyllosilicate minerals [7-8]. Here we also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. For example, the Pancam calibration model assumes that the calibration target behaves as a

  20. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Brown, Vienna R.; Porter, Stephanie M.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  1. Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower (right) and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower (right) and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a crane is in place to lift the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A). The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a crane is in place to lift the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A). The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted up the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted up the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) reaches the top of the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) reaches the top of the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After arriving at Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the second half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted off its transporter. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After arriving at Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the second half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted off its transporter. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is moved inside the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5..

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is moved inside the launch tower. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5..

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted off the transporter. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing for the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-2/MER-A) is lifted off the transporter. The fairing will be installed around the payload for protection during launch. The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for MER-A is scheduled for June 5.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower rolls back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts, June 8 and June 9, were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower rolls back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts, June 8 and June 9, were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower (right) on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, has been rolled back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload (left) in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower (right) on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, has been rolled back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload (left) in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload waits for rollback of the launch tower in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload waits for rollback of the launch tower in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for another launch attempt. The first two attempts were postponed due to weather concerns. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Blue sky and sun give a dramatic backdrop for the launch of the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Blue sky and sun give a dramatic backdrop for the launch of the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Surrounded by smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload hurtles through it into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Surrounded by smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload hurtles through it into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With smoke and steam billowing beneath, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With smoke and steam billowing beneath, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload breaks forth from the smoke and steam into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload breaks forth from the smoke and steam into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Leaving smoke and steam behind, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Leaving smoke and steam behind, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the launch tower begins to roll back from the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A) are ready for the third launch attempt after weather concerns postponed earlier attempts. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A) are ready for the third launch attempt after weather concerns postponed earlier attempts. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload is viewed from under the launch tower as it moves away on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This will be a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload is viewed from under the launch tower as it moves away on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This will be a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, clears the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The launch tower on Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, clears the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are viewed as the launch tower overhead rolls back. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are viewed as the launch tower overhead rolls back. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are in the clear after tower rollback in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are in the clear after tower rollback in preparation for a second attempt at launch. The first attempt on June 8, 2003, was scrubbed due to bad weather in the vicinity. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Boeing Delta II rocket and its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload are free of the tower and ready for launch. This will be the third launch attempt in as many days after weather concerns postponed the launches June 8 and June 9. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  8. Scientific results of the Mars Pathfinder mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1999-02-01

    The author, project scientist of the Mars Pathfinder mision, presents a summary of the most important scientific results from the space probe, which descended to the Martian surface on July 4, 1997. These results include the strong evidence for catastrophic water floods in the history of the planet; close-up studies of the morphology and mineralogy of Martian rocks; the characteristics, chemistry, and origin of the magnetic dust particles deposited on the Martian surface; and meteorological measurements of temperature fluctuations, pressure variations, and wind velocities.

  9. Results from the Solar Maximum Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.

    The major results from SMM are presented as they relate to our understanding of the energy release and particle transportation processes that led to the high energy X-ray aspects of solar flares. Evidence is reviewed for a 152- to 158-day periodicity in various aspects of solar activity including the rate of occurrence of hard X-ray and gamme-ray flares. The statistical properties of over 7000 hard X-ray flares detected with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer are presented including the spectrum of peak rates and the distribution of the photon number spectrum. A flare classification scheme introduced by Tanaka is used to divide flares into three different types. Three different types of flares are discussed and new results are presented.

  10. Structural basis for the neutralization of MERS-CoV by a human monoclonal antibody MERS-27

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Senyan; Jiang, Liwei; Cui, Ye; Li, Dongxia; Wang, Dongli; Wang, Nianshuang; Fu, Lili; Shi, Xuanlin; Li, Ziqiang; Zhang, Linqi; Wang, Xinquan

    2015-01-01

    The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory illness in humans with an approximately 30% mortality rate. The envelope spike glycoprotein on the surface of MERS-CoV mediates receptor binding, membrane fusion, and viral entry. We previously reported two human monoclonal antibodies that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike and exhibit strong neutralization activity against live and pesudotyped MERS-CoV infection. Here we determined the crystal structure of MERS-CoV RBD bound to the Fab fragment of MERS-27 antibody at 3.20 Å resolution. The MERS-27 epitope in the RBD overlaps with the binding site of the MERS-CoV receptor DPP4. Further biochemical, viral entry, and neutralization analyses identified two critical residues in the RBD for both MERS-27 recognition and DPP4 binding. One of the residues, Trp535, was found to function as an anchor residue at the binding interface with MERS-27. Upon receptor binding, Trp535 interacts with the N-linked carbohydrate moiety of DPP4. Thus, MERS-27 inhibits MERS-CoV infection by directly blocking both protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions between MERS-CoV RBD and DPP4. These results shed light on the molecular basis of MERS-27 neutralization and will assist in the optimization of MERS-27 as a tool to combat MERS-CoV infection. PMID:26281793

  11. SUNRISE: INSTRUMENT, MISSION, DATA, AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Domingo, V.; Palacios, J.; Knoelker, M.; Gonzalez, N. Bello; Berkefeld, T.; Franz, M.; Schmidt, W.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    The SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1 m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system, and further infrastructure. The first science flight of SUNRISE yielded high-quality data that revealed the structure, dynamics, and evolution of solar convection, oscillations, and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. After a brief description of instruments and data, the first qualitative results are presented. In contrast to earlier observations, we clearly see granulation at 214 nm. Images in Ca II H display narrow, short-lived dark intergranular lanes between the bright edges of granules. The very small-scale, mixed-polarity internetwork fields are found to be highly dynamic. A significant increase in detectable magnetic flux is found after phase-diversity-related reconstruction of polarization maps, indicating that the polarities are mixed right down to the spatial resolution limit and probably beyond.

  12. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    A trail of smoke is all that identifies the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload as it hurtles into space. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  13. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    The Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps from the smoke and steam below into space. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  14. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-11

    Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  15. Spacelab 1 - Mission overview and summary of scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, K.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper recalls the reasons which led NASA to build the Space Shuttle and ESA to manufacture Spacelab and presents the most important features of the mission where these two elements were combined for the first time. An overview on the objectives of the seven science disciplines participating in this mission is given and selected results as far as known in June 1984 are presented.

  16. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Petro, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18,2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  17. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  18. The CoRoT Mission - Status and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, M.

    2007-08-01

    The CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) space mission is the first dedicated space mission designed to search for exo-planets akin to our own. It is a joint effort by France, Austria Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Spain and the European Space Agency. It is specifically designed to search for exo-planets much smaller than hitherto discovered. It was launched in December 2006 on a mission lasting not less than 3 years. Verification and first operations have proven the mission to superceed all expectations. This is of course most relevant in the fact that planets as small as our own Earth are detectable. In this presentation we describe the experiences of the first 6 mo0nths of the mission, the actual status of the mission, the supporting ground based program, and what we expect in the near future. After giving examples of data relevant to the topic of this session, we turn to describing the expected impact of the results of CoRoT on future endeavours such as KEPLER, Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT's) and ultimately Darwin.

  19. Geology of the MER 2003 "Elysium" Candidate Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Carr, M. H.; Gilmore, M. S.; Hare, T. M.

    2003-03-01

    Although chosen mainly for its safety characteristics, new Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey data suggest that the MER 2003 "Elysium" candidate landing site in southeastern Utopia Planitia also meets basic science requirements for the MER mission involving the geologic activity of water.

  20. MER EDL: Overview and Reconstruction Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lee, Wayne J.

    2005-01-01

    An overview and reconstruction of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) MER Candidate Landing Sites; 3) MER Entry Heritage w/Viking & Mars Pathfinder; 4) MER EDL Animation; 5) MER Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Sequence; 6) Pre-Entry Spirit Entry Atmosphere Models; 7) Spirit Landing Ellipse at Final OD, & Updated Estimate Differenced 1-way Doppler; 8) Spirit Landing Ellipse at Final OD and Final Location Estimates; 9) Monte Carlo Results for Spirit ; 10) Reconstructed and refined Spirit Entry Density Profile; 11) Mars Pathfinder Attitude Reconstruction; 12) Spirit Attitude Reconstruction; 13) Spirit Entry Ground Track; 14) Reconstructed Spirit Terminal Descent Dynamics (Side View); 15) Opportunity Landing Ellipse at Final OD, & Updated Estimate Differenced 1-way Doppler; 16) Spirit Landing Ellipse at Final OD and Final Location Estimates; 17) Monte Carlo Results for Opportunity; 18) Reconstructed Opportunity Entry Density Profile; and 19) Opportunity Attitude Reconstruction.

  1. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  2. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation is summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  3. Evaluation of flat-Earth approximation results for geopotential missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapley, M. B.

    1997-04-01

    Simplified calculations can approximate the formal uncertainties in estimates of the spherical harmonic coefficients representing the Earth's gravitational potential. The calculations model the Earth locally as a plane, producing errors negligible for wavelengths shorter than the radius of the Earth. Information derived from observations of low altitude polar orbiting satellites is considered. With some constraints, the final model uncertainties derive from a priori gravitational field information, specific orbital elements, and parameters describing instrumentation characteristics. The author demonstrates how to refine the technique to accept inputs from the currently operational Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation and how to use information from partial tensor gravitational gradiometers. This approach is beneficial when evaluating prospective satellite geodesy missions because the covariance analyses for various mission scenarios can be made efficiently and expeditiously. The author demonstrates the utility of the flat Earth approach by comparing results with those of more elaborate and time consuming calculations performed for the European Space Agency ARISTOTELES proposed geopotential mapping mission, the NASA Gravity Probe B Relativity mission, and the NASA/Center National d'Etudes Spatiales Topographic Ocean Experiment Satellite (TOPEX)/Poseidon mission.

  4. PDS Analyst's Notebook for MSL and MER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.

    2017-06-01

    The PDS Analyst’s Notebook (http://an.rsl.wustl.edu) for MSL and MER provides access to science information from several of NASA’s landed missions. Peer-reviewed data, documentation, and support files, updated coincident with PDS data releases.

  5. A Comet on Earth: Results from the Stardust Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sean

    2006-08-29

    The Stardust mission returned from a 6-year voyage in January of 2006. During the mission it swept through the tail of comet Wild 2 (pronounced Vilt), collecting the microscopic particles streaming from it. These particles were collected in a very low density material called aerogel. The satellite then took 2 years to return to Earth. The payload, jettisoned from the satellite, re-entered the atmosphere and gently landed in the Utah desert. Since January researchers have started the process of extracting the particles from the aerogel and using an extensive array of techniques to measure such things as elemental and isotopic abundance, mineralogy and petrology. We at SLAC have been using an X-ray Microprobe to determine the amount of different elements that are present in these particles. Please join us for a preliminary look at the results of the Stardust mission.

  6. Generation of a tamoxifen inducible Tnnt2MerCreMer knock-in mouse model for cardiac studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianyun; Sultana, Nishat; Zhang, Lu; Park, David S; Shekhar, Akshay; Hu, Jun; Bu, Lei; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2015-06-01

    Tnnt2, encoding thin-filament sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin T, plays critical roles in heart development and function in mammals. To develop an inducible genetic deletion strategy in myocardial cells, we generated a new Tnnt2:MerCreMer (Tnnt2(MerCreMer/+)) knock-in mouse. Rosa26 reporter lines were used to examine the specificity and efficiency of the inducible Cre recombinase. We found that Cre was specifically and robustly expressed in the cardiomyocytes at embryonic and adult stages following tamoxifen induction. The knock-in allele on Tnnt2 locus does not impact cardiac function. These results suggest that this new Tnnt2(MerCreMer/+) mouse could be applied towards the temporal genetic deletion of genes of interests in cardiomyocytes with Cre-LoxP technology. The Tnnt2(MerCreMer/+) mouse model also provides a useful tool to trace myocardial lineage during development and repair after cardiac injury.

  7. Antenna Designs for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spacecraft, Lander, and Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacchione, Joseph; Thelen, Michael; Brown, Paula; Huang, John; Kelly, Ken; Krishnan, Satish

    2001-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the design of antennas for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Specific topics covered include: MER spacecraft architecture, the evolution of an antenna system, MER cruise stage antennas, antenna stacks, the heat-shield/back shell antenna, and lander and rover antennas. Additionally, the mission's science objectives are reviewed.

  8. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Petro, Noah; McLanahan, Timothy; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, James

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years. In that time it has been a witness to, and participant in, a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift is taking place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  9. SMART-1 Mission Overview: Lunar Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Team

    2005-08-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme Cosmic Vision. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft was launched on 27 Sept. 2003, as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger, left the inner radiation belt, and spiralled out towards lunar capture on 15 November 2004, and then towards lunar science orbit reached on 1 March 2005. The mission has been extended until August 2006. This will permit science but also to prepare future international lunar exploration. We shall present an overiew of the mission, and of the first lunar results from SMART-1's science and technology payload, featuring many innovative instruments and advanced technologies with a total mass of some 19 kg. Besides navigation to the Moon, the technology demonstration included an experiment (KaTE) for deep-space communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation (OBAN). The payload includes a miniaturized high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) measuring fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the

  10. Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2012-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  11. Development of FIAT-based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven Andrew; Zarchi, Kerry Agnes; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  12. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    Blue sky and sun are the backdrop for a flawless launch of MER-A, known as“Spirit,” the first of two Mars Exploration Rovers to be sent to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  13. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    Blue sky and sun are the backdrop for a flawless launch of MER-A, known as “Spirit,” the first of two Mars Exploration Rovers to be sent to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. When the two rovers arrive at Mars in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  14. Delta II MER-A Spirit Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    As if perched on top of a candle, the Mars Exploration Rover known as “Spirit” is hurled into space on a Delta II rocket. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  15. Preliminary medical results of the Mir year-long mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Bugrov, S. A.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Egorov, A. D.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Pestov, I. D.; Polyakov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. K.

    The basic goal of medical investigations during and after the 366-day mission was to accumulate data about physiological responses to such a long exposure to microgravity. In flight, cardiovascular and other systems were examined in detail and the efficacy of countermeasures used was assessed. After flight, physiological systems were also followed very carefully. According to the preliminary data, the medical results obtained during and after flight give evidence that man can well adapt to a year-long space flight, maintaining good health and adequate work capacity. The readaptation process was very similar to that observed after shorter flights (6-II months). As compared to former flights, no new or qualitatively different changes in the vital systems of the body were seen. The observations indicate that the duration of manned space missions can be further increased.

  16. Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J.; Swenson, C.; Martineau, R. J.; Fish, C. S.; Conde, M.; Hampton, D.; Crowley, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Auroral Spatial Structures Probe, 49.002, was launched January 28, 2015 from the Poker Flat Research Range into active aurora over the northern coast of Alaska. The primary objective of this mission was to determine the contribution of small spatial and temporal scale fluctuations of the electric fields to the larger-scale energy deposition processes associated with the aurora. The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Sub-Orbital Mission consisted of a formation of 7 spacecraft (a main payload with 6 deployable sub-payloads) designed for multiple temporally spaced co-located measurements of electric and magnetic fields in the earth's ionosphere. The mission was able to make observations at a short time scale and small spatial scale convergence that is unobservable by either satellite or ground-based observations. The payloads included magnetometers, electric field double probes, and Langmuir probes as well as a sweeping impedance probe on the main payload. We present here preliminary results from the measurements taken that hint at the underlying spatial structure of the currents and energy deposition in the aurora. The Poynting flux derived from the observations is shown and implications are discussed in terms of the contribution of small spatial scale, rapid temporal scale fluctuations in the currents that deposit energy in the auroral region. Funding provided by NASA Grants NNX11AE23G and NNX13AN20A.

  17. Examples of Sentinel-2A Mission Exploitation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetz, Benjamin; Hoersch, Bianca; Gascon, Ferran; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Seifert, Frank Martin; Paganini, Marc; Ramoino, Fabrizio; Arino, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Copernicus mission will bring significant breakthrough in the exploitation of space borne optical data. Sentinel-2 time series will transform land cover, agriculture, forestry, in-land water and costal EO applications from mapping to monitoring, from snapshot to time series data analysis, from image-based to pixel-based processing. The 5-days temporal revisiting of the Sentinel-2 satellites, when both units will be operated together, will usher us in a new era for time series analysis at high spatial resolutions (HR) of 10-20 meters. The monitoring of seasonal variations and processes in phenology and hydrology are examples of the many R&D areas to be studied. The mission's large swath and systematic acquisitions will further support unprecedented coverage at the national scale addressing information requirements of national to regional policies. Within ESA programs, such as the Data User Element (DUE), Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI), several R&D activities are preparing the exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission towards reliable measurements and monitoring of e.g. Essential Climate Variables and indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals. Early Sentinel-2 results will be presented related to a range of applications and scientific domains such as agricultural monitoring at national scale (DUE Sen2Agri), wetland extent and condition over African Ramsar sites (DUE GlobWetland-Africa), land cover mapping for climate change (CCI Land Cover), national land monitoring (Cadaster-Env), forest degradation (DUE ForMoSa), urban mapping (DUE EO4Urban), in-land water quality (DUE SPONGE), map of Mediterranean aquaculture (DUE SMART) and coral reef habitat mapping (SEOM S2-4Sci Coral). The above-mentioned activities are only a few examples from the very active international land imaging community building on the long-term Landsat and Spot heritage and knowledge.

  18. Potential MER Landing Site in Melas Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, Timothy J.; Anderson, F. Scott

    2001-01-01

    We have selected one area in Valles Marineris as a potential landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. After 30 years of analyses, the formation of the Valles Marineris system of troughs and its associated deposits still remains an enigma. Understanding all aspects of the Valles Marineris would significantly contribute to deciphering the internal and external history of Mars. A landing site within Melas Chasma could provide insight into both the formation of Valles Marineris and the composition and origin of the interior layered deposits (ILDs). The ILDs have been proposed as: (1) sedimentary deposits formed in lakes mass wasted material from the walls; (3) remnants of the wall rock; (4) carbonate deposits; (5) aeolian deposits; and (6) volcanic. More recently, Malin and Edgett suggest that the fine-scale, rhythmic layering seen in the interior deposits, as well as other layered deposits in craters, supports a sedimentary origin. Because an understanding of the formation of Valles Marineris and its interior deposits is so important to deciphering the history of Mars, we have proposed a landing site for the MER mission on an exposure of interior deposits in western Melas Chasma. Either MER-A and MER-B could land at this same location.

  19. Future NASA Missions and Technology Needs Results to Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of future NASA missions, technologies needed for mission success, accomplishments in space mechanisms to date, a government/industry survey and survey responses, significant programmatic and technology issues, and technology implementation needs are presented.

  20. Earth resources mission performance studies. Volume 2: Simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Simulations were made at three month intervals to investigate the EOS mission performance over the four seasons of the year. The basic objectives of the study were: (1) to evaluate the ability of an EOS type system to meet a representative set of specific collection requirements, and (2) to understand the capabilities and limitations of the EOS that influence the system's ability to satisfy certain collection objectives. Although the results were obtained from a consideration of a two sensor EOS system, the analysis can be applied to any remote sensing system having similar optical and operational characteristics. While the category related results are applicable only to the specified requirement configuration, the results relating to general capability and limitations of the sensors can be applied in extrapolating to other U.S. based EOS collection requirements. The TRW general purpose mission simulator and analytic techniques discussed in this report can be applied to a wide range of collection and planning problems of earth orbiting imaging systems.

  1. PDS Analyst's Notebook for MSL and MER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Mars Exploration Rover (MER).PDS Analyst's Notebooks (AN) (http://an.rsl.wustl.edu) provide integrated access to peer-reviewed, released data provided by the instrument teams, supported by documentation describing data format, content, and calibration and providing insight into why and how particular observations were made. Observation planning and targeting information is extracted from mission science plans, including instrument settings and observation parameters. Source commands are linked with resulting data products, albeit with limits due to the absence of round trip data tracking. Data, documents, planned observations, and mosaics are grouped in the AN for easy scanning and are displayed in order of acquisition. Sequences and individual products may be viewed in detail and downloaded. Context mosaics, which are not calibrated science products, are created for sequences of MSL Navcam, Mastcam and MAHLI single frame images that do not have a formal mosaic product in the mission archive. Rover traverses are plotted on a HiRISE basemap using drive telemetry provided by the projects. Clicking on a traverse location brings up corresponding data. Data products may be searched by time, location, instrument, command sequence, and other criteria. Sol document search is also supported. New measurement functions provide location information for points in images, as well as distance and elevation profile between points. The tool also can find a point on an image given site frame coordinates. New drawing functions support user-defined annotations such as text, lines, and arrows.

  2. First results on GlioLab/GlioSat Precursors Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Notarangelo, Angelo; Demoss, Darrin; Carella, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Since 2009 GAUSS group is involved in a joint collaboration with Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center and IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (CSS) research labs with the aim to design a biomedical project in order to investigate if the combined effects of microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation increase or decrease the survival rate of cancer cells. The biological sample consists of Glioblastoma cancer cell line ANGM-CSS. Glioblastoma is a kind of cancer that can be treated after surgery only by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation. This treatment, anyway, results in a very low survival rate. This project uses different university space platforms: a CubeLab, named GlioLab, on board the International Space Station and the university microsatellite UniSat-5 designed by GAUSS. In addition a GlioLab/GlioSat precursor experiment has already flown two times with the Space Shuttle during the missions STS-134 and STS-135. The phase 0 or the precursor of GlioLab uses a COTS system, named Liquid Mixing Apparatus (LMA), to board the biological samples inside the Space Shuttle for thirty day . The LMA allows to board liquids inside a vial but is not equipped with environment control system. After landing the samples were investigated by researchers at CSS in Italy and at MSU in Kentucky. This paper deals with the experimental set up and the results obtained during the STS-134 and STS-135 missions and with the new evidences on the behavior of this kind of cancer. In particular the results obtained on the DNA analysis give a confirmation of the original idea of GLioLab/Gliosat project justifying the development of the two systems.

  3. Automated Targeting for the MER Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Gaines, Daniel; de Granville, Charles; Thompson, David; Burl, Michael; Chien, Steve; Judd, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) will soon provide automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which currently which currently has two rovers exploring the surface of Mars. Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments, especially narrow field-of-view instruments (such as the MER Mini- TES spectrometer or the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission ChemCam Spectrometer), must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In this paper, we first provide some background information on the larger autonomous science framework in which AEGIS was developed. We then describe how AEGIS was specifically developed and tested on the JPL FIDO rover. Finally we discuss how AEGIS will be uploaded and used on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission in early 2009.

  4. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  5. Accelerated Auroral Zone Ions: Results from the VISIONS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmons, J. H.; Lemon, C. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Klenzing, J.

    2013-12-01

    Presented are results from the VISIONS auroral sounding rocket mission. The presentation focuses on the measured fluxes of locally-accelerated ions and the accompanying measurements of electron fluxes, electric and magnetic DC and wave fields, and auroral emissions. The accelerated ions are shown to have their highest energies and most intense fluxes near the poleward auroral boundary, and are present at all down-going pitch angles. They are also proximate to intense fluxes of field-aligned electrons and strong waves, and appear in conjunction with the intensification of an isotropic population of much more energetic ion precipitation. The measurements are interpreted in the context of the 'pressure cooker' mechanism used to explain similar observations, and the implications of this interpretation for the ion outflow process in this event are discussed.

  6. Preliminary results from the MAMA detectors for the SOHO mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Bergamini, Paolo; Bumala, Robert W.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems are being fabricated and tested for use in the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) and the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. The SOHO MAMA detector systems have formats of 360 x 1024 pixels and pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 sq microns and are optimized for operation at Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths between 40 and 160 nm. In this paper we report on the initial results of measurements of the performance characteristics of the first flight-configuration detector system employing the new custom Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) which are designed to improve both the dynamic range and the uniformity of response. The performance characteristics of this detector system are compared with those of earlier breadboard systems employing discrete-component electronics circuits.

  7. Role of MerH in mercury resistance in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    PubMed Central

    Schelert, James; Rudrappa, Deepak; Johnson, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Crenarchaeota include extremely thermoacidophilic organisms that thrive in geothermal environments dominated by sulfidic ores and heavy metals such as mercury. Mercuric ion, Hg(II), inactivates transcription in the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus and simultaneously derepresses transcription of a resistance operon, merHAI, through interaction with the MerR transcription factor. While mercuric reductase (MerA) is required for metal resistance, the role of MerH, an adjacent small and predicted product of an ORF, has not been explored. Inactivation of MerH either by nonsense mutation or by in-frame deletion diminished Hg(II) resistance of mutant cells. Promoter mapping studies indicated that Hg(II) sensitivity of the merH nonsense mutant arose through transcriptional polarity, and its metal resistance was restored partially by single copy merH complementation. Since MerH was not required in vitro for MerA-catalysed Hg(II) reduction, MerH may play an alternative role in metal resistance. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of the MerH deletion strain following metal challenge indicated that there was prolonged retention of intracellular Hg(II). Finally, a reduced rate of mer operon induction in the merH deletion mutant suggested that the requirement for MerH could result from metal trafficking to the MerR transcription factor. PMID:23619003

  8. Implementation of hierarchical clustering using k-mer sparse matrix to analyze MERS-CoV genetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Ulul, E. D.; Hura, H. F. A.; Siswantining, T.

    2017-07-01

    Hierarchical clustering is one of effective methods in creating a phylogenetic tree based on the distance matrix between DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequences. One of the well-known methods to calculate the distance matrix is k-mer method. Generally, k-mer is more efficient than some distance matrix calculation techniques. The steps of k-mer method are started from creating k-mer sparse matrix, and followed by creating k-mer singular value vectors. The last step is computing the distance amongst vectors. In this paper, we analyze the sequences of MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus) DNA by implementing hierarchical clustering using k-mer sparse matrix in order to perform the phylogenetic analysis. Our results show that the ancestor of our MERS-CoV is coming from Egypt. Moreover, we found that the MERS-CoV infection that occurs in one country may not necessarily come from the same country of origin. This suggests that the process of MERS-CoV mutation might not only be influenced by geographical factor.

  9. Cleavage of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) from the cell surface contributes to the regulation of retinal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Law, Ah-Lai; Parinot, Célia; Chatagnon, Jonathan; Gravez, Basile; Sahel, José-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Nandrot, Emeline F

    2015-02-20

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and spent photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells requires several proteins, including MerTK receptors and associated Gas6 and protein S ligands. In the retina, POS phagocytosis is rhythmic, and MerTK is activated promptly after light onset via the αvβ5 integrin receptor and its ligand MFG-E8, thus generating a phagocytic peak. The phagocytic burst is limited in time, suggesting a down-regulation mechanism that limits its duration. Our previous data showed that MerTK helps control POS binding of integrin receptors at the RPE cell surface as a negative feedback loop. Our present results show that a soluble form of MerTK (sMerTK) is released in the conditioned media of RPE-J cells during phagocytosis and in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the mouse retina during the morning phagocytic peak. In contrast to macrophages, the two cognate MerTK ligands have an opposite effect on phagocytosis and sMerTK release, whereas the integrin ligand MFG-E8 markedly increases both phagocytosis and sMerTK levels. sMerTK acts as a decoy receptor blocking the effect of both MerTK ligands. Interestingly, stimulation of sMerTK release decreases POS binding. Conversely, blocking MerTK cleavage increased mostly POS binding by RPE cells. Therefore, our data suggest that MerTK cleavage contributes to the acute regulation of RPE phagocytosis by limiting POS binding to the cell surface. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Apollo-Soyuz US-USSR joint mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, A. L.; Evans, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and nontechnical objectives of the Apollo-Soyuz mission are briefly considered. The mission demonstrated that Americans and Russians can work together to perform a very complex operation, including rendezvous in space, docking, and the conduction of joint experiments. Certain difficulties which had to be overcome were partly related to differences concerning the role of the astronaut in the basic alignment and docking procedures for space vehicles. Attention is also given to the experiments conducted during the mission and the approach used to overcome the language barrier.

  11. Apollo-Soyuz US-USSR joint mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, A. L.; Evans, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and nontechnical objectives of the Apollo-Soyuz mission are briefly considered. The mission demonstrated that Americans and Russians can work together to perform a very complex operation, including rendezvous in space, docking, and the conduction of joint experiments. Certain difficulties which had to be overcome were partly related to differences concerning the role of the astronaut in the basic alignment and docking procedures for space vehicles. Attention is also given to the experiments conducted during the mission and the approach used to overcome the language barrier.

  12. MER-B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-13

    An overhead crane lowers the cylindrical payload canister toward Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-B). Once secure inside the canister, the rover will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for mating with the Delta rocket. The second of twin rovers being sent to Mars, it is equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow it to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-B is scheduled to launch from Pad 17-B June 26 at one of two available times, 12:27:31 a.m. EDT or 1:08:45 a.m. EDT.

  13. Flight results of the COMPASS-1 picosatellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, A.; Ley, W.; Dachwald, B.; Miau, J. J.; Juang, J. C.

    2010-11-01

    The mission of the COMPASS-1 picosatellite is to take pictures of the earth, to validate a space-borne GPS receiver developed by the German Aerospace Center, and to verify the proper operation of the magnetic attitude control system in orbit. The spacecraft was launched on April 28, 2008 from the Indian space port Sriharikota, as part of the PSLV-C9 world record launch that simultaneously brought ten satellites into orbit. The mission operations were carried out from the ground stations in Aachen and Tainan. Arising difficulties in the communication link were overcome with the support of individuals from the amateur radio community. After several months of mission operation, abundant housekeeping and mission data has been commanded, received and analyzed and is presented in this paper.

  14. Results from the Deep Space One Technology Validation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M.; Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.

    1999-01-01

    Launched on October 25, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium Program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs.

  15. Results of Edge Scatter Testing for a Starshade Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel; Casement, L. Suzanne; Ellis, Scott; Stover, John; Warwick, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In the field of exoplanet detection and characterization, the use of a starshade, an external occulter in front of a telescope at large separations, has been identified as one of the highly promising methods to achieve the necessary high contrast imagery. Control of scattered sunlight from the edges of the starshade into the telescope has been identified as one of the key technology development areas in order to make the starshade feasible. Modeling of the scattered light has resulted in very different results so a campaign of experimentation with edge samples was undertaken to attempt to understand the discrepancies.Here, we present our results from the measurement of select samples of materials which would be suitable for manufacturing the starshade edge, and related models. We have focused on coating metallic samples for ease of fabrication: Titanium, Aluminum, and a Beryllium Copper alloy. Using standard machine shop methods, we fabricated samples which had sharp edges with radius of curvature (RoC) between 15 and 20 μm. We then had these samples coated by two suppliers to evaluate how well these coating types would conform to the edge and provide scatter suppression. The results of scatter measurements of these coated edge samples are presented. These scatter results have been incorporated into a new geometrical model in FRED which includes the details of the starshade mechanical model. This model predicts both the magnitude and distribution of the scattered sunlight in the image plane of a nominal telescope. We present these results, including a first effort at modeling the Solar System at 10 pc as seen by this mission architecture.

  16. Results of edge scatter testing for a starshade mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casement, Suzanne; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Ellis, Scott; Stover, John

    2016-07-01

    In the field of exoplanet detection and characterization, the use of a starshade, an external occulter in front of a telescope at large separations, has been identified as one of the highly promising methods to achieve the necessary high contrast imagery. Control of scattered sunlight from the edges of the starshade into the telescope has been identified as one of the key technology development areas in order to make the starshade feasible. Modeling of the scattered light has resulted in very different results so a campaign of experimentation with edge samples was undertaken to attempt to understand the discrepancies. Here, we present our results from the measurement of select samples of materials which would be suitable for manufacturing the starshade edge, and related models. We have focused on coating metallic samples for ease of fabrication: Titanium, Aluminum, and a Beryllium Copper alloy. Using standard machine shop methods, we fabricated samples which had sharp edges with radius of curvature (RoC) between 15 and 20 μm. We then had these samples coated by two suppliers to evaluate how well these coating types would conform to the edge and provide scatter suppression. The results of scatter measurements of these coated edge samples are presented. These scatter results have been incorporated into a new geometrical model in FRED which includes the details of the starshade mechanical model. This model predicts both the magnitude and distribution of the scattered sunlight in the image plane of a nominal telescope. We present these results, including a first effort at modeling the Solar System at 10 pc as seen by this mission architecture.

  17. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  18. Results of CCD Transit Photometry Testing for the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Witteborn, F.; Dunham, E.; Jenkins, J.; Borucki, W.; Webster, L.

    1999-12-01

    Transit signals produced by Earth-size planets in orbit around solar-like stars are of the order of 8e-5 and have durations from 4 to 16 hours for planets in or near the habitable zone. A mission to search for habitable planets has been proposed (Koch, et al., 1998). At the heart of the mission is an array of CCDs used to continuously measure the relative brightness variations of 100,000 dwarf stars for transits. A testbed facility has been constructed to determine the effects of various induced noise sources on the capability of a CCD photometer to maintain an instrument relative precision of better than 1e-5. The photometry facility includes: a simulated star field with an approximate solar spectrum, fast optics to simulate the space borne telescope, a thinned back-illuminated CCD similar to those to be used on the spacecraft operating at 1 Mpix/sec read rate, and shutterless operation. The test facility is thermally and mechanically isolated. Each source of noise is introduced in a controlled fashion and evaluated. Pointing noise or changing thermal conditions in the spacecraft can cause star-image motion at the milli-pixel level. These motions are imposed by piezo-electric devices that move the photometer relative to the star field. Transit signals as small as Earth-size transits of solar-like stars are generated and measured. This is accomplished by electrical self-heating and expansion of fine wires placed across many of the star apertures. The small decrease in stellar brightness is used to demonstrate that Earth-size planets can be detected under realistic noise conditions and at the shot-noise-limited level. The effects of imposing several noise sources are shown and the resulting detectability of planets is presented. This work is supported in part by the NASA Discovery program and NASA Ames. Koch, D., Borucki, W., Webster, L., Dunham, E., Jenkins, J., Marriott, J. and Reitsema, H. SPIE Conf. on Space Telescopes and Instruments V, 3356, 599-607 (1998)

  19. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  20. Mission STS-134: Results of Shape Memory Foam Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Mascetti, Gabriele; Dolce, Ferdinando; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2013-10-01

    Shape memory epoxy foams were used for an experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to evaluate the feasibility of their use for building light actuators and expandable/deployable structures. The experiment named I-FOAM was performed by an autonomous device contained in the BIOKON container (by Kayser Italia) which was in turn composed of control and heating system, battery pack and data acquisition system. To simulate the actuation of simple devices in micro-gravity conditions, three different configurations (compression, bending and torsion) were chosen during the memory step of the foams so as to produce their recovery on ISS. Micro-gravity does not affect the ability of the foams to recover their shape but it poses limits for the heating system design because of the difference in heat transfer on Earth and in orbit. A recovery about 70% was measured at a temperature of 110 °C for the bending and torsion configuration whereas poor recovery was observed for the compression case. Thanks to these results, a new experiment has been developed for a future mission by the same device: for the first time a shape memory composite will be recovered, and the actuation load during time will be measured during the recovery of an epoxy foam sample.

  1. MerTK regulates thymic selection of autoreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Wallet, Mark A; Flores, Rafael R; Wang, Yaming; Yi, Zuoan; Kroger, Charles J; Mathews, Clayton E; Earp, H Shelton; Matsushima, Glenn; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

    2009-03-24

    T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) are believed to be the result in part of inefficient negative selection of self-specific thymocytes. However, the events regulating thymic negative selection are not fully understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice lacking expression of the Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) have reduced inflammation of the pancreatic islets and fail to develop diabetes. Furthermore, NOD mice deficient in MerTK expression (Mer(-/-)) exhibit a reduced frequency of beta cell-specific T cells independent of immunoregulatory effectors. The establishment of bone marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that the block in beta cell autoimmunity required hematopoietic-derived cells lacking MerTK expression. Notably, fetal thymic organ cultures and self-peptide administration showed increased thymic negative selection in Mer(-/-) mice. Finally, thymic dendritic cells (DC) prepared from Mer(-/-) mice exhibited an increased capacity to induce thymocyte apoptosis in a peptide-specific manner in vitro. These findings provide evidence for a unique mechanism involving MerTK-mediated regulation of thymocyte negative selection and thymic DC, and suggest a role for MerTK in contributing to beta cell autoimmunity.

  2. Swift: Results from the first year of the mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, H. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer was launched on Nov. 20,2004 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The first instrument onboard became fully operational less than a month later. Since that time the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has detected more than one hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), most of which have also been observed within two minutes by the Swift narrow-field instruments: the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). Swift trigger notices are distributed worldwide within seconds of the trigger through the Gamma-ray burst Coordinates Network (GCN) and a substantial fraction of GRBs have been followed up by ground and space-based telescopes, ranging in wavelength from radio to TeV. Results have included the first rapid localization of a short GRB and further validation of the theory that short and long bursts have different origins; detailed observations of the short-term power-law decay of burst afterglows leading to an improved understanding of the fireball model; and detection of the most distant GRB ever found. Swift is also a sensitive X-ray observatory with capabilities to monitor galactic and extragalactic transients on a daily basis, carry out the first all-sky hard X-ray survey since HEAO-1, and study in detail the spectra of X-ray transients. significant results, both in GRB science and in the search for and study of hard X-ray sources. In this talk I will provide a broad overview of the Swift mission and its most significant results, both in GRB science and in the search for and study of hard X-ray sources.

  3. Geolab Results from Three Years of Analog Mission Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cindy A.; Bell, M. S.; Calaway, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    GeoLab is a prototype glovebox for geological sample examination that was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat Analog Testbed [1,2]. GeoLab allowed us to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The facility, shown in Figure 1 and described elsewhere [1-4], was designed for fostering the development of both instrument technology and operational concepts for sample handling and examination during future missions [3-5]. Even though we recently deintegrated the glovebox from the Deep Space Habitat (Fig. 2), it continues to provide a high-fidelity workspace for testing instruments that could be used for sample characterization. As a testbed, GeoLab supports the development of future science operations that will enhance the early scientific returns from exploration missions, and will help ensure selection of the best samples for Earth return.

  4. Two Years Onboard the MER Opportunity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Burl, Michael; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; Judd, Michele; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system provides automated data collection for planetary rovers. AEGIS is currently being used onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission's Opportunity to provide autonomous targeting of the MER Panoramic camera. Prior to AEGIS, targeted data was collected in a manual fashion where targets were manually identified in images transmitted to Earth and the rover had to remain in the same location for one to several communication cycles. AEGIS enables targeted data to be rapidly acquired with no delays for ground communication. Targets are selected by AEGIS through the use of onboard data analysis techniques that are guided by scientist-specified objectives. This paper provides an overview of the how AEGIS has been used on the Opportunity rover, focusing on usage that occurred during a 21 kilometer historic trek to the Mars Endeavour crater.

  5. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date concerning MMS formation flying. The MMS spacecraft spin at a rate of 3.1 RPM, with spin axis roughly aligned with Ecliptic North. Several booms are used to deploy instruments: two 5 m magnetometer booms in the spin plane, two rigid booms of length 12.5 m along the positive and negative spin axes, and four flexible wire booms of length 60 m in the spin plane. Minimizing flexible motion of the wire booms requires that reorientation of the spacecraft spin axis be kept to a minimum: this is limited to attitude maneuvers to counteract the effects of gravity-gradient and apparent solar motion. Orbital maneuvers must therefore be carried out in essentially the nominal science attitude. These burns make use of a set of monopropellant hydrazine thrusters: two (of thrust 4.5 N) along the spin axis in each direction, and eight (of thrust 18 N) in the spin plane; the latter are pulsed at the spin rate to produce a net delta-v. An on-board accelerometer-based controller is used to accurately generate a commanded delta-v. Navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the MOC Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for maneuver design. These commands are then uplinked to the spacecraft and executed autonomously using the controller, with the ground monitoring the burns in real time.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  7. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, Steven

    2007-10-05

    One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments.

  8. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    ScienceCinema

    Squyres, Steven [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments.

  9. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  10. Deployer Performance Results for the TSS-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Leland S.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1995-01-01

    Performance of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Deployer during the STS-46 mission (July and August 1992) is analyzed in terms of hardware operation at the component and system level. Although only a limited deployment of the satellite was achieved (256 meters vs 20 kilometers planned), the mission served to verify the basic capability of the Deployer to release, control and retrieve a tethered satellite. - Deployer operational flexibility that was demonstrated during the flight is also addressed. Martin Marietta was the prime contractor for the development of the Deployer, under management of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The satellite was provided by Alenia, Torino, Italy under contract to the Agencia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). Proper operation of the avionics components and the majority of mechanisms was observed during the flight. System operations driven by control laws for the deployment and retrieval of the satellite were also successful for the limited deployment distance. Anomalies included separation problems for one of the two umbilical connectors between the Deployer and satellite, tether jamming (at initial Satellite fly-away and at a deployment distance of 224 meters), and a mechanical interference which prevented tether deployment beyond 256 meters. The Deployer was used in several off-nominal conditions to respond to these anomalies, which ultimately enabled a successful satellite retrieval and preservation of hardware integrity for a future re-flight. The paper begins with an introduction defining the significance of the TSS-1 mission. The body of the paper is divided into four major sections: (1) Description of Deployer System and Components, (2) Deployer Components/Systems Demonstrating Successful Operation, (3) Hardware Anomalies and Operational Responses, and (4) Design Modifications for the TSS-1R Re-flight Mission. Conclusions from the TSS-1 mission, including lessons learned are presented at the end of the

  11. The Clementine Mission: Initial Results from lunar mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clementine was a mission designed to test the space-worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near-Earth asteroid. Conducted jointly by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, formerly the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization) of the US Department of Defense and NASA, Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's moon on 25 January 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 February 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 February, completed mapping on 22 April, and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end-of-mission, lasted approximately 3 years.

  12. Cassini Orbit Determination Results: January 2006 - End of Prime Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Ardalan, S. M.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Pelletier, F. J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    After the forty-fifth flyby of Titan, the Cassini spacecraft has successfully completed the planned four-year prime mission tour of the Saturnian system. This paper reports on the orbit determination performance of the Cassini spacecraft over two years spanning 2006 - 2008. In this time span, Cassini's orbit progressed through the magnetotail and pi-transfer phases of the mission. Thirty-four accurate close encounters of Titan, one close flyby of Iapetus and one 50 km flyby of Enceladus were performed during this period. The Iapetus and Enceladus flybys were especially challenging and so the orbit determination supporting these encounters will be discussed in more detail. This paper will show that in most cases orbit determination has exceeded the navigation requirements for targeting flybys and predicting science instrument pointing during these encounters.

  13. Cassini Orbit Determination Results: January 2006 - End of Prime Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Ardalan, S. M.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Thompson, P. F.; Vaughan, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    After the forty-fifth flyby of Titan, the Cassini spacecraft has successfully completed the planned four-year prime mission tour of the Saturnian system. This paper reports on the orbit determination performance of the Cassini spacecraft over two years spanning 2006 - 2008. In this time span, Cassini's orbit progressed through the magnetotail and pi-transfer phases of the mission. Thirty-four accurate close encounters of Titan, one close flyby of Iapetus and one 50 km flyby of Enceladus were performed during this period. The Iapetus and Enceladus flybys were especially challenging and so the orbit determination supporting these encounters will be discussed in more detail. This paper will show that in most cases orbit determination has exceeded the navigation requirements for targeting flybys and predicting science instrument pointing during these encounters.

  14. Recent Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S.; Arvidson, R.

    2005-12-01

    The MER rover Opportunity has carried out the first outcrop-scale investigation of ancient sedimentary rocks on Mars. The rocks, exposed in craters and along fissures in Meridiani Planum, are sandstones formed via the erosion and re-deposition of fine grained siliciclastics and evaporites derived from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters. A stratigraphic section more than seven meters thick measured in Endurance crater is dominated by eolian dune and sand sheet facies; the uppermost half meter, however, exhibits festoon cross lamination at a length scale that indicates subaqueous deposition, likely in a playa-like interdune setting. Silicates and sulfate minerals dominate outcrop geochemistry, but hematite and Fe3D3 (another ferric iron phase) make up as much as 11% of the rocks by weight. Jarosite in the outcrop matrix indicates precipitation at low pH. Cements, hematitic concretions, and crystal molds attest to a complex history of early diagenesis, mediated by ambient ground waters. The depositional and early diagenetic paleoenvironment at Meridiani was arid, acidic, and oxidizing, a characterization that places strong constraints on astrobiologial inference. Since leaving Endurance crater, Opportunity has traversed southward approximately 3 km over undulating plains characterized by basaltic sand, a thin surface lag of hematite-rich concretions, and subparallel eolian ripples that have increased in size toward the south. Mottled terrain to the south has now been revealed to consist largely of flat-lying expanses of sulfate-rich bedrock similar to the materials found in Endurance crater. The distribution of hematite in these southern exposures is different, however, with concretions that show a wider diversity of sizes and shapes than at Endurance. Dark 'rinds' on outcrop rock show a distinctive chemistry that is similar to the outcrop in many respects but with changes in the concentrations of some elements likely to be present as salts

  15. Some Preliminary Scientific Results of Chang'E-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Li, W.; Zheng, Y.; Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Chang'E-3 mission is the main task of Phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP), and also is Chinese first probe of landing, working and roving on the moon. Chang'E-3 craft composed of a lander and a rover, and each of them carry four scientific payloads respectively. The landing site of Chang'E-3 was located at 44.12 degrees north latitude and 19.51 degrees west longitude, where is in the northern part of Imbrium Which the distance in its west direction from the landing site of former Soviet probe Luna-17 is about 400 km, and about 780km far from the landing site of Appolo-17 in its southeast direction. Unfortunately, after a series of scientific tests and exploration on the surface of the moon, the motor controller communication of the rover emerged a breakdown on January 16, 2014, which leaded the four payloads onboard the rover can't obtain data anymore. However, we have received some interesting scientific data which have been studied by Chinese scientists. During the landing process of Chang'E-3, the Landing camera got total 4673 images with the Resolution in millimeters to meters, and the lander and rover took pictures for each other at different point with Topography camera and Panoramic camera. We can find characteristic changes in celestial brightness with time by analyzing image data from Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) and an unprecedented constraint on water content in the sunlit lunar exosphere seen by LUT). The figure observed by EUV camera (EUVC) shows that there is a transient weak area of the Earth's plasma sphere; This event took place about three hours. The scientists think that it might be related to the change of the particle density of mid-latitude ionosphere. The preliminary spectral and mineralogical results from the landing site are derived according to the data of Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS). Seven major elements including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe have been identified by the Active Particle

  16. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: NASA Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, G.; Petersen, W.; Kidd, Chris

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission’s Core satellite, launched 27 February 2014, is well-designed to estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth’s water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. GPM is a joint NASA-JAXA mission. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s highly successful rain-sensing package. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 (°) non-Sun-synchronous orbit serving as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR provides measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements places greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM mission science objectives and instrument

  17. Environmental Contamination and Viral Shedding in MERS Patients During MERS-CoV Outbreak in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bin, Seo Yu; Heo, Jung Yeon; Song, Min-Suk; Lee, Jacob; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Si, Young-Jae; Lee, In-Won; Baek, Yun Hee; Choi, Won-Suk; Min, Jinsoo; Jeong, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-03-15

    Although Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is characterized by a risk of nosocomial transmission, the detailed mode of transmission and period of virus shedding from infected patients are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential role of environmental contamination by MERS-CoV in healthcare settings and to define the period of viable virus shedding from MERS patients. We investigated environmental contamination from 4 patients in MERS-CoV units of 2 hospitals. MERS-CoV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and viable virus was isolated by cultures. Many environmental surfaces of MERS patient rooms, including points frequently touched by patients or healthcare workers, were contaminated by MERS-CoV. Viral RNA was detected up to five days from environmental surfaces following the last positive PCR from patients' respiratory specimens. MERS-CoV RNA was detected in samples from anterooms, medical devices, and air-ventilating equipment. In addition, MERS-CoV was isolated from environmental objects such as bed sheets, bedrails, IV fluid hangers, and X-ray devices. During the late clinical phase of MERS, viable virus could be isolated in 3 of the 4 enrolled patients on day 18 to day 25 after symptom onset. Most of touchable surfaces in MERS units were contaminated by patients and health care workers and the viable virus could shed through respiratory secretion from clinically fully recovered patients. These results emphasize the need for strict environmental surface hygiene practices, and sufficient isolation period based on laboratory results rather than solely on clinical symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, Steven

    2007-10-05

    NASA launched two Mars Exploration Rovers, on June 10 and July 7, 2003, primarily to probe the history of water on the red planet. After landing on Mars in January 2004, the robots began to explore the planet. One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments. In his talk, he will discuss his conclusions about water on Mars and other observations about the nature of the planet.

  19. Field Test: Results from the One Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T.; Ribeiro, C.; Taylor, L. C.; Miller, C. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Peters, B. T.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Holden, K. L.; De Dios, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The One Year Mission was designed to aid in determining the effect that extending the duration on orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS) would have on a number of biological and physiological systems. Two crewmembers were selected to participate in this endeavor, one U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut. The Neuroscience and Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Division within the Institute for Biomedical Problems were selected to investigate vestibular, sensorimotor and cardiovascular function with the two long-duration crewmembers using the established methodology developed for the Field Test (FT).

  20. MRO Context Camera (CTX) Investigation Primary Mission Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.; Science; Operations Teams, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) acquires panchromatic images of Mars at ~6 m/pixel; the majority cover areas 30 km wide by 43 to 313 km long. As of 31 August 2008, 36% of Mars was imaged at 6 m/pixel and 10.8% was covered more than once. Areas imaged multiple times include stereopairs and locations covered repeatedly to monitor dust-raising events, seasonal frost patterns, or landforms and albedo features known or anticipated to change. CTX provides context for data acquired by other MRO science instruments, as well. Using our knowledge of imaging performance as a function of seasonal atmospheric, frost, and insolation conditions from the 4 Mars-year Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) investigation, we undertook several time-dependent campaigns to create 6 m/pixel mosaics of regions such as Hellas Planitia, the south polar residual cap (covered in spring and in summer), and the north polar region. In addition, we obtained 6 m/pixel mosaics of the Valles Marineris, Sinus Meridiani, Marte Valles, Athabasca Valles, portions of the northern plains, fretted terrain and chaotic terrain, large volcanoes, yardang-forming materials in Amazonis and Aeolis, the small volcanoes and platy flows south of Cerberus, and many other regions. We monitored thousands of mid-latitude gullies, and we used our MOC experience to target dust-raising events that repeat every year at the same locations. Retreat of cliffs formed in layers of CO2 ice in the south polar cap was observed for the 5th southern summer since 1999. Dozens of new impact craters and crater clusters were observed; all formed since 1999 and some formed during the MRO Primary Mission. We routinely re-targeted the new impact sites to see how they change and alert other MRO instrument teams so they could observe them. CTX images of the cratered highlands emphasize the view that the upper crust of Mars is layered with interbedded filled and buried valleys, fluvial channels, and

  1. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  2. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; Haas,Michael; Gautier, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  3. Engineering MerR for Sequestration and MerA for Reduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Anne O. Summers

    2008-12-15

    The objectives of this project were (1) to alter a metalloregulatory protein (MerR) so that it would bind other toxic metals or radionuclides with similar affinity so that the engineered protein itself and/or bacteria expressing it could be deployed in the environment to specifically sequester such metals and (2) to alter the mercuric reductase, MerA, to reduce radionuclides and render them less mobile. Both projects had a basic science component. In the first case, such information about MerR illuminates how proteins discriminate very similar metals/elements. In the second case, information about MerA reveals the criteria for transmission of reducing equivalents from NADPH to redox-active metals. The work involved genetic engineering of all or parts of both proteins and examination of their resultant properties both in vivo and in vitro, the latter with biochemical and biophysical tools including equilibrium and non-equilibrium dialysis, XAFS, NMR, x-ray crystallography, and titration calorimetry. We defined the basis for metal specificity in MerR, devised a bacterial strain that sequesters Hg while growing, characterized gold reduction by MerA and the role of the metallochaperone domain of MerA, and determined the 3-D structure of MerB, the organomercurial lyase.

  4. Star tracker constraint violations digital capability description and analysis results. Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poston, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.

  5. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; /Lowell Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets ({approx}0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  6. Results of the REFLEX (Return Flux Experiment) Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Mauersberger, Konrad; Johnson, Bradford W.; Manning, Heidi K.

    1997-01-01

    The numerous problems occurring in this first flight of the REFLEX experiment, both in the spacecraft and with the instrument package, seriously constrained the acquisition and analysis of data and severely limited the interpretation of the data that were obtained. Of these, the ambient helium measurements appear to be the most promising. They are summarized and discussed in Appendix A. Further analyses could be attempted to establish the correct values for the energy centers as they varied during the mission. In addition, an extensive laboratory recalibration on a high-speed beam system could in principle provide corrections to be used in analyzing and interpreting the returned data set. The unknown malfunction which generated the energy drift needs to be understood and corrected before the REFLEX experiment is reflown; some hardware modification, or at least retuning, is likely to be required.

  7. Kepler planet-detection mission: introduction and first results.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W; Dupree, Andrea K; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kondo, Yoji; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Meibom, Søren; Kjeldsen, Hans; Lissauer, Jack J; Monet, David G; Morrison, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tarter, Jill; Boss, Alan; Brownlee, Don; Owen, Toby; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Laurance; Fortney, Jonathan; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H; Welsh, William F; Rowe, Jason; Anderson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars; Ciardi, David; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Everett, Mark E; Fischer, Debra; Torres, Guillermo; Johnson, John Asher; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Bryson, Stephen T; Dotson, Jessie; Haas, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D; Quintana, Elisa V; Clarke, Bruce D; Allen, Christopher; Li, Jie; Wu, Haley; Tenenbaum, Peter; Verner, Ekaterina; Bruhweiler, Frederick; Barnes, Jason; Prsa, Andrej

    2010-02-19

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets (approximately 0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  8. Mars atmosphere during the Mariner 9 Extended Mission - Television results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, C. B.; Briggs, G. A.; Smith, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Extended Mission of Mariner 9 provided data from 23 revolutions and recorded seasonal changes in the atmosphere of Mars during northern spring and early summer. The visibility of the surface was exceptional, indicating atmospheric clarity greater than that previously observed by Mariner 9 or by Mariner 6 and 7. Cloud systems were observed over both polar regions and indicated westerly winds in the -45 to -65 deg latitude zone (southern winter) and easterly winds in the vicinity of +75 deg (northern summer). The puzzling brightening phenomena that recur seasonally and diurnally over Tharsis, Amazonis, and Nix Olympica were seen to be clouds of a generally diffuse character but with some indications of convective activity. These clouds show a remarkable degree of topographic control, and their large-scale patterns are closely duplicated from day to day.

  9. Preliminary Results on Lunar Interior Properties from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Lemoine, H. Jay; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Matsuyama, Isamu; McGovern, Patrick J.; Nimmo, Francis; Weber, Renee C.; Boggs, D. H.; Goossens, Sander J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has provided lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. GRAIL has produced a high-resolution map of the lunar gravity field while also determining tidal response. We present the latest gravity field solution and its preliminary implications for the Moon's interior structure, exploring properties such as the mean density, moment of inertia of the solid Moon, and tidal potential Love number k2. Lunar structure includes a thin crust, a deep mantle, a fluid core, and a suspected solid inner core. An accurate Love number mainly improves knowledge of the fluid core and deep mantle. In the future GRAIL will search for evidence of tidal dissipation and a solid inner core.

  10. Anticipated results from dust experiments on cometary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, J.; Fechtig, H.; Grun, E.

    1981-01-01

    The major scientific objectives of a mission are: to determine the chemical nature and physical structure of comet nuclei, and to characterize the changes that occur as a function of time orbital position; to characterize the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets as well as the processes that occur in them, and to characterize the development of the atmospheres and ionospheres as functions of time and orbital position; and to determine the nature of comet tails and processes by which they are formed, and to characterize the interaction of comets with the solar wind. Since dust is a major constituent of a comet, the achievement of these goals requires the intensive study of the paticulate emission from a comet.

  11. Results of PRISMA/FFIORD extended mission and applicability to future formation flying and active debris removal missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpech, Michel; Berges, Jean-Claude; Karlsson, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien

    2013-07-01

    CNES performed several experiments during the extended PRISMA mission which started in August 2011. A first session in October 2011 addressed two objectives: 1) demonstrate angles-only navigation to rendezvous with a non-cooperative object; 2) exercise transitions between RF-based and vision-based control during final formation acquisition. A complementary experiment in September 2012 mimicked some future astrometry mission and implemented the manoeuvres required to point the two satellite axis to a celestial target and maintain it fixed during some observation period. In the first sections, the paper presents the experiment motivations, describes its main design features including the guidance and control algorithms evolutions and provides a synthesis of the most significant results along with a discussion of the lessons learned. In the last part, the paper evokes the applicability of these experiment results to some active debris removal mission concept that is currently being studied.

  12. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D.; Basri, G.; Batalha, N. M.; Brown, T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Caldwell, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W.; DeVore, E.; Dunham, E.; Dupree, A.; Gautier, T.; Geary, J.; Gilliland, R.; Gould, A.; Howell, S.; Jenkins, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kondo, Y.; Latham, D.; Lissauer, J.; Marcy, G.; Meibom, S.; Monet, D.; Morrison, D.; Sasselov, D.; Tarter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and terrestrial size planets in and near the HZ of solar-like stars. It was competitively selected as Discovery Mission #10 and launched on March 6, 2009. Since completion of commissioning, it has continuously observed over 145,000 main sequence stars. The photometric precision reaches 20 ppm for 12th magnitude stars on the least noisy detectors in 6.5 hours. During the first month of operation, the photometer detected transit-like signatures from over 100 stars. Careful examination of these events shows many of them to be false-positives such as background eclipsing binaries. However ground-based follow up observations confirm the discovery of exoplanets with sizes ranging from 0.6 Rj to1.5Rj and orbital periods ranging from 3 to 9 days. Observations at Keck, Hobby-Eberly, Harlan-Smith, WIYN, MMT, Tillighast, Shane, and Nordic Optic telescopes are vetting many of the candidates and measuring their masses. Discovery of the HAT-P7b occultation will be used to derive atmospheric properties and demonstrates the precision necessary to detect Earth-size planets. Asteroseismic analyses of several stars show the presence of p-mode oscillations that can be used to determine stellar size and age. This effort is being organized by the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium at Aarhus University in Denmark. Stellar parallaxes are determined from the centroid motion of the stellar images and will be combined with photometric measurements to get the sizes of stars too dim for asteroseismic measurement. Four open clusters are being observed to determine rotation rates with stellar age and spectral type. Many types of stellar variability are observed with unprecedented precision and over long continuous time periods. Examples of many of these discoveries are presented. Funding by the Exoplanet Exploration Program of the NASA Astrophysics Division is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Initial Results of Radio Science in Akatsuki mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Akatsuki Radio Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Radio Science experiment (RS) in the Akatsuki mission of JAXA aims to determine the vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, thereby complementing the imaging observations by onboard instruments. The physical quantities to be retrieved are the vertical distributions of the atmospheric temperature, the electron density, the sulfuric acid vapor density, and small-scale density fluctuations. The uniqueness of Akatsuki RS is quasi-simultaneous observations with multi-band cameras dedicated to meteorological study; the cameras can observe the locations probed by RS a short time before or after the occultations. An ultra-stable oscillator (USO) provides a stable reference frequency, which is used for the X-band downlink signal. The signal traverses the Venusian atmosphere near the limb and reaches the ground station, where it is sampled using an open-loop recording system. In the first radio occultation season of March-July, 2016, we plan 8 Venus occultation experiments in total (6 experiments have been done successfully till June). The temperature profiles cover the altitude region of 40-90 km, which enables studies of vertical coupling among different altitude levels and studies of the cloud system. Another target of Akatsuki RS is solar corona. During solar conjunction periods, the downlink signal that traverses the solar corona is recorded at the ground station. The data yields information on the solar wind velocity, plasma density fluctuations, and magnetic field fluctuations from Faraday rotation measurement. In the solar conjunction period of May-June, 2016, 11 occultation experiments were conducted.

  14. First Results from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, David J.

    2010-03-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is a Small Explorer mission designed to study the global interaction between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium. IBEX does this by measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) created by both solar wind ions and pickup ions in the solar wind when they charge exchange with cold interstellar neutrals drifting in from the interstellar medium. Because the ENAs are not magnetically confined, some of them propagate back into the inner heliosphere, where IBEX can detect them. IBEX was launched October 19th 2008, using a new launch technique that was also developed as a part of the IBEX project. The first scientific observations from IBEX were of ENAs coming from the Moon-these represented the first ever lunar ENA observations from any spacecraft and provided important information about the universal physical processes of backscatter and neutralization from complex planetary surfaces like the lunar regolith. Since then, IBEX has been collecting its first all-sky maps of heliospheric ENAs and initial direct, in situ observations of interstellar H, He, and O. At the time of this writing, these observations have been submitted and are under review for a special IBEX section of Science magazine nominally scheduled to be published in October 2009.

  15. Managing PV Power on Mars - MER Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Chin, Keith; Wood, Eric; Herman, Jennifer; Ewell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The MER Rovers have recently completed over 5 years of operation! This is a remarkable demonstration of the capabilities of PV power on the Martian surface. The extended mission required the development of an efficient process to predict the power available to the rovers on a day-to-day basis. The performance of the MER solar arrays is quite unlike that of any other Space array and perhaps more akin to Terrestrial PV operation, although even severe by that comparison. The impact of unpredictable factors, such as atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation (and removal) on the panels limits the accurate prediction of array power to short time spans. Based on the above, it is clear that long term power predictions are not sufficiently accurate to allow for detailed long term planning. Instead, the power assessment is essentially a daily activity, effectively resetting the boundary points for the overall predictive power model. A typical analysis begins with the importing of the telemetry from each rover's previous day's power subsystem activities. This includes the array power generated, battery state-of-charge, rover power loads, and rover orientation, all as functions of time. The predicted performance for that day is compared to the actual performance to identify the extent of any differences. The model is then corrected for these changes. Details of JPL's MER power analysis procedure are presented, including the description of steps needed to provide the final prediction for the mission planners. A dust cleaning event of the solar array is also highlighted to illustrate the impact of Martian weather on solar array performance

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The second stage of the Delta II rocket is raised off the transporter for its lift up the launch tower on Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be mated to the first stage in preparation for the launch of the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A). The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet’s past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for this first of NASA’s two Mars Exploration Rover missions is scheduled June 5.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The second stage of the Delta II rocket is raised off the transporter for its lift up the launch tower on Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will be mated to the first stage in preparation for the launch of the Mars Exploration Rover 2 (MER-A). The MER Mission consists of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards each Martian day over various terrain. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet’s past. Identical to each other, the rovers will land at different regions of Mars. Launch date for this first of NASA’s two Mars Exploration Rover missions is scheduled June 5.

  17. The PS1 Science Mission - Status and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2013-06-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS1 Telescope is in its last year of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with 8 to 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~45 epochs per point on sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and plans for serving the data to the public. A summary of science highlights will be included. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan, NASA, and NSF.

  18. A stable mercury-containing complex of the organomercurial lyase MerB: catalysis, product release, and direct transfer to MerA.

    PubMed

    Benison, Gregory C; Di Lello, Paola; Shokes, Jacob E; Cosper, Nathaniel J; Scott, Robert A; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

    2004-07-06

    Bacteria isolated from organic mercury-contaminated sites have developed a system of two enzymes that allows them to efficiently convert both ionic and organic mercury compounds to the less toxic elemental mercury. Both enzymes are encoded on the mer operon and require sulfhydryl-bound substrates. The first enzyme is an organomercurial lyase (MerB), and the second enzyme is a mercuric ion reductase (MerA). MerB catalyzes the protonolysis of the carbon-mercury bond, resulting in the formation of a reduced carbon compound and inorganic ionic mercury. Of several mercury-containing MerB complexes that we attempted to prepare, the most stable was a complex consisting of the organomercurial lyase (MerB), a mercuric ion, and a molecule of the MerB inhibitor dithiothreitol (DTT). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the MerB/Hg/DTT complex have shown that the ligands to the mercuric ion in the complex consist of both sulfurs from the DTT molecule and one cysteine ligand, C96, from the protein. The stability of the MerB/Hg/DTT complex, even in the presence of a large excess of competing cysteine, has been demonstrated by NMR and dialysis. We used an enzyme buffering test to determine that the MerB/Hg/DTT complex acts as a substrate for the mercuric reductase MerA. The observed MerA activity is higher than the expected activity assuming free diffusion of the mercuric ion from MerB to MerA. This suggests that the mercuric ion can be transferred between the two enzymes by a direct transfer mechanism.

  19. Delta II Heavy MER-B Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission is poised for launch after rollback of the Mobile Service Tower. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also been found in camels and in one bat. While it is believed to come from animals, ... Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated December 2, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA). CDC Commentary: Be on the Lookout for MERS- ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  2. Recombination spot identification Based on gapped k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for biological evolution, which provides many new combinations of genetic diversity. Accurate identification of recombination spots is useful for DNA function study. To improve the prediction accuracy, researchers have proposed several computational methods for recombination spot identification. The k-mer feature is one of the most useful features for modeling the properties and function of DNA sequences. However, it suffers from the inherent limitation. If the value of word length k is large, the occurrences of k-mers are closed to a binary variable, with a few k-mers present once and most k-mers are absent. This usually causes the sparse problem and reduces the classification accuracy. To solve this problem, we add gaps into k-mer and introduce a new feature called gapped k-mer (GKM) for identification of recombination spots. By using this feature, we present a new predictor called SVM-GKM, which combines the gapped k-mers and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for recombination spot identification. Experimental results on a widely used benchmark dataset show that SVM-GKM outperforms other highly related predictors. Therefore, SVM-GKM would be a powerful predictor for computational genomics. PMID:27030570

  3. GLOBE backscatter - Climatologies and mission results. [Global Backscatter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) goals require intensive study of the global climatology of atmospheric aerosol backscatter at IR wavelengths. Airborne and ground-based lidars have been developed to measure atmospheric backscatter profiles at CO2 laser wavelengths. Descriptions of the calibration techniques and selected measurement results are presented.

  4. GLOBE backscatter - Climatologies and mission results. [Global Backscatter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) goals require intensive study of the global climatology of atmospheric aerosol backscatter at IR wavelengths. Airborne and ground-based lidars have been developed to measure atmospheric backscatter profiles at CO2 laser wavelengths. Descriptions of the calibration techniques and selected measurement results are presented.

  5. The Planck Mission: Recent Results, Cosmological and Fundamental Physics Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    We provide a description of the latest status and performance of the Planck satellite, focusing on the final predicted sensitivity of Planck. The optimization of the observational strategy for the additional surveys following the nominal 15 months of integration (about two surveys) originally allocated and the limitation represented by astrophysical foreground emissions are presented. An outline of early and intermediate astrophysical results from the Planck Collaboration is provided. A concise view of some fundamental cosmological results that will be achieved by exploiting Planck's full set of temperature and polarization data are presented. Finally, the perspectives opened by Planck in answering some key questions in fundamental physics, with particular attention to parity symmetry analyses, are described.

  6. First lunar science results from the ARTEMIS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-12-01

    After a 2-year long circuitous path from Earth to lunar orbit, the ARTEMIS spacecraft P1 and P2 are now providing the first comprehensive, two-spacecraft measurements of the lunar plasma environment. Observations from an early maneuver through the wake at ~4RL suggest that asymmetries in magnetic field and electron heat flux control the potential along the field lines and the wake, resulting in asymmetric streaming of the solar wind halo electrons through the wake, and electron beams susceptible to beam instabilities on one side. Since July 2011, wake crossings from 100s to 1000s of km extend previous observations of lunar - solar wind interactions to altitudes beyond Kaguya's. Low altitude periselenes also capture reflected ions and electrons, and instabilities that result from loss cone features and electrostatically accelerated electron beams from the surface potential. Both waves and particles are excellent remote tracers of the low altitude magnetic and electric fields. Extreme low altitude crossings in the next few months (~20km) are expected to enable direct magnetic field measurements of the crustal anomalies and their interaction with the solar wind; as well as the induced signal of electromagnetic field changes as the moon passes through the magnetotail.

  7. Magellan - Early results from the Venus mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Some results obtained with the Magellan Venus Radar Mapper are presented. Mapping was initiated on October 26, 1990 and has completed over 714 orbits of image data, covering 40 percent of the surface of Venus. Mapping began at 330 deg east longitude, mapping from the north pole to about 78 deg south latitude. Included are the regions of Ishtar Terra, Sedna, Guinevere and Lavinia Planitiae, and Lada Terra. Features discernable from the mapping include high and lowland plains, evidence of volcanic activity, and impact craters from 6 km to over 50 km across. Some Magellan scientific discoveries are listed, including evidence of a predominant role of ballistic volcanism, extensive and intensive tectonics, a moderate rate of volcanic and tectonic resurfacing, and a low rate of weathering and wind erosion. Other discoveries concerning techntonics, volcanism, impact cratering, and exogenous resurfacing are also listed. Magellan image coverage is discussed, and a chronology of the development of VOIR and Magellan is provided.

  8. The Ames MER microscopic imager toolkit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, R.; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, C.; Sims, M.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2005-01-01

    12The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have spent several successful months on Mars, returning gigabytes of images and spectral data to scientists on Earth. One of the instruments on the MER rovers, the Athena Microscopic Imager (MI), is a fixed focus, megapixel camera providing a ??3mm depth of field and a 31??31mm field of view at a working distance of 63 mm from the lens to the object being imaged. In order to maximize the science return from this instrument, we developed the Ames MI Toolkit and supported its use during the primary mission. The MI Toolkit is a set of programs that operate on collections of MI images, with the goal of making the data more understandable to the scientists on the ground. Because of the limited depth of field of the camera, and the often highly variable topography of the terrain being imaged, MI images of a given rock are often taken as a stack, with the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD) moving along a computed normal vector, pausing every few millimeters for the MI to acquire an image. The MI Toolkit provides image registration and focal section merging, which combine these images to form a single, maximally in-focus image, while compensating for changes in lighting as well as parallax due to the motion of the camera. The MI Toolkit also provides a 3-D reconstruction of the surface being imaged using stereo and can embed 2-D MI images as texture maps into 3-D meshes produced by other imagers on board the rover to provide context. The 2-D images and 3-D meshes output from the Toolkit are easily viewed by scientists using other mission tools, such as Viz or the MI Browser.This paper describes the MI Toolkit in detail, as well as our experience using it with scientists at JPL during the primary MER mission. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  9. The Ames MER Microscopic Imager Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Randy; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, Clayton; Sims, Michael; Herkenhoff, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have spent several successful months on Mars, returning gigabytes of images and spectral data to scientists on Earth. One of the instruments on the MER rovers, the Athena Microscopic Imager (MI), is a fixed focus, megapixel camera providing a plus or minus mm depth of field and a 3lx31mm field of view at a working distance of 63 mm from the lens to the object being imaged. In order to maximize the science return from this instrument, we developed the Ames MI Toolkit and supported its use during the primary mission. The MI Toolkit is a set of programs that operate on collections of MI images, with the goal of making the data more understandable to the scientists on the ground. Because of the limited depth of field of the camera, and the often highly variable topography of the terrain being imaged, MI images of a given rock are often taken as a stack, with the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD) moving along a computed normal vector, pausing every few millimeters for the MI to acquire an image. The MI Toolkit provides image registration and focal section merging, which combine these images to form a single, maximally in-focus image, while compensating for changes in lighting as well as parallax due to the motion of the camera. The MI Toolkit also provides a 3-D reconstruction of the surface being imaged using stereo and can embed 2-D MI images as texture maps into 3-D meshes produced by other imagers on board the rover to provide context. The 2-D images and 3-D meshes output from the Toolkit are easily viewed by scientists using other mission tools, such as Viz or the MI Browser. This paper describes the MI Toolkit in detail, as well as our experience using it with scientists at JPL during the primary MER mission.

  10. IXV avionics architecture: Design, qualification and mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succa, Massimo; Boscolo, Ilario; Drocco, Alessandro; Malucchi, Giovanni; Dussy, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    The paper details the IXV avionics presenting the architecture and the constituting subsystems and equipment. It focuses on the novelties introduced, such as the Ethernet-based protocol for the experiment data acquisition system, and on the synergy with Ariane 5 and Vega equipment, pursued in order to comply with the design-to-cost requirement for the avionics system development. Emphasis is given to the adopted model philosophy in relation to OTS/COTS items heritage and identified activities necessary to extend the qualification level to be compliant with the IXV environment. Associated lessons learned are identified. Then, the paper provides the first results and interpretation from the flight recorders telemetry, covering the behavior of the Data Handling System, the quality of telemetry recording and real-time/delayed transmission, the performance of the batteries and the Power Protection and Distribution Unit, the ground segment coverage during visibility windows and the performance of the GNC sensors (IMU and GPS) and actuators. Finally, some preliminary tracks of the IXV follow on are given, introducing the objectives of the Innovative Space Vehicle and the necessary improvements to be developed in the frame of PRIDE.

  11. Highlights of the Zeno Results from the USMP-2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    1995-01-01

    The Zeno instrument, a High-precision, light-scattering spectrometer, was built to measure the decay rates of density fluctuations in xenon near its liquid-vapor critical point in the low-gravity environment of the U.S. Space Shuttle. Eliminating the severe density gradients created in a critical fluid by Earth's gravity, we were able to make measurements to within 100 microKelvin of the critical point. The instrument flew for fourteen days in March, 1994 on the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-62 flight, as part of the very successful USMP-2 payload. We describe the instrument and document its performance on orbit, showing that it comfortably reached the desired 3 microKelvin temperature control of the sample. Locating the critical temperature of the sample on orbit was a scientific challenge; we discuss the advantages and short-comings of the two techniques we used. Finally we discuss problems encountered with making measurements of the turbidity of the sample, and close with the results of the measurement of the decay rates of the critical-point fluctuations.

  12. Initial results from the mission to really early earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Mtree Team

    2003-04-01

    raises the possibility that an earlier report of such an age reflects later U-Pb mobility (see Tera, 2002, EOS 83). \\underline{Inclusion mineralogy}: Many ˜10-100-μm-sized inclusions have been found in >4 Ga zircons, including peraluminous mineral assemblages and sulfide crystals (targeted for Δ33S analysis). \\underline{Geodynamo origin}: Ultra-sensitive analysis methods demonstrate that a Jack Hills zircon carries an intrinsic remenant magnetism raising the possibility of constraining the time of geodynamo activation. \\underline{Extinct radioactivities}: RELAX Xe isotope analyses using 4.15 Ga zircons yield plutogenic 136Xe as high as 35% and indicate a terrestrial Pu/U ratio indistinguishable from chondritic. This result has implications for interpreting mantle-derived Xe isotopes in terms of mantle evolution and the age of the atmosphere.

  13. Meter-scale slopes of candidate MER landing sites from point photoclinometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, R.A.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Photoclinometry was used to analyze the small-scale roughness of areas that fall within the proposed Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 landing ellipses. The landing ellipses presented in this study were those in Athabasca Valles, Elysium Planitia, Eos Chasma, Gusev Crater, Isidis Planitia, Melas Chasma, and Meridiani Planum. We were able to constrain surface slopes on length scales comparable to the image resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel). The MER 2003 mission has various engineering constraints that each candidate landing ellipse must satisfy. These constraints indicate that the statistical slope values at 5 m baselines are an important criterion. We used our technique to constrain maximum surface slopes across large swaths of each image, and built up slope statistics for the images in each landing ellipse. We are confident that all MER 2003 landing site ellipses in this study, with the exception of the Melas Chasma ellipse, are within the small-scale roughness constraints. Our results have provided input into the landing hazard assessment process. In addition to evaluating the safety of the landing sites, our mapping of small-scale roughnesses can also be used to better define and map morphologic units. The morphology of a surface is characterized by the slope distribution and magnitude of slopes. In looking at how slopes are distributed, we can better define landforms and determine the boundaries of morphologic units. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  15. General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Comet, Bernard

    The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission shall be <2 × 10-3/year, that by injury (=accidental death) <4 × 10-4/year, and that from all causes, including spacecraft failure (taken from most exposed professions) <3 × 10-2/year. Using the classical reliability requirements for human space missions, reliability objectives have been set for each mission scenario, resulting in values compatible with the mission safety objectives. The main results are as follows: (i) based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the constraints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full autonomy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency; (ii) the control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks; (iii) the state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed; (iv) the control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimised. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, and potential terrestrial applications and benefits.

  16. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  17. Molecular interaction study of commercial cyclic peptides and MERS-COV papain-like protease as novel drug candidate for MERS-COV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, M. A. F.; Azzuhdi, M. G.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-07-01

    Middle-east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has become the current outbreak, MERS-CoV infection results in illness at the respiratory system, digestive, and even lead to death with an average mortality caused by MERS-CoV infection reaches 50 %. Until now, there is not any effective vaccine or drug to ward off MERS-CoV infection. Papain-like protease (PLpro) is responsible for cleavage of a nonstructural protein that is essential for viral maturation. Inhibition of PLpro with a ligand will block the cleavage process of nonstructural protein, thus reduce the infection of MERS-CoV. Through of bioinformatics study with molecular docking and binding interaction analysis of commercial cyclic peptides, aldosterone secretion inhibiting factor (1-35) (bovine) was obtained as an inhibitor for PLpro. Thus, aldosterone secretion inhibiting factor (1-35) (bovine) has a potential as a novel candidate drug for treating MERS-CoV.

  18. A study of system requirements for Phobos/Deimos missions. Volume 2: Phase 1 results, satellite rendezvous and landing missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a satellite rendezvous, landing, and roving mission to the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos is considered. Mission-oriented analysis, systems analysis, and conceptual design studies are presented.

  19. SeaWinds on QuikSCAT Mission and Early Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wu-Yang; Graf, James E.

    2000-01-01

    SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) is a dedicated satellite remote sensing mission for measuring ocean surface wind speed and direction, using a spinning, pencil-beam Ku-band scatterometer. It is a replacement mission for NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), which was launched on board of the Japan's Advanced Earth Observation System (ADEOS-1) in August 1996 and returned 10 months of high quality data before the mission was terminated in June, 1997 due to the failure of the ADEOS-1 spacecraft. Since the next NASA scatterometer mission, SeaWinds on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds), will not be launched until November 2000, NASA decided to fill the data gap by launching the QSCAT mission. Furthermore, after year 2000. the potential exists for using both the QSCAT and SeaWinds to provide approximately 6 hours global coverage of the marine winds. QSCAT is currently scheduled for launch in April, 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, using Titan-II launch vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to first present the mission objectives, the spacecraft and instrument design, ground receiving systems, the science data processing system, and the data products. We will then present the post-launch calibration and verification results of the QSCAT end-to-end sensor system. Finally, we present some of the key results obtained from the first two months of the mission, which include ocean surface wind measurements, ice detection and classification, global snow cover detection, and flood detection.

  20. SeaWinds on QuikSCAT Mission and Early Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wu-Yang; Graf, James E.

    2000-01-01

    SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) is a dedicated satellite remote sensing mission for measuring ocean surface wind speed and direction, using a spinning, pencil-beam Ku-band scatterometer. It is a replacement mission for NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), which was launched on board of the Japan's Advanced Earth Observation System (ADEOS-1) in August 1996 and returned 10 months of high quality data before the mission was terminated in June, 1997 due to the failure of the ADEOS-1 spacecraft. Since the next NASA scatterometer mission, SeaWinds on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds), will not be launched until November 2000, NASA decided to fill the data gap by launching the QSCAT mission. Furthermore, after year 2000. the potential exists for using both the QSCAT and SeaWinds to provide approximately 6 hours global coverage of the marine winds. QSCAT is currently scheduled for launch in April, 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, using Titan-II launch vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to first present the mission objectives, the spacecraft and instrument design, ground receiving systems, the science data processing system, and the data products. We will then present the post-launch calibration and verification results of the QSCAT end-to-end sensor system. Finally, we present some of the key results obtained from the first two months of the mission, which include ocean surface wind measurements, ice detection and classification, global snow cover detection, and flood detection.

  1. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

  2. Segmented K-mer and its application on similarity analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Jie

    2013-04-15

    K-mer-based approach has been widely used in similarity analyses so as to discover similarity/dissimilarity among different biological sequences. In this study, we have improved the traditional K-mer method, and introduce a segmented K-mer approach (s-K-mer). After each primary sequence is divided into several segments, we simultaneously transform all these segments into corresponding K-mer-based vectors. In this approach, it is vital how to determine the optimal combination of distance metric with the number of K and the number of segments, i.e., (K(⁎), s(⁎), and d(⁎)). Based on the cascaded feature vectors transformed from s(⁎) segmented sequences, we analyze 34 mammalian genome sequences using the proposed s-K-mer approach. Meanwhile, we compare the results of s-K-mer with those of traditional K-mer. The contrastive analysis results demonstrate that s-K-mer approach outperforms the traditionally K-mer method on similarity analysis among different species.

  3. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  4. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis)

    PubMed Central

    Munster, Vincent J.; Adney, Danielle R.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Brown, Vienna R.; Miazgowicz, Kerri L.; Milne-Price, Shauna; Bushmaker, Trenton; Rosenke, Rebecca; Scott, Dana; Hawkinson, Ann; de Wit, Emmie; Schountz, Tony; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the zoonotic potential of Betacoronaviruses. Investigations into the origin of MERS-CoV have focused on two potential reservoirs: bats and camels. Here, we investigated the role of bats as a potential reservoir for MERS-CoV. In vitro, the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein interacted with Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) receptor and MERS-CoV replicated efficiently in Jamaican fruit bat cells, suggesting there is no restriction at the receptor or cellular level for MERS-CoV. To shed light on the intrinsic host-virus relationship, we inoculated 10 Jamaican fruit bats with MERS-CoV. Although all bats showed evidence of infection, none of the bats showed clinical signs of disease. Virus shedding was detected in the respiratory and intestinal tract for up to 9 days. MERS-CoV replicated transiently in the respiratory and, to a lesser extent, the intestinal tracts and internal organs; with limited histopathological changes observed only in the lungs. Analysis of the innate gene expression in the lungs showed a moderate, transient induction of expression. Our results indicate that MERS-CoV maintains the ability to replicate in bats without clinical signs of disease, supporting the general hypothesis of bats as ancestral reservoirs for MERS-CoV. PMID:26899616

  5. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Munster, Vincent J; Adney, Danielle R; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Brown, Vienna R; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Milne-Price, Shauna; Bushmaker, Trenton; Rosenke, Rebecca; Scott, Dana; Hawkinson, Ann; de Wit, Emmie; Schountz, Tony; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-02-22

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the zoonotic potential of Betacoronaviruses. Investigations into the origin of MERS-CoV have focused on two potential reservoirs: bats and camels. Here, we investigated the role of bats as a potential reservoir for MERS-CoV. In vitro, the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein interacted with Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) receptor and MERS-CoV replicated efficiently in Jamaican fruit bat cells, suggesting there is no restriction at the receptor or cellular level for MERS-CoV. To shed light on the intrinsic host-virus relationship, we inoculated 10 Jamaican fruit bats with MERS-CoV. Although all bats showed evidence of infection, none of the bats showed clinical signs of disease. Virus shedding was detected in the respiratory and intestinal tract for up to 9 days. MERS-CoV replicated transiently in the respiratory and, to a lesser extent, the intestinal tracts and internal organs; with limited histopathological changes observed only in the lungs. Analysis of the innate gene expression in the lungs showed a moderate, transient induction of expression. Our results indicate that MERS-CoV maintains the ability to replicate in bats without clinical signs of disease, supporting the general hypothesis of bats as ancestral reservoirs for MERS-CoV.

  6. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 42 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements. The verification results indicate that all the measurement objectives have been met...

  7. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 42 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements. The verification results indicate that all the measurement objectives have been met...

  8. Protein crystal growth results from the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, K. M.; Vanderwoerd, M.; Bray, T. L.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Narayana, S. V. L.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Carter, D.; Clark, A. D, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed by this laboratory on 18 Space Shuttle missions since April, 1985. In addition, a number of microgravity experiments also have been performed and reported by other investigators. These Space Shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature-induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory - 1 mission (USML-1, June 25 - July 9, 1992) was a Spacelab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware was developed to allow in orbit examination of initial crystal growth results, the knowledge from which was used on subsequent days to prepare new crystal growth experiments. In addition, new seeding hardware and techniques were tested as well as techniques that would prepare crystals for analysis by x-ray diffraction, a capability projected for the planned Space Station. Hardware that was specifically developed for the USML-1 mission will be discussed along with the experimental results from this mission.

  9. The Miniaturized Moessbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on MER: Four Years of Operation - A Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, I.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Blumers, M.; Bernhardt, B.; Schroeder, C.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Cohen, B. A.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M. E.; Girones Lopez, J.; Studlek, G.; Brueckner, J.; Gellert, R.; d'Uston, C.

    2008-01-01

    The two Miniaturized Moessbauer Spectrometers (MIMOS II) on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have now been collecting important scientific data for more than four years. The spectrometers provide information about Fe-bearing mineral phases and determine Fe oxidation states. The total amount of targets analized exceeds 600, the total integration time exceeds 260 days for both rovers. Since landing, more than five half-lives of the Co-57 MB sources have past (intensity at the time of landing approx. 150 mCi). Current integration times are about 50 hours in order to achieve reasonable statistics as opposed to 8 hours at the beginning of the mission. In total, 13 different mineral phases were detected: Olivine, pyroxene, hematite, magnetite and nanophase ferric oxide were detected at both landing sites. At Gusev, ilmenite, goethite, a ferric sulfate phase and a yet unassigned phase (in the rock Fuzzy Smith) were detected. At Meridiani, jarosite, metallic iron in meteoritic samples (kamacite), troilite, and an unassigned ferric phase were detected. Jarosite and goethite are of special interest, as these minerals are indicators for water activity. In this abstract, an overview of Moessbauer results will be given, with a focus on data obtained since the last martian winter. The MER mission has proven that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and for the study of Febearing samples. The experience gained through the MER mission makes MIMOS II a obvious choice for future missions to Mars and other targets. Currently, MIMOS II is on the scientific payload of two approved future missions: Phobos Grunt (Russian Space Agency; 2009) and ExoMars (European Space Agency; 2013).

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With a glimpse of the Atlantic Ocean over the horizon, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With a glimpse of the Atlantic Ocean over the horizon, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With a glimpse of the Atlantic Ocean over the horizon, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With a glimpse of the Atlantic Ocean over the horizon, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload leaps off the launch pad into the blue sky to begin its journey to Mars. Liftoff occurred on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as "Spirit," is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25

  12. [Infections with the MERS coronavirus--for the present no threat to Europe].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In Saudi Arabia, a novel coronavirus named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was isolated in 2012 from patients with severe respiratory symptoms. Up to now, more than 1600 MERS cases have been registered mainly in the Arabian Peninsula. MERS is usually accompanied with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In many cases, pneumonia is observed. However, clinical features of MERS range from mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. To date, about one in three people died as a result of MERS. In Europe, MERS cases have only been registered in isolated travelers entering from the Middle East.

  13. Results from the NASA Spacecraft Fault Management Workshop: Cost Drivers for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; McDougal, John; Barley, Bryan; Stephens Karen; Fesq, Lorraine M.

    2010-01-01

    Fault Management, the detection of and response to in-flight anomalies, is a critical aspect of deep-space missions. Fault management capabilities are commonly distributed across flight and ground subsystems, impacting hardware, software, and mission operations designs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for five missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that four out of the five missions studied had significant overruns due to underestimating the complexity and support requirements for fault management. As a result of this and other recent experiences, the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD) commissioned a workshop to bring together invited participants across government, industry, and academia to assess the state of the art in fault management practice and research, identify current and potential issues, and make recommendations for addressing these issues. The workshop was held in New Orleans in April of 2008. The workshop concluded that fault management is not being limited by technology, but rather by a lack of emphasis and discipline in both the engineering and programmatic dimensions. Some of the areas cited in the findings include different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; unclear ownership of end-to-end fault management engineering; inadequate understanding of the impact of mission-level requirements on fault management complexity; and practices, processes, and tools that have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of mission requirements and spacecraft systems. This paper summarizes the

  14. TanDEM-X Mission: Overview and Evaluation of intermediate Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, U.; Jacobsen, K.; Schack, L.

    2013-10-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) currently conducts the bistatic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Mission TanDEM-X, which shall result in a DEM of global coverage in an unprecedented resolution and accuracy according to DTED level 3 standard. The mission is based on the two SAR satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X that have been launched in June 2007 and 2010, respectively. After the commissioning phase of TanDEM satellite and the orbital adjustment the bistatic image acquisition in close formation began end of 2010. The data collection for the mission is scheduled to last about three years, i.e., the bigger part of the required data have been already gathered. Based on this data DLR will conduct several processing steps in order to come up finally with a global and seamless DEM of the Earth's landmass which shall meet the envisaged specifications. Since the entire mission is an endeavor in the framework of a private-public-partnership, the private partner, Astrium, will eventually commercialize the DEM product. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the data collection and the deliverables that will come along with TanDEM-X mission. Furthermore, we will analyze a DEM derived from early stage immediate products of the mission.

  15. K-mer natural vector and its application to the phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jia; Chan, Raymond H.; Yau, Shek-Chung; He, Rong L.; Yau, Stephen S. T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the well-known k-mer model, we propose a k-mer natural vector model for representing a genetic sequence based on the numbers and distributions of k-mers in the sequence. We show that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between a genetic sequence and its associated k-mer natural vector. The k-mer natural vector method can be easily and quickly used to perform phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences without requiring evolutionary models or human intervention. Whole or partial genomes can be handled more effective with our proposed method. It is applied to the phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences, and the obtaining results fully demonstrate that the k-mer natural vector method is a very powerful tool for analysing and annotating genetic sequences and determining evolutionary relationships both in terms of accuracy and efficiency. PMID:24858075

  16. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  17. Sensitivity of Simulated Martian Atmospheric Temperature to Prescribed Dust Opacity Distribution. Comparisons of Model Results With Reconstructed Data From Past Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, M.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.; Fairlie, T. D.; Richardson, M. I.; McConnochie, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of atmospheric variability is crucial to the design of the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) activities at Mars. The distribution of dust in the Martian atmosphere has a significant impact on the atmospheric structure and variability. Information obtained through reconstruction of EDL data from past missions can be used in studying the performance of a model used in preflight atmospheric characterization for future missions. We use the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) General Circulation Model to simulate the atmospheric temperature during the landing time periods of Mars Exploration Rovers MER-A and MER-B in 2004. The multi-scale capability of MarsWRF is useful for conducting high- resolution nested simulation centered at the landing site. This version of MarsWRF includes a high spectral accuracy "k-distribution" radiative transfer model. We use the IR dust opacity profile data from the Thermal Emission spectrometer (TES) limb scan data as well as the TES Nadir data to prescribe the dust opacity distribution. Data from MY 26, which corresponds to the year of MER landing, and data from a climatology based on the median of 4 years (MY24 to MY27) of TES data are used. Model temperature profiles are compared with the reconstructions from EDL data and TES observations. Sensitivity of the model simulation to variations in the input opacity data are shown.

  18. Satellite Formation Flight Results from Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Godine, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation are summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Special Session: Mars Missions" contained the following reports:Initial Results from the MER Athena Science Investigation at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Geomorphology of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) Landing Site from Observations by the Spirit Rover; Geology of Meridiani Planum as Inferred from Mars Exploration Rover: Observations;Preliminary Mineralogy and Geochemistry Results at the MER-A Landing Site in Gusev; A First Look at the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the MER-B Landing Site in Meridiani Planum; Mini-TES Observations of the Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites; Preliminary Results of the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity; Pancam Imaging of the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Atmospheric Science with the Mars Exploration Rovers: Things are Looking Up; The Mars Express Mission:Initial Scientific Results from Orbit; The HRSC Experiment in Mars Orbit: First Results; The OMEGA/Mars Express First Results; and SPICAM on Mars Express: First Results and First Observations of Water Ice at South.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Assembly of the backshell and heat shield surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is complete. The resulting aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Assembly of the backshell and heat shield surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover 1 (MER-1) is complete. The resulting aeroshell will protect the rover on its journey to Mars. NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go. MER-1 is scheduled to launch June 25 as MER-B aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  1. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  2. Dust Accumulation on MER Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Cull, S.

    2011-12-01

    HiRISE acquired in March 2011 a color image of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover from orbit that shows an exceptionally bright reflection from the rover solar panels. HiRISE data combined with laboratory measurements of MER solar cell reflectance provide a method for constraining the thickness of dust on the solar panels. Spirit is the brightest object in the HiRISE scene with a reflectance that is about 3 times higher at 500 nm and about 1.5 times higher at 700 and 850 nm than bright outcrop and soil near the rover. The rover is also less red than these nearby materials and less red than a typical Mars dust spectrum modeled with the same geometry and seen through similar atmospheric conditions as the HiRISE image. Lighting and viewing angles for the HiRISE image of Spirit are close to a specular reflection geometry when factoring in the rover orientation, the sun position, and the location of HiRISE during image acquisition. Laboratory photometric measurements of clean and dust-coated MER solar cells show a strong specular reflection for dust coating thicknesses up to at least 45 micrometers. The specular reflection was not present in the laboratory data when the solar cell was covered with about a 135 micrometer thick layer. The dust used in the experiments consisted of less than 10 micrometer sized particles derived from a palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea that is spectrally similar to Mars dust. A survey of MER Pancam color images acquired by Spirit and Opportunity also shows several examples of specular reflections from the solar panels. These examples correspond to times when the solar cells were moderately clean to dusty as inferred from the amount of power generated by the cells. Specular reflections in Pancam images have been observed when the solar cell output was only 45% that of a dust-free cell. Spirit HiRISE data indicate that the rover was not covered by an optical thick layer of dust because some of the reflected light must have come from the

  3. Mission Architecture Study Results for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; SGO Mission Concept Development Team

    2013-01-01

    The low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum has a rich collection of astrophysical sources, and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been the key mission to cover this science for over twenty years. Although highly ranked in the 2010 Decadal Survey for the spectacular science return, tight budgets have forced NASA to consider a reformulation of the LISA mission concept at a lower cost point, even if at the expense of some of the science. We report the results of a mission architecture study that considered various options according to cost, risk, technical readiness, and the ability to address the Decadal-endorsed science goals.

  4. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Huff, Darrell A.; Gray, Leven B.; Klug, Norman P.; Winchester, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    After over a year of detailed independent review, a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) was prepared for the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft mission. An overview is presently given of the Ulysses mission as well as the conduct and results of the evaluation process; in the final analysis, the SER was supportive of a positive launch decision. Eleven key accident scenarios were carried through to complete analysis, out of a total of 19 possible accidents involving a potential for fuel release to the spacecraft environment.

  5. [Review of main medical results of a one-year manned space mission on "Mir"].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Bugrov, S A; Bogomolov, V V; Egorov, A D; Kozlovskaia, I B; Pestov, I D; Tarasov, I K

    1990-01-01

    The objective of medical investigations during and after the 366-day manned mission was to accumulate information about human responses to long-term effects of microgravity. To do this, cardiovascular and other systems were examined in detail during and after exposure. The results gave evidence that the crewmembers well adapted to the long-term flight effects. Their good health condition and high work capacity were supported by adequate medical procedures. Postflight readaptation developed similarly to what was seen after previous flights of shorter duration (6-11 months). No qualitatively new changes in the physiological systems were detected during or after this mission.

  6. A predictive wheel-soil interaction model for planetary rovers validated in testbeds and against MER Mars rover performance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Ellery, A.; Gao, Y.; Michaud, S.; Schmitz, N.; Weiss, S.

    testbed and in the RCET system-level testbed, the latter permitting drawbar pull vs. slip measurements for complete rover development vehicles under controlled and homogeneous soil conditions. Required modifications of the wheel-soil model, in particular related to modelling the effect of wheel slip, are discussed. To strengthen the model validation base, we have run single wheel measurements using a spare MER Mars rover wheel and have performed comparisons with MER actual mobility performance data, available through one of us (LR) who is a member of the MER Athena science team. Corresponding results will be presented. Keywords: rovers, wheel, soil, mobility, vehicle performance, RCET (Rover Chassis Evaluation Tools), MER (Mars Exploration Rover mission) 2

  7. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): Results of the Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are two large-scale structures that originate from the Sun and affect the heliosphere in general and Earth in particular. While CIRs are generally detected by in-situ plasma signatures, CMEs are remote-sensed when they are still close to the Sun. The current understanding of CMEs primarily come from the SOHO and STEREO missions. In spite of the enormous progress made, there are some serious deficiencies in these missions. For example, these missions did not carry all the necessary instruments (STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer). From the Sun-Earth line, SOHO was not well-suited for observing Earth-directed CMEs because of the occulting disk. STEREO's angle with the Sun-Earth line is changing constantly, so only a limited number of Earth-directed CMEs were observed in profile. In order to overcome these difficulties, we proposed a news L5 mission concept known as the Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO). The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The aim of the MDL study was to see how the scientific payload consisting of ten instruments can be accommodated in the spacecraft bus, what propulsion system can transfer the payload to the Sun-Earth L5, and what launch vehicles are appropriate. The study found that all the ten instruments can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle such as Taurus II with enhanced faring. The study also found that a hybrid propulsion system consisting of an ion thruster (using approximately 55 kg of Xenon) and hydrazine (approximately 10 kg) is adequate to place the payload at L5. The transfer will take about 2 years and the science mission will last for 4 years around the next solar maximum in 2025. The mission can be readily extended for another solar cycle to get a solar-cycle worth of data on Earth

  8. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - recent results and plans for an exteneded mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah; McClanahan, Timothy

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter(LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years during a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift has taken place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): First Photometric Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, A.; Moskovitz, N.; Binzel, R. P.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F. E.; Person, M. J.; Polishook, D.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.; Hinkle, M.; Burt, B.; Avner, D.; Aceituno, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey aims to physically characterize sub-km near-Earth objects (NEOs). We report the first photometric results from the survey that began in 2013 August. Photometric observations were performed using 1-4 m class telescopes around the world. We present rotational periods and light curve amplitudes for 86 sub-km NEOs, though in some cases only lower limits are provided. Our main goal is to obtain light curves for small NEOs (typically, sub-km objects) and estimate their rotational periods, light curve amplitudes, and shapes. These properties are used for a statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. A weak correlation seems to indicate that smaller objects are more spherical than larger ones. We also report seven NEOs that are fully characterized (light curve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future human or robotic mission. Viable mission targets are objects fully characterized, with Δv NHATS ≤ 12 km s-1, and a rotational period P > 1 hr. Assuming a similar rate of object characterization as reported in this paper, approximately 1230 NEOs need to be characterized in order to find 100 viable mission targets.

  10. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr. ); Gray, L.B. ); Huff, D.A. ); Klug, N.P. ); Winchester, R.O. )

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle {ital Discovery} culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government.

  11. Direct Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: Results from the Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission'' in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory'' in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the results of the SI Vision Mission Study, elaborating on the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

  12. Recent Results of the Guide-2 Telescope Testbed for the SIM-Lite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, M.; Sandhu, J.; Dekens, F.; Goullioud, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission Planet QuestLite (SIM-Lite) is a new mission concept to perform microarcsecond narrow-angle astrometry to search approximately 50 nearby stars for Earth-like planets, and also to perform a global astrometry. The SIM-Lite consists of two Michelson interferometers and one telescope. The main six-meter baseline science interferometer observes a target star and a set of reference stars. The four-meter baseline interferometer (Guide-1) monitors the attitude of the instrument in the direction of a target star. A new Guide-2telescope (G2T) tracks a bright star to monitor the attitude of the instrument in the other two orthogonal directions. In the current mission concept, the G2T consists of a 30 cm siderostat and a 30 cm confocal telescope, similar to other four telescopes used in the science and Guide-1interferometers. A testbed has been built to demonstrate the G2T feasibility for SIM-Lite mission. Recent results show that field-independent, star-tracking capability of the system is less than 30 (mu)as after the SIM narrow angle analysis.

  13. Robust k-mer frequency estimation using gapped k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Mohammad-Noori, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Oligomers of fixed length, k, commonly known as k-mers, are often used as fundamental elements in the description of DNA sequence features of diverse biological function, or as intermediate elements in the constuction of more complex descriptors of sequence features such as position weight matrices. k-mers are very useful as general sequence features because they constitute a complete and unbiased feature set, and do not require parameterization based on incomplete knowledge of biological mechanisms. However, a fundamental limitation in the use of k-mers as sequence features is that as k is increased, larger spatial correlations in DNA sequence elements can be described, but the frequency of observing any specific k-mer becomes very small, and rapidly approaches a sparse matrix of binary counts. Thus any statistical learning approach using k-mers will be susceptible to noisy estimation of k-mer frequencies once k becomes large. Because all molecular DNA interactions have limited spatial extent, gapped k-mers often carry the relevant biological signal. Here we use gapped k-mer counts to more robustly estimate the ungapped k-mer frequencies, by deriving an equation for the minimum norm estimate of k-mer frequencies given an observed set of gapped k-mer frequencies. We demonstrate that this approach provides a more accurate estimate of the k-mer frequencies in real biological sequences using a sample of CTCF binding sites in the human genome. PMID:23861010

  14. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  15. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  16. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): photometric results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Hinkle, Mary L.; Burt, Brian; Avner, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) to provide physical data for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using a variety of 1-m to 8-m class telescopes, we observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties and taxonomic class.Rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 200 NEOs. We report lightcurves from our first three years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to a few seconds. MANOS found the three fastest rotators known to date with rotational periods below 20s. A physical interpretation of these ultra-rapid rotators is that they are bound through a combination of cohesive and/or tensile strength rather than gravity. Therefore, these objects are important to understand the internal structure of NEOs. Rotational properties are used for statistical study to constrain overall properties of the NEO population. We also study rotational properties according to size, and dynamical class. Finally, we report a sample of NEOs that are fully characterized (lightcurve and visible spectra) as the most suitable candidates for a future robotic or human mission. Viable mission targets are objects with a rotational period >1h, and a delta-v lower than 12 km/s. Assuming the MANOS rate of object characterization, and the current NEO population estimates by Tricarico (2016), and by Harris and D'Abramo (2015), 10,000 to 1,000,000 NEOs with diameters between 10m and 1km are expected to be mission accessible. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G, and NOAO survey program.

  17. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  18. Early Mission Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for Low-Earth Orbiting Missions using TDRSS Differenced One-way Doppler Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.

  19. Introduction to Special Section on Results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. The analyses of the LRO data sets have overturned previous beliefs and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This introduction to the special section describes the LRO mission and summarizes some of the science results in the papers that follow.

  20. UAS Integration into the NAS: HSI Full Mission Simulation Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay; Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Full Mission Sim was to examine the effects of different command and control interfaces on UAS pilots' ability to respond to ATC commands and traffic advisories. Results suggest that higher levels of automation (i.e., waypoint-to-waypoint control interfaces) lead to longer initial response times and longer edit times. The findings demonstrate the importance of providing pilots with interfaces that facilitate their ability to get back "in the loop."

  1. Flight test results from a supercritical mission adaptive wing with smooth variable camber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll G.; Webb, Lannie D.; Friend, Edward L.; Lokos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the wing surface and boundary layer pressures, buffet studies and flight deflection measurement system for the advanced fighter technology integration F-111 mission adaptive wing program are presented. The different aerodynamic technologies studied on the aircraft, and their relationship with each other are described. The wingtip twist measurements provide an insight as to how dynamic pressures for positive normal accelerations affect the wingtip pressure profiles.

  2. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  3. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  4. New Results from the Solar Maximum Mission/Bent Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C. G.; Sylwester, J.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2017-04-01

    The Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) onboard the NASA Solar Maximum Mission was part of the X-ray Polychromator, which observed numerous flares and bright active regions from February to November 1980, when operation was suspended as a result of the failure of the spacecraft fine-pointing system. Observations resumed following the Space Shuttle SMM Repair Mission in April 1984 and continued until November 1989. BCS spectra have been widely used in the past to obtain temperatures, emission measures, and turbulent and bulk flows during flares, as well as element abundances. Instrumental details including calibration factors not previously published are given here, and the in-orbit performance of the BCS is evaluated. Some significant changes during the mission are described, and recommendations for future instrumentation are made. Using improved estimates for the instrument parameters and operational limits, it is now possible to obtain de-convolved calibrated spectra that show finer detail than before, providing the means for improved interpretation of the physics of the emitting plasmas. The results indicate how historical archived data can be re-used to obtain enhanced and new, scientifically valuable results.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mobile Service Tower is rolled back at Space Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, to reveal the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle ready for launch of the Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B) mission, with the rover "Opportunity" aboard. The second of twin rovers being sent to Mars, it is equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow it to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-B is scheduled to launch on June 28 at one of two available times, 11:56:16 p.m. EDT or 12:37:59 a.m. EDT on June 29.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-28

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Mobile Service Tower is rolled back at Space Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, to reveal the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle ready for launch of the Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B) mission, with the rover "Opportunity" aboard. The second of twin rovers being sent to Mars, it is equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow it to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists' eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans are not yet able to go. MER-B is scheduled to launch on June 28 at one of two available times, 11:56:16 p.m. EDT or 12:37:59 a.m. EDT on June 29.

  6. General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

    Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall

  7. Results of the Apogee-Raising Campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric J.; Hollister, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the apogee-raising campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, where the spacecraft increased their apogee radii from 12 to 25 Earth radii in a total of 98 maneuvers. These maneuvers included an initial formation resize set to spread the spacecraft apart for safety, 32 apogee-raise delta-v maneuvers, their associated slews, four perigee-raise maneuvers and the associated slews, and finally a set of maneuvers to get back into formation. These activities were all accomplished successfully and on schedule with no anomalies, and at a fuel consumption somewhat less than predicted. As a result, MMS was set up ready to carry out in situ studies of magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail, with sufficient fuel remaining for a significant extended mission.

  8. Recent Results from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) onboard the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-05-01

    We describe recent results from the REPT instruments on board Van Allen Probes mission launched on 30 August 2012. The twin spacecraft comprising the Van Allen probes mission are identically instrumented and carry a comprehensive suite of sensors characterizing magnetospheric charged particle populations, electric and magnetic fields and plasma waves. The REPT instruments comprise a well-shielded silicon solid state detector stack, with a state of the art electronics and measure electrons of ~1.5 to > 20 MeV and protons of ~17 to > 100 MeV. The instruments were commissioned 3 days after launch and continue to provide high quality measurements. We describe the Van Allen probes and the REPT instrument and report on the new and unexpected features of the outer zone electron populations observed by REPT.

  9. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  10. Knowledge and Apprehension of Dental Patients about MERS-A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Rodrigues, Jean Clare; Azouni, Khalid; Darwish, Shorouk; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alkaabba, Abdul Aziz Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a disease caused by beta corona virus. From April 11th to 9th June 2014, World Health Organization (WHO) reported a total of 402 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS from KSA, out of which 132 cases were reported from Riyadh alone. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and apprehension of patients about MERS visiting Al Farabi College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted which consisted of 10 self-prepared questions. A total of 404 patients participated in this study. Results Three hundred and forty patients had heard about MERS. Nearly a quarter of the patients (25.74%) were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. A little more than half of the patients (50.99%) knew that camel was a source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona virus. Most of the patients (80.72%) were aware of the infection control measures to be followed by dentist and 138 patients claimed they took some precaution when present inside the dental college. Conclusion Majority of the patients had heard about MERS and was aware of the infection control measures. However, some patients were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. Further steps need to be taken to educate the patient’s about transmission of MERS and infection control measures in a dental hospital. PMID:27437361

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of MERS-CoV: Potential Recombination, Positive Selection and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao; Shen, Libing; Gu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to beta group of coronavirus and was first discovered in 2012. MERS-CoV can infect multiple host species and cause severe diseases in human. We conducted a series of phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses to study the evolution dynamics of MERS-CoV among different host species with genomic data. Our analyses show: 1) 28 potential recombinant sequences were detected and they can be classified into seven potential recombinant types; 2) The spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV was under strong positive selection when MERS-CoV transmitted from their natural host to human; 3) Six out of nine positive selection sites detected in spike (S) protein are located in its receptor-binding domain which is in direct contact with host cells; 4) MERS-CoV frequently transmitted back and forth between human and camel after it had acquired the human-camel infection capability. Together, these results suggest that potential recombination events might have happened frequently during MERS-CoV’s evolutionary history and the positive selection sites in MERS-CoV’s S protein might enable it to infect human. PMID:27142087

  12. MERS-CoV spike nanoparticles protect mice from MERS-CoV infection.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Christopher M; Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Liu, Ye V; Glenn, Gregory M; Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-03-14

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first discovered in late 2012 and has gone on to cause over 1800 infections and 650 deaths. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccinations for MERS-CoV. The MERS-CoV spike (S) protein is responsible for receptor binding and virion entry to cells, is immunodominant and induces neutralizing antibodies in vivo, all of which, make the S protein an ideal target for anti-MERS-CoV vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate protection induced by vaccination with a recombinant MERS-CoV S nanoparticle vaccine and Matrix-M1 adjuvant combination in mice. The MERS-CoV S nanoparticle vaccine produced high titer anti-S neutralizing antibody and protected mice from MERS-CoV infection in vivo.

  13. SMART-1 mission to the Moon: Status, first results and goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. D.; Marini, A.; Evrard, E.; Stagnaro, L.; Almeida, M.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Zender, J.; Heather, J.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Josset, J. L.; Malkki, A.; Schmidt, W.; Noci, G.; Birkl, R.; Iess, L.; Sodnik, Z.; McManamon, P.

    We present the first results from SMART-1's science and technology payload. SMART-1 is Europe's first lunar mission and will provide some significant advances to many issues currently active in lunar science, such as our understanding of lunar origin and evolution. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft was launched on 27 September 2003 on an Ariane 5, as an auxiliary passenger to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), performed a 14-month long cruise using the tiny thrust of electric propulsion alone, reached lunar capture in November 2004, and lunar science orbit in March 2005. SMART-1 carries seven hardware experiments (performing 10 investigations, including three remote sensing instruments, used during the cruise, the mission's nominal six months and one year extension in lunar science orbit). The remote sensing instruments will contribute to key planetary scientific questions related to theories of lunar origin and evolution, the global and local crustal composition, the search for cold traps at the lunar poles and the mapping of potential lunar resources.

  14. Personal values and crew compatibility: Results from a 105 days simulated space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Bye, Hege H.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2011-08-01

    On a mission to Mars the crew will experience high autonomy and inter-dependence. "Groupthink", known as a tendency to strive for consensus at the cost of considering alternative courses of action, represents a potential safety hazard. This paper addresses two aspects of "groupthink": the extent to which confined crewmembers perceive increasing convergence in personal values, and whether they attribute less tension to individual differences over time. It further examines the impact of personal values for interpersonal compatibility. These questions were investigated in a 105-day confinement study in which a multinational crew ( N=6) simulated a Mars mission. The Portrait of Crew Values Questionnaire was administered regularly to assess personal values, perceived value homogeneity, and tension attributed to value disparities. Interviews were conducted before and after the confinement. Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant changes in value homogeneity over time; rather the opposite tendency was indicated. More tension was attributed to differences in hedonism, benevolence and tradition in the last 35 days when the crew was allowed greater autonomy. Three subgroups, distinct in terms of personal values, were identified. No evidence for "groupthink" was found. The results suggest that personal values should be considered in composition of crews for long duration missions.

  15. First Results from UCATS during the GloPac 2010 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) 2010 was the first scientific mission of the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system (UAS), and included a payload designed for in situ measurement of trace gases and aerosols, remote sensing of gases and particles, and measurement of various meteorological parameters. The Global Hawk is capable of long-duration flight (range of about 20,000 km) at altitudes up to ~19 km, as demonstrated during GloPac by a flight from 34 N into the Arctic, with about 10 hours on location, followed by a return to its origin. The UAS chromatograph for atmospheric trace species (UCATS) instrument was used to measure N2O, SF6, H2, CH4, CO, and ozone during GloPac. Mission objectives addressed by these measurements include sampling of polar vortex fragments as they move into midlatitudes and break up, and observations of air from the tropics to high latitudes. Results will be presented showing data from March/April 2010 and from previous aircraft missions, using tracer-tracer correlations to examine mixing and transport of high latitude air with lower latitude air in the stratosphere, mixing and boundaries in the subtropics, and changes in the lower stratosphere since the mid-1990’s.

  16. Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

  17. Conjunction Assessment Techniques and Operational Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Carpenter, Russell; Farahmand, Mitra; Ottenstein, Neil; Demoret, Michael; Godine, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date during the MMS mission concerning conjunction assessment. MMS navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for both maneuver design and conjunction assessment. The MMS fly in tetrahedron formations around apogee, in order to collect simultaneous particles and fields science data. The original plan was to fly tetrahedra between 10 and 160 km in size; however, after Phase 1a of the mission, the science team requested that smaller sizes be flown if feasible. After analysis (to be detailed in a companion paper), a new minimum size of 7 km was decided upon. Flying at this reduced scale size makes conjunction assessment between the MMS spacecraft even more important: the methods that are used by the MMS FDOA to address this problem will be described in the paper, and a summary given of the previous analyses that went into the development of these techniques. Details will also be given of operational experiences to date. Finally, two CA mitigation maneuver types that have been designed (but never yet required to actually be performed) will also be outlined.

  18. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  19. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  20. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips : MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides.

    SciTech Connect

    Stomakhin, A. A.; Vasiliskov, V. A.; Timofeev, E.; Schulga, D.; Cotter, R. J.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology; Middle Atlantic Mass Spectrometry Lab.; Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA-8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10-15{sup o}C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA-8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed.

  1. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips: MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Stomakhin, Andrey A.; Vasiliskov, Vadim A.; Timofeev, Edward; Schulga, Dennis; Cotter, Richard J.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA–8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10–15°C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA–8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed. PMID:10666462

  2. The 1999 Marsokhod rover mission simulation at Silver Lake, California: Mission overview, data sets, and summary of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Bishop, J.; Chapman, M.; Clifford, S.; Cockell, C.; Crumpler, L.; Craddock, R.; De Hon, R.; Foster, T.; Gulick, V.; Grin, E.; Horton, K.; Hovde, G.; Johnson, J. R.; Lee, P. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Marshall, J.; Newsom, H. E.; Ori, G. G.; Reagan, M.; Rice, J. W.; Ruff, S. W.; Schreiner, J.; Sims, M.; Smith, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Thomas, H. J.; Thomas, G.; Yingst, R. A.

    2001-04-01

    We report on a field experiment held near Silver Lake playa in the Mojave Desert in February 1999 with the Marsokhod rover. The payload (Descent Imager, PanCam, Mini-TES, and Robotic Arm Camera), data volumes, and data transmission/receipt windows simulated those planned for the Mars Surveyor mission selected for 2001. A central mast with a pan and tilt platform at 150 cm height carried a high-resolution color stereo imager to simulate the PanCam and a visible/near-infrared fiberoptic spectrometer (operating range 0.35-2.5 μm). Monochrome stereo navigation cameras were mounted on the mast and the front and rear of the rover near the wheels. A field portable infrared spectroradiometer (operating range 8-14 μm) simulated the Mini-TES. A Robotic Arm Camera, capable of close-up color imaging at 23 μm/pixel resolution, was used in conjunction with the excavation of a trench into the subsurface. The science team was also provided with simulated images from the Mars Descent Imager and orbital panchromatic and multispectral imaging of the site obtained with the French SPOT, airborne Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, and Landsat Thematic Mapper instruments. Commands sequences were programmed and sent daily to the rover, and data returned were limited to 40 Mbits per communication cycle. During the simulated mission, 12 commands were uplinked to the rover, it traversed ~90 m, six sites were analyzed, 11 samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and over 5 Gbits of data were collected. Twenty-two scientists, unfamiliar with the location of the field site, participated in the science mission from a variety of locations, accessing data via the World Wide Web. Remote science interpretations were compared with ground truth from the field and laboratory analysis of collected samples. Using this payload and mission approach, the science team synergistically interpreted orbital imaging and infrared spectroscopy, descent imaging, rover-based imaging, infrared

  3. Free space optical communication flight mission: simulations and experimental results on ground level demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata Calvo, Ramon; Ferrero, Valter; Camatel, Stefano; Catalano, Valeria; Bonino, Luciana; Toselli, Italo

    2009-05-01

    In the context of the increasing demand in high-speed data link for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), involving Thales Alenia Space as prime, the Polytechnic of Turin and other Italian partners, is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. We have designed and analyzed a ground level bidirectional Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) Breadboard at 2.5Gbit/s working at 1550nm as an emulator of slant path link. The breadboard is full-working and we tested it back-toback, at 500m and 2.3km during one month. The distances were chosen in order to get an equivalent slant path cumulative turbulence in a ground level link. The measurements campaign was done during the day and the night time and under several weather conditions, from sunny, rainy or windy. So we could work under very different turbulence conditions from weak to strong turbulence. We measured the scintillation both, on-axis and off-axis by introducing known misalignments at the terminals, transmission losses at both path lengths and BER at both receivers. We present simulations results considering slant and ground level links, where we took into account the atmospheric effects; scintillation, beam spread, beam wander and fade probability, and comparing them with the ground level experimental results, we find a good agreement between them. Finally we discuss the results obtained in the experimentation and in the flight mission simulations in order to apply our experimental results in the next project phases.

  4. A View from the Cheap Seats: MER and its Implications for Future Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Minitti, M.; Cosarinsky, M.; McAdam, A.; Niles, P.

    2004-12-01

    The spectacular success of the Mars Exploration Rover mission is reflected by the exciting scientific discoveries that Spirit and Opportunity have made concerning habitability potential and geologic history of two sites on Mars. The apparent discovery of strong evidence for the presence of liquid water at the Opportunity site is of historic importance (although at the time of this writing we must note that there is not yet any peer-reviewed publication of this result). But perhaps even more importantly, the success of MER provides key validation of a strategy and approach to Mars exploration. Here, we highlight some of the strategic successes, as well as lessons learned for refining our approach to Mars exploration, and for future exploration endeavors across the solar system and beyond. Almost more than imaginable, MER has validated both the "follow the water" strategy and the "seek-in situ-sample" approach of the Mars Exploration Program developed by a broad, inclusive group of Mars explorers. Seeking interesting, water-relevant sites with remote observations from orbit resulted in one clear success at Meridiani, and in perhaps what is most optimistically termed "delayed success" at Gusev. Three lessons from this are clear. First, it's always better to fly two spacecraft! Second, significant mobility enables greatly enhanced science return. Third, mineralogical evidence appears more reliable than geomorphic evidence if the goal is to seek preserved evidence of aqueous processes (Pathfinder results also support this observation), although the combination of mineralogical information with high-resolution imagery is almost certainly the best way to optimize for success. The 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's spectral mapping and imaging capability will thus be critical to future landing site selection. And yet, it is important to note that in spite of mineralogical evidence pointing to Meridiani as a site of "aqueous interest", and the detailed regional geological

  5. MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca S.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; Wofford, Anne M.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L.; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M.; Strunk, Karen E.; Graham, Douglas K.; Earp, H. Shelton

    2013-01-01

    MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK–/– mice. Transplantation of MerTK–/– bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK–/– leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell–induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK–/– mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK–/– mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23867499

  6. MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca S; Jacobsen, Kristen M; Wofford, Anne M; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M; Strunk, Karen E; Graham, Douglas K; Earp, H Shelton

    2013-08-01

    MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK-/- mice. Transplantation of MerTK-/- bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK-/- leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell-induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK-/- mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK-/- mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies.

  7. Automated Recognition of Geologically Significant Shapes in MER PANCAM and MI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Shipman, Mark; Roush, Ted L.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous recognition of scientifically important information provides the capability of: 1) Prioritizing data return; 2) Intelligent data compression; 3) Reactive behavior onboard robotic vehicles. Such capabilities are desirable as mission scenarios include longer durations with decreasing interaction from mission control. To address such issues, we have implemented several computer algorithms, intended to autonomously recognize morphological shapes of scientific interest within a software architecture envisioned for future rover missions. Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) instrument payloads include a Panoramic Camera (PANCAM) and Microscopic Imager (MI). These provide a unique opportunity to evaluate our algorithms when applied to data obtained from the surface of Mars. Early in the mission we applied our algorithms to images available at the mission web site (http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images.html), even though these are not at full resolution. Some algorithms would normally use ancillary information, e.g. camera pointing and position of the sun, but these data were not readily available. The initial results of applying our algorithms to the PANCAM and MI images are encouraging. The horizon is recognized in all images containing it; such information could be used to eliminate unwanted areas from the image prior to data transmission to Earth. Additionally, several rocks were identified that represent targets for the mini-thermal emission spectrometer. Our algorithms also recognize the layers, identified by mission scientists. Such information could be used to prioritize data return or in a decision-making process regarding future rover activities. The spherules seen in MI images were also autonomously recognized. Our results indicate that reliable recognition of scientifically relevant morphologies in images is feasible.

  8. Automated Recognition of Geologically Significant Shapes in MER PANCAM and MI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Shipman, Mark; Roush, Ted L.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous recognition of scientifically important information provides the capability of: 1) Prioritizing data return; 2) Intelligent data compression; 3) Reactive behavior onboard robotic vehicles. Such capabilities are desirable as mission scenarios include longer durations with decreasing interaction from mission control. To address such issues, we have implemented several computer algorithms, intended to autonomously recognize morphological shapes of scientific interest within a software architecture envisioned for future rover missions. Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) instrument payloads include a Panoramic Camera (PANCAM) and Microscopic Imager (MI). These provide a unique opportunity to evaluate our algorithms when applied to data obtained from the surface of Mars. Early in the mission we applied our algorithms to images available at the mission web site (http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images.html), even though these are not at full resolution. Some algorithms would normally use ancillary information, e.g. camera pointing and position of the sun, but these data were not readily available. The initial results of applying our algorithms to the PANCAM and MI images are encouraging. The horizon is recognized in all images containing it; such information could be used to eliminate unwanted areas from the image prior to data transmission to Earth. Additionally, several rocks were identified that represent targets for the mini-thermal emission spectrometer. Our algorithms also recognize the layers, identified by mission scientists. Such information could be used to prioritize data return or in a decision-making process regarding future rover activities. The spherules seen in MI images were also autonomously recognized. Our results indicate that reliable recognition of scientifically relevant morphologies in images is feasible.

  9. Main results on asteroids and comets returned from the Herschel mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Vilenius, Esa

    The Herschel Space Observatory was designed to observe the 'cool universe' in the far-IR wavelength range. During the operational phase between May 2009 and April 2013 the main focus was on the exploration of the formation of galaxies and stars, but also many solar system objects were studied in detail. Several space-mission targets like Bennu (OSIRIS-REx), 1999 JU _{3} (Hayabusa-2), Lutetia (Rosetta), Ceres and Vesta (DAWN) were observed at far-infrared wavelengths with the Herschel instruments. These thermal emission studies provide information which is complementary to the in-situ or flyby data and help to derive physical properties and to understand thermal processes. The results can be applied to many similar objects which are not included in interplanetary mission studies, but easily accessible by remote observations. Trans-Neptunian objects (TNO) and Centaurs have their thermal emission peak at Herschel's far-IR wavelength range and about 130 TNOs have been characterized as part of the Herschel Open Time Key programm "TNOs are Cool!". The newly derived physical and thermal properties show the large diversity in the outer solar system. TNO densities, albedos, or size distributions are important ingredients for testing formation and evolution scenarios. We will present the results of dedicated photometric and spectroscopic studies of prominent near-Earth, main-belt, and trans-Neptunian objects, as well as selected comets. Highlights of the Herschel mission are the finding of water on Ceres, the Earth-like D/H ratio of comet Hartley-2 and the detailed picture of the trans-Neptunian population with implications also for models describing the migration of the giant planets about 4 billion years ago.

  10. The results of the critical design of the mission instruments of GOSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Yukie; Suto, Hiroshi; Yotsumoto, Kazuhiko; Miyakawa, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Makiko; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    The GOSAT-2 is the successor satellite to the GOSAT which is the satellite dedicated to the measurements of the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. GOSAT was launched in January of 2009 and has been operated for about seven years. The development of the GOSAT-2 has been continued for two years, and through the preliminary and critical design phase the detail of the design of the mission instruments were fixed as well as the bus system design. The mission instruments of the GOSAT-2 are TANSO-FTS-2 and TANSO-CAI-2. TANSO-FTS-2 is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer observing greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide and Methane and TANSO-CAI-2 is the imager observing the aerosols and clouds to compensate the TANSO-FTS-2 data and to grasp the movements of the aerosols such as PM2.5. The mission instruments will adopt the same kinds of instruments as GOSAT. But some improvements will be carried. Based on the results of the preliminary design, the design had been refined in the critical design phase and the results of the design meets all of the requirements on the mission instruments derived from the mission requirements to understand CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks and carbon cycle precisely. To improve the measurement accuracy, the signal to noise ratio will be increased by the extension of the aperture size from 64mm to 73mm and cooling the after optics as well as the thermal detectors. And to increase the number of the useful data, GOSAT-2 will equip the function to avoid the clouds during the observation using the images obtained by the monitor camera in FTS. To observe the carbon monoxide, the 2.3μm observation channel will be added. This function will be realized by the extension of the 2.0μm observation band to 2.3μm. The pointing angle in the along track direction will be extend from 20 degrees of GOSAT to 40 degrees to expand the observation area over the ocean where the sun glint is observed. This will make it possible to increase the number

  11. The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

  12. First Look at Landsat-7 Mission Performance: Technical and Operational Results to Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    A primary goal of the current Landsat-7 mission, launched on April 15, 1999, is to acquire and refresh on a seasonal basis, calibrated ata sets of multispectral digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager flown on Landsat-7 provides ground spatial resolutions in the panchromatic, reflective and emissive bands of 15, 30 and 60 meters, respectively, for a nominal scene 183 km wide by 170 km long. This mission not only builds on the invaluable 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth provided by previous Landsat satellites, it also inaugurates a new era of robust data acquisition with an emphasis on global change science. The newly developed Long Term Acquisition Plan (LTAP) is being used to optimize the systematic collection of data from all parts of the globe, populating the U.S.-held archive at the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) with over 90,000 Landsat scene per year . An additional 73,000 Images are expected to be acquired each year by several international ground stations, for a total downlink of Landsat7 data in excess of 100 terabytes per year. Nearly 20,000 scan of Landsat-7 ETM+ data have already been acquired in the first 100 days of the mission. Early results derived from assessments of the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing systems indicate that the image quality is outstanding, clearly the best ever provided by any Landsat mission. Sensor radiometric background stability after the first 100 days in orbit is approximately 0.1 percent. Stability of the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator is approximately 0.3 percent, and mid-scale per pixel noise is approximately 0.6 percent. A ground processing system has been implemented at EDC which is capable of capturing, processing and archiving 250 Landsat scenes 9 per day, and delivering 100 scene products to seems each day. The cost of a systematically-processed Level 1 product has been dropped dramatically to $600, end there is no

  13. Regional Gravity From Lunar Prospector Extended Mission Data: Results for Copernicus and Serenitatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, S.; Visser, P.; Heki, K.; Ambrosius, B.

    2004-12-01

    In the past ten years, the Moon has come fully back into focus again. This resulted in missions such as Clementine (launched in 1994) and Lunar Prospector (1998), which gathered a wealth of new information about the Moon. With the recent launch of Europe's SMART-1 mission, and the foreseen launch in the near future of Lunar-A and SELENE, together with intended initiatives by China, India and the USA, the list of lunar missions is expanded even further, and more issues about the constitution and origin of the Moon, to name a few, will be addressed. Our work focuses on processing Lunar Prospector data in order to create high resolution regional gravity fields of the Moon, that can help solve some of the outstanding issues in lunar physics. Lunar gravity has been mainly expressed in a global representation, despite the lack of tracking data over the far side of the Moon. To extract all information about the near side of the Moon, which is covered well with good quality tracking data, a global formulation is not efficient, and regional representations become of interest. A method is presented to solve for regional gravity anomalies on the lunar surface from range and Doppler tracking data residuals, at an aimed accuracy of several mGal. The method is based on a linear variational approach that linearises the relationship between the tracking data residuals and gravity anomalies. Even in the presence of severe noise of the data, it can be shown that an accuracy of 3 mGal can still be obtained without the use of regularisation, provided that the satellite altitude is low enough. Lunar Prospector tracking data have been processed for the extended mission part, which lasted from January 1999 until July 31, 1999. The data fit is typically better than 5 mm/s for Doppler data, and 3 m for range data. These data have been used in order to make solutions of regional gravity adjustments for crater Copernicus and Mare Serenitatis. Results from this work can also benefit future

  14. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) — First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Avner, Louis; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Schottland, Robert; Siu, Hosea; Thirouin, Audrey; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Wasserman, Lawrence; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO and has since expanded operations to include facilities at Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, where little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Observing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy enables the characterization of roughly 10% of newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.To date MANOS has obtained data on over 200 sub-km NEOs and will ultimately provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present first results from the survey including: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for small objects with high Earth-encounter probabilities, (3) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will help to facilitate observational planning for the small body observer community, and (4) physical properties derived from rotational light curves.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO, Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G and an NSF Astronomy and

  15. Preliminary results on the internal assessment study of the ESA Cosmic Vision mission PLATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R.; Lumb, D.; den Hartog, R.; Gondoin, P.; Rando, N.; Fridlund, M.

    2008-08-01

    In order to better understand the properties of exoplanetary systems, the Cosmic Vision mission "PLAnetary Transits and Oscilliations of stars" (PLATO) will detect and characterise exoplanets using their transit signature in front of a large sample of bright stars as well as measuring the seismic oscillations of the parent star of these exoplanets. PLATO is a potential mission of the European Space Agency's Science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a planned launch by the end of 2017. The mission will be orbiting the Sun-Earth second Lagrangian point, which provides a stable thermal environment and maximum uninterrupted observing efficiency. The payload will consist of a number of individual catadioptric telescopes, covering a large field-of-view on the sky. It will allow for continuous observation of predetermined star fields in order to detect many exoplanetary systems as well as smaller exoplanets with longer orbital periods. Such performance is achieved by high time-resolution, high precision, and high duty-cycle visible photometry using catadioptric telescopes with CCD detectors. In order to fulfill the specific science requirements, special attention is being paid to the opto-mechanical design of the payload, in order to maximize the field-of-view and throughput of the optical system, while minimizing the image distortion, mass and volume of each telescope to ensure compatibility with the launcher's maximum payload capability. Ground-based observations will complement the observations made by PLATO to allow for further exoplanetary characterization. The paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved by the ESA internal pre-assessment study.

  16. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS): spectroscopy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Hinkle, Mary L.; Mommert, Michael; Polishook, David; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Christensen, Eric J.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Person, Michael J.; Trilling, David E.; Willman, Mark; Burt, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is an ongoing physical characterization survey to build a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including lightcurves and visible wavelength spectroscopy. We will use this catalog to investigate the global properties of the small NEO population and identify individual objects that can be targets of interest for future exploration. To accomplish our goals, MANOS uses a wide variety of telescopes (1-8m) in both the northern and southern hemispheres. We focus on targets that have been recently discovered and operate on a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable rapid characterization of small NEOs. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three criteria: mission accessibility, size, and observability. With our resources, we observe 5-10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month. MANOS has been operating for three years and we have observed over 500 near-Earth objects in that time.We will present results from the spectroscopy component of the MANOS program. Visible wavelength spectra are obtained using DeVeny on the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), Goodman on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, and GMOS on Gemini North and South. Over 300 NEO spectra have been obtained during our program. We will present preliminary results from our spectral sample. We will discuss the compositional diversity of the small NEO population and how the observed NEOs compare to the meteorite population.MANOS is funded by the NASA Near-Earth Object Observations program.

  17. Preliminary Mission Results and Project Evaluation of the Delfi-C3 Nano-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Aalbers, G. T.; Ubbels, W. J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses preliminary mission results of Delfi-C3 up till the early operations phase. The first section will discuss the design philosophy of Delfi-C3. To reduce operational risks, Delfi-C3 followed the KISS principle and is designed to be Single-Point-of-Failure- free. A balance is made between adoption of professional space engineering customs and standards on one hand and the limitations of small satellites, financial budgets and limited human resources on the other hand. The second section of the paper discusses the project planning and management of Delfi-C3. Addressed are reasonable timelines for the development of a nano-satellite, how to deal with a launch slip and the occasional conflicts between the interest of the students and the interest of the project. The third section of the paper will present the results of the early operations of Delfi-C3. Discussed are the performance of the payloads, the bus and the ground network of the satellite. Finally, an early statement of the mission success will be given.

  18. Computational needs survey of NASA automation and robotics missions. Volume 1: Survey and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's operational use of advanced processor technology in space systems lags behind its commercial development by more than eight years. One of the factors contributing to this is that mission computing requirements are frequently unknown, unstated, misrepresented, or simply not available in a timely manner. NASA must provide clear common requirements to make better use of available technology, to cut development lead time on deployable architectures, and to increase the utilization of new technology. A preliminary set of advanced mission computational processing requirements of automation and robotics (A&R) systems are provided for use by NASA, industry, and academic communities. These results were obtained in an assessment of the computational needs of current projects throughout NASA. The high percent of responses indicated a general need for enhanced computational capabilities beyond the currently available 80386 and 68020 processor technology. Because of the need for faster processors and more memory, 90 percent of the polled automation projects have reduced or will reduce the scope of their implementation capabilities. The requirements are presented with respect to their targeted environment, identifying the applications required, system performance levels necessary to support them, and the degree to which they are met with typical programmatic constraints. Volume one includes the survey and results. Volume two contains the appendixes.

  19. Overview about first results from the Gamma-Ray Astronomy Mission INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönfelder, Volker

    2004-10-01

    INTEGRAL is an ESA space mission to study the sky at hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies. Its two main instruments SPI and IBIS cover the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV, and are mainly devoted to high resolution spectroscopy (?E ~ 2,5 keV at 1 MeV) and fine source imaging (DJ ~ 12 arcmin), respectively. The 4 tons heavy payload was brought into an excentric orbit of 153.000 km apogee and 9.000 km perigee on October 17, 2002 by a Russian Proton rocket. After a successful performance and verification phase, the observational program started in late December 2002 by executing open-time proposals and guaranteed core-time observations. The observations concentrated mainly towards the galactic plane, and especially the inner Galaxy. Highlights from the first 18 months of the mission are results on nucleosynthesis and solar flare gamma-ray lines, on a survey of hard X-ray binary sources and their identification, on the origin of the "diffuse" galactic ridge emission, and on gamma-ray bursts. Whereas line measurements generally require deep exposures of several million seconds (1 month and more), results on compact objects can be obtained much easier - in most cases they require exposures of only one or a few days.

  20. Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms: Results From a NASA Astrobiology Nanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Orlando; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mancinelli, Rocco; Nicholson, Wayne; Ricco, Antonio

    NASA's Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses, or O/OREOS, nanosatellite is a sci-ence demonstration mission that showcases achievements in using hardware from a technology development program led by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Continuing Ames' development of triple-cube nanosatellite tech-nology and flight systems, which includes the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions, O/OREOS is constructed from off-the-shelf commercial and NASA-designed parts to create a fully self-contained, automated, stable, light-weight space science laboratory with innovative environment and power control techniques; sensors to monitor the levels of pressure, temper-ature, humidity, radiation and acceleration; and a communications system able to regularly accept commands from the ground and transmit data back to Earth for scientific analysis. The overall goal of the O/OREOS mission is to demonstrate the capability to do low-cost sci-ence experiments on autonomous nanosatellites in space in support of the Astrobiology Small Payloads program under the Planetary Science Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. The spacecraft houses two science payloads: the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment will monitor the stability and changes in four classes of organic matter (results presented at another COSPAR session); and the Space Environment Survivability of Live Organisms (SESLO) experiment (presented here). SESLO will charac-terize the growth, activity, health, and ability of microorganisms to adapt to the stresses of the space environment. The experiment is sealed in a vessel at one atmosphere and contains two types of microbes commonly found in salt ponds and soil, in a dried and dormant state: Halorubrum chaoviator and Bacillus subtilis. After it reaches orbit, the experiment will initiate and begin to rehydrate and grow three sets of the microbes at three different times

  1. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    pressure does not change substantially over the course of the mission, although the H2O column abundance varies by a factor of 2. Column abundances calculated from TECP data are lower than orbital measurements if one assumes that H2O is uniformly mixed through a single scale height. These results argue that the vertical distribution of H2O begins to change well in advance of surface concentrations as northern autumn approaches.

  2. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A.

    2014-12-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical RH values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high RH in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T < 203K. However, sensor response duringf the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. Tf remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P < 0.75 Pa). RH, conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to ~50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to Tf, water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O pressure does not change substantially over the course of the mission, although the

  3. Future satellite missions for time-variable geopotential recovery - results from the ESA Mass Transport Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Sneeuw, N.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van Dam, T.; Losch, M.

    2009-04-01

    With the successful GRACE mission (data collection since Spring 2002), global time-variable gravity fields can be recovered beyond the lower degrees for the first time. Although GRACE is able to detect significant features of the time-variable geopotential, e.g. the continental hydrological cycle, trends in ice-mass change in Antarctica or Greenland or sea level rise, its mission concept suffers from inherent deficiencies. The main limitations of GRACE are (i) the range-rate measurements (insufficient accuracy, anisotropy of the leader-follower-formation), (ii) aliasing due to spatial and temporal undersampling and (iii) inaccurate de-aliasing products. This leads to an erroneous North-South striping pattern and a limited accuracy and resolution for many scientific studies. Within the ESA project „Monitoring and Modeling Individual Sources of Mass Distribution and Transport in the Earth System by Means of Satellites" potential future satellite mission concepts, which could improve time-variable geopotential-recovery, have been studied. An improved accuracy of a future laser instrument as well as an enhanced temporal sampling have been regarded in the simulations, which were based on repeat orbits. An enhanced sampling can be achieved by means of multi-satellite-missions, where the spatial and/or temporal resolutions are improved by: 1) additional satellites on interleaved groundtracks and/or 2) time shifted satellites on the same groundtrack. Another possibility is the so-called Pete-Bender-design, where the satellites fly on different repeat-orbits with different inclinations, which also allows for more homogeneous groundtrack coverage. Sophisticated satellite-formations such as cartwheels or gravity wheels have not been regarded so far due to the unsolved technical problems (e.g. control of the laser instrument) related to these designs. The primary objective of the simulation studies was the precise recovery of the input hydrological signal and the trends of

  4. The MER Mossbauer Spectrometers: 40 Months of Operation on the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, Iris; Rodionov, D.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R.; Yen, A.; Ming, D.; McCoy, T.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Gellert, R.; Cohen, B.; Schmidt, M.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    2007-01-01

    The primary MER objectives have been successfully completed. The total integration time of all MB measurements exceeds the duration of the primary 90-sols-mission for Spirit's MB spectrometer, and approaches this value for Opportunity's MB spectrometer. Both MB spectrometers continue to accumulate valuable scientific data after three years of operation (data is available for download [13]) The identification of aqueous minerals such as goethite in Gusev crater and jarosite at Meridiani Planum by the MER Mossbauer spectrometers is strong evidence for past water activity at the two landing sites.

  5. Delta II Heavy launch of "Opportunity" MER-B Rover

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  6. Delta II Heavy MER-B - MST Rollback

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    The Mobile Service Tower is ready to be rolled back at Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, to launch the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" on the second Mars Exploration Rover mission. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  7. A subset of Mer1p-dependent introns requires Bud13p for splicing activation and nuclear retention

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Frederick W.; Spingola, Marc

    2006-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mer1p is expressed only during meiosis, and its expression is linked to the splicing of at least three mRNAs: MER2, MER3, and AMA1. Previous evidence suggests that Mer1p activates splicing by directly recruiting snRNPs or stabilizing intermediate splicing complexes formed on pre-mRNA that contains an intronic Mer1p enhancer element. However, some splicing factors, especially accessory/non-snRNP factors, have critical roles in retaining unspliced pre-mRNAs in the nucleus. We tested if Mer1p may indirectly regulate splicing by preventing the export of pre-mRNAs to the cytoplasm and also demonstrated that a second subunit of the Retention and Splicing (RES) complex, Bud13p, has transcript-specific effects on Mer1p-activated splicing. The results indicated that Mer1p can retain unspliced pre-mRNA in the nucleus; however, nuclear retention could not be uncoupled from splicing activation. In the absence of Mer1p, the AMA1 pre-mRNA is exported to the cytoplasm, translated, but not subjected to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) despite a premature stop codon in the intron. These data imply that Mer1p can retain pre-mRNAs in the nucleus only by facilitating their interaction with the spliceosome and that two subunits of the RES complex modulate Mer1p function on two of the three Mer1p-dependent introns. The results also support models for cytoplasmic degradation of unspliced pre-mRNAs that fail to assemble into spliceosomes in yeast. PMID:16738408

  8. Rare k-mer DNA: Identification of sequence motifs and prediction of CpG island and promoter.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Hashim, Ezzeddin Kamil; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-12-21

    Empirical analysis on k-mer DNA has been proven as an effective tool in finding unique patterns in DNA sequences which can lead to the discovery of potential sequence motifs. In an extensive study of empirical k-mer DNA on hundreds of organisms, the researchers found unique multi-modal k-mer spectra occur in the genomes of organisms from the tetrapod clade only which includes all mammals. The multi-modality is caused by the formation of the two lowest modes where k-mers under them are referred as the rare k-mers. The suppression of the two lowest modes (or the rare k-mers) can be attributed to the CG dinucleotide inclusions in them. Apart from that, the rare k-mers are selectively distributed in certain genomic features of CpG Island (CGI), promoter, 5' UTR, and exon. We correlated the rare k-mers with hundreds of annotated features using several bioinformatic tools, performed further intrinsic rare k-mer analyses within the correlated features, and modeled the elucidated rare k-mer clustering feature into a classifier to predict the correlated CGI and promoter features. Our correlation results show that rare k-mers are highly associated with several annotated features of CGI, promoter, 5' UTR, and open chromatin regions. Our intrinsic results show that rare k-mers have several unique topological, compositional, and clustering properties in CGI and promoter features. Finally, the performances of our RWC (rare-word clustering) method in predicting the CGI and promoter features are ranked among the top three, in eight of the CGI and promoter evaluations, among eight of the benchmarked datasets. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Europa with an RPS-Powered Spacecraft Results of the Europa Explorer Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert Dean

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation focuses on the results of the more recent and detailed Europa Explorer (EE) study. Based on the Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) the EE Study was more detailed and reached a modified design point, it re-affirmed all the conclusions reached during the EGE Study. The presentation reviews some of the important considerations of the study, including the trajectory design with earth gravity assists, the radiation considerations, the desired instruments for studying Europa, the total mass available, a conceptual illustration of the spacecraft. The attitude, propulsion and thermal control issues are also addressed. The data communications issues are reviewed. The expectations from the mission are summarized in the conclusion. These include a 90 day operational period, that is likely to continue for over a year; that EE would produce 1000 more observations than the Galileo mission; that EE would carry over 200 kg of instrumentation (including shielding); that EE would return over 21 Gigabits of data per Earth day; there would be about 340kg of unused mass, which could be used for more instrumentation, or a lander; and that this would be designed with currently available technology.

  10. First Results from the Wide Angle Camera of the ROSETTA Mission .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Fornasier, S.; Bertini, I.; Angrilli, F.; Bianchini, G. A.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Parzianello, G.; Zaccariotto, M.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.

    This paper gives a brief description of the Wide Angle Camera (WAC), built by the Center of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS) of the University of Padova for the ESA ROSETTA Mission, of data we have obtained about the new mission targets, and of the first results achieved after the launch in March 2004. The WAC is part of the OSIRIS imaging system, built under the PI-ship of Dr. U. Keller (Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Studies) which comprises also a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) built by the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Spatiale (LAS) of Marseille. CISAS had also the responsibility to build the shutter and the front door mechanism for the NAC. The images show the excellent optical quality of the WAC, exceeding the specifications both in term of encircled energy (80% in one pixel over a FoV of 12×12 sq degree), limiting magnitude (fainter than the 13th in 30s exposure time through a wideband red filter) and amount of distortions.

  11. Current Closure in the Auroral Ionosphere: Results from the Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaeppler, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; LaBelle, J. W.; Dombrowski, M. P.; Lessard, M.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.; Jones, S.; Heinselman, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) mission consisted of two sounding rockets launched nearly simultaneously from Poker Flat Research Range, AK on January 29, 2009 into a dynamic multiple-arc aurora. The ACES rocket mission was designed to observe electrodynamic and plasma parameters above and within the current closure region of the auroral ionosphere. Two well instrumented payloads were flown along very similar magnetic field footprints, at different altitudes, with small temporal separation between both payloads. The higher altitude payload (apogee 360 km), obtained in-situ measurements of electrodynamic and plasma parameters above the current closure region to determine the input signature. The low altitude payload (apogee 130 km), made similar observations within the current closure region. Results are presented comparing observations of the electric fields, magnetic components, and the differential electron energy flux at magnetic footpoints common to both payloads. In situ data is compared to the ground based all-sky imager data, which presents the evolution of the auroral event as the payloads traversed through magnetically similar regions. Current measurements derived from the magnetometers on the high altitude payload observed upward and downward field-aligned currents. The effect of collisions with the neutral atmosphere is investigated to determine it is a significant mechanism to explain discrepancies in the low energy electron flux. The high altitude payload also observed time-dispersed arrivals in the electron flux and perturbations in the electric and magnetic field components, which are indicative of Alfven waves.

  12. Current Closure in the Auroral Ionosphere: Results from the Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaeppler, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; LaBelle, J. W.; Dombrowski, M. P.; Lessard, M.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland D. E.; Jones, S.; Heinselman, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) mission consisted of two sounding rockets launched nearly simultaneously from Poker Flat Research Range, AK on January 29, 2009 into a dynamic multiple-arc aurora. The ACES rocket mission was designed to observe electrodynamic and plasma parameters above and within the current closure region of the auroral ionosphere. Two well instrumented payloads were flown along very similar magnetic field footprints, at different altitudes, with small temporal separation between both payloads. The higher altitude payload (apogee 360 km), obtained in-situ measurements of electrodynamic and plasma parameters above the current closure region to determine the input signature. The low altitude payload (apogee 130 km), made similar observations within the current closure region. Results are presented comparing observations of the electric fields, magnetic components, and the differential electron energy flux at magnetic footpoints common to both payloads. In situ data is compared to the ground based all-sky imager data, which presents the evolution of the auroral event as the payloads traversed through magnetically similar regions. Current measurements derived from the magnetometers on the high altitude payload observed upward and downward field-aligned currents. The effect of collisions with the neutral atmosphere is investigated to determine if it is a significant mechanism to explain discrepancies in the low energy electron flux. The high altitude payload also observed time-dispersed arrivals in the electron flux and perturbations in the electric and magnetic field components, which are indicative of Alfven waves.

  13. Preliminary results of the mission profile life test of a 30 cm Hg bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; James, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with some preliminary results of the Mission Profile Life Test planned to conduct a program of long-term test segments of 30-cm diameter thrusters and power processing units under computer control. Thruster performance data and other operational characteristics taken at various times during a test segment are compared and the results are evaluated in light of the life-timing mechanisms. Thruster control algorithms are also presented. The first test segment completed 2700 hr of a planned 4000 hr test with a J-series 30-cm thruster. The last 1600 hr used a functional model power processing unit (PPU) operated in vacuum. The thruster-PPU was controlled by a computer with software developed to control start-ups, throttling, and variety of off-normal conditions.

  14. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula.

  15. The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC): Mission overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Oberpfaffenhofen). The activities from Kiruna will be split into two intensive phases, with a focus on gravity wave observations in January 2016. Mission and flight planning is supported by a variety of model tools. The airborne field observations will be complemented by ground-based activities (e.g. lidars, radars and radio soundings) and satellite observations (e.g. CALIPSO, MLS and ACE-FTS). The first phase was concluded by Dec. 21 with two long flights, one dedicated to SALSA objectives towards the Atlantic sea, the other, designed as early winter survey, went from Oberpfaffenhofen northwards, around Spitsbergen at 81°N, and back over Scandinavia. With both flights the very unusual dynamical situation in Dec 2015 could be addressed. This Arctic stratospheric winter started to be exceptionally cold and the early winter measurements from our flights provide an excellent reference for the upcoming observations planned during the Kiruna phases. The presentation is intended to give a brief overview of the scientific objectives, the payload, and the mission, along with first results.

  16. A Comparative Study of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Adverse Outcome in Patients Hospitalised with Acute Respiratory Disease Due to MERS Coronavirus or Other Causes

    PubMed Central

    Garbati, Musa A.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Fang, Vicky J.; Skakni, Leila; Joseph, Mercy; Wani, Tariq A.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Peiris, Malik; Hakawi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS) first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR. Health care workers (HCW) with MERS were compared with MERS patients who were not health care workers. One hundred and fifty nine patients were eligible for inclusion. Forty eight tested positive for MERS CoV, 44 (92%) being hospital acquired infections and 23 were HCW. There were 111 MERS-CoV negative patients with acute respiratory illnesses included in this study as “negative controls”. Patient with confirmed MERS-CoV infection were not clinically distinguishable from those with negative MERS-CoV RT-PCR results although diarrhoea was commoner in MERS patients. A high level of suspicion in initiating laboratory tests for MERS-CoV is therefore indicated. Variables associated with adverse outcome were older age and diabetes as a co-morbid illness. Interestingly, co-morbid illnesses other than diabetes were not significantly associated with poor outcome. Health care workers with MERS had a markedly better clinical outcome compared to non HCW MERS patients. PMID:27812197

  17. Design and Performance of the MER (Mars Exploration Rovers) Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Ewell, Richard C.; Hoskin, Julie J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) program posed a significant engineering and technology challenge. Now that the Rovers have operated beyond their original design life of three months by nearly a factor of four it is clear that the challenge was met and far exceeded. A key to the success of MER has been the enhanced power provided by the cruise and Rover solar arrays. Benefiting from a nearly 50% improvement in cell efficiency compared to the single junction GaAs cells used on Pathfinder, the MER designs were subject to many constraints both in design and in operation. These constraints included limited available panel area, changing illumination levels and temperatures, and variable shadowing, atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation for the rovers. This paper will discuss those constraints and their impact on the design. In addition, flight data will be provided to assess the performance achieved during the mission.

  18. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  19. Results of the mission profile life test. [for J-series mercury ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Trump, G. E.; James, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven J series 30-cm diameter thrusters have been tested in segments of up to 5,070 hr, for 14,541 hr in the Mission Profile Life Test facility. Test results have indicated the basic thruster design to be consistent with the lifetime goal of 15,000 hr at 2-A beam. The only areas of concern identified which appear to require additional verification testing involve contamination of mercury propellant isolators, which may be due to facility constituents, and the ability of specially covered surfaces to contain sputtered material and prevent flake formation. The ability of the SCR, series resonant inverter power processor to operate the J series thruster and autonomous computer control of the thruster/processor system were demonstrated.

  20. Pluto Revealed: First Results from the Historic 1st Fly-By Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kimberly Ennico

    2015-01-01

    On July 14, 2015, after a 9.5 year trek across the solar system, NASAs New Horizons spacecraft successfully flew by the dwarf planet Pluto and its system of moons, taking imagery, spectra and in-situ particle data. Data obtained by New Horizons will address numerous outstanding questions on the geology and composition of Pluto and Charon, plus measurements of Plutos atmosphere, and provide revised understanding of the formation and evolution of Pluto and Charon and its smaller moons. This data set is an invaluable glimpse into the outer Third Zone of the Solar System. Data from the intense July 14th fly-by sequence will be downlinked to Earth over a period of 16 months, the duration set by the large data set (over 60 GBits), tempered by limited transmission bandwidth rates (1-2 kbps) and sharing the three 70m DSN assets. This presentation summarizes the New Horizons mission and early science results.

  1. In Flight Calibration of the Magnetospheric Multisale Mission Fast Plasma Investigation: Initial Flight Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A.; Gliese, U.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Rager, A. C.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) combines data from eight spectrometers, each with four deflection states, into a single map of the sky. Any systematic discontinuity, artifact, noise source, etc. present in this map may be incorrectly interpreted as legitimate data and incorrect conclusions reached. For this reason it is desirable to have all spectrometers return the same output for a given input, and for this output to be low in noise sources or other errors. While many missions use statistical analyses of data to calibrate instruments in flight, this process is difficult with FPI for two reasons: 1. Only a small fraction of high resolution data is downloaded to the ground due to bandwidth limitations and 2: The data that is downloaded is, by definition, scientifically interesting and therefore not ideal for calibration. FPI uses a suite of new tools to calibrate in flight. A new method for detection system ground calibration has been developed involving sweeping the detection threshold to fully define the pulse height distribution. This method has now been extended for use in flight as a means to calibrate MCP voltage and threshold (together forming the operating point) of the Dual Electron Spectrometers (DES) and Dual Ion Spectrometers (DIS). A method of comparing higher energy data (which has low fractional voltage error) to lower energy data (which has a higher fractional voltage error) will be used to calibrate the high voltage outputs. Finally, a comparison of pitch angle distributions will be used to find remaining discrepancies among sensors. Initial flight results from the four MMS observatories will be discussed here. Specifically, data from initial commissioning, inter-instrument cross calibration and interference testing, and initial Phase1A routine calibration results. Success and performance of the in flight calibration as well as deviation from the ground calibration will be discussed.

  2. Cosmological results from the Planck space mission and their comparison with data from the WMAP and BICEP2 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    We review basic results from the European Space Agency's Planck space mission, which are of crucial significance to understanding the origin and evolution of the Universe. The main stages of astrophysical and cosmological data processing pipelines are considered. The Planck results are compared with the data from the NASA WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) space mission and the BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization 2) experiment.

  3. Results from Navigator GPS Flight Testing for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulich, Tyler D.; Bamford, William A.; Wintermitz, Luke M. B.; Price, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent delivery of the first Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission spacecraft is a high water mark crowning a decade of research and development in high-altitude space-based GPS. Preceding MMS delivery, the engineering team had developed receivers to support multiple missions and mission studies, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), above the constellation navigation for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) proof-of-concept studies, cis-Lunar navigation with rapid re-acquisition during re-entry for the Orion Project and an orbital demonstration on the Space Shuttle during the Hubble Servicing Mission (HSM-4).

  4. Translating MAPGEN to ASPEN for MER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg R.; Knight, Russell L.; Lenda, Matthew; Maldague, Pierre F.

    2013-01-01

    This software translates MAPGEN (Europa and APGEN) domains to ASPEN, and the resulting domain can be used to perform planning for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER). In other words, this is a conversion of two distinct planning languages (both declarative and procedural) to a third (declarative) planning language in order to solve the problem of faithful translation from mixed-domain representations into the ASPEN Modeling Language. The MAPGEN planning system is an example of a hybrid procedural/declarative system where the advantages of each are leveraged to produce an effective planner/scheduler for MER tactical planning. The adaptation of the planning system (ASPEN) was investigated, and, with some translation, much of the procedural knowledge encoding is amenable to declarative knowledge encoding. The approach was to compose translators from the core languages used for adapting MAGPEN, which consists of Europa and APGEN. Europa is a constraint- based planner/scheduler where domains are encoded using a declarative model. APGEN is also constraint-based, in that it tracks constraints on resources and states and other variables. Domains are encoded in both constraints and code snippets that execute according to a forward sweep through the plan. Europa and APGEN communicate to each other using proxy activities in APGEN that represent constraints and/or tokens in Europa. The composition of a translator from Europa to ASPEN was fairly straightforward, as ASPEN is also a declarative planning system, and the specific uses of Europa for the MER domain matched ASPEN s native encoding fairly closely. On the other hand, translating from APGEN to ASPEN was considerably more involved. On the surface, the types of activities and resources one encodes in APGEN appear to match oneto- one to the activities, state variables, and resources in ASPEN. But, when looking into the definitions of how resources are profiled and activities are expanded, one sees code snippets that access

  5. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies Associated with Lunar Craters: Initial Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Melosh, H. J.; Thomason, C. J.; Egan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    During its primary mapping phase, the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to unprecedented resolution, providing a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 420 and quantitatively useful results to a spatial resolution of at least 20 km. Anomalies associated with impact craters, from large mascon basins down to crater diameters less than 30 km, are the dominant features of a GRAIL degree (l) 420 free-air gravity map of the Moon. Here we focus on the Bouguer gravity anomalies associated with intermediate-sized craters, in the diameter range of ~30-230 km. Results from Apollo-era gravity and topography data analyses suggested that the behavior of crater Bouguer anomalies is age-dependent, but the crater database used then was extremely sparse (12 craters). With the GRAIL gravity field we have a vastly larger set of craters to work with and to date have examined ~200 craters. We calculate a finite-amplitude Bouguer correction with a semi-analytical spatial Green's function sampling a spherical harmonic representation of the lunar shape matched to the gravity bandwidth used (l = 2-300). The resulting crater Bouguer anomalies, averaged over the inner part of each crater, fall in a range of approximately -40 to +40 mGal. We compare Bouguer anomalies against lunar age, crater diameter, regional elevation, geographical locale, and geological setting. Results are interpreted in terms of processes that have operated in the lunar crust and upper mantle.

  6. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  7. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  8. First results from experiments performed with the ESA Anthrorack during the D-2 spacelab mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, A.

    1996-06-01

    In 1993 four astronauts performed physiological experiments on the payload "Anthrorack" during the second German Spacelab mission D-2. The Anthrorack set-up is a Spacelab double rack developed under the management of the European Space Agency. It consists of an ECHO machine, a respiratory monitoring system (gas analyzer with flow meter), a blood centrifuge, an ergometer, a finger blood pressure device, ECG, body impedance measurement device and a respiratory inductance plethysmograph. Experiment-specific equipment was used as well. Nineteen investigators performed experiments in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, fluid-renal and nutritional physiology area. Results on central venous pressure, ocular pressure, vascular resistance, cardiac output, tissue thickness and orthostatic intolerance are presented in the cardiovascular area. In the pulmonary area first results are mentioned on O 2 transport perfusion and ventilation distribution and breathing pattern. From the fluid-renal experiments, data from diuresis, sodium excretion and hormonal determinations are given. Finally results from glucose metabolism and nitrogen turnover experiments are presented.

  9. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T.E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Haberle, R.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J.A.; Iagnemma, K.D.; Jolliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Knudson, A.T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rice, M.S.; Schroder, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date.

  10. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, J. W.; Bell, J. F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Guinness, E. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J. A.; Iagnemma, K. D.; Jolliff, B. L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knoll, A. H.; Knudson, A. T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S. M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, M. S.; Schröder, C.; Soderblom, L. A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R. J.; Wolff, M. J.

    2011-02-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date.

  11. OGO program summary, supplement 1. [updated bibliography for all OGO missions and scientific results from OGO 5 and 6 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Scientific results from OGO-5 and OGO-6 experiments are summarized and approximately 200 citations are included to update the 1975 OGO bibliography. Personal author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included. The supplement follows the same format as that of the OGO Program Summary; it does not repeat the finalized information in the original publication, which should be consulted for indexes of experiments, experimenters, institutions, and the glossary of abbreviations and acronyms.

  12. The Functional Task Test: Results from the One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; May-Phillips, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight causes astronauts to experience alterations in multiple physiological systems including sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. Some or all of these changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The goal of our recently completed Functional Task Test (FTT) study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. The FTT is comprised of seven functional tests and a corresponding set of interdisciplinary physiological measures specifically targeting the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscular changes associated with exposure to spaceflight. Both Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts were tested before and after spaceflight. Additionally, we conducted a supporting study in which subjects performed the FTT protocol before and after 70 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest, an analog for spaceflight. Two groups of bed rest subjects were studied: one group who performed aerobic and resistive exercise during bed rest using protocols similar to astronauts and one group who served as non-exercise controls. The bed rest analog allowed us to isolate the impact of body unloading without other spaceflight environmental factors on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance, and then to compare those results with the results obtained in our spaceflight study. As an extension to the FTT study we collected data from one ISS crewmember who experienced 340 days in space using the same FTT protocol used previously to test spaceflight and bed rest subjects. Data were collected three times preflight and 1.7, 7.5 and 36.5 days after

  13. Saturn's icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R.N.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P.D.; McCord, T.B.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R.M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper (Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/F continua at 0.55 ??m, 1.822 ??m and 3.547 ??m, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  14. 3B11-N, a monoclonal antibody against MERS-CoV, reduces lung pathology in rhesus monkeys following intratracheal inoculation of MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Reed F.; Bagci, Ulas; Keith, Lauren; Tang, Xianchun; Mollura, Daniel J.; Zeitlin, Larry; Qin, Jing; Huzella, Louis; Bartos, Christopher J.; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do H.; Paulty, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Johnson, Joshua C.; Pettitt, James; Ork, Britini L.; Solomon, Jeffrey [Clinical Research Directorate and others

    2016-03-15

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified in 2012 as the causative agent of a severe, lethal respiratory disease occurring across several countries in the Middle East. To date there have been over 1600 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS-CoV in 26 countries with a case fatality rate of 36%. Given the endemic region, it is possible that MERS-CoV could spread during the annual Hajj pilgrimage, necessitating countermeasure development. In this report, we describe the clinical and radiographic changes of rhesus monkeys following infection with 5×10{sup 6} PFU MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012. Two groups of NHPs were treated with either a human anti-MERS monoclonal antibody 3B11-N or E410-N, an anti-HIV antibody. MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 infection resulted in quantifiable changes by computed tomography, but limited other clinical signs of disease. 3B11-N treated subjects developed significantly reduced lung pathology when compared to infected, untreated subjects, indicating that this antibody may be a suitable MERS-CoV treatment. - Highlights: • MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 challenge of rhesus monkeys results in a mild disease. • CT can be used to monitor disease progression to aid models of human disease. • Treatment with the human monoclonal antibody 3B11-N resulted in decreased disease.

  15. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 43 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements...

  16. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 43 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements...

  17. Recent Results From The Nasa Earth Science Terra Mission and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Earth Sciences Enterprise has made some remarkable strides in recent times in using developing, implementing, and utilizing spaceborne observations to better understand how the Earth works as a coupled, interactive system of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Notable examples include the Upper Atmosphere Research (UARS) Satellite, the Topology Ocean Experiment (TOPEX) mission, Landsat-7, SeaWiFS, the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), Quickscatt, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and, quite recently, the Terra'/Earth Observing System-1 mission. The Terra mission, for example, represents a major step forward in providing sensors that offer considerable advantages and progress over heritage instruments. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflections (ASTER) radiometer, and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometer are the instruments involved. Early indications in March indicate that each of these instruments are working well and will be augmenting data bases from heritage instruments as well as producing new, unprecedented observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features. Several missions will follow the Terra mission as the Earth Observing mission systems complete development and go into operation. These missions include EOS PM-1/'Aqua', Icesat, Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL), Jason/TOPEX Follow-on, the Chemistry mission, etc. As the Earth Observing systems completes its first phase in about 2004 a wealth of data enabling better understanding of the Earth and the management of its resources will have been provided. Considerable thought is beginning to be placed on what advances in technology can be implemented that will enable further advances in the early part of the 21st century; e.g., in the time from of 2020. Concepts such as

  18. Results from Archive Data From SMART-1 Combined with Recent Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    We highlight new results from combined data analysis using SMART-1 archive with data from other recent lunar missions. We concentrate on results obtained on the lunar farside, the poles and about the coupling between impact, volcanic and tectonic processes. SMART-1 demonstrated the use of Solar Electric Propulsion for deep space, tested new technologies for spacecraft and instruments miniaturisation, and provided an opportunity for science [1-24] until impact on 3 September 2006. To date, 77 refereed papers and more than 330 conference or technical papers have been published based on SMART-1 (see ADS on SMART-1 scitech website). The SMART-1 data are accessible on the ESA Planetary Science Archive PSA [13]. The lunar North and South polar illumination was mapped and monitored over the entire year, permitting to identify "SMART-1 peaks of quasi-eternal light", then charcterised with subsequent missions. The surface mineralogy maps of the central and northern parts of the South-Pole Aitken basin, was based on Clementine and SMART-1 AMIE images for additional geomorphological and stratigraphic information. [1] Foing etal (2001) EMP 85-523 [2] Racca et al (2002) EMP 85-379 [3] Racca et al. (2002) PSS 50-1323 [4] Grande et al. (2003) PSS 51-427 [5] Dunkin et al. (2003) PSS 51-435 [6] Huovelin et al. (2002) PSS 50-1345 [7] Shkuratov et al (2003) JGRE 108-E4-1 [8] Foing et al (2003) ASR 31-2323 [9] Grande et al (2007) PSS 55-494 [10] Pinet et al (2005) PSS 53-1309 [11] Josset etal (2006) ASR 37-14 [12] Foing et al (2006) ASR 37-6 [13] Heather et al, EPSC-DPS 2011-873 [13b] http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa [14] Muinonen et al (2011) A&A531-150 [15] Souchon et al EPSC-DPS 2011-928 [16] Grieger (2010) cosp 38-417 [17] Bussey et al (2011) LPICO-1621-5 [18] Pluchino et al MSAItS 16-152 [19] Qiao (2011) AcASn 52, 539 [20] Vaananen et al (2009) SolarPhys 260-479 [21] Alha et al (2012)NIMPA 664, 358 [22] Bhattacharya et al EPSC-DPS 2011-1842 [23] Burchell et al (2010) Icarus207-28 [24

  19. The mission events graphic generator software: A small tool with big results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Leibee, Jack; Scaffidi, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Utilization of graphics has long been a useful methodology for many aspects of spacecraft operations. A personal computer based software tool that implements straight-forward graphics and greatly enhances spacecraft operations is presented. This unique software tool is the Mission Events Graphic Generator (MEGG) software which is used in support of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project. MEGG reads the HST mission schedule and generates a graphical timeline.

  20. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous

  1. Results from VIRTIS on board Venus Express after the end of the mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; VIRTIS Venus Express Team

    After more than 8 years since the orbit insertion, the Venus Express mission is now at its end of mission operations. VIRTIS aboard the Venus Express spacecraft has addressed a significant amount of scientific results from the surface up to the upper atmosphere, in terms of mapping, composition, structure and dynamics. The VIRTIS instrument consists of two channels: VIRTIS-M, an imaging spectrometer with moderate spectral resolution in the range from 0.25 to 5.2 mu m and VIRTIS-H, a high spectral resolution spectrometer in the range from 2 to 5 mu m co-aligned with the field of view of -M \\citep{Piccioni2007a,Drossart2007a}. The resolution of VIRTIS-M is 2 nm from 0.25 to 1 mu m, and 10 nm from 1 to 5.2 mu m. The resolution of VIRTIS-H is about 2 nm. The atmosphere above the clouds has been observed both on day and night sides, in solar reflection and thermal emission in nadir geometry \\citep{Ignatiev2009, Cottini2012, Peralta2012, Peralta2009}. Limb observations provided O2\\citep{Piccioni2009, Garcia2009a, Gerard2013, Migliorini2013a, Gerard2008, Gerard2009}, OH \\citep{Piccioni2008,Gerard2010,Soret2010,Soret2012}, NO \\citep{Garcia2009b}, CO2 \\citep{Drossart2007b,Lopez-Valverde2011} and CO \\citep{Gilli2009,Gilli2015,Gilli2011} emissions, through nightglow and fluorescence observations. Spectroscopy of the 4-5 mu m range gave access to the cloud structure in the 60-95 km altitude levels \\citep{Irwin2008a,Grassi2014, Grassi2008,Grassi2010,Luz2011}. The deeper atmospheric windows, limited by CO2 and H2O bands were accessible only in thermal emission on the night side. The sounded levels at 1.7 and 2.3 mu m were limited respectively to 30-20 km altitude \\citep{Barstow2012,Bezard2009,Marcq2008a,Satoh2009,Tsang2009, Tsang2010,Tsang2008,Wilson2008,Wilson2009}, while at shorter wavelengths (1.18, 1.10, 1.01, 0.9 and 0.85 mu m), the hot surface of Venus was seen through the scattering clouds \\citep{Mueller2009,Helbert2008,Arnold2008a,Smrekar2010,Mueller2012

  2. Genetic analysis of transcriptional activation and repression in the Tn21 mer operon. [Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O. )

    1989-07-01

    Transcription of the Tn21 mercury resistance operon (mer) is controlled by the toxic metal cation Hg(II). This control is mediated by the product of the merR gene, a 144-amino-acid protein which represses transcription of the structural genes (merTPCAD) in the absence of Hg(II) and activates transcription in the presence of Hg(II). We have used a mer-lac transcriptional fusion to obtain regulatory mutants in this metal-responsive system. Some mutants were defective in Hg(II)-induced activation while retaining repression function, others were defective in repression but not activation, and some had lost both functions. Mutations in three of the four cysteine residues of merR resulted in complete loss of Hg(II)-inducible activation but retention of the repressor function. Other lesions adjacent to or very near these cysteines exhibited severely reduced activation and also retained repressor function. There were two putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains in merR, and mutants in each had very different phenotypes. A partially dominant mutation in the more amino-terminal region of the two putative HTH regions resulted in loss of both activation and repression, consistent with a role for this region in DNA binding. Mutations in the more centrally located HTH region resulted only in loss of Hg(II)-induced activation. Lesions in the central and in the carboxy-terminal regions of merR exhibited both Hg(II)-independent and Hg(II)-dependent transcriptional activation. The sole cis-acting mutant obtained with this operon fusion strategy, a down-promoter mutation, lies in a highly conserved base in the -35 region of the merTPCAD promoter.

  3. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Early Results from Gale Crater Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatow, I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D.; Crisp, J. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malin, M. C.; Meyer, M. A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD; Cruise measurements began on December 6, 2011). The MARDI descent camera is being evaluated for use in the surface mission. The Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is responsible for the acquisition of rock and soil samples from the Martian surface and the processing of these samples into fine particles that are then distributed to the analytical science instruments (CheMin and SAM). The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments (APXS, MAHLI) on rock and soil targets. SA/SPaH consists of a robotic arm and turret-mounted devices on the end of the arm, which include a drill, brush, soil scoop, sample processing device, and the mechanical and electrical interfaces to the two contact science instruments. SA/SPaH also includes two spare drill bits, five organic check material samples, and an observation tray, which are all mounted on the front of the rover, and inlet cover mechanisms that are placed over the SAM and CheMin solid sample inlet tubes on the rover top deck. Recent mission results will be discussed. The first month or two of the mission is designed as a Commissioning Activity Period (CAP) in which each science instrument and rover subsystem is tested in sequence, but done in a fashion that insures science measurements also are obtained.

  4. Behavior of Shape Memory Epoxy Foams in Microgravity: Experimental Results of STS-134 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Squeo, Erica Anna; Dolce, Ferdinando; Mascetti, Gabriele; Bertolotto, Delfina; Villadei, Walter; Ganga, Pier Luigi; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2012-09-01

    Shape memory epoxy foams were used for an experiment on the International Space Station to evaluate the feasibility of their use for building multi-functional composite structures. A small equipment was designed and built to simulate the actuation of simple devices in micro-gravity conditions: three different configurations (compression, bending and torsion) were chosen during the memory step of the foams so as to produce their recovery on ISS. Two systems were used for the experimentation to avoid damages of the flight model during laboratory tests; however a single ground experiment was performed also on the flight model before the mission. Micro-gravity does not affect the ability of the foams to recover their shape but it poses strong limits for the heating system design because of the difference in heat transfer on earth and in orbit. A full recovery of the foam samples was not achieved due to some limitations in the maximum allowable temperature on ISS for safety reasons: anyway a 70% recovery was also measured at a temperature of 110°C. Ground laboratory experiments showed that 100% recovery could be reached by increasing the maximum temperature to 120°C. Experiment results have provided many useful information for the designing of a new structural composite actuator by using shape memory foams.

  5. Flight test results from a supercritical mission adaptive wing with smooth variable camber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke; Webb, Lannie D.; Friend, Edward L.; Lokos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The mission adaptive wing (MAW) consisted of leading- and trailing-edge variable-camber surfaces that could be deflected in flight to provide a near-ideal wing camber shape for any flight condition. These surfaces featured smooth, flexible upper surfaces and fully enclosed lower surfaces, distinguishing them from conventional flaps that have discontinuous surfaces and exposed or semiexposed mechanisms. Camber shape was controlled by either a manual or automatic flight control system. The wing and aircraft were extensively instrumented to evaluate the local flow characteristics and the total aircraft performance. This paper discusses the interrelationships between the wing pressure, buffet, boundary-layer and flight deflection measurement system analyses and describes the flight maneuvers used to obtain the data. The results are for a wing sweep of 26 deg, a Mach number of 0.85, leading and trailing-edge cambers (delta(sub LE/TE)) of 0/2 and 5/10, and angles of attack from 3.0 deg to 14.0 deg. For the well-behaved flow of the delta(sub LE/TE) = 0/2 camber, a typical cruise camber shape, the local and global data are in good agreement with respect to the flow properties of the wing. For the delta(sub LE/TE) = 5/10 camber, a maneuvering camber shape, the local and global data have similar trends and conclusions, but not the clear-cut agreement observed for cruise camber.

  6. First experimental results of very high accuracy centroiding measurements for the neat astrometric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Preis, O.; Henault, F.; Kern, P.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Delboulbé, A.; Behar, E.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Cara, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, E.; Lagage, P. O.; Léger, A.; LeDuigou, J. M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2013-09-01

    NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. In this paper we present the metrology and the pseudo stellar sources sub-systems, we present a performance model and an error budget of the experiment and we report the present status of the demonstration. Finally we also present our first results: the experiment had its first light in July 2013 and a first set of data was taken in air. The analysis of this first set of data showed that we can already measure the pixel positions with an accuracy of about 1e-4 pixel.

  7. A glimpse of new results - The preliminary Solar Maximum Mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, R.

    1981-08-01

    The most significant results of the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite's seven experiments are presented. These are: (1) the coronograph/polarimeter, which showed that estimates of total flare energies based solely on observed radiative fluxes can be mistaken by up to several orders of magnitude; (2) the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter, which demonstrated that although the pre-flare state resembles a small loop of emerging flux rising into an overlying complex of magnetic loops, the detailed evolution of loop brightening and plasma motion does not do so; (3) the soft X-ray polychromator, which showed that line widths are strongly variable during the course of a flare, starting with rather broad profiles and narrowing significantly after the hard X-ray impulsive event; (4) the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer, which showed emission regions characterized by a hard spectrum to be spatially associated with, and to overlie, the brightest H-alpha emission patches; (5) the hard X-ray burst spectrometer, which detected persistent intensity fluctuations significant down to the 100 msec level and spectral variability down to a time scale of seconds; (6) the gamma ray spectrometer, whose data impose a non-trivial constraint on particle acceleration mechanisms anticipated at the time of the Skylab Solar Flare workshop; and (7) the active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor, which demonstrated fluctuations of the total solar irradiance at the 0.05 per cent level.

  8. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): Results of the Mission Concept Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; EASCO Team

    2011-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are two large-scale structures that originate from the Sun and affect the heliosphere in general and Earth in particular. While CIRs are generally detected by in-situ plasma signatures, CMEs are remote-sensed when they are still close to the Sun. The current understanding of CMEs primarily come from the SOHO and STEREO missions. In spite of the enormous progress made, there are some serious deficiencies in these missions. For example, these missions did not carry all the necessary instruments (STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer). From the Sun-Earth line, SOHO was not well-suited for observing Earth-directed CMEs because of the occulting disk. STEREO's angle with the Sun-Earth line is changing constantly, so only a limited number of Earth-directed CMEs were observed in profile. In order to overcome these difficulties, we proposed a news L5 mission concept known as the Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO). The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The aim of the MDL study was to see how the scientific payload consisting of ten instruments can be accommodated in the spacecraft bus, what propulsion system can transfer the payload to the Sun-Earth L5, and what launch vehicles are appropriate. The study found that all the ten instruments can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle such as Taurus II with enhanced faring. The study also found that a hybrid propulsion system consisting of an ion thruster (using 55 kg of Xenon) and hydrazine ( 10 kg) is adequate to place the payload at L5. The transfer will take about 2 years and the science mission will last for 4 years around the next solar maximum in 2025.

  9. Computational Performance Assessment of k-mer Counting Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Miguel; Vera, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    This article is about the assessment of several tools for k-mer counting, with the purpose to create a reference framework for bioinformatics researchers to identify computational requirements, parallelizing, advantages, disadvantages, and bottlenecks of each of the algorithms proposed in the tools. The k-mer counters evaluated in this article were BFCounter, DSK, Jellyfish, KAnalyze, KHMer, KMC2, MSPKmerCounter, Tallymer, and Turtle. Measured parameters were the following: RAM occupied space, processing time, parallelization, and read and write disk access. A dataset consisting of 36,504,800 reads was used corresponding to the 14th human chromosome. The assessment was performed for two k-mer lengths: 31 and 55. Obtained results were the following: pure Bloom filter-based tools and disk-partitioning techniques showed a lesser RAM use. The tools that took less execution time were the ones that used disk-partitioning techniques. The techniques that made the major parallelization were the ones that used disk partitioning, hash tables with lock-free approach, or multiple hash tables.

  10. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T.E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Haberle, R.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J.A.; Iagnemma, K.D.; Jolliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Knudson, A.T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rice, M.S.; Schroder, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Solar and Solar-Wind Composition Results from the Genesis Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. Although many substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These objectives include He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solar-wind regimes, and 15N/14N and 18O/17O/16O to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have now been analyzed. Helium results show clear evidence of isotopic fractionation between CH and IS samples, consistent with simplistic Coulomb drag theory predictions of fractionation between the photosphere and different solar-wind regimes, though fractionation by wave heating is also a possible explanation. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of an additional, energetic component in solar wind trapped in lunar grains and meteorites. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are in the process of being measured.

  12. Solar and Solar-Wind Composition Results from the Genesis Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. Although many substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These objectives include He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solar-wind regimes, and 15N/14N and 18O/17O/16O to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have now been analyzed. Helium results show clear evidence of isotopic fractionation between CH and IS samples, consistent with simplistic Coulomb drag theory predictions of fractionation between the photosphere and different solar-wind regimes, though fractionation by wave heating is also a possible explanation. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of an additional, energetic component in solar wind trapped in lunar grains and meteorites. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are in the process of being measured.

  13. Determining geographical spread pattern of MERS-CoV by distance method using Kimura model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiroch, Siti; Rohmatullah, Arif

    2017-03-01

    MERS-CoV or generally called as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, a respiratory disease syndrome caused by a corona virus that attacks the respiratory tract ranging from mild to severe acute indication of fever, cough and shortness of breath. The cases happened relate to the countries in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East) and there were 356 deaths have been reported due to the spread of the epidemic MERS. The data used in the case of MERS are the data DNA sequences taken from Genbank, the online database of the United States that stores the results of molecular biological experiments from all over the world (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). In this case, bioinformatics plays an important role of reading sequences of DNA and genetic information by using the main device in the form of software that is supported by the availability of the Internet, while the analysis there in made and proven with mathematical methods. In similar research conducted by molecular biologists and physicians, the process of DNA sequencing is done with software that is already available like BLAST. In order to determine the MERS geographical distribution patterns in the Arabian Peninsula is done with program Clustal W, Bayesian, Phylip, etc. In this study, the writer use the Matlab simulation for all processes starting sequence alignment, counting the number of transitions and transversion substitutions for each sequence and its location up to the process of forming a phylogenetic tree that figures out the pattern of spread of the epidemic MERS. Mathematical analysis performed on a decline in the formula is to find Kimura evolutionary models and the process of forming a phylogenetic tree (the pattern of the epidemic MERS distribution) with neighbor joining algorithm. Finally it was obtained the pattern of geographical spread with 6 groups epidemic of MERS which ultimately turns out that all the MERS viruses that were spread in the Arabian Peninsula everything are almost the same as

  14. Solar and solar-wind composition results from the genesis mission

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A.; Heber, V.; Grimberg, A.; Wieler, R.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2007-02-20

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September, 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole, interstream, and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. While many of the substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These include noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solarwind regimes, and the nitrogen and oxygen isotope ( 18O/17O/16O) ratios to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have been analyzed to date. The regime compositions are so far ambiguous on the occurrence of the type of isotopic fractionation expected from Coulomb drag acceleration. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of a separate solar component. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are still in the process of being measured.

  15. Some Results of the Educational Experiment APIS (Cervantes Mission on Board ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Pablo; Barahona, Sergio; Sanz-Andres, Angel

    2009-07-01

    Some results of the analysis of the pictures taken along the performance of the Análisis de Propiedades Inerciales de Sólidos, Analysis of the Inertia Properties of Solid Bodies (APIS) experiment carried out in the Cervantes mission on board ISS, are presented. APIS was an educational experiment devoted to take advantage of the unique conditions of absence of relative gravity forces of a space platform such as ISS, to show some of the characteristics of the free rotational motion of a solid body, which are impossible to carry out on earth. This field of experimental research has application to aerospace engineering science (e.g. attitude control of spacecrafts), to astrophysical sciences (e.g. state of rotation and tumbling motions of asteroids) and to engineering education. To avoid the effect of the ambient atmosphere loads on the motion, the test body is placed inside a sphere, which reduces the effect of the aerodynamic forces to just friction. The drastic reduction of the effect of the surrounding air during the short duration of the experimental sequences allows us to compare the actual motion with the known solutions for the solid body rotation in vacuum. In this paper, some selected, relevant sequences of the sphere enclosing a body with a nominal cylindrical inertia tensor, put into rotation by the astronaut, are shown; the main problems to extract the information concerning the characteristic parameters of the motion are outlined, and some of the results obtained concerning the motion of the test probe are included, which show what seems to be a curious and unexpected solution of the Euler equations for the solid body rotation in vacuum, without energy dissipation, when the angular momentum is almost perpendicular to the axisymmetry axis.

  16. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Opportunity Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity was expected to accumulate a sufficient quantity of dust after ninety Martian days (sols) such that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Opportunity continues to operate on the Martian surface for over 4000 sols (over six Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced six Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a method to scientifically estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Meridiani Planum over the course of the entire mission to date.

  17. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Spirit Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Johnson, J. R.; Cantor, B. A.; Stella, P. M.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit was expected to accumulate so much dust after ninety Martian days (sols) that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Spirit carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols (over three Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to quantitatively estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Gusev Crater over the course of the entire mission.

  18. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens.

  19. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  20. Histopathology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronovirus (MERS-CoV) infection - clinicopathological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Alsaad, Khaled O; Hajeer, Ali H; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Al Moaiqel, Mohammed; Al Oudah, Nourah; Al Ajlan, Abdulaziz; AlJohani, Sameera; Alsolamy, Sami; Gmati, Giamal E; Balkhy, Hanan; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Baharoon, Salim A; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2017-08-31

    The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in human are not sufficiently described. The aims of this study were to explore and define the spectrum of histological and ultrastructural pathological changes affecting various organs in a patient with MERS-CoV infection and represent a base of MERS-CoV histopathology. We analyzed the postmortem histopathological findings and investigated viral particles localization in the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tissue by transmission electron microscopic examination in a 33-year-old male patient of T-cell lymphoma, who acquired MERS-CoV infection. Tissue needle biopsies were obtained from brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. All samples were collected within 45 minutes from death to reduce tissue decomposition and artefact. Histopathological examination showed necrotizing pneumonia, pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage, acute kidney injury, portal and lobular hepatitis and myositis with muscle atrophic changes. The brain and heart were histologically unremarkable. Ultrastructurally, viral particles were localized in the pneumocytes, pulmonary macrophages, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and macrophages infiltrating the skeletal muscles. The results highlight the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary pathological changes of MERS-CoV infection and provide the first evidence of the viral presence in human renal tissue, which suggests tissue tropism for MERS-CoV in kidney. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A.; Corman, Victor M.; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F.; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Wernery, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein–specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV–neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases. PMID:24655412

  2. Gerbil: a fast and memory-efficient k-mer counter with GPU-support.

    PubMed

    Erbert, Marius; Rechner, Steffen; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    A basic task in bioinformatics is the counting of k-mers in genome sequences. Existing k-mer counting tools are most often optimized for small k < 32 and suffer from excessive memory resource consumption or degrading performance for large k. However, given the technology trend towards long reads of next-generation sequencers, support for large k becomes increasingly important. We present the open source k-mer counting software Gerbil that has been designed for the efficient counting of k-mers for k ≥ 32. Our software is the result of an intensive process of algorithm engineering. It implements a two-step approach. In the first step, genome reads are loaded from disk and redistributed to temporary files. In a second step, the k-mers of each temporary file are counted via a hash table approach. In addition to its basic functionality, Gerbil can optionally use GPUs to accelerate the counting step. In a set of experiments with real-world genome data sets, we show that Gerbil is able to efficiently support both small and large k. While Gerbil's performance is comparable to existing state-of-the-art open source k-mer counting tools for small k < 32, it vastly outperforms its competitors for large k, thereby enabling new applications which require large values of k.

  3. MER Caching Rover for 2018 Exploration of Ancient Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Manning, R. M.; Rivellini, T. P.; Backes, P. G.; Ganino, A. J.; Shiraishi, L. R.; Klein, K. J.; Allen, W. C.; Kahn, C. L.; Ziemer, J. K.; Sherwood, B.; Eisen, H. J.

    2012-06-01

    A modern, minimally updated MER rover can begin sample return in 2018. We demonstrate MER accommodates a caching system and robust science payload. A guided entry airbag landing system enables exploration and sample collection at high priority sites.

  4. Design and Synthesis of Novel Macrocyclic Mer Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Stashko, Michael A; Nichols, James; Miley, Michael J; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Chen, Zhilong; Machius, Mischa; DeRyckere, Deborah; Wood, Edgar; Graham, Douglas K; Earp, H Shelton; Kireev, Dmitri; Frye, Stephen V

    2016-12-08

    Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) is aberrantly elevated in various tumor cells and has a normal anti-inflammatory role in the innate immune system. Inhibition of MerTK may provide dual effects against these MerTK-expressing tumors through reducing cancer cell survival and redirecting the innate immune response. Recently, we have designed novel and potent macrocyclic pyrrolopyrimidines as MerTK inhibitors using a structure-based approach. The most active macrocycles had an EC50 below 40 nM in a cell-based MerTK phosphor-protein ELISA assay. The X-ray structure of macrocyclic analogue 3 complexed with MerTK was also resolved and demonstrated macrocycles binding in the ATP binding pocket of the MerTK protein as anticipated. In addition, the lead compound 16 (UNC3133) had a 1.6 h half-life and 16% oral bioavailability in a mouse PK study.

  5. 3-Axis magnetic control: flight results of the TANGO satellite in the PRISMA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasset, C.; Noteborn, R.; Bodin, P.; Larsson, R.; Jakobsson, B.

    2013-09-01

    PRISMA implements guidance, navigation and control strategies for advanced formation flying and rendezvous experiments. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and run by OHB-Sweden in close cooperation with DLR, CNES and the Danish Technical University. The PRISMA test bed consists of a fully manoeuvrable MANGO satellite as well as a 3-axis controlled TANGO satellite without any Δ V capability. PRISMA was launched on the 15th of June 2010 on board DNEPR. The TANGO spacecraft is the reference satellite for the experiments performed by MANGO, either with a "cooperative" or "non-cooperative" behaviour. Small, light and low-cost were the keywords for the TANGO design. The attitude determination is based on Sun sensors and magnetometers, and the active attitude control uses magnetic torque rods only. In order to perform the attitude manoeuvres required to fulfil the mission objectives, using any additional gravity gradient boom to passively stabilize the spacecraft was not allowed. After a two-month commissioning phase, TANGO separated from MANGO on the 11th of August 2010. All operational modes have been successfully tested, and the pointing performance in flight is in accordance with expectations. The robust Sun Acquisition mode reduced the initial tip-off rate and placed TANGO into a safe attitude in <30 min. The Manual Pointing mode was commissioned, and the spacecraft demonstrated the capability to follow or maintain different sets of attitudes. In Sun/Zenith Pointing mode, TANGO points its GPS antenna towards zenith with sufficient accuracy to track as many GPS satellites as MANGO. At the same time, it points its solar panel towards the Sun, and all payload equipments can be switched on without any restriction. This paper gives an overview of the TANGO Attitude Control System design. It then presents the flight results in the different operating modes. Finally, it highlights the key elements at the origin of the successful 3-axis magnetic

  6. Launch vehicle accident assessment for Mars Exploration Rover missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, M.; Reinhart, L.; Guarro, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the launch and space vehicle portion of the nuclear risk assessment for the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, which includes the assessment of accident scenarios and associated probabilities.

  7. The MER/CIP Portal for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Louise; Desai, Sanjay; DOrtenzio, Matthew; Filman, Robtert E.; Heher, Dennis M.; Hubbard, Kim; Johan, Sandra; Keely, Leslie; Magapu, Vish; Mak, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We developed the Mars Exploration Rover/Collaborative Information Portal (MER/CIP) to facilitate MER operations. MER/CIP provides a centralized, one-stop delivery platform integrating science and engineering data from several distributed heterogeneous data sources. Key issues for MER/CIP include: 1) Scheduling and schedule reminders; 2) Tracking the status of daily predicted outputs; 3) Finding and analyzing data products; 4) Collaboration; 5) Announcements; 6) Personalization.

  8. The MER/CIP Portal for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Louise; Desai, Sanjay; DOrtenzio, Matthew; Filman, Robtert E.; Heher, Dennis M.; Hubbard, Kim; Johan, Sandra; Keely, Leslie; Magapu, Vish; Mak, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We developed the Mars Exploration Rover/Collaborative Information Portal (MER/CIP) to facilitate MER operations. MER/CIP provides a centralized, one-stop delivery platform integrating science and engineering data from several distributed heterogeneous data sources. Key issues for MER/CIP include: 1) Scheduling and schedule reminders; 2) Tracking the status of daily predicted outputs; 3) Finding and analyzing data products; 4) Collaboration; 5) Announcements; 6) Personalization.

  9. Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

  10. Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

  11. Deciphering MERS-CoV Evolution in Dromedary Camels.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-02-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses a potential threat to global public health. Many aspects of the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in its animal reservoir remain unclear. A recent study provides new insights into the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels.

  12. Recent Results from the MicroMAS Global Environmental MonitoringNanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Cahoy, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a dual-spinning 3U CubeSat equipped with apassive microwave radiometer that observes in nine channels near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line.MicroMAS is designed to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a midinclinationorbit. The MicroMAS flight unit was developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the MIT Space SystemsLaboratory and was launched to the International Space Station on July 13, 2014, and scheduled for an earlySeptember deployment for a ~90-day mission. The payload is housed in the "lower" 1U of the dual-spinning 3UCubeSat and mechanically rotated approximately once per second as the spacecraft orbits the Earth, resulting in across-track scanned beam with a full-width half-max (FWHM) beamwidth of 2.4 degrees and an approximately 17-km diameter footprint at nadir incidence from a nominal altitude of 400 km. The relatively low cost of MicroMASenables the deployment of a constellation of sensors, spaced equally around several orbit planes. A small fleet ofMicroMAS systems could yield high-resolution global temperature and water vapor profiles, as well as cloudmicrophysical and precipitation parameters.Significant advancements were made in the Assembly, Integration, and Test phase of the project developmentlifecycle. The flight software and communications architecture was refined and tested in relevant lab facilities. Thepower subsystem was modified to include additional required inhibits for the ISS launch. Hardware in the loop testsas well as simulations of the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) were performed to validate theunique dual-spinning, local vertical, local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized flight design. ADCS algorithms were testedon a 3-axis air bearing and custom rig inside a 3-axis programmable Helmholtz cage. Finally, the integratedspacecraft underwent a series of environmental tests in order to verify the results of thermal modeling

  13. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  14. Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3): Mission Summary and Initial Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S. A.; Newman, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The HS3 objectives are:• To obtain measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems, Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers. • To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives were addressed using two Global Hawk (GH) Unmanned Airborne Systems (UASs) with separate comprehensive environmental and over-storm payloads. The GH flight altitudes (>17 km) allow overflights of most convection and sampling of upper-tropospheric winds. Deployments from Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility and ~26-hour flight durations provided coverage of the entire Atlantic Ocean basin, and on-station times up to 6-20 h depending on storm location. Deployments were in September of 2012 and late-August to late-September 2013-2014. Measurements from the Environmental GH Payload• Continuous sampling of temperature and relative humidity in the clear-air environment from the scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS). • Full tropospheric wind, temperature, and humidity profiles from the Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) dropsonde system, which is capable of releasing up to 89 dropsondes in a single flight. • Aerosol and cloud layer vertical structure from the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Measurements from the Over-Storm GH Payload• Three-dimensional wind and precipitation fields from the High-altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) conically scanning Doppler radar. • Surface winds and rainfall from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) multi-frequency interferometric radiometer. • Temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles, rain rates, and vertical precipitation profiles from the High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR). The talk will discuss the flights that were

  15. A Reliable Service-Oriented Architecture for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, Ronald; Walton, Joan; Keely, Leslie; Hehner, Dennis; Chan, Louise

    2005-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) was enterprise software developed jointly by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's highly successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Both MER and CIP have performed far beyond their original expectations. Mission managers and engineers ran CIP inside the mission control room at JPL, and the scientists ran CIP in their laboratories, homes, and offices. All the users connected securely over the Internet. Since the mission ran on Mars time, CIP displayed the current time in various Mars and Earth time zones, and it presented staffing and event schedules with Martian time scales. Users could send and receive broadcast messages, and they could view and download data and image files generated by the rovers' instruments. CIP had a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on industry standards, including J2EE and web services, and it integrated commercial off-the-shelf software. A user's interactions with the graphical interface of the CIP client application generated web services requests to the CIP middleware. The middleware accessed the back-end data repositories if necessary and returned results for these requests. The client application could make multiple service requests for a single user action and then present a composition of the results. This happened transparently, and many users did not even realize that they were connecting to a server. CIP performed well and was extremely reliable; it attained better than 99% uptime during the course of the mission. In this paper, we present overviews of the MER mission and of CIP. We show how CIP helped to fulfill some of the mission needs and how people used it. We discuss the criteria for choosing its architecture, and we describe how the developers made the software so reliable. CIP's reliability did not come about by chance, but was the result of several key design decisions. We conclude with some of the important

  16. NASA Intelligent Systems Project: Results, Accomplishments and Impact on Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Project was responsible for much of NASA's programmatic investment in artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies. IS has completed three major project milestones which demonstrated increased capabilities in autonomy, human centered computing, and intelligent data understanding. Autonomy involves the ability of a robot to place an instrument on a remote surface with a single command cycle. Human centered computing supported a collaborative, mission centric data and planning system for the Mars Exploration Rovers and data understanding has produced key components of a terrestrial satellite observation system with automated modeling and data analysis capabilities. This paper summarizes the technology demonstrations and metrics which quantify and summarize these new technologies which are now available for future Nasa missions.

  17. Results from the AFRL Solar Mass Ejection Imager Mission - Four Years of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J. C.; Radick, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    This January marks the fourth anniversary of the launch of the Coriolis spacecraft that carries SMEI. Since 2003, SMEI has been recording nearly-full sky images every orbit (103 minutes) to at least 9th magnitude with 1o resolution and transmitting them to Earth. SMEI's main mission was to demonstrate that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) could be detected and tracked through the inner heliosphere en route to Earth to improve space weather forecasts. Besides mission applications, this unique dataset has provided insight into CME morphology and driving forces, interactions between comet tails and the heliosphere, zodiacal light, stellar variability and high altitude auroral phenomena. SMEI also observes asteroids and debris. This talk will briefly highlight accomplishments of the SMEI team and discuss future directions for the SMEI research program, such as tracking CMEs to other planets, searching for streamers and co-rotating interactive regions, and what might be the next step in operational heliospheric imaging of CMEs.

  18. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    CAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  19. Curiosity explores the base of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars: Recent Geological and Geochemical Mission Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Vasavada, Ashwin; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has been exploring sedimentary rocks at the foothills of Aolis Mons since August 2014. Here, an array of fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian strata that show a complex pattern of post-depositional alteration are present. This presentation will summarize the most recent geological and geochemical findings of the MSL mission. Basal outcrops that form the lowest stratigraphic unit of Aeolis Mons, the Murray formation, are characterized predominantly by mudstones with minor intercalated sandstones. The mudstone facies, originally identified at the Pahrump Hills field site, show abundant fine-scale planar laminations throughout the Murray formation succession and is interpreted to record deposition in an ancient lacustrine system in Gale crater. Interbedded cross-stratified sandstones are considered to record fluvio-deltaic incursions into the lake. The lacustrine deposits of the Murray formation are unconformably overlain by much younger sandstones of the Stimson formation. Orbital mapping and in situ observations indicate that the basal strata of the Stimson formation show complex onlap relationships with the underlying Murray formation strata signifying that there was metre-scale palaeotopographic relief on the unconformity surface upon which the Stimson accumulated. The Stimson formation itself is characterized by cross-bedded sandstones with cross-bed sets tens of centimetres in thickness. Sedimentological observations suggest that the Stimson dominantly records deposition by aeolian dunes. Curiosity has made detailed measurements of the geochemistry of the Murray and Stimson formations and associated diagenetic features. Perhaps most surprising has been the discovery of extensive silica enrichment both within mudstones of the Murray formation, perhaps of primary sedimentary or later diagenetic origin, also in as fracture-related diagenetic halos within the Stimson formation. We will describe the nature of this silica

  20. Deuterium Abundance toward G191-B2B: Results from the FUSE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Hébrard, G.; Désert, J.-M.; Ferlet, R.; Lecavelier des Étangs, A.; Howk, J. C.; André, M.; Blair, W. P.; Friedman, S. D.; Kruk, J. W.; Lacour, S.; Moos, H. W.; Sembach, K.; Chayer, P.; Jenkins, E. B.; Koester, D.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.; Oegerle, W. R.; Sonneborn, G.; York, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B, covering the wavelength region 905-1187 Å, were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). These data were used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations to evaluate the total H I, D I, O I, and N I column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(D I) based upon GHRS and STIS observations were controversial as a result of the saturated strength of the D I Lyα line. In the present analysis the column density of D I has been measured using only the unsaturated Lyβ and Lyγ lines observed by FUSE. A careful inspection of possible systematic uncertainties tied to the modeling of the stellar continuum or to the uncertainties in the FUSE instrumental characteristics has been performed. The column densities derived are logN(DI)=13.40+/-0.07, logN(OI)=14.86+/-0.07, and logN(NI)=13.87+/-0.07, quoted with 2 σ uncertainties. The measurement of the H I column density by profile fitting of the Lyα line has been found to be uncertain. If additional weak, hot interstellar components are added to the three detected clouds along the line of sight, the H I column density can be reduced quite significantly, even though the signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution at Lyα are excellent. The new estimate of N(H I) toward G191-B2B reads logN(HI)=18.18+/-0.18 (2 σ), so that the average D/H ratio on the line of sight is D/H=(1.66+0.9-0.6)×10-5 (2 σ). This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by Johns Hopkins University.

  1. B-52B/DTV (Drop Test Vehicle) flight test results: Drop test missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA test airplane, B-52B-008, was a carrier for drop tests of the shuttle booster recovery parachute system. The purpose of the test support by Boeing was to monitor the vertical loads on the pylon hooks. The hooks hold the Drop Test Vehicle to the B-52 pylon during drop test missions. The loads were monitored to assure the successful completion of the flight and the safety of the crew.

  2. Spaceflight and the Mouse Eye: Results from Experiments on Shuttle Missions STS-133 and STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey A.; Ponce, Claudia Prospero; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Vision alterations associated with globe flattening, chorodial folds and papilledema, shown in some crew members returning from long duration missions. Hypothesis: Ocular neuroanatomical changes observed in the VIIP syndrome are accompanied by retinal changes at the molecular and cellular level that may affect retinal health and physiology. Objective: Investigate evidence of ocular (retinal) changes associated with spaceflight: (1) histological markers of cellular death and damage (2) molecular markers of oxidative stress (3) gene expression markers of stress

  3. Radiation in the Near-Earth Space: Results of RELEC Experiment on board Vernov Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svertilov, Sergiey

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of RELEC mission is study of magnetosphere relativistic electron precipitation with it possible connection with Atmosphere transient luminous events as well as the monitor observation of radiation and electromagnetic environment in the near-Earth Space. The RELEC set of instruments includes two identical detectors of X- and gamma-rays of high temporal resolution and sensitivity (DRGE-1 & DRGE-2), three axe directed detectors of energetic electrons and protons DRGE-3, UV TLE imager MTEL, UV detector DUV, low-frequency analyser LFA, radio-frequency analyser RFA, module of electronics intended for commands and data collection BE. During the RELEC mission following experiments will be provided: - simultaneous observations of energetic electron & proton flux (energy range ~0.1-10.0 MeV and low-frequency (~0.1-10 kHz) electromagnetic wave field intensity variations with high temporal resolution (~1 mcs); - fine time structure (~10 mcs) measurements of transient atmospheric events in UV, X- and gamma rays with a possibility of optical imaging with resolution of ~km in wide FOV; - measurements of electron flux pitch-angle distribution in dynamical range from ~0.1 up to 105 part/cm2s; - monitoring of charge and neutral background particles in different areas of near-Earth space. The small satellite with RELEC instruments was successfully launched July, 8 2014. The mission orbit is solar-synchronous with apogee 830 lm, perigee 640 km, inclination 98.4o and orbital period about 100 min.

  4. Results from a Prototype Multi-Element CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detector for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Browne, M. C.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Prettyman, T. H.; Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    We present high energy results for a 2 x 2 x 2 array of eight 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors. We conclude that such an array can provide a room-temperature detector with good resolution and efficiency for planetary missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Results from a Prototype Multi-Element CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detector for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Browne, M. C.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Prettyman, T. H.; Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    We present high energy results for a 2 x 2 x 2 array of eight 10 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors. We conclude that such an array can provide a room-temperature detector with good resolution and efficiency for planetary missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. [Vascular deconditioning (correction of deconditionring) in microgravity: results obtained in the french spationaut during the spatial mission EO 22].

    PubMed

    Louisy, F; Andre-Deshays, C; Schroiff, P; Cauquil, D; Lazerges, M; Lafaye, C; Camus, A L; Fomina, G

    1997-01-01

    First results on changes in vascular physiology in the first french spationaut during the French-russian spatial mission CASSIOPEE are reported in this paper. The data, obtained by Air Plethysmography during flight, evidence at the level of lower limbs alterations of venous filling and emptying characteristics (the latter particularly depending on the muscular pump function of the calf) and of capillary circulation.

  7. Growth and Quantification of MERS-CoV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Christopher M.; Frieman, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging highly pathogenic respiratory virus. Although MERS-CoV only emerged in 2012, we and others have developed assays to grow and quantify infectious MERS-CoV and RNA products of replication in vitro. MERS-CoV is able to infect a range of cell types, but replicates to high titers in Vero E6 cells. Protocols for the propagation and quantification of MERS-CoV are presented. PMID:26344219

  8. Predicting the Mars Atmosphere for MER EDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D.

    2005-05-01

    As the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) approached Mars, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) detected a regional dust storm. The storm developed as a local storm descending the Chryse storm track but instead of dying out near the equator, it crossed over the Meridiani landing site into the southern hemisphere and started growing. It eventually became a planet encircling storm, with a global impact on atmospheric temperatures. The storm peaked (in terms of dust loading) around December 18th. While the storm was already decaying, it was still expected to change the atmosphere from baseline "clear" atmosphere used for planning Entry Descent and Landing (EDL). To help insure the successful landing, an attempt was made to model and then predict the atmosphere as the dust from the storm (and associated warming) cleared. Two types of data analyses were performed. The first was to rapidly look at MGS-TES daily global maps and MOC weekly reports. This gave a good qualitative assessment of the activity and help give a global view of the activity. The daily global atmospheric temperature maps from TES were particularly useful in showing where there were atmospheric changes but little measurable dust. The second analysis was to use vertical temperature profiles retrieved from the TES data. An effort was made to minimize the turnaround on the analysis and a 3 day latency was achieved. The retrieved profiles from the orbit nearest to the landing site were averaged over a ~ 10 degree latitude bin. They were then incorporated into an engineering model based on the one described in Golombek et al. [2003]. This is an interpolation scheme/Monte-Carlo distribution generator and not an actual dynamical model. It basically uses the TES data as a mean and applies a variability. For Spirit, there was no attempt to make predictions (the storm was too close to landing), so the most recent profiles were just used as a best guess. This turned out to be adequate, resulting in the final model being

  9. Effective inhibition of MERS-CoV infection by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chuo, Wen-Ho; Li, Shiming; Wang, Tony T; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2017-02-13

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality. Up to date, there is no approved or licensed vaccine or antiviral medicines can be used to treat MERS-CoV-infected patients. Here, we analyzed the antiviral activities of resveratrol, a natural compound found in grape seeds and skin and in red wine, against MERS-CoV infection. We performed MTT and neutral red uptake assays to assess the survival rates of MERS-infected Vero E6 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent assays determined the intracellular viral RNA and protein expression. For viral productivity, we utilized plaque assays to confirm the antiviral properties of resveratrol against MERS-CoV. Resveratrol significantly inhibited MERS-CoV infection and prolonged cellular survival after virus infection. We also found that the expression of nucleocapsid (N) protein essential for MERS-CoV replication was decreased after resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, resveratrol down-regulated the apoptosis induced by MERS-CoV in vitro. By consecutive administration of resveratrol, we were able to reduce the concentration of resveratrol while achieving inhibitory effectiveness against MERS-CoV. In this study, we first demonstrated that resveratrol is a potent anti-MERS agent in vitro. We perceive that resveratrol can be a potential antiviral agent against MERS-CoV infection in the near future.

  10. Worry experienced during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) pandemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Jun-Soo; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kang, Sung-Chan; Jung, Hye-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Korea failed in its risk communication during the early stage of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak; consequently, it faced difficulties in managing MERS, while disease-related worry increased. Disease-related worry can help disease prevention and management, but can also have a detrimental effect. This study measured the overall level of disease-related worry during the MERS outbreak period in Korea and the influencing factors and levels of disease-related worry during key outbreak periods. Methods The cross-sectional survey included 1,000 adults who resided in Korea. An ordinal logistic regression was performed for the overall level of MERS-related worry, and influencing factors of worry were analyzed. A reliability test was performed on the levels of MERS-related worry during key outbreak periods. Results The overall level of MERS-related worry was 2.44. Multivariate analysis revealed that women and respondents w very poor subjective health status had higher levels of worry. Respondents with very high stress in daily life had higher levels of worry than those who reported having little stress. The reliability test results on MERS-related worry scores during key outbreak periods showed consistent scores during each period. Conclusion Level of worry increased in cases having higher perceived susceptibility and greater trust in informal information, while initial stage of outbreak was closely associated with that at later stages. These findings suggest the importance of managing the level of worry by providing timely and accurate disease-related information during the initial stage of disease outbreak. PMID:28273131

  11. Membrane topology of a 14-mer model amphipathic peptide: a solid-state NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Marise; Doucet, Jean-Daniel; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2007-06-05

    We have investigated the interaction between a synthetic amphipathic 14-mer peptide and model membranes by solid-state NMR. The 14-mer peptide is composed of leucines and phenylalanines modified by the addition of crown ethers and forms a helical amphipathic structure in solution and bound to lipid membranes. To shed light on its membrane topology, 31P, 2H, 15N solid-state NMR experiments have been performed on the 14-mer peptide in interaction with mechanically oriented bilayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The 31P, 2H, and 15N NMR results indicate that the 14-mer peptide remains at the surface of the DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC bilayers stacked between glass plates and perturbs the lipid orientation relative to the magnetic field direction. Its membrane topology is similar in DLPC and DMPC bilayers, whereas the peptide seems to be more deeply inserted in DPPC bilayers, as revealed by the greater orientational and motional disorder of the DPPC lipid headgroup and acyl chains. 15N{31P} rotational echo double resonance experiments have also been used to measure the intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction between the 14-mer peptide and the phospholipid headgroup of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and the results indicate that the 14-mer peptide is in contact with the polar region of the DMPC lipids. On the basis of these studies, the mechanism of membrane perturbation of the 14-mer peptide is associated to the induction of a positive curvature strain induced by the peptide lying on the bilayer surface and seems to be independent of the bilayer hydrophobic thickness.

  12. A study of system requirements for Phobos/Deimos missions. Volume 4: Phase 3 results, combined missions to Mars and its satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Combined missions to Mars and Phobos/Deimos were considered in relation to large scientific returns at a low total cost. A matrix of all feasible major combined mission concepts was compiled. The most promising approach was selected from which a nominal mission profile was developed. A systems analysis was performed to trade off performance, configuration, and cost characteristics of candidate mission concepts. Configuration and subsystem optimization analysis were then conducted from which a baseline and an alternate program were selected. Program schedules and cost estimates were prepared for the recommended and alternate program.

  13. Drop Size Distribution Measurements Supporting the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Infrastructure and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matthew; Tokay, Ali; Wolff, David B.; Bringi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets that characterize the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (5 -- 50 km). Key to this process is the combined use of disdrometer and polarimetric radar platforms. Here the disdrometer measurements serve as a reference for up-scaling dual-polarimetric radar observations of the PSD to the much larger volumetric sampling domain of the radar. The PSD observations thus derived provide a much larger data set for assessing DSD variability, and satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm assumptions, in all three spatial dimensions for a range of storm types and seasons. As one component of this effort, the GPM Ground Validation program recently acquired five 3rd generation 2D Video disdrometers as part of its Disdrometer and Radar Observations of Precipitation Facility (DROP), currently hosted in northern Alabama by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. These next-generation 2DVDs were operated and evaluated in different phases of data collection under the scanning domain of the UAH ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar. During this period approximately 7500 minutes of PSD data were collected and processed to create gamma size distribution parameters using a truncated method of moments approach. After creating the gamma parameter datasets the DSDs were then used as input to T-matrix code for computation of polarimetric radar moments at C-band. The combined dataset was then analyzed with two basic objectives in mind: 1) the investigation of seasonal variability in the rain PSD parameters as observed by the 2DVDs; 2) the use of combined polarimetric moments and observed gamma distribution parameters in a functional form to retrieve PSD parameters in 4-D using the ARMOR radar for precipitation occurring in different

  14. Preliminary results of the water-mist fire auppression experiment from the STS-107 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKinnon, J.; Gokoglu, S.

    A discussion of the preliminary results of the Water-Mist Fire Suppression experiment (Mist) from the STS-107 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The overall objective of the project is to study the feasibility of developing fine-water- mist systems as the next generation of fire suppressants that may replace the currently used halon-based systems. Halons (fluoro-bromo -carbons) are so effective at fire suppression that in the past it was not necessary to evaluate other options. However, as is well known now, halons are powerful ozone-depleting agents in the stratosphere. The realization of this attribute led to the ban of the manufacture of halons in the industrialized world by the Montreal Protocols starting in 1995. The Mist experiment studies the influence of water mists on premixed flames propagating in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions and evaluates the role of thermal, physical, and chemical mechanisms in the water-mist/flame interaction. Prior to the orbital flight, a numerical simulation of this interaction was developed and reduced- gravity ground experiments were conducted to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments. The effects of droplet size and water concentration on the laminar flame speed and flame shape are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. A simplified numerical simulation of the flame/mist interaction shows the effect of water mist on flame speed and evaluates the relative importance of the latent and sensible heats of water droplets on fire suppression. The microgravity tests of the Mist experiment are performed in the Combustion Module (CM-2) facility in the Space Shuttle. These tests explore the efficacy of three droplet sizes and three water concentrations on the propagation of lean, stoichiometric, and rich premixed propane-air flames. The long duration and quality of microgravity in the spaceflight provide the required

  15. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  16. Velocity fields in a low-latitude coronal hole - Results from the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.; Waldron, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite has been used to observe Doppler signatures in C IV in a low-latitude coronal hole as it crossed the central meridian (1985 February 2-8). Scatter plots of C IV emission intensity versus velocity do not show the pronounced positive correlation which has been reported in other regions on the sun. These data suggest that the coronal hole may control the gross velocity field in the solar atmosphere at the level where C IV is formed. Some localized regions of upflow coincide with EUV bright points in the coronal hole.

  17. Early Results from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Yuki; Kanemaru, Kaya; Oki, Riko; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international collaboration to achieve highly accurate and highly frequent global precipitation observations. The GPM mission consists of the GPM Core Observatory jointly developed by U.S. and Japan and Constellation Satellites that carry microwave radiometers and provided by the GPM partner agencies. The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) was developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and installed on the GPM Core Observatory. The GPM Core Observatory chooses a non-sun-synchronous orbit to carry on diurnal cycle observations of rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and was successfully launched at 3:37 a.m. on February 28, 2014 (JST), while the Constellation Satellites, including JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W1) or "SHIZUKU," are launched by each partner agency sometime around 2014 and contribute to expand observation coverage and increase observation frequency JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map (GPM-GSMaP) algorithm, which is a latest version of the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. Major improvements in the GPM-GSMaP algorithm is; 1) improvements in microwave imager algorithm based on AMSR2 precipitation standard algorithm, including new land algorithm, new coast detection scheme; 2) Development of orographic rainfall correction method for warm rainfall in coastal area (Taniguchi et al., 2012); 3) Update of database, including rainfall detection over land and land surface emission database; 4) Development of microwave sounder algorithm over land (Kida et al., 2012); and 5) Development

  18. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

  19. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. PMID:26184451

  20. Medical experiment M-171 - Results from the second manned Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Nichel, E. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    Preflight, inflight, and postflight exercise response tests were conducted on the astronauts of the second Skylab mission as part of an evaluation of physiological adaptation to long-term weightlessness. The flight phase of this mission was 59 days in duration. An exercise protocol was designed around a bicycle ergometer which was used to apply work loads approximating 25, 50, and 75% of each crewman's measured maximum aerobic capacity. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured during all tests; cardiac output was measured at selected times during preflight and postflight tests. Data obtained both at rest and during exercise in flight showed no consistent changes which would indicate a degraded physical work capacity. In fact, heart rate during exercise actually decreased for all crewmen in flight. This response indicated improved physical fitness in flight relative to preflight. The postflight period of readaptation to 1 G was characterized by a marked tachycardia, during which time stroke volume was decreased. This response returned to normal within 5-day postflight.

  1. MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission: results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Humeau, O.; van Amerom, F. H.; Danell, R.; Freissinet, C.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Gonnsen, Z.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Coll, P.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquiring samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular and chiral) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis/chemical derivatization gas chromatography (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide information on elemental and molecular makeup, polarity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte species. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) mode of operation.

  2. Medical experiment M-171 - Results from the second manned Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Nichel, E. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    Preflight, inflight, and postflight exercise response tests were conducted on the astronauts of the second Skylab mission as part of an evaluation of physiological adaptation to long-term weightlessness. The flight phase of this mission was 59 days in duration. An exercise protocol was designed around a bicycle ergometer which was used to apply work loads approximating 25, 50, and 75% of each crewman's measured maximum aerobic capacity. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured during all tests; cardiac output was measured at selected times during preflight and postflight tests. Data obtained both at rest and during exercise in flight showed no consistent changes which would indicate a degraded physical work capacity. In fact, heart rate during exercise actually decreased for all crewmen in flight. This response indicated improved physical fitness in flight relative to preflight. The postflight period of readaptation to 1 G was characterized by a marked tachycardia, during which time stroke volume was decreased. This response returned to normal within 5-day postflight.

  3. Towards the next HST: Fine Guiding Results from the BRRISON Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. F.; Osterman, S. N.; Cheng, A. F.; Hibbitts, C.; Bernasconi, P. N.

    2013-12-01

    The Balloon Rapid Response for ISON (BRRISON) mission is expected to make observations from altitudes near 125,000 ft (35 km, above 99.5% of the atmosphere) for several hours. Previous balloon missions have provided quantitative evidence that wavefront errors are negligible from this altitude. In order to take advantage of the space-like seeing conditions in the stratosphere, a balloon-borne telescope should be stabilized at a level that is comparable to the telescope's diffraction limit. The stabilization problem consists of two separate tasks: measuring the time-varying pointing error signal and correcting those pointing errors. BRRISON is equiped with coarse and fine pointing systems: a pair of star trackers and an IMU to control the elevation and azimuth pointing of the telescope and a high-speed sCMOS guide camera and a fine steering mirror to compensate for finer image motion. We will report on the precision and bandwidth of the pointing error signal and of the fine steering mirror's corrections. Expected targets include Jupiter and Comets Encke and ISON, in filters inherited from the Hale-Bopp campaign to isolate OH (310 nm) and CN (385 nm) features.

  4. HST image restoration: A comparison of pre- and post-servicing mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Mo, J.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of image restoration techniques (e.g., Wiener filter, Lucy-Richardson, MEM) have been applied quite successfully to the aberrated HST images. The HST servicing mission (scheduled for late 1993 or early 1994) will install a corrective optics system (COSTAR) for the Faint Object Camera and spectrographs and replace the Wide Field/Planetary Camera with a second generation instrument (WF/PC-II) having its own corrective elements. The image quality is expected to be improved substantially with these new instruments. What then is the role of image restoration for the HST in the long term? Through a series of numerical experiments using model point-spread functions for both aberrated and unaberrated optics, we find that substantial improvements in image resolution can be obtained for post-servicing mission data using the same or similar algorithms as being employed now to correct aberrated images. Included in our investigations are studies of the photometric integrity of the restoration algorithms and explicit models for HST pointing errors (spacecraft jitter).

  5. Selected results from the ISUAL/FORMOSAT2 mission in a 12-year journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. B. C.; Hsu, R. R.; Su, H. T.; Huang, S. M.; Lee, L. J.; Chou, J. K.; Chang, S. C.; Wu, Y. J.; Peng, K. M.; Liu, T. Y.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    The ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning) is a scientific payload onboard the FORMOSAT2 satellite (FS2). It is also the first satellite project with the global survey of transient luminous events (TLEs) as one of the mission objectives. Since the launch of ISUAL/FS2 in 2004, ISUAL has continuously monitored the occurrence of TLEs over the pre-midnight tropical and subtropical regions in the past 12 years until 20 June 2016, due to the failure of two of the four reaction wheels. In her 12-year journey, more than forty-two thousand of TLEs, including the sub-species like elves, sprites, sprite-halos, blue jets and gigantic jets, have been recorded from this space platform. In the meantime, as the supporting facilities to the space-borne ISUAL experiment, ground optical imagery systems have been deployed to observe TLEs occurring near Taiwan and several radio waves detecting ground stations have also been installed to register the lightning- or the TLE-related sferics. From analyzing the observed events and the associated sferics, some important insights on these intriguing thundercloud-top phenomena have been revealed. In this talk, the occurrence, the global distributions, the occurrence rates, and the physical characteristics of TLEs as well as some salient properties of the TLE-producing lightning and the impacts of TLEs on the upper atmosphere revealed by the ISUAL mission will be concisely discussed and summarized.

  6. Barrier properties of k-mer packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, N.; Khrapatiy, S.; Vygornitskyi; Pivovarova, N.

    2014-08-01

    This work discusses numerical studies of the barrier properties of k-mer packings by the Monte Carlo method. The studied variants of regular and non-regular arrangements on a square lattice included models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) and random deposition (RD). The discrete problem of diffusion through the bonds of a square lattice was considered. The k-mers were perfectly oriented perpendicular to the diffusion direction and blocked certain fraction of bonds fb against diffusion. The barrier efficiency was estimated by calculation of the ratio D/Do where D is diffusion coefficient in direction perpendicular to the orientation of k-mers and Do is the same value for diffusion on the square lattice without blocked bonds, i.e., at fb=0. The value of k varied from 1 to 512 and different lattice sizes up to L=8192 lattice units were used. For dense packings (p=1), the obtained D/Do versus fb dependences deviated from the theoretical prediction of effective medium (EM) theory and deviation was the most obvious for the regular non-staggered arrangement. For loose RSA and RD packings, the percolation like-behavior of D/Do with threshold at fb=p∞ was observed and the data evidenced that their barrier properties at large values of k may be more effective than those of some dense packings. Such anomalous behavior can reflect the details of k-mer spatial organization (aggregation) and structure of pores in RD and RSA packings. The contradictions between simulation data and predictions of EM theory were also discussed.

  7. A study of system requirements for Phobos/Diemos missions. Volume 3: Phase 2 results, satellite sample return missions and satellite mobility concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The scientific objectives were considered for a Phobos/Deimos mission. The payloads for a minimum useful instrument complement were developed. The rationale for a sample return mission is discussed, along with the scientific constraints and requirements for the acquisition of samples.

  8. Sonic boom results for a nominal mission 3B. Space Shuttle engineering and operations support, engineering systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained in the analysis of the effects of sonic boom overpressures at ground level for a nominal Mission 3B with the current baseline guidance are reported. These results are in the form of ground level overpressures generated along the groundtrack out to lateral cutoff from Mach 3.0-1.10 at 0.10 (tenth) Mach intervals. Preliminary trajectory constraints which will reduce excess sonic boom overpressures to approximately 2.0 PSF are included.

  9. Low Cost Micro-Mini-Satellite Remote Sensing Capabilities: in-Orbit Results &Imminent Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Paul; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Micro- and mini-satellites are in the process or revolutionising the economics of Earth observation. This will jointly affect the space super-powers who have, since the dawn of the space age, enjoyed an effective monopoly of Earth observation from the high vantage-point of space and also the commercial provision of EO data to value added information producers. The monopoly has been due to the enormous cost hitherto required to build, launch and operate EO satellites. SSTL (UK) has pioneered the development of successful micro and mini-satellites which have demonstrated highly capable Earth Observation functions at a mission cost at least an order of magnitude less than conventional such missions. This dramatic development has brought independent ownership of Earth observation satellites within the affordable reach of every developing nation and even medium-sized commercial concerns. Indeed, the performance of these tiny satellites now exceeds the capability of many of the civil EO satellites in operation only 5 years ago. In 2002, SSTL will launch the first satellite in a constellation that will deliver the first routine 24-hour revisit EO data released into the commercial marketplace. This paper describes the in-orbit EO image data produced by typical micro and minisatellites including the latest imagery from the UoSAT-12 mini satellite launched in April 1999 which carries a 32-metre ground sampling distance multispectral imager and a 10-metre GSD panchromatic camera. In addition, data is presented from the TiungSat-1 and Tsinghua-1 microsatellites launched in 2000, and AlSat-1 (launch scheduled in September 2002). AlSat-1 carries a unique imaging system designed as part of the innovative Disaster Monitoring Constellation providing 32-metre GSD multispectral images with a 600km swath width - together with its five companion microsatellites, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation can provide daily revisit imaging world-wide from orbit. The paper also describes the

  10. Extrapolating the Results of DICE to Constellation CubeSat Missions for Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Gunther, J.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most promising observation strategies still to be developed to advance space science is the capability to conduct simultaneous multipoint observations of the Earth system from space. These types of observations are required to understand the "big picture" of coupling between disparate regions: solar-wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, atmosphere, land, ocean on a planetary scale. Affordable large constellations of scientific "space-buoys" can only be achieved through miniature spacecraft such as CubeSats due to the high cost of launching larger spacecraft. What has not yet been explored is how constellations of such satellites can be made effective for multipoint scientific studies. To be effective the architecture must: 1) Allow large amounts, Gigabits of data per day, of scientific data to be retrieved from the constellation and, 2) Address the orbital configuration and control of the constellation. The communications architecture, in which a constellation of "space-buoys" that are size, weight and power constrained addresses these needs, is lacking. The "Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment" or "DICE" mission was selected and funded by the National Science Foundation in October 2009 in response to a cooperative proposal from ASTRA LLC, Utah State University's Space Dynamics Laboratory (USU/SDL), and Embry Riddle University. DICE consists of two identical "CubeSats" launched on October 27, 2011 as secondary payloads from a Delta II rocket and released into an 809 to 457 km at 102° inclination with one satellite chasing the other. The DICE mission is not using traditional CubeSat communications systems, but is instead using government radio bands and high speed downlink rates that are consistent with a NSF funded mission. A half-duplex UHF modem developed for DICE provides a 3 Mbit/s downlink and a 19.2 kbit/s uplink. The ground stations are located at Wallops Island on the east coast and/or at SRI on the west coast. In this

  11. Evolutionary mechanism and biological functions of 8-mers containing CG dinucleotide in yeast.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Hong; Wang, Yue; Meng, Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing

    2017-02-09

    The rules of k-mer non-random usage and the biological functions are worthy of special attention. Firstly, the article studied human 8-mer spectra and found that only the spectra of cytosine-guanine (CG) dinucleotide classification formed independent unimodal distributions when the 8-mers were classified into three subsets under 16 dinucleotide classifications. Secondly, the distribution rules were reproduced by other seven species including yeast, which showed that the evolution phenomenon had species universality. It followed that we proposed two theoretical conjectures: (1) CG1 motifs (8-mers including 1 CG) are the nucleosome-binding motifs. (2) CG2 motifs (8-mers including two or more than two CG) are the modular units of CpG islands. Our conjectures were confirmed in yeast by the following results: a maximum of average area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) resulted from CG1 information during nucleosome core sequences, and linker sequences were distinguished by three CG subsets; there was a one-to-one relationship between abundant CG1 signal regions and histone positions; the sequence changing of squeezed nucleosomes was relevant with the strength of CG1 signals; and the AUC value of 0.986 was based on CG2 information when CpG islands and non-CpG islands were distinguished by the three CG subsets.

  12. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  13. Properties of the Lunar Interior: Preliminary Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission [1] has provided lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. GRAIL has produced a high-resolution map of the lunar gravity field [2,3] while also determining tidal response. We present the latest gravity field solution and its preliminary implications for the Moon's interior structure, exploring properties such as the mean density, moment of inertia of the solid Moon, and tidal potential Love number k(sub 2). Lunar structure includes a thin crust, a thick mantle layer, a fluid outer core, and a suspected solid inner core. An accurate Love number mainly improves knowledge of the fluid core and deep mantle. In the future, we will search for evidence of tidal dissipation and a solid inner core using GRAIL data.

  14. Properties of the Lunar Interior: Preliminary Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Nimmo, Francis; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Weber, Renee C.; Boggs, D. H.; Goossens, Sander J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission [1] has provided lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. GRAIL has produced a high-resolution map of the lunar gravity field [2,3] while also determining tidal response. We present the latest gravity field solution and its preliminary implications for the Moon's interior structure, exploring properties such as the mean density, moment of inertia of the solid Moon, and tidal potential Love number k(sub 2). Lunar structure includes a thin crust, a thick mantle layer, a fluid outer core, and a suspected solid inner core. An accurate Love number mainly improves knowledge of the fluid core and deep mantle. In the future, we will search for evidence of tidal dissipation and a solid inner core using GRAIL data.

  15. Mass Movement and Landform Degradation on the Icy Galilean Satellites: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Asphaug, Erik; Morrison, David; Spencer, John R.; Chapman, Clark R.; Bierhaus, Beau; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Klemaszewski, James E.; Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Weakening of surface materials coupled with mass movement reduces the topographic relief of landforms by moving surface materials down-slope. Throughout the Galileo orbiter nominal mission we have studied all known forms of mass movement and landform degradation of the icy galilean satellites, of which Callisto, by far, displays the most degraded surface. Callisto exhibits discrete mass movements that are larger and apparently more common than seen elsewhere. Most degradation on Ganymede appears consistent with sliding or slumping, impact erosion, and regolith evolution. Sliding or slumping is also observed at very small (100 m) scale on Europa. Sputter ablation, while probably playing some role in the evolution of Ganymede's and Callisto's debris layers, appears to be less important than other processes. Sputter ablation might play a significant role on Europa only if that satellite's surface is significantly older than 10(exp 8) years, far older than crater statistics indicate. Impact erosion and regolith formation on Europa are probably minimal, as implied by the low density of small craters there. Impact erosion and regolith formation may be important on the dark terrains of Ganymede, though some surfaces on this satellite may be modified by sublimation-degradation. While impact erosion and regolith formation are expected to operate with the same vigor on Callisto as on Ganymede, most of the areas examined at high resolution on Callisto have an appearance that implies that some additional process is at work, most likely sublimation-driven landform modification and mass wasting. The extent of surface degradation ascribed to sublimation on the outer two Galilean satellites implies that an ice more volatile than H2O is probably involved.

  16. Mass Movement and Landform Degradation on the Icy Galilean Satellites: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Asphaug, Erik; Morrison, David; Spencer, John R.; Chapman, Clark R.; Bierhaus, Beau; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Klemaszewski, James E.; Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Weakening of surface materials coupled with mass movement reduces the topographic relief of landforms by moving surface materials down-slope. Throughout the Galileo orbiter nominal mission we have studied all known forms of mass movement and landform degradation of the icy galilean satellites, of which Callisto, by far, displays the most degraded surface. Callisto exhibits discrete mass movements that are larger and apparently more common than seen elsewhere. Most degradation on Ganymede appears consistent with sliding or slumping, impact erosion, and regolith evolution. Sliding or slumping is also observed at very small (100 m) scale on Europa. Sputter ablation, while probably playing some role in the evolution of Ganymede's and Callisto's debris layers, appears to be less important than other processes. Sputter ablation might play a significant role on Europa only if that satellite's surface is significantly older than 10(exp 8) years, far older than crater statistics indicate. Impact erosion and regolith formation on Europa are probably minimal, as implied by the low density of small craters there. Impact erosion and regolith formation may be important on the dark terrains of Ganymede, though some surfaces on this satellite may be modified by sublimation-degradation. While impact erosion and regolith formation are expected to operate with the same vigor on Callisto as on Ganymede, most of the areas examined at high resolution on Callisto have an appearance that implies that some additional process is at work, most likely sublimation-driven landform modification and mass wasting. The extent of surface degradation ascribed to sublimation on the outer two Galilean satellites implies that an ice more volatile than H2O is probably involved.

  17. Impact Features on Europa: Results of the Galileo Europa Mission (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. M.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Sullivan, R. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S.; Chuang, F.; Moreau, J.; Williams, K. K.; Geissler, P. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Turtle, E. A.; Phillips, C. B.; Tufts, B. R.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.; Klaasen, K. P.; Breneman, H. H.; McGee, K. P.; Senske, D. A.; Granahan, J.; Belton, M. J. S.; Galileo SSI Team

    1998-09-01

    The Galileo Orbiter, during the GEM phase of this mission, has examined a number of impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution and coverage than was possible from either Voyager or during the Galileo nominal mission. The new data allow us to describe the morphology and infer the geology of the largest impact features on Europa, which are probes into the crust. The GEM observations allow us to construct a suite of primary impact features on Europa; a comprehensive "family" portrait and ordering (by size on one axis and morphologic variations within a given size bin along the other). We have also made detailed description of individual impact features including topography (from stereo), crater-related materials deposits, cross-cutting relations, and material-related color variations. We observe two basic types of large impact features: (1) "classic" impact craters that grossly resemble well-preserved lunar craters of similar size but are more topographically subdued (e.g., Pwyll); and (2) very flat circular features that lack the basic topographic structures of impact craters such as raised rims, a central depression, or central peaks, and which largely owe their identification as impact features to the field of secondary craters radially sprayed about them (e.g., Callanish). One of our preliminary conclusions are that Callanish and Tyre display non-"classic" impact features morphologies and a series of large concentric structural rings cutting impact-feature-related materials. Impact simulations suggest that Callanish and Tyre would not be produced by impact into a solid ice target, but may be explained by impact into an ice layer 10 to 15 km thick overlying a low viscosity material such as water.

  18. Results of the Huygens VLBI experiment and outlook for VLBI support for future missions to outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, Leonid; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Avruch, I. M.; Huygens VLBI Team

    Very Long Baseline Interferomtery (VLBI), a radio astronomy technique that offers the highest angular resolution and sensitivity, has progressed rapidly over the last years. It offers now a sub-kilometre-scale accuracy of position determination for weak transmitters at the distance of up to ten AU with minimal requirements for the composition of on-board instrumentation. Being combined with other advanced tracking techniques (such as DeltaDOR and two-way Doppler measurements), it brings about a possibility to conduct a variety of planetary science experiments with unprecedented accuracy. The VLBI technique was demonstrated for the Huygens Probe during its descent in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan. Results of this experiment - the Probe descent trajectory reconstruction and diagnostics of the parachute motion - will be presented. Similar experiments are being considered for a number of prospective planetary missions under the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. In this review presentation we will discuss the basic principles of VLBI tracking of planetary missions and major specifications for the on-board and Earth-based segments of VLBI tracking experiments. We will also describe several potential applications of this technique for various experiments in the interest of atmosphere physics, geodynamics and other planetary science disciplines. Another attractive potential of the technique links it with the general mission support as an efficient diagnostic and navigation tool. In addition, Earth-based radio astronomy arrays might be considered as a receiving element for Direct-to-Earth transmission of mission-critical information from low-power planetary mission transmitters.

  19. The Effects of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Work Schedule Regime on Locomotor Activity Circadian Rhythms, Sleep and Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRoshia, Charles W.; Colletti, Laura C.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed human adaptation to a Mars sol by evaluating sleep metrics obtained by actigraphy and subjective responses in 22 participants, and circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity in 9 participants assigned to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operational work schedules (24.65 hour days) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2004. During MER operations, increased work shift durations and reduced sleep durations and time in bed were associated with the appearance of pronounced 12-hr (circasemidian) rhythms with reduced activity levels. Sleep duration, workload, and circadian rhythm stability have important implications for adaptability and maintenance of operational performance not only of MER operations personnel but also in space crews exposed to a Mars sol of 24.65 hours during future Mars missions.

  20. A fast, lock-free approach for efficient parallel counting of occurrences of k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Kingsford, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Counting the number of occurrences of every k-mer (substring of length k) in a long string is a central subproblem in many applications, including genome assembly, error correction of sequencing reads, fast multiple sequence alignment and repeat detection. Recently, the deep sequence coverage generated by next-generation sequencing technologies has caused the amount of sequence to be processed during a genome project to grow rapidly, and has rendered current k-mer counting tools too slow and memory intensive. At the same time, large multicore computers have become commonplace in research facilities allowing for a new parallel computational paradigm. Results: We propose a new k-mer counting algorithm and associated implementation, called Jellyfish, which is fast and memory efficient. It is based on a multithreaded, lock-free hash table optimized for counting k-mers up to 31 bases in length. Due to their flexibility, suffix arrays have been the data structure of choice for solving many string problems. For the task of k-mer counting, important in many biological applications, Jellyfish offers a much faster and more memory-efficient solution. Availability: The Jellyfish software is written in C++ and is GPL licensed. It is available for download at http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/software/jellyfish. Contact: gmarcais@umd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21217122

  1. Tomas Tranströmer's stroke of genius: language but no words.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, Iván

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, the widely acclaimed Swedish poet Tomas Tranströmer lost his speech and the ability to use his right hand as a result of a stroke. As if anticipating his own fate, in 1974, he referred in his longest poem Baltics the story of the Russian composer Vissarion Shebalin who suffered the same symptoms as Tranströmer following a brain bleed: "Then, cerebral hemorrhage: paralysis on the right side with aphasia." An amateur pianist himself, Tranströmer carried on playing left-handed piano pieces after the stroke. In spite of a severe nonfluent dysphasia with dysgraphia, Tranströmer kept producing a poetic language of the highest caliber in accordance with his 1979 no less prophetic verse "language but no words." And through music and poetry, overcame the great communication barriers imposed by a large dominant hemispheric stroke. A nonprolific writer before the stroke, after it Tranströmer became disproportionately brief compared to his prestroke production, confining most of his poetry to the agrammatical and telegraphic haiku style.

  2. Comparison of De Novo Transcriptome Assemblers and k-mer Strategies Using the Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satshil B.; Zadlock, Frank J.; Zhang, Ziping; Murphy, Wyatt R.; Bentivegna, Carolyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background De novo assembly of non-model organism’s transcriptomes has recently been on the rise in concert with the number of de novo transcriptome assembly software programs. There is a knowledge gap as to what assembler software or k-mer strategy is best for construction of an optimal de novo assembly. Additionally, there is a lack of consensus on which evaluation metrics should be used to assess the quality of de novo transcriptome assemblies. Result Six different assembly strategies were evaluated from four different assemblers. The Trinity assembly was used in its default 25 single k-mer value while Bridger, Oases, and SOAPdenovo-Trans were performed with multiple k-mer strategies. Bridger, Oases, and SOAPdenovo-Trans used a small multiple k-mer (SMK) strategy consisting of the k-mer lengths of 21, 25, 27, 29, 31, and 33. Additionally, Oases and SOAPdenovo-Trans were performed using a large multiple k-mer (LMK) strategy consisting of k-mer lengths of 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85. Eleven metrics were used to evaluate each assembly strategy including three genome related evaluation metrics (contig number, N50 length, Contigs >1 kb, reads) and eight transcriptome evaluation metrics (mapped back to transcripts (RMBT), number of full length transcripts, number of open reading frames, Detonate RSEM-EVAL score, and percent alignment to the southern platyfish, Amazon molly, BUSCO and CEGMA databases). The assembly strategy that performed the best, that is it was within the top three of each evaluation metric, was the Bridger assembly (10 of 11) followed by the Oases SMK assembly (8 of 11), the Oases LMK assembly (6 of 11), the Trinity assembly (4 of 11), the SOAP LMK assembly (4 of 11), and the SOAP SMK assembly (3 of 11). Conclusion This study provides an in-depth multi k-mer strategy investigation concluding that the assembler itself had a greater impact than k-mer size regardless of the strategy employed. Additionally, the comprehensive performance

  3. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  4. Latest Results from and Plans for the New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Harold; Stern, Alan

    2016-07-01

    spacecraft remains healthy and was targeted toward the flyby of a small (~30-40 km) KBO in late-2015, enabling the study of an object (2014 MU69) in a completely different dynamical class (cold classical) than Pluto, if NASA approves an Extended Mission phase. In addition to the flyby of 2014 MU69 on 2019-Jan-01, the proposed Extended Mission would also include observations of more than 20 other KBOs at resolutions and geometries not feasible from Earth, and studies of the heliospheric plasma, neutral H and He, and the dust environment out to 50 AU from the Sun.

  5. Recent results of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Takuji; Oki, Riko; Furukawa, Kinji; Kaneko, Yuki; Yamaji, Moeka; Iguchi, Toshio; Takayabu, Yukari

    2017-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international collaboration to achieve highly accurate and highly frequent global precipitation observations. The GPM mission consists of the GPM Core Observatory jointly developed by U.S. and Japan and Constellation Satellites that carry microwave radiometers and provided by the GPM partner agencies. The GPM Core Observatory, launched on February 2014, carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) started the DPR assimilation in the meso-scale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system on March 24 2016. This was regarded as the world's first "operational" assimilation of spaceborne radar data in the NWP system of meteorological agencies. JAXA also develops the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. The GSMaP near-real-time version (GSMaP_NRT) product is available 4-hour after observation through the "JAXA Global Rainfall Watch" web site (http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP) since 2008. The GSMaP_NRT product gives higher priority to data latency than accuracy, and has been used by various users for various purposes, such as rainfall monitoring, flood alert and warning, drought monitoring, crop yield forecast, and agricultural insurance. There is, however, a requirement for shortening of data latency time from GSMaP users. To reduce data latency, JAXA has developed the GSMaP realtime version (GSMaP_NOW) product for observation area of the geostationary satellite Himawari-8 operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). GSMaP_NOW product was released to public in November 2, 2015 through the

  6. Pumping test results for wells within Potrero Canyon, Morongo Band of Mission Indians Reservation, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pimentel, M. Isabel; Christensen, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    Wells in Potrero Canyon are the main source of water for the Morongo Band of Mission Indians, located near Banning, California. A series of pumping tests were completed on four water-supply wells in the Canyon during February 27 to March 2, 2001. The purpose of the tests was to determine the productivity of each well and the interference (drawdown or water-level decline) each pumped well produced in surrounding wells. During each pumping test, a well was pumped at a fairly constant rate for several hours and drawdown was measured in the pumping well; nearby production wells (mostly idle) were used as observation wells. Productivity of the pumping well, specific capacity in gallons per minute per foot of drawdown (gal/min/ft), was determined from time-drawdown data in the pumping well. The range of specific capacities from these tests were 29.9 gal/min/ft, measured in well 24P3 (2S/1E-24P3) to 12.8 gal/min/ft in well 25H1. A specific capacity of 34.4 gal/min/ft was reported (Constant Flow Test notes by McCalla Bros.) for well 24N1. The amount of the drawdown in the observation wells during each pumping test was used to determine the interference between wells.

  7. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  8. Treatment of congenital anomalies in a missionary hospital in Bangladesh: results of 17 paediatric surgical missions.

    PubMed

    Del Rossi, Carmine; Fontechiari, Simona; Casolari, Emilio; Fainardi, Valentina; Caravaggi, Francesca; Lombardi, Laura

    2008-12-01

    We report 17 years of experience in a missionary hospital with decreased facilities in Bangladesh. Our interest was directed at children with congenital malformations since they live in a society where the exclusion of abnormal children is common. A better treatment for these children offers them a better future. Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world: its population ranges from 142 to 159 million, and it is one of the poorest nations in the world. From 1991 to 2008 our Italian pediatric surgical team performed 17 5 weeks missions in a missionary hospital in Khulna, Bangladesh, during the months of January and February. A total of 1556 patients underwent surgery, mostly for severe congenital anomalies. The infection rates were very low: 2-3%; the mortality rate was 0.4% for all the operations. Good pre-operative preparation and assistance, assurance of cyclical follow-up and a trained surgical team allowed the successful treatment of complex malformations in a missionary hospital with modest services.

  9. Deuterium, Nitrogen, and Oxygen abundances toward WD0004+330: Results from the FUSE mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. M.; Hebrard, G.; Friedman, S. D.; Moos, H. W.

    2002-12-01

    We present new high-resolution spectra of the hot DA white dwarf WD0004+330 obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) in the wavelength range 905-1187A, for the purpose of studying the deuterium abundance of the local interstellar medium. The effective temperature and gravity of this star (Teff 46,000K and log(g) 7.83) provide a smooth stellar continuum against which the interstellar lines are cleanly seen. Molecular hydrogen, corresponding to rotational levels J<4 are clearly seen along this line of sight. We determine column densities of D I, C II*, N I, O I, Si II, P II, Ar I, and Fe II, and compare D/O, D/N, and O/N values with previously published values for the local interstellar medium. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  10. UNC1062, a new and potent Mer inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Stashko, Michael A; Deryckere, Deborah; Cummings, Christopher T; Hunter, Debra; Yang, Chao; Jayakody, Chatura N; Cheng, Nancy; Simpson, Catherine; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Sather, Susan; Kireev, Dmitri; Janzen, William P; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal activation of Mer kinase has been implicated in the oncogenesis of many human cancers including acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia, non-small cell lung cancer, and glioblastoma. We have discovered a new family of small molecule Mer inhibitors, pyrazolopyrimidine sulfonamides, that potently inhibit the kinase activity of Mer. Importantly, these compounds do not demonstrate significant hERG activity in the PatchXpress assay. Through structure-activity relationship studies, 35 (UNC1062) was identified as a potent (IC50 = 1.1 nM) and selective Mer inhibitor. When applied to live tumor cells, UNC1062 inhibited Mer phosphorylation and colony formation in soft agar. Given the potential of Mer as a therapeutic target, UNC1062 is a promising candidate for further drug development.

  11. UNC1062, a new and potent Mer inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Stashko, Michael A; DeRyckere, Deborah; Cummings, Christopher T.; Hunter, Debra; Yang, Chao; Jayakody, Chatura N.; Cheng, Nancy; Simpson, Catherine; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Sather, Susan; Kireev, Dmitri; Janzen, William P.; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.; Frye, Stephen V.; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal activation of Mer kinase has been implicated in the oncogenesis of many human cancers including acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia, non-small cell lung cancer, and glioblastoma. We have discovered a new family of small molecule Mer inhibitors, pyrazolopyrimidine sulfonamides, that potently inhibit the kinase activity of Mer. Importantly, these compounds do not demonstrate significant hERG activity in the PatchXpress assay. Through structure-activity relationship studies, 35 (UNC1062) was identified as a potent (IC50 = 1.1 nM) and selective Mer inhibitor. When applied to live tumor cells, UNC1062 inhibited Mer phosphorylation and colony formation in soft agar. Given the potential of Mer as a therapeutic target, UNC1062 is a promising candidate for further drug development. PMID:23693152

  12. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  13. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  14. Early results on energetic particle dynamics and structure from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Westlake, J. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Pollock, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Blake, J. B.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The cluster of four, formation-flying spacecraft, comprising the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, launched on 13 March 2015 into near equatorial 1.2 x 12 RE orbits, provides an important new asset for assessing the transport of energy and matter from the distant regions of Earth's magnetosphere into the inner regions. Here we report on early results from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instrument on each of the MMS Spacecraft. EIS provides nearly all-sky energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions for < 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for oxygen ions, up to > 1 MeV. It also measures energetic electrons from 25 keV to > 0.5 MeV in support and coordination with the electron-focused Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS). During the early phase of the MMS mission, while the full complement of instruments was being commissioned prior to the prime mission phase beginning 1 September 2015, EIS observed dynamic energetic particle injections at the root of the magnetotail between the post-midnight regions and dawn in association with numerous dipolarization fronts and related processes. Here we report on coordinated measurements between MMS's EIS instrument and EIS's sister instrument on the Van Allen Probes, RBSPICE, to further address the relationship between dynamic injections and depolarization fronts in the magnetotail and injections observed deep within the magnetosphere's ring current regions. We also report preliminary result on using energetic particle gradients and anistotropies to diagnose magnetopause structures near mission-identified reconnection sites.

  15. Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Raj, V. Stalin; Farag, Elmoubasher A.B.A.; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Lamers, Mart M.; Pas, Suzan D.; Voermans, Jolanda; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Romaihi, Hamad E.; El-Sayed, Ahmed M.; Mohran, Khaled A.; Ghobashy, Hazem; Alhajri, Farhoud; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih A.; El-Maghraby, Mamdouh M.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2014-01-01

    We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels. PMID:25075761

  16. FULAS: Design and test results of a novel laser platform for future LIDAR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttmann, Jörg; Klein, Jürgen; Plum, Heinz-Dieter; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Hahn, Sven; Bode, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Spaceborne atmospheric LIDAR instruments enable the global measurement of aerosols, wind and greenhouse gases like CO2, Methane and Water. These LIDAR instruments require a pulsed single frequency laser source with emission at a specific wavelength. Pulse energies in the 10 mJ or 100 mJ range are required at bandwidth limited pulse durations in the multi-10 ns range. Pulse repetition rate requirements are typically around 100 Hz but may range from 10 Hz to some kHz. High efficiency is mandatory. Building complex laser sources providing the performance, reliability and lifetime necessary to operate such instruments in space has been recognized to be still very challenging. To overcome this, in the frame of the FULAS technology development project - funded by ESA and supported by the German Aerospace Center DLR - a versatile platform for LIDAR sources has been developed. For demonstration the requirements of the laser source in the ATLID instrument have been chosen. The design is based on a single frequency seeded, actively Q-switched, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser oscillator and an InnoSlab power amplifier with frequency tripling. The laser architecture pays special attention on Laser Induced Contamination by avoiding critical organic and outgassing materials. Soldering technologies for mounting and alignment of optics provide high mechanical stability and superior reliability. The FULAS infrared section has been assembled and integrated into a pressurized housing. The optical performance at 1064 nm has been demonstrated and thermal vacuum tests have been carried out successfully providing relevant data for the French-German climate mission MERLIN.

  17. External and internal magnetic fields at Mars: New results and upcoming missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, M.; Memoire

    2003-04-01

    Separation of internal and external magnetic field sources from MGS satellite data alone could be improved using magnetic proxies. We discuss two approaches. The solar wind monitoring observations from ACE (Vennerstrom et al, 2002) can be extrapolated to Mars and can be compared with MGS observations over the northern hemisphere at times when ACE and Mars are both on the same Parker spiral field line. It is also possible to directly compare magnetic conditions at Earth with those at Mars when both are on the same field line. Magnetic measurements onboard orbiters may allow achieving separation between internal and external sources. In addition to the already mentioned global variations, time-varying magnetospheric fields are probably also associated with the spatially-restricted mini-magnetospheres, especially in the Cimmeria region in the south; such a separation would for sure help in understanding the dynamics of these structures. The highest frequency signals are likely to be associated with spherics (Grimm, 2002), perhaps associated with dust storms. There are several time-varying magnetic fields, which could be used as probes of the Martian subsurface from magnetic measurements onboard orbiters. Olsen (2002, and in preparation) and Tarits (personal communication) have shown evidence for global ionospheric fields, some of which most certainly vary on a daily basis. Finally, external field variations over the course of a solar cycle would allow probing into the Martian lower mantle. A pre-requisite for the recognition of such signals would be a mission in the latter part of the decade. We hope that the MagNet experiment on NetLander, in conjunction with a simultaneously recording orbital magnetometer (as it was proposed in MEMOIRE project), will give us a means of separating temporal and spatial variations of the magnetic field.

  18. Status and Early Science Results of the PS1 Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, K.

    2012-09-01

    Pan-STARRS1 began the PS1 Science Mission May 13, 2010. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey; which currently has obtained more than 30 epochs in 5 passbands (grizy) of the entire sky north of Dec = -30, or 30,000 square degrees with 0.26 arcsecond pixels, or nearly 2 Petabytes of images; (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky or a total of 70 square degrees; (3) A solar system ecliptic plane survey optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects and Kuiper Belt Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey of ~50 square degrees in the galactic buldge; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31 with special attention to a proper cadence for microlensing. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the images, the photometric calibration, and astrometric precision will be presented. Early science ranging from the solar system, brown dwarfs, galactic structure, supernovae, and galaxy counts will be presented. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, and NASA through the NEOO program.

  19. A revised calibration function and results for the Phoenix mission TECP relative humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Hudson, T. L.; Wood, S. E.; Chevrier, V. F.

    2016-04-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on the Phoenix (PHX) Mars mission has been developed. Two changes are incorporated: (1) it is now cast in terms of frost point (Tf) rather than relative humidity (RH), and (2) flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, are included in the calibration data set. Daytime (6:00 h-19:00 h) frost points ranged from 194 K to 209 K; the nighttime frost point ranged from 179 K to 206 K. The response of the sensor was smooth and continuous throughout. Daytime humidity exhibited large, high-frequency variance driven by turbulence, whereas nighttime humidity varied smoothly with the temperature of the atmosphere. Nighttime saturation of the atmosphere begins at Ls 101°, (Martian solar day (sol) 55), which is earlier than reported by either Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) or solid-state imager (SSI). Early mornings are the most humid part of the sol after Ls 113° (sol 80), due to sublimation of surface ice that precipitates overnight. H2O is removed from the atmosphere into the regolith, mostly during the late afternoon, although this continues into the evening. The ground ice exposed by Phoenix operations masks the naturally occurring process in the early evening and may cause the atmosphere immediately around the lander to saturate somewhat earlier in the evening than it otherwise would have. The average H2O vapor density is close to the summertime value expected for equilibrium with ground ice. A discrepancy between the H2O column calculated from TECP data and the column measured by CRISM and SSI is likely due to comparable timescales between turbulent mixing through the planetary boundary layer and adsorptive drawdown of H2O. We find that RH is mostly < 5% (daytime) or > 95% (nighttime), and the transition between the two extremes is extremely rapid.

  20. Mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 manned lunar-landing mission is discussed. As compared with previous Apollo manned lunar-landing missions, the mission 15 is characterized by increased hardware capability, a larger scientific payload, and a battery-powered lunar roving vehicle (Rover). Benefits resulting from these additions to Apollo 15 were a mission duration of 12-1/3 days, a lunar stay time of nearly 67 hr, a lunar-surface traverse distance of 27.9 km traveled at an average speed of 9.6 km/hr, and a scientific instrument module (SIM) containing equipment for orbital experiments and photographic tasks not performed on previous missions. The primary scientific objectives of the mission were to perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region; to emplace and activate surface experiments; and to conduct inflight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit.

  1. Critical Spacecraft-to-Earth Communications for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) entry, descent and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, William J.; Estabrook, Polly; Racho, Caroline S.; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2002-01-01

    For planetary lander missions, the most challenging phase of the spacecraft to ground communications is during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL). As each 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) enters the Martian atmosphere, it slows dramatically. The extreme acceleration and jerk cause extreme Doppler dynamics on the X-band signal received on Earth. When the vehicle slows sufficiently, the parachute is deployed, causing almost a step in deceleration. After parachute deployment, the lander is lowered beneath the parachute on a bridle. The swinging motion of the lander imparts high Doppler dynamics on the signal and causes the received signal strength to vary widely, due to changing antenna pointing angles. All this time, the vehicle transmits important health and status information that is especially critical if the landing is not successful. Even using the largest Deep Space Network antennas, the weak signal and high dynamics render it impossible to conduct reliable phase coherent communications. Therefore, a specialized form of frequency-shift-keying will be used. This paper describes the EDL scenario, the signal conditions, the methods used to detect and frequency-track the carrier and to detect the data modulation, and the resulting performance estimates.

  2. Tests Results of the Electrostatic Accelerometer Flight Models for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On Mission (GRACE FO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, E.; Boulanger, D.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Lebat, V.; Huynh, P. A.; Liorzou, F.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE FO mission, led by the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), is an Earth-orbiting gravity mission, continuation of the GRACE mission, which will produce an accurate model of the Earth's gravity field variation providing global climatic data during five years at least. The mission involves two satellites in a loosely controlled tandem formation, with a micro-wave link measuring the inter-satellites distance variation. Earth's mass distribution non-uniformities cause variations of the inter-satellite distance. This variation is measured to recover gravity, after subtracting the non-gravitational contributors, as the residual drag. ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab) is developing, manufacturing and testing electrostatic accelerometers measuring this residual drag applied on the satellites. The accelerometer is composed of two main parts: the Sensor Unit (including the Sensor Unit Mechanics - SUM - and the Front-End Electronic Unit - FEEU) and the Interface Control Unit - ICU. In the Accelerometer Core, located in the Sensor Unit Mechanics, the proof mass is levitated and maintained at the center of an electrode cage by electrostatic forces. Thus, any drag acceleration applied on the satellite involves a variation on the servo-controlled electrostatic suspension of the mass. The voltage on the electrodes providing this electrostatic force is the output measurement of the accelerometer. The impact of the accelerometer defaults (geometry, electronic and parasitic forces) leads to bias, misalignment and scale factor error, non-linearity and noise. Some of these accelerometer defaults are characterized by tests with micro-gravity pendulum bench on ground and with drops in ZARM catapult. The Critical Design Review was achieved successfully on September 2014. The Engineering Model (EM) was integrated and tested successfully, with ground levitation, drops, Electromagnetic Compatibility and thermal vacuum. The integration of the two Flight Models was done on July 2015. The

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle carrying the rover "Opportunity" for the second Mars Exploration Rover mission launches at 11:18:15 p.m. EDT. Opportunity will reach Mars on Jan. 25, 2004. Together the two MER rovers, Spirit (launched June 10) and Opportunity, seek to determine the history of climate and water at two sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. The rovers are identical. They will navigate themselves around obstacles as they drive across the Martian surface, traveling up to about 130 feet each Martian day. Each rover carries five scientific instruments including a panoramic camera and microscope, plus a rock abrasion tool that will grind away the outer surfaces of rocks to expose their interiors for examination. Each rover’s prime mission is planned to last three months on Mars.

  4. Identification of the merR gene of R100 by using mer-lac gene and operon fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, T J; Brown, N L

    1985-01-01

    Transcriptional (operon) and translational (gene) fusions between the R100 merR gene and lacZ were constructed in vitro in a pBR322 plasmid carrying the mer genes derived from plasmid R100. The translational fusions were oriented in the opposite direction to and divergently from the merTCAD genes. This shows that the reading frame previously thought to be merR was incorrect. Expression of the gene fusion was repressed in trans by a compatible plasmid carrying the R100 merR+ gene, as was a similarly oriented transcriptional fusion. In contrast, expression of beta-galactosidase by the lac fragment located at the same site but in the opposite orientation was at a lower level and was not repressed by merR+. Images PMID:2993235

  5. Healthcare Workers Emotions, Perceived Stressors and Coping Strategies During a MERS-CoV Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Imran; Khalid, Tabindeh J.; Qabajah, Mohammed R.; Barnard, Aletta G.; Qushmaq, Ismael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of contracting Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) during an epidemic. We explored the emotions, perceived stressors, and coping strategies of healthcare workers who worked during a MERS-CoV outbreak in our hospital. Design A cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Setting A tertiary care hospital. Participants HCWs (150) who worked in high risk areas during the April–May 2014 MERS-CoV outbreak that occurred in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods We developed and administered a “MERS-CoV staff questionnaire” to study participants. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections with 72 questions. The sections evaluated hospital staffs emotions, perceived stressors, factors that reduced their stress, coping strategies, and motivators to work during future outbreaks. Responses were scored on a scale from 0–3. The varying levels of stress or effectiveness of measures were reported as mean and standard deviation, as appropriate. Results Completed questionnaires were returned by 117 (78%) of the participants. The results had many unique elements. HCWs ethical obligation to their profession pushed them to continue with their jobs. The main sentiments centered upon fear of personal safety and well-being of colleagues and family. Positive attitudes in the workplace, clinical improvement of infected colleagues, and stoppage of disease transmission among HCWs after adopting strict protective measures alleviated their fear and drove them through the epidemic. They appreciated recognition of their efforts by hospital management and expected similar acknowledgment, infection control guidance, and equipment would entice them to work during future epidemics. Conclusion The MERS-CoV outbreak was a distressing time for our staff. Hospitals can enhance HCWs experiences during any future MERS-CoV outbreak by focusing on the above mentioned aspects. PMID:26847480

  6. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  7. Mer or Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition promotes apoptosis, blocks growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Linger, R M A; Cohen, R A; Cummings, C T; Sather, S; Migdall-Wilson, J; Middleton, D H G; Lu, X; Barón, A E; Franklin, W A; Merrick, D T; Jedlicka, P; DeRyckere, D; Heasley, L E; Graham, D K

    2013-07-18

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prevalent and devastating disease that claims more lives than breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancers combined. Current research suggests that standard chemotherapy regimens have been optimized to maximal efficiency. Promising new treatment strategies involve novel agents targeting molecular aberrations present in subsets of NSCLC. We evaluated 88 human NSCLC tumors of diverse histology and identified Mer and Axl as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) overexpressed in 69% and 93%, respectively, of tumors relative to surrounding normal lung tissue. Mer and Axl were also frequently overexpressed and activated in NSCLC cell lines. Ligand-dependent Mer or Axl activation stimulated MAPK, AKT and FAK signaling pathways indicating roles for these RTKs in multiple oncogenic processes. In addition, we identified a novel pro-survival pathway-involving AKT, CREB, Bcl-xL, survivin, and Bcl-2-downstream of Mer, which is differentially modulated by Axl signaling. We demonstrated that short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of Mer or Axl significantly reduced NSCLC colony formation and growth of subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. Mer or Axl knockdown also improved in vitro NSCLC sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents by promoting apoptosis. When comparing the effects of Mer and Axl knockdown, Mer inhibition exhibited more complete blockade of tumor growth while Axl knockdown more robustly improved chemosensitivity. These results indicate that Mer and Axl have complementary and overlapping roles in NSCLC and suggest that treatment strategies targeting both RTKs may be more effective than singly-targeted agents. Our findings validate Mer and Axl as potential therapeutic targets in NSCLC and provide justification for development of novel therapeutic compounds that selectively inhibit Mer and/or Axl.

  8. Mer or Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Promotes Apoptosis, Blocks Growth, and Enhances Chemosensitivity of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rachel M.A.; Cohen, Rebecca A.; Cummings, Christopher T.; Sather, Susan; Migdall-Wilson, Justine; Middleton, Deryck H.G.; Lu, Xian; Barón, Anna E.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Jedlicka, Paul; DeRyckere, Deborah; Heasley, Lynn E.; Graham, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prevalent and devastating disease that claims more lives than breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers combined. Current research suggests that standard chemotherapy regimens have been optimized to maximal efficiency. Promising new treatment strategies involve novel agents targeting molecular aberrations present in subsets of NSCLC. We evaluated 88 human NSCLC tumors of diverse histology and identified Mer and Axl as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) overexpressed in 69% and 93%, respectively, of tumors relative to surrounding normal lung tissue. Mer and Axl were also frequently overexpressed and activated in NSCLC cell lines. Ligand-dependent Mer or Axl activation stimulated MAPK, AKT, and FAK signaling pathways indicating roles for these RTKs in multiple oncogenic processes. In addition, we identified a novel pro-survival pathway—involving AKT, CREB, Bcl-xL, survivin, and Bcl-2—downstream of Mer, which is differentially modulated by Axl signaling. We demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of Mer or Axl significantly reduced NSCLC colony formation and growth of subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. Mer or Axl knockdown also improved in vitro NSCLC sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents by promoting apoptosis. When comparing the effects of Mer and Axl knockdown, Mer inhibition exhibited more complete blockade of tumor growth while Axl knockdown more robustly improved chemosensitivity. These results indicate that Mer and Axl play complementary and overlapping roles in NSCLC and suggest that treatment strategies targeting both RTKs may be more effective than singly-targeted agents. Our findings validate Mer and Axl as potential therapeutic targets in NSCLC and provide justification for development of novel therapeutic compounds that selectively inhibit Mer and/or Axl. PMID:22890323

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL.

  10. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  11. Compact representation of k-mer de Bruijn graphs for genome read assembly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Processing of reads from high throughput sequencing is often done in terms of edges in the de Bruijn graph representing all k-mers from the reads. The memory requirements for storing all k-mers in a lookup table can be demanding, even after removal of read errors, but can be alleviated by using a memory efficient data structure. Results The FM-index, which is based on the Burrows–Wheeler transform, provides an efficient data structure providing a searchable index of all substrings from a set of strings, and is used to compactly represent full genomes for use in mapping reads to a genome: the memory required to store this is in the same order of magnitude as the strings themselves. However, reads from high throughput sequences mostly have high coverage and so contain the same substrings multiple times from different reads. I here present a modification of the FM-index, which I call the kFM-index, for indexing the set of k-mers from the reads. For DNA sequences, this requires 5 bit of information for each vertex of the corresponding de Bruijn subgraph, i.e. for each different k−1-mer, plus some additional overhead, typically 0.5 to 1 bit per vertex, for storing the equivalent of the FM-index for walking the underlying de Bruijn graph and reproducing the actual k-mers efficiently. Conclusions The kFM-index could replace more memory demanding data structures for storing the de Bruijn k-mer graph representation of sequence reads. A Java implementation with additional technical documentation is provided which demonstrates the applicability of the data structure (http://folk.uio.no/einarro/Projects/KFM-index/). PMID:24152242

  12. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Menachery, Vineet D; Mitchell, Hugh D; Cockrell, Adam S; Gralinski, Lisa E; Yount, Boyd L; Graham, Rachel L; McAnarney, Eileen T; Douglas, Madeline G; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F; Hale, Andrew E; Stratton, Kelly G; Waters, Katrina M; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-08-22

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation. In vitro replication attenuation also extends to in vivo models, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.IMPORTANCE The initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants. Copyright © 2017 Menachery et al.

  13. Healthcare Workers Emotions, Perceived Stressors and Coping Strategies During a MERS-CoV Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Imran; Khalid, Tabindeh J; Qabajah, Mohammed R; Barnard, Aletta G; Qushmaq, Ismael A

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of contracting Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) during an epidemic. We explored the emotions, perceived stressors, and coping strategies of healthcare workers who worked during a MERS-CoV outbreak in our hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A tertiary care hospital. HCWs (150) who worked in high risk areas during the April-May 2014 MERS-CoV outbreak that occurred in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We developed and administered a "MERS-CoV staff questionnaire" to study participants. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections with 72 questions. The sections evaluated hospital staffs emotions, perceived stressors, factors that reduced their stress, coping strategies, and motivators to work during future outbreaks. Responses were scored on a scale from 0-3. The varying levels of stress or effectiveness of measures were reported as mean and standard deviation, as appropriate. Completed questionnaires were returned by 117 (78%) of the participants. The results had many unique elements. HCWs ethical obligation to their profession pushed them to continue with their jobs. The main sentiments centered upon fear of personal safety and well-being of colleagues and family. Positive attitudes in the workplace, clinical improvement of infected colleagues, and stoppage of disease transmission among HCWs after adopting strict protective measures alleviated their fear and drove them through the epidemic. They appreciated recognition of their efforts by hospital management and expected similar acknowledgment, infection control guidance, and equipment would entice them to work during future epidemics. The MERS-CoV outbreak was a distressing time for our staff. Hospitals can enhance HCWs experiences during any future MERS-CoV outbreak by focusing on the above mentioned aspects. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  14. 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking study on Mer kinase inhibitors of pyridine-substituted pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuang; Li, Xianchao; Ge, Cuizhu; Si, Hongzong; Cui, Lianhua; Gao, Hua; Duan, Yunbo; Zhai, Honglin

    2015-02-01

    Mer kinase is a novel therapeutic target for many cancers, and overexpression of Mer receptor tyrosine kinase has been observed in several kinds of tumors. To deeply understand the structure-activity correlation of a series of pyridine/pyrimidine analogs as potent Mer inhibitors, a combined molecular docking and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling was carried out. A comparative molecular similarity indices analysis model was developed based on the maximum common substructure alignment. The optimum model exhibited statistically significant results: the cross-validated correlation coefficient q2 was 0.599, and non-cross-validated r2 value was 0.984. Furthermore, the results of internal validation such as bootstrapping, Y-randomization as well as external validation (the external predictive correlation coefficient r2 ext = 0.728) confirmed the rationality and good predictive ability of the model. Using the crystal structure of Mer kinase, the selected pyridine/pyrimidine compounds were docked into the enzyme active site. Some key amino acid residues were determined, and hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between Mer kinase and inhibitors were identified. The satisfactory results from this study may aid in the research and development of novel potent Mer kinase inhibitors.

  15. High-resolution topomapping of candidate MER landing sites with Mars Orbiter Camera narrow-angle images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Redding, B.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T.M.; Archinal, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Barrett, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed narrow-angle Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC-NA) images to produce high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in order to provide topographic and slope information needed to assess the safety of candidate landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and to assess the accuracy of our results by a variety of tests. The mapping techniques developed also support geoscientific studies and can be used with all present and planned Mars-orbiting scanner cameras. Photogrammetric analysis of MOC stereopairs yields DEMs with 3-pixel (typically 10 m) horizontal resolution, vertical precision consistent with ???0.22 pixel matching errors (typically a few meters), and slope errors of 1-3??. These DEMs are controlled to the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global data set and consistent with it at the limits of resolution. Photoclinometry yields DEMs with single-pixel (typically ???3 m) horizontal resolution and submeter vertical precision. Where the surface albedo is uniform, the dominant error is 10-20% relative uncertainty in the amplitude of topography and slopes after "calibrating" photoclinometry against a stereo DEM to account for the influence of atmospheric haze. We mapped portions of seven candidate MER sites and the Mars Pathfinder site. Safety of the final four sites (Elysium, Gusev, Isidis, and Meridiani) was assessed by mission engineers by simulating landings on our DEMs of "hazard units" mapped in the sites, with results weighted by the probability of landing on those units; summary slope statistics show that most hazard units are smooth, with only small areas of etched terrain in Gusev crater posing a slope hazard.

  16. Identification of human neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV and their role in virus adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xian-Chun; Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Jiao, Yongjun; Stanhope, Jeremy; Graham, Rachel L.; Peterson, Eric C.; Avnir, Yuval; Tallarico, Aimee St. Clair; Sheehan, Jared; Zhu, Quan; Baric, Ralph S.; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    The newly emerging Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like disease with ∼43% mortality. Given the recent detection of virus in dromedary camels, zoonotic transfer of MERS-CoV to humans is suspected. In addition, little is known about the role of human neutralizing Ab (nAb) pressure as a driving force in MERS-CoV adaptive evolution. Here, we used a well-characterized nonimmune human Ab-phage library and a panning strategy with proteoliposomes and cells to identify seven human nAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV Spike protein. These nAbs bind to three different epitopes in the RBD and human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) interface with subnanomolar/nanomolar binding affinities and block the binding of MERS-CoV Spike protein with its hDPP4 receptor. Escape mutant assays identified five amino acid residues that are critical for neutralization escape. Despite the close proximity of the three epitopes on the RBD interface, escape from one epitope did not have a major impact on neutralization with Abs directed to a different epitope. Importantly, the majority of escape mutations had negative impacts on hDPP4 receptor binding and viral fitness. To our knowledge, these results provide the first report on human nAbs against MERS-CoV that may contribute to MERS-CoV clearance and evolution. Moreover, in the absence of a licensed vaccine or antiviral for MERS, this panel of nAbs offers the possibility of developing human mAb-based immunotherapy, especially for health-care workers. PMID:24778221

  17. Enhanced electrodynamic tether currents due to electron emission from a neutral gas discharge: Results from the TSS-1R Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Bonifazi, C.; Bilén, S. G.; Raitt, W. J.; Burke, W. J.; Stone, N. H.; Lebreton, J. P.

    During the reflight of the first electrodynamic Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R) mission, the unplanned separation of the tether at the Orbiter end resulted in the highest tether current during the mission. In the moments just prior to the tether separation with 19.7 km of tether deployed and a generated electromotive force (EMF) of 3482 V, currents reaching approximately 0.97 A were shunted through the tether to the Orbiter electrical ground, which was in contact with the ionosphere primarily through its main engine surfaces. This current level was nearly twice as large as observed during any nominal operating period. As the failure point of the tether entered into the ambient plasma, the current increased to 1.1 A and maintained this level even after the break for approximately 75 s. The principal surprise in these results was that the broken end of the tether, with only a few short strands of copper wire, could support higher currents than the much larger Orbiter conducting surface areas. Analysis of possible current enhancement mechanisms revealed that only a gas-enhanced electrical discharge, providing an electron emission source, was plausible. Ground plasma chamber tests confirmed this analysis. The TSS-1R results thus represent the highest electron current emission from a neutral plasma source yet demonstrated in a space plasma. This is of interest for current collection processes in general and plasma contactor development in particular.

  18. An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Haagmans, Bart L; van den Brand, Judith M A; Raj, V Stalin; Volz, Asisa; Wohlsein, Peter; Smits, Saskia L; Schipper, Debby; Bestebroer, Theo M; Okba, Nisreen; Fux, Robert; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes Foz, David; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Segalés, Joaquim; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections have led to an ongoing outbreak in humans, which was fueled by multiple zoonotic MERS-CoV introductions from dromedary camels. In addition to the implementation of hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of MERS-CoV spread from the animal reservoir may be envisaged. Here we show that a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing the MERS-CoV spike protein confers mucosal immunity in dromedary camels. Compared with results for control animals, we observed a significant reduction of excreted infectious virus and viral RNA transcripts in vaccinated animals upon MERS-CoV challenge. Protection correlated with the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies to MERS-CoV. Induction of MVA-specific antibodies that cross-neutralize camelpox virus would also provide protection against camelpox. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Orbit determination results and trajectory reconstruction for the Cassini/Huygens mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordi, J.; Antreasian, P.; Jones, J.; Meek, C.; Ionasescu, R.; Roundhill, I.; Roth, D.

    2005-01-01

    During Cassini's third orbit around Saturn, the Huygens Probe was successfully released on a trjectory that resulted in the probe entering Titan's atmosphere on 14-January-2005, making it both the most distant spacecraft landing and the first spacecraft to successfully land on the moon of another planet.

  20. Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohammed F; Eltahir, Yassir M; Serhan, Wissam S; Hashem, Farouk M; Elsayed, Elsaeid A; Marzoug, Bahaaeldin A; Abdelazim, Assem Si; Bensalah, Oum Keltoum A; Al Muhairi, Salama S

    2015-06-01

    High seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels has been previously reported in United Arab Emirates (UAE). However, the molecular detection of the virus has never been reported before in UAE. Of the 7,803 nasal swabs tested in the epidemiological survey, MERS-CoV nucleic acid was detected by real-time PCR in a total of 126 (1.6 %) camels. Positive camels were detected at the borders with Saudi Arabia and Oman and in camels' slaughter houses. MERS-CoV partial sequences obtained from UAE camels were clustering with human- and camel-derived MERS-CoV sequences in the same geographic area. Results provide further evidence of MERS-CoV zoonosis.

  1. Survey of Experimental Results in High-Contrast Imaging for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Belikov, R.; Cash, W.; Clampin, M.; Glassman, T.; Guyon, O.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kern, B. D.; Lyon, R.; Mawet, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare experimental results in high contrast imaging representing the state of the art in coronagraph and starshade technology. These experiments have been undertaken with the goal of demonstrating the capability of detecting Earth-like planets around nearby Sun-like stars. The contrast of an Earth seen in reflected light around a Sun-like star would be about 1.2 x 10(exp -10). Several of the current candidate technologies now yield raw contrasts of 1.0 x 10(exp -9) or better, and so should enable the detection of Earths, assuming a gain in sensitivity in post-processing of a factor of 10. We present results of coronagraph and starshade experiments conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths. Cross-sections of dark fields are directly compared as a function of field angle and bandwidth. The strength and differences of the techniques are compared.

  2. The role of man in flight experiment payload missions. Volume 1: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that a controversy exists concerning the required role of man, and his attendant skills and levels of skills, for Sortie Lab operations. As a result, a study was conducted to generate a taxonomy of candidate crew roles which would: (1) be applicable across all experiments, and (2) be usable for Sortie scientists and engineers in determination of level of skill as well as type of skill. Nine basic roles were identified in the study, and the tasks associated with each were developed from a functional description of a generalized in-flight experiment. The functional analysis comprised the baseline for establishment of crew roles, with roles being defined as combinations of tasks, associated skills, and knowledges. A role classification scheme was developed in which the functions and tasks identified were allocated to each of the nine role types. This classification scheme is presented together with the significant results of the study.

  3. The Water-Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist): Preliminary Results From The STS-107 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Amon, Francine; Gokoglu, Suleyman

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation has been conducted onboard the Space Shuttle to take advantage of the prolonged microgravity environment to study the effect of uniformly distributed clouds of polydisperse water mists on the speed and shape of propagating propane-air premixed flames. The suspension of a quiescent and uniform water mist cloud was confirmed during the microgravity tests. Preliminary results show good agreement with trends obtained by the numerical predictions of a computational model that uses a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation to simulate the two-phase, flame/mist interaction. Effective flame suppression is observed at progressively higher water loadings and smaller water droplet sizes. Other unusual flame behavior, such as flame front breakup and pulsating flames, is still under investigation. The promising results from the microgravity tests will be used to assess the feasibility of using water mists as fire suppressants on Earth and on spacecraft.

  4. Survey of Experimental Results in High-Contrast Imaging for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Belikov, R.; Cash, W.; Clampin, M.; Glassman, T.; Guyon, O.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kern, B. D.; Lyon, R.; Mawet, D.; Moody, D.; Samuele, R.; Serabyn, E.; Sirbu, D.; Trauger, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare experimental results in high contrast imaging representing the state of the art in coronagraph and starshade technology. These experiments have been undertaken with the goal of demonstrating the capability of detecting Earth-like planets around nearby Sun-like stars. The contrast of an Earth seen in reflected light around a Sun-like star would be about 1.2 x 10(exp -10). Several of the current candidate technologies now yield raw contrasts of 1.0 x 10(exp -9) or better, and so should enable the detection of Earths, assuming a gain in sensitivity in post-processing of a factor of 10. We present results of coronagraph and starshade experiments conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths. Cross-sections of dark fields are directly compared as a function of field angle and bandwidth. The strength and differences of the techniques are compared.

  5. Skylab experiment M-171 'Metabolic Activity' - Results of the first manned mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment was performed to ascertain whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment. Skylab II crewmen were exercised on a bicycle ergometer at loads approximating 25%, 50%, and 75% of their maximum oxygen uptake while their physiological responses were monitored. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their response to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. Immediately postflight, however, all crewmen demonstrated an inability to perform the programmed exercise with the same metabolic effectiveness as they did both preflight and inflight. The most significant changes were elevated heart rates for the same work load and oxygen consumption (decreased oxygen pulse), decreased stroke volume, and decreased cardiac output at the same oxygen consumption level. It is apparent that the changes occurred inflight, but did not manifest themselves until the crewmen attempted to readapt to the 1-G environment.

  6. Skylab experiment M-171 'Metabolic Activity' - Results of the first manned mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment was performed to ascertain whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment. Skylab II crewmen were exercised on a bicycle ergometer at loads approximating 25%, 50%, and 75% of their maximum oxygen uptake while their physiological responses were monitored. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their response to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. Immediately postflight, however, all crewmen demonstrated an inability to perform the programmed exercise with the same metabolic effectiveness as they did both preflight and inflight. The most significant changes were elevated heart rates for the same work load and oxygen consumption (decreased oxygen pulse), decreased stroke volume, and decreased cardiac output at the same oxygen consumption level. It is apparent that the changes occurred inflight, but did not manifest themselves until the crewmen attempted to readapt to the 1-G environment.

  7. First Year Mission Results of Passive Measurement Experiment of Dust Particles on ISS (MPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Neish, M.; Inoue, T.; Imagawa, K.; Fujiwara, A.

    MPAC (Micro-Particles Capturer) performs dust particles capture experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Service Module (SM), which consists of low density collector (silica-aerogel and polyimide foam) materials and a metal plate (polished 6061-T6 aluminum plate). Three identical units of MPAC were launched by Progress M-45 Cargo Vessel from Baikonur Cosmodrome on August. Those units were deployed side-by-side on a handrail outside the SM. The front surface of each MPAC nominally directs to ram-direction and the back face directs to wake-direction of the ISS. One unit is retrieved to the Earth every year by Soyuz spacecraft. Therefore, exposure duration of individual units is one, two and three years. We should be able to clarify changes in the number of captured space dust particles. The results obtained will contribute greatly to future development of spacecraft. The first unit was retrieved after 315 days'exposure. Ram and wake MPAC surfaces (including the frame structure) have been examined and more than 30 candidates of dust impacts were located, of which at least 11 were confirmed to be impacts. Typical and the largest impact track in an silica-aerogel has curved walls, giving it a slightly bulbous appearance, and it has the entrance diameter about 2mm with a track length of 5mm, though the end of track is unclear. Based on results of Kitazawa et al. (1999), the track was induced by impact of a dust particle which has diameter range 200 - 250 um, impact velocity range 5 - 10 km/s, and incident angle 45°degree. This study provides description of the inspection and chemical analysis results of MPAC, and discuss based on comparison between the results and hypervelocity impact experiments. Additionally, the paper also discuss culation plan of MPAC materials which include future retrieval MPAC units.

  8. Orbit determination results and trajectory reconstruction for the Cassini/Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordi, John J.; Antreasian, Pete; Jones, Jerry; Meek, Cameron; Ionasescu, Rodica; Roundhill, Ian; Roth, Duane

    2005-01-01

    During Cassini's third orbit around Saturn, the Huygens Probe was successfully released on a trajectory that resulted in the probe entering Titan's atmosphere on January 14, 2005, making it both the most distant spacecraft landing and the first spacecraft to successfully land on the moon of another planet. This paper documents the reconstruction of both the orbiter and probe trajectoriespanning the Titan-B and Titan-C encounters.

  9. Cassini RADAR Observations at Titan : Results at the End of the Nominal Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    This talk will review some recent results of the Cassini RADAR investigations at Titan. In particular, the first half of 2008 includes three low-latitude flybys with SAR observations of Xanadu, the Huygens Landing site, and in particular three areas that may be associated with cryovolcanic features - Tortola Facula, Hotei Arcus, and Tui Regio. In addition to providing SAR coverage (which will include further mapping of dunes in the Shangri-La dark areas as well as the features above), these new flybys will permit refinement of the apparently dynamic Titan rotational state, as well as expanding our topographic knowledge.

  10. Suppression of Transient Events by Levitation (STABLE): Results From the USML-2 Mission. Experiment 38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, Gerald S.; Edberg, Dona