Sample records for mercedes maroto-valer chunshan

  1. 78 FR 38442 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006 Are Eligible for... petition for a decision that nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR passenger cars manufactured before...-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR passenger cars) and they are capable of being readily altered to conform to...

  2. Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--Versuch einer Liedinterpretation im Spanischunterricht (Mercedes Sosa: "Duerme, negrito"--A Trial Interpretation of a Song in Spanish Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Karl-Heinz


    Appended is text of the song Duerme, negrito'' (Sleep, Little Black Boy) by Atahualpa Yupanqui, as recorded by Mercedes Sosa on the album El grito de la tierra'' (The Cry of the Land), Philips 6347005. (RS)

  3. Mantle Xenoliths of Cerro Mercedes, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; Feigenson, M. D.


    Mantle peridotite occurs as xenoliths in lavas and bombs at Cerro Mercedes, a Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt volcano approximately 70 km behind the volcanic front of northern Costa Rica (Tournon and Alvarado, 1997). Mineral exploration led to the first discovery of abundant mantle xenoliths in Central America (Vargas and Alfaro, 1992). The compositions of 71 xenoliths recovered in January 2003 include dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite and olivine websterite. Twenty xenoliths have a diameter of at least 3 cm. The nodules are abundant in basalt outcrops and the rare bombs. In spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment, both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved. Olivine, pyroxenes and spinel are common, plagioclase is present and garnet appears to be absent. There is no obvious shearing or deformation and several pyroxenes are as much as 1 cm in diameter. The mineralogy suggests a relatively shallow upper mantle source, within either the lithosphere or possibly the uppermost asthenosphere. Cerro Mercedes, at latitude 10° 58' N and longitude 82° 21' W, lies along the Rio San Juan, which is locally the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Central America. This location approximately coincides with a boundary between dominantly depleted mantle to the northwest and OIB or Galapagos-like mantle to the southeast. We will use mineralogical data to better define the likely depths and oxidation states of representative nodules and isotopic data to define the type of mantle source.

  4. 75 FR 1117 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 and 2006 Mercedes Benz S-Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... 2006 Mercedes Benz S-Class Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006, Are Eligible for... for decision that nonconforming 2005 and 2006 Mercedes Benz S-Class passenger cars manufactured before... Benz S-Class passenger cars manufactured before September 1, 2006, that were not...

  5. Preliminary assessment of the Lago Mercedes discovery, Magallanes Basin, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S. ); Wilson, J.T.; Mainzer, G.F. ); Escobar, F.; Aguirre, G. )


    The Lago Mercedes No. 1 well, spudded January 17, 1991, was positioned to test a seismically defined structural culmination located along a blind thrust near the deep foreland axis of the western magallanes Basin. This fault, which defines the leading edge of Andean-related thrust detachment in the region, is responsible for a trap geometry that is genetically related to, but fundamentally different from the numerous unrooted Tertiary folds in the area. Although the Lower Cretaceous Springhill Formation comprised the primary target, it was anticipated that the geometry of the fold allowed for the possibility of several fractured intervals in the hanging wall, including volcaniclastic rocks of the underlying Jurassic Tobifera [open quotes]basement[close quotes] sequence, recently found to be productive elsewhere on the eastern platform of the basin. During drilling of the well, gas and condensate shows were encountered in numerous horizons. The most surprising of these later proved to be a Permo-Triassic granodiorite underlying the Tobifera. Although relatively widespread on outcrop, this represents the first time a pre-rift intrusive body has been penetrated in the subsurface. All of the hydrocarbon-bearing intervals exhibit minimal matrix porosity but varying degrees of fracturing. Subsequent testing of the well yielded combined flow rates of in excess of 12 MMCFD of rich gas and 1140 BPD of 52 A.P.I. condensate. The most prolific zone corresponds to an intensely fractured and partially weathered interval in the uppermost portion of the intrusive. Additional testing is planned prior to any estimate of recoverable reserves. Nevertheless, this unique accumulation underscored the possibility for nonconventional reservoirs throughout the lightly explored Sub-Andean basin trend, particularly fold-thrust belts which have the potential to [open quotes]create[close quotes] reservoirs and trap geometry simultaneously.

  6. 78 FR 48769 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC and Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... pertinent part: S5.1.1.6 Instead of the photometric values specified in Table 1 of SAE Standards J222... specified in SAE Standards J222 or J585e respectively. Summary of Mercedes' Analysis and Arguments...

  7. 78 FR 60275 - Alternative Method for Calculating Off-Cycle Credits for Mercedes-Benz Vehicles Under the Light...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... established a program to allow automobile manufacturers to generate ``off-cycle'' carbon dioxide (CO 2... AGENCY Alternative Method for Calculating Off-Cycle Credits for Mercedes-Benz Vehicles Under the Light... alternative demonstration methodology justifying eligibility for off- cycle credits and their amount....

  8. 78 FR 43967 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, on Behalf of Daimler AG, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... site at: . Then follow the online search instructions to locate docket... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, on Behalf of Daimler AG, Grant...

  9. Molecular Dynamics implementation of BN2D or 'Mercedes Benz' water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, Arturs; Bardik, Vitaliy; Pavlov, Evgen; Nerukh, Dmitry


    Two-dimensional 'Mercedes Benz' (MB) or BN2D water model (Naim, 1971) is implemented in Molecular Dynamics. It is known that the MB model can capture abnormal properties of real water (high heat capacity, minima of pressure and isothermal compressibility, negative thermal expansion coefficient) (Silverstein et al., 1998). In this work formulas for calculating the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties in microcanonical (NVE) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles for the model from Molecular Dynamics simulation are derived and verified against known Monte Carlo results. The convergence of the thermodynamic properties and the system's numerical stability are investigated. The results qualitatively reproduce the peculiarities of real water making the model a visually convenient tool that also requires less computational resources, thus allowing simulations of large (hydrodynamic scale) molecular systems. We provide the open source code written in C/C++ for the BN2D water model implementation using Molecular Dynamics.

  10. Xenoliths of Cerro las Mercedes, Costa Rica: a Geochemical Record of Arc History?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M. D.


    Over 70 ultramafic xenoliths, many with diameters of at least 3cm, open a window into the mantle beneath Cerro las Mercedes, Costa Rica. This quaternary vent is 70km behind the active volcanic front and near the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plateau. Both xenoliths and host lava remain well preserved in spite of substantial soil development in a rain forest environment. We analyzed the host lava and a subset of 30 rocks for bulk and mineral chemistry, which include both peridotite and pyroxenite populations. The host rock is Plio-Quaternary potassic alkaline basalt; depleted in SiO2 and Al2O3 and enriched in MgO and P2O5 relative to both present day and Miocene volcanics. In terms of trace elements, the host basalt has enriched LREEs and relative depletion of HFSEs, typical of island-arc basalt, both present and past. The coarse-grained pyroxenites have trace element chemistry akin to the volcanic front lavas of Costa Rica, although they are closer to chondritic values. Truly, they are more similar to basalts from Sarapiquí Miocene arc than to present day volcanic front basalts. Although there is enrichment in incompatible elements such as Ba and U and depletions in HFSEs, common in island arc basalts, the pyroxenites have a strong positive Pb anomaly that is characteristic only of the Miocene arc, not present day lavas. We interpret the pyroxenites as cumulates. The peridotite population includes dunites, spinel lherzolites and lherzolites. These rocks have Mg-numbers ranging from 87 to 92 and Cr-numbers ranging from 6 to 61. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the peridotite xenoliths are fragments of mantle associated with the western Caribbean Plateau. SiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and MgO contents of several Cerro Mercedes peridotites are similar to those expected of hot residues that would form in a plume environment. Trace elements reveal some samples with enrichment of Ba and U, and depletion in Nb and Ta indicating variable extents of melt-rock reaction and

  11. Effects of translational and rotational degrees of freedom on properties of the Mercedes-Benz water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, T.; Mohoric, T.


    Non-equilibrium Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effect of translational and rotational degrees of freedom on the structural and thermodynamic properties of the simple Mercedes-Benz water model. We establish a non-equilibrium steady state where rotational and translational temperatures can be tuned. We separately show that Monte Carlo simulations can be used to study non-equilibrium properties if sampling is performed correctly. By holding one of the temperatures constant and varying the other one, we investigate the effect of faster motion in the corresponding degrees of freedom on the properties of the simple water model. In particular, the situation where the rotational temperature exceeded the translational one is mimicking the effects of microwaves on the water model. A decrease of rotational temperature leads to the higher structural order while an increase causes the structure to be more Lennard-Jones fluid like.

  12. [Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis].


    Pedranti, M S; Adamo, M P; Macedo, R; Zapata, M T


    We determined the prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in 100 serum samples from pregnant women who attended routine examination at a private institution in the city of Córdoba, and in 100 serum samples from women of gestational age, 42 of whom were pregnant, attending health centres in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis. IgG antibodies against parvovirus 819 were also determined in the serum samples from Córdoba. Using the hemmagglutination inhibition test, we found a 98% prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Córdoba and of 96% among the women in Villa Mercedes, whereas the prevalence of anti-parvovirus 819 was 66% in the serum samples from Cordoba. These results coincide with those reported for other cities in the world, and establish an interest in continuing similar studies in order to monitor the immunization plan, which in Argentina has been going on since 1997. They also suggest the importance of the determination of IgM anti-parvovirus B19 in pregnant women who are symptomatic but with a negative result for rubella.

  13. Improving stamping simulation accuracy by accounting for realistic friction and lubrication conditions: Application to the door-outer of the Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Stock, J.; Wied, J.; Wiegand, K.; Carleer, B.


    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. Only then, one can obtain reliable and realistic simulation results that correspond to the actual try-out and mass production conditions. In this work, the TriboForm software is used to accurately account for tribology-, friction-, and lubrication conditions in stamping simulations. The enhanced stamping simulations are applied and validated for the door-outer of the Mercedes- Benz C-Class Coupe. The project results demonstrate the improved prediction accuracy of stamping simulations with respect to both part quality and actual stamping process conditions.

  14. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes


    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO< sub> 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  15. 78 FR 4195 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... starter switch control unit (EIS), the engine control module (ECM) and the transmission control module... system includes the engine, EIS, transmitter key, TCM and ECM (including the fuel injection system)...

  16. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Refurbishment Site Visit Prior to the questionnaires above, a site visit was conducted and several oral interviews were carried out as well as gathering...refurbishment project. Hopefully you will be provided a copy. 104 105 LIST OF REFERENCES Abelard, P. Historia calamitatum:The story of

  17. 75 FR 31837 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... antitheft devices already installed in the Aston Martin Vantage, BMW 6-series and Porsche 911 vehicle lines... average theft rate for the BMW 6-series with an immobilizer was 2.3505 in MY/CY 2005 and 1.6227 in MY/CY... effective in contributing to an additional (31%) reduction in the theft rate of the BMW 6-series...

  18. 77 FR 38391 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, and Daimler AG (DAG), Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... (49 CFR 571.101); (3) Continues to illuminate the TPMS malfunction telltale under the conditions..., the telltale must remain continuously illuminated as long as a malfunction exists and the ignition... malfunction indicator required by S4.4 of may not illuminate in the manner required by FMVSS 138 due to...

  19. 76 FR 4421 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC and Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    .../optical means, as specified in S7.8.5.3. MB described the noncompliance as the presence of protective... performance requirements of FMVSS No. 108 and creates no interference with the normal, long-term operation...

  20. 77 FR 56698 - Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC, on Behalf of Daimler AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor... and replacing the front and rear tires, as well as vehicle weight and seating capacity, is...

  1. 76 FR 28501 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Mercedes-Benz 350 CLS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... search the Docket for new material. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Coleman Sachs, Office of Vehicle... eligible for importation. The agency then publishes this decision in the Federal Register. G&K Automotive... Head Restraints, 204 Steering Control Rearward Displacement, 205 Glazing Materials, 207 Seating...

  2. 78 FR 10686 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... submit late comments. Accordingly, we recommend that you periodically search the Docket for new material... Register. G&K Automotive Conversion, Inc. of Santa Ana, California (G&K)(Registered Importer 90-007) has... Interior Impact; 202 Head Restraints; 204 Steering Control Rearward Displacement; 205 Glazing...

  3. 76 FR 30426 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 Mercedes-Benz CLS Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ...: (a) Front sidemarker lamps with integral side reflex reflectors; (b) headlamps; (c) integral tail... side reflex reflectors. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles with a GVWR of...

  4. 77 FR 65444 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... Belt Assemblies, 210 Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, 212 Windshield Mounting, 214 Side Impact Protection... Protection: Reprogramming the software for the seat belt warning system to meet the requirements of this...). Standard No. 209 Seat Belt Assemblies: Replacement of the passenger side seat belt with a...

  5. 75 FR 19461 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, 212 Windshield Mounting, 214 Side Impact Protection, 216 Roof Crush... U.S.-version software to ensure that the seat belt warning system meets the requirements of this... identical to the U.S.-version with the exception of the front and rear passenger seat belt assemblies....

  6. 75 FR 28674 - Mercedes-Benz, U.S.A. LLC; Denial of Application for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... signaling system in the United States, MBUSA sought a temporary exemption from the ``steady-burning'' requirement as it applies to stop lamps. MBUSA stated that its flashing stop lamp system was currently... either its upper beam or its lower beam, but not both, to modulate from a higher intensity to a...

  7. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  8. Mexico’s Troublesome Triangle: Poverty, Education, and Emigration

    DTIC Science & Technology


    School Subsidy Experiment in Mexico” 22. 56 Lonnie Rowell, Yara Amparo Lopez Lopez, Basthi Maribel King Ristori, Maria Mercedes 11 discussed... Amparo Lopez Lopez, Basthi Maribel King Ristori, Maria Mercedes Veyna Figueroa, Eva Mejia, Elizabeth Schlicher, Angel Chavarin, Briana Colorado

  9. 76 FR 70703 - Senior Executive Service: Membership of Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... Chan, Carol Crumbly, Angelique Eugenia, Mercedes Foley, Jason Gomer, Lisa Gottlieb, Gregory Horton, Jerry McNerney, Angela O'Neill, Maura Ostermeyer, David Pascocello, Susan Peters, James Warren,...

  10. Comment on ``The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration'' [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe


    It is shown that the behaviour of the hydration thermodynamic functions obtained in the 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water by Mohoric et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)] is not qualitatively correct with respect to experimental data for a solute whose diameter is 1.5-fold larger than that of a water molecule. It is also pointed out that the failure is due to the fact that the used 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water [A. Bizjak, T. Urbic, V. Vlachy, and K. A. Dill, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194504 (2009)] does not reproduce in a quantitatively correct manner the peculiar temperature dependence of water density.

  11. Access to Justice: Middle School Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Gayle; And Others


    Gayle Mertz offers simulations covering balloting and the juvenile court system along with a legislation drafting activity. Mercedes J. Newsome provides guidance on the use of community resource persons. Teri Wilson's activity simulates a juvenile proceeding while Richard Marcroft and Elenor Taylor describe a simulation of small claims court. (KO)

  12. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.


    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge…

  13. Sympathetic Nerves in Breast Cancer: Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting, PNI Mechanisms of Disease: From Pathophysiology to Prevention and Treatment, June 8-11, 2011; Chicago...MICROSCOPY (MPLSM). Kelley S. Madden, Mercedes J. Szpunar, Echoe M. Bouta, Edward B. Brown. Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting, PNI

  14. Southeast Asia Mosquito Project

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Donald L. Bailey J.P. Macnamara A.O. Uter * Dr. Ralph A. Bram Hattie L. Simmons " Dr. Mercedes D. Delfinado Rampa Rattanarithikul * Dr. Botha...Heizmannia) demeilloni Mattingly 1970 persimilis propinqua proxima scanloni " (Mattinglyia) thelmae Uranotaenia rampae Peyton and Klein 1970 II

  15. 77 FR 38309 - Notice of Regulatory Waiver Requests Granted for the First Quarter of Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... development process, including public or private nonprofit or for-profit entities, or any of their contractors... nor any participant in the development process may commit non-HUD funds on or undertake an activity or... county qualification/requalification process closed on September 30, 2011. ] Granted By: Mercedes M...

  16. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  17. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK13 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... rulemaking proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 219, ``Windshield zone... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  18. Determining Angular Frequency from Video with a Generalized Fast Fourier Transform

    DTIC Science & Technology


    properties of the GST and giving proof-of-concept numerical examples. iv Acknowledgements I dedicate this thesis to my husband, Michael Smith, who encouraged...depicted in the first row, where n = (0, . . . , 7). It turns out the Mercedes- Benz shape in these images is rotating by a factor of 3(2π 8 ) radians in... Benz shape indeed makes 3 complete revolutions over the course of this simulated video sequence. Meanwhile, for the 100-frame thruster video sequence

  19. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja


    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  20. Information Operations in Iraq: The Mufsiddoon versus the U.S. and Coalition Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology


    to the Iraqi government to release Sunni women being held in government prisons in order to prevent their rape by Shi’ite officials. The ultimatum also...then explains that the Iraqi government has not released the "innocent" Sunni women and also refuses to bring to justice the twenty campaigns for products such as Nike , Mercedes, and VIAGRA. Each of these names has been successful in consistently promoting a message to the

  1. Comparison of Prokaryotic Diversity in Cold, Oligotrophic Remote Lakes of Chilean Patagonia.


    Aguayo, Paulina; González, Paulina; Campos, Víctor; Maugeri, Teresa L; Papale, Maria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Martinez, Miguel A


    The prokaryotic abundance and diversity in three cold, oligotrophic Patagonian lakes (Témpanos, Las Torres and Mercedes) in the northern region Aysén (Chile) were compared in winter and summer using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. Prokaryotic abundances, numerically dominated by Bacteria, were quite similar in the three lakes, but higher in sediments than in waters, and they were also higher in summer than in winter. The relative contribution of Archaea was greater in waters than in sediments, and in winter rather than in summer. Despite the phylogenetic analysis indicated that most sequences were affiliated to a few taxonomic groups, mainly referred to Proteobacteria (consisting of Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria) and Euryarchaeota (mainly related to uncultured methanogens), their relative abundances differed in each sample, resulting in different bacterial and archaeal assemblages. In winter, the abundance of the dominant bacterial phylotypes were mainly regulated by the increasing levels of total organic carbon in waters. Archaeal abundance and richness appeared mostly influenced by pH in winter and total nitrogen content in summer. The prokaryotic community composition at Témpanos lake, located most northerly and closer to a glacier, greatly differed in respect to the other two lakes. In this lake was detected the highest bacterial diversity, being Betaproteobacteria the most abundant group, whereas Alphaproteobacteria were distinctive of Mercedes. Archaeal community associated with sediments was mainly represent by members related to the order of Methanosarcinales at Mercedes and Las Torres lakes, and by Crenarchaeota at Témpanos lake. Our results indicate that the proximity to the glacier and the seasonality shape the composition of the prokaryotic communities in these remote lakes. These results may be used as baseline information to follow the microbial community responses to

  2. Large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres from a Paleogene lateritic profile of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genise, Jorge F.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Verde, Mariano; González, Mirta G.


    It is proposed herein that columns included in the unconformity between Mercedes (Upper Cretaceous) and Asencio (Lower Eocene) formations of Uruguay, forming "caves" known since the XIX century, are large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres. Diagnostic characters are concentric internal structure, radiating secondary prolongations, preservation of original lamination, trace fossils, and other attributes of the original deposit. In contrast with rhizoliths, which originated as root casts or by roots and their peritrophic zones, palaeorhizospheres are originated from peritrophic zones to a few tens of centimeters in the soil surrounding the roots. In many cases, like those presented herein, rhizoliths are not preserved inside the palaeorhizospheres. Specimens were studied in 6 localities from central Uruguay, where 5 different morphological types were recognized according to its internal structure: (1) rimmed, (2) concentric, (3) concentric disrupted, (4) nodular or mottled, and (5) brecciated. The palaeorhizosphere hypothesis can explain this diversity of internal structures, which may be compatible with different stages of root and rhizosphere development. Types 1 and 2 could be produced by living roots, whereas 3 to 5 more probably by percolation and staining by Fe solutions coming from the overlying Asencio Formation through decaying or dead roots. The rim that surrounds most structures may be interpreted as the boundary of the original rhizosphere, where Fe ions translocated outward from the root by chelation, found oxidizing conditions. Concentric pattern would result from the centrifugal displacement of the oxidizing rim. Type 3 to 5 structures would start when most biologic processes around the living or decaying root cease, and periodic formation of rings stops. Even when palaeorhizospheres are included in the Mercedes Formation, their possibility to be produced during Mercedes times is unlikely because the strong oxidation processes involved were exclusive of

  3. The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration.


    Mohoric, Tomaz; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara


    The thermodynamic perturbation theory was tested against newly obtained Monte Carlo computer simulations to describe the major features of the hydrophobic effect in a simple 3D-Mercedes-Benz water model: the temperature and hydrophobe size dependence on entropy, enthalpy, and free energy of transfer of a simple hydrophobic solute into water. An excellent agreement was obtained between the theoretical and simulation results. Further, the thermodynamic perturbation theory qualitatively correctly (with respect to the experimental data) describes the solvation thermodynamics under conditions where the simulation results are difficult to obtain with good enough accuracy, e.g., at high pressures.

  4. Achievement and Retention of Spanish Presented Via Videodisc in Linear, Segmented and Interactive Modes.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    priest is headed for Petra’s house. 1st Man Buenas tardes, Padre . Priest Adios, Sebastian. 2nd Man Buenas tar-des, don Baldomero. Priest Adi6s, hijo ...madre de Ramiro b. Francisco c. Ramiro d. Juana 14. A la madre de Ramiro a. le gusta la camisa de su hijo . b. no le gusta la camisa de su hijo . c. no...problema y le ofrece a Ramiro ir mafana. c. ya no tiene el Mercedes. d. dice que se le olvid6 buscar a 20. La madre de Ramiro le da a su hijo

  5. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman


    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  6. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, C.S.


    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO{sub 2}-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles.

  7. Groundwater arsenic distribution in South-western Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manganelli, A.; Goso, C.; Guerequiz, R.; Fernández Turiel, J. L.; García Vallès, M.; Gimeno, D.; Pérez, C.


    This is the first specific information regarding arsenic distribution of groundwater in SW Uruguay. Twenty-eight wells were sampled on the aquifers of Mercedes, Raigón and Chuy in five localities. The pH, specific conductivity and temperature were determined in the field. The hydrochemical characterization (major and trace elements) was carried out by both inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The occurring arsenic concentrations exceed the recommended threshold for drinking water of the World Health Organization (10 μg/l of As) in 22 samples, with more than 50 μg/l of As in two cases. The median, minimum and maximum concentrations were 0.1, 16.9 and 58.0 μg/l of As, respectively. The studied aquifers present a horizontal and a vertical variation of the concentrations as a whole as well as individually. The highest values were observed in the Mercedes Aquifer in the areas near the Uruguay River.

  8. An Estimate of Diesel High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impacts on FTP-75 Aftertreatment Requirements (SAE Paper Number 2006-01-3311)

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, Scott; Wagner, Robert M


    A modified Mercedes 1.7-liter, direct-injection diesel engine was operated in both normal and high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) combustion modes. Four steady-state engine operating points that were previously identified by the Ad-hoc fuels working group were used as test points to allow estimation of the hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels in both normal and HECC combustion modes. The results indicate that operation in HECC modes generally produce reductions in NOX and PM emissions at the expense of CO, NMHC, and H2CO emissions. The FTP emissions estimates indicate that aftertreatment requirements for NOX are reduced, while those for PM may not be impacted. Cycle-average aftertreatment requirements for CO, NMHC, and H2CO may be challenging, especially at the lowest temperature conditions.

  9. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia


    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  10. Ambient Technology - Now You See It, Now You Don't

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, R.; MacDonald, B.

    There were 152 million PCs shipped in 2003 with 170 million expected by the end of 2004. The total number of PCs delivered worldwide over the last 10 years or so is now over one billion - but the processors in these PCs account for just 1-2% of all processors sold annually, the vast majority of the other 98% being embedded in equipment such as mobile phones, TVs, washing machines, game consoles, and cars. On the basis of these figures, an installed embedded processor base of something like 50+ billion is not an unreasonable estimate, and the average person in the UK can expect to come into contact with 100+ embedded processors a day without realising or thinking about it. This is especially true if you are driving a modern car, such as the latest Mercedes C-Class, which has 153 processors controlling things like fuel supply, braking efficiency, and navigational and safety features.

  11. Poisson equation for the three-loop ladder diagram in string theory at genus one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban


    The three-loop ladder diagram is a graph with six links and four cubic vertices that contributes to the D12ℛ4 amplitude at genus one in type II string theory. The vertices represent the insertion points of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet and the links represent scalar Green functions connecting them. By using the properties of the Green function and manipulating the various expressions, we obtain a modular invariant Poisson equation satisfied by this diagram, with source terms involving one-, two- and three-loop diagrams. Unlike the source terms in the Poisson equations for diagrams at lower orders in the momentum expansion or the Mercedes diagram, a particular source term involves a five-point function containing a holomorphic and a antiholomorphic worldsheet derivative acting on different Green functions. We also obtain simple equalities between topologically distinct diagrams, and consider some elementary examples.

  12. Comparison of methods to obtain ash from coal of the Southwest of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, G.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez; Barraza, J. M.


    The method for concentration of mineral matter at low temperature (about 250 °C), called Low Temperature Ash (LTA) was applied to a sample of coal from the mine "Las Mercedes" located in Colombia southwestern. This method provides better information about the content of mineral matter in natural coal (NC), removing the organic matter more efficiently without significant transformations of mineral phases present in that coal. These results were observed through Mössbauer spectra and X-ray patterns taken from samples of NC, (LTA) and the conventional method of High Temperature Ash (HTA). The results show that the LTA process provides more representative data of the mineral phases for natural coal than that using the conventional HTA process.

  13. Full size zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.R.; Koretz, B.


    The Electric Fuel zinc-air battery yielded energy densities from 6.8 to 10.2 times higher than those of the lead-acid batteries. The higher the power and the more difficult the driving cycle, the higher this ratio of energy densities grew. Not only was the Electric Fuel battery capable of extended high-power discharge, the impact of such discharge conditions on energy and driving range was show to be quite small, and was much smaller than the comparable impact on lead-acid traction batteries. At the time of writing this paper, tests are scheduled to continue with the 110-kWh battery in the Mercedes van, and preliminary plans have been made for testing of additional batteries on other vehicle types.

  14. Electric vehicle developments in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J.W.


    Volkswagen, Mercedes, and the big three Japanese companies, Nissan, Toyota and Honda may develop for the 1998 model year good basic electric cars. VW`s Concept 1 will be offered with gasoline, diesel/electric, and full electric drive trains. From a cost stand point most of the cars will be offered with improved lead-acid batteries such as the Horizon with NiCd or some form of advanced battery as an upgrade or high performance option. General Motors will sell the Impact with lead-acid batteries. The position of Ford and Chrysler is unknown at this point, but both are fielding electric versions of vans already in production. At least one of these efforts may pay off and after 2000 the electric car could improve rapidly.

  15. Interest of pregnant women in the use of SMS (short message service) text messages for the improvement of perinatal and postnatal care

    PubMed Central


    Background Mobile health (mHealth) is emerging as a useful tool to improve healthcare access especially in the developing world, where limited access to health services is linked to poor antenatal care, and maternal and perinatal mortality. The objective of this study is to 1) understand pregnant women’s access and usage of cell phones and 2) survey the health information needs and interests in a population attending public hospitals and health centers of two cities in Argentina. This information is not available and it is the basis to develop a strategy for improving maternal care via cell phones. Methods Questionnaires were verbally administered to pregnant women who were attending an antenatal care visit in community health centers and public hospitals in Rosario, Santa Fe and Mercedes, Corrientes. Participants were 18 years of age or older and had previously given birth. The data obtained was qualitative and analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results A total of 147 pregnant women meeting inclusion criteria (Rosario: 63; Mercedes: 84) were approached and verbally consented to participate. The average age was 29.5 years, most lived in urban areas (89%) with a mean travel time of 43.4 minutes required to get to the health center and 57.3 minutes to get the hospital. Ninety-six percent of women (n = 140) responded that they would like to receive text messages and cell phone calls with information regarding prenatal care, although the topics and period of time to receive information varied greatly. Conclusions Considering the vast majority of the interviewed women had access to and were interested in receiving text messages and calls with educational information regarding pregnancy and infant health, pregnant women in Argentina could benefit from such an mHealth program. The low access to Internet suggests it is not an option for this population; however, this cannot be assumed as representative of the country’s situation. To retain active participation

  16. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.


    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page ( These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  17. Extreme multiplicity in cylindrical Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Bifurcation diagram and symmetry classification.


    Borońska, Katarzyna; Tuckerman, Laurette S


    A large number of flows with distinctive patterns have been observed in experiments and simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a water-filled cylinder whose radius is twice the height. We have adapted a time-dependent pseudospectral code, first, to carry out Newton's method and branch continuation and, second, to carry out the exponential power method and Arnoldi iteration to calculate leading eigenpairs and determine the stability of the steady states. The resulting bifurcation diagram represents a compromise between the tendency in the bulk toward parallel rolls and the requirement imposed by the boundary conditions that primary bifurcations be toward states whose azimuthal dependence is trigonometric. The diagram contains 17 branches of stable and unstable steady states. These can be classified geometrically as roll states containing two, three, and four rolls; axisymmetric patterns with one or two tori; threefold-symmetric patterns called Mercedes, Mitsubishi, marigold, and cloverleaf; trigonometric patterns called dipole and pizza; and less symmetric patterns called CO and asymmetric three rolls. The convective branches are connected to the conductive state and to each other by 16 primary and secondary pitchfork bifurcations and turning points. In order to better understand this complicated bifurcation diagram, we have partitioned it according to azimuthal symmetry. We have been able to determine the bifurcation-theoretic origin from the conductive state of all the branches observed at high Rayleigh number.

  18. Sound in ecclesiastical spaces in Cordoba. Architectural projects incorporating acoustic methodology (El sonido del espacio eclesial en Cordoba. El proyecto arquitectonico como procedimiento acustico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Rafael


    This thesis is concerned with the acoustic analysis of ecclesiastical spaces, and the subsequent implementation of acoustic design methodology in architectural renovations. One begins with an adequate architectural design of specific elements (shape, materials, and textures), with the intention of elimination of acoustic deficiencies that are common in such spaces. These are those deficiencies that impair good speech intelligibility and good musical audibility. The investigation is limited to churches in the province of Cordoba and to churches built after the reconquest of Spain (1236) and up until the 18th century. Selected churches are those that have undergone architectural renovations to adapt them to new uses or to make them more suitable for liturgical use. The thesis attempts to summarize the acoustic analyses and the acoustical solutions that have been implemented. The results are presented in a manner that should be useful for the adoption of a model for the functional renovation of ecclesiastical spaces. Such would allow those involved in architectural projects to specify the nature of the sound, even though somewhat intangible, within the ecclesiastical space. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address:

  19. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel


    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address:

  20. Long-Distance Astronomy: The SARA 0.9-m Telescope at Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.; Rafert, J. B.; Smith, J. A.; Wood, M. A.; Castelaz, M. W.; Collins, L. F.; Henson, G. D.; Powell, H. D.; Caillault, J.-P.; Magnani, L. A.; Shaw, J. S.; Leake, M. A.; Marks, D. W.; Rumstay, K. S.; Webb, J. R.; van Hamme, W. V.


    The Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), a consortium of the Florida Institute of Technology, East Tennessee State University, the University of Georgia, Valdosta State University, and Florida International University, has recently re-commissioned one of the former KPNO 0.9-meter telescopes on a new site near Mercedes Point at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The telescope and observatory are highly automated and connected to the Internet via fiber optic link. Presently installed on a four-port instrument rotator are two instruments: a CCD imaging system and a two-channel photometer/polarimeter. Following its official dedication on 7 January 1995, the SARA 0.9-m telescope will undertake a wide variety of research and education programs, with special emphasis on long-term surveys, monitoring campaigns, targets of opportunity and synoptic studies that are ordinarily difficult to conduct at national observatories. We thank the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, the National Science Foundation, and the State of Florida Technological Research and Development Authority for making this project possible. Special thanks are extended to the administrations of the five SARA institutions for their on-going enthusiasm and support.

  1. A statistical mechanical theory for a two-dimensional model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, Tomaz; Dill, Ken A.


    We develop a statistical mechanical model for the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike fluids. Each water molecule is a two-dimensional disk with three hydrogen-bonding arms. Each water interacts with neighboring waters through a van der Waals interaction and an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. This model, which is largely analytical, is a variant of the Truskett and Dill (TD) treatment of the "Mercedes-Benz" (MB) model. The present model gives better predictions than TD for hydrogen-bond populations in liquid water by distinguishing strong cooperative hydrogen bonds from weaker ones. We explore properties versus temperature T and pressure p. We find that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with T as real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of MB water, including the density anomaly, the minimum in the isothermal compressibility, and the decreased number of hydrogen bonds for increasing temperature. The model reproduces that pressure squeezes out water's heat capacity and leads to a negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperatures. In terms of water structuring, the variance in hydrogen-bonding angles increases with both T and p, while the variance in water density increases with T but decreases with p. Hydrogen bonding is an energy storage mechanism that leads to water's large heat capacity (for its size) and to the fragility in its cagelike structures, which are easily melted by temperature and pressure to a more van der Waals-like liquid state.

  2. Chagas disease in north-west Argentina: association between Trypanosoma cruzi parasitaemia in dogs and cats and infection rates in domestic Triatoma infestans.


    Gürtler, R E; Cécere, M C; Petersen, R M; Rubel, D N; Schweigmann, N J


    The association between Trypanosoma cruzi parasitaemia in dogs and cats and Tryp. cruzi infection rates in domestic Triatoma infestans was studied in a cross-sectional survey of 31 houses (89%) in the rural villages of Trinidad and Mercedes, north-west Argentina, where no spraying of insecticides had ever been done. Similar prevalence rates of parasitaemia, determined by xenodiagnosis, were recorded among 68 dogs (41.2%) and 28 cats (39.3%). Bug infection rates were significantly associated with the presence of infected cats (those with positive xenodiagnosis) stratified by the number of infected dogs (relative risk = RR = 1.90; 95% confidence interval = CI = 1.51-2.38), and with the number of infected dogs stratified by the presence of infected cats (RR = 2.71; CI = 1.81-4.07). The percentage of infected bugs in houses with and without children stratified by the presence of infected dogs or cats was not significantly different (RR = 0.69; CI = 0.45-1.05). The combined effect of infected dogs and infected cats on bug infection rates fitted closely with an additive transmission model. Bug infection rates were significantly higher when infected dogs shared the sleeping areas of people than when they did not (RR = 1.79; CI = 1.1-2.91). Our study showed that infected dogs and infected cats increase the risk of domestic transmission of Tryp. cruzi to T. infestans.

  3. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.


    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N


    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  4. Liquid-liquid critical point in a simple analytical model of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbic, Tomaz


    A statistical model for a simple three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water was used to study phase diagrams. This model on a simple level describes the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike molecules. A molecule is presented as a soft sphere with four directions in which hydrogen bonds can be formed. Two neighboring waters can interact through a van der Waals interaction or an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. For pure water, we explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility and found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits also two critical points for liquid-gas transition and transition between low-density and high-density fluid. Coexistence curves and a Widom line for the maximum and minimum in thermal expansion coefficient divides the phase space of the model into three parts: in one part we have gas region, in the second a high-density liquid, and the third region contains low-density liquid.

  5. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva


    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach. This study describes and evaluates a computer-based simulation to train advanced placement high school science students in laboratory protocols, a transgenic mouse model was produced. A simulation module on preparing a gene construct in the molecular biology lab was evaluated using a randomized clinical control design with advanced placement high school biology students in Mercedes, Texas ( n = 44). Pre-post tests assessed procedural and declarative knowledge, time on task, attitudes toward computers for learning and towards science careers. Students who used the simulation increased their procedural and declarative knowledge regarding molecular biology compared to those in the control condition (both p < 0.005). Significant increases continued to occur with additional use of the simulation ( p < 0.001). Students in the treatment group became more positive toward using computers for learning ( p < 0.001). The simulation did not significantly affect attitudes toward science in general. Computer simulation of complex transgenic protocols have potential to provide a "virtual" laboratory experience as an adjunct to conventional educational approaches.

  6. Night vision: requirements and possible roadmap for FIR and NIR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källhammer, Jan-Erik


    A night vision system must increase visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today. As pedestrians and animals have the highest risk increase in night time traffic due to darkness, the ability of detecting those objects should be the main performance criteria, and the system must remain effective when facing the headlights of oncoming vehicles. Far infrared system has been shown to be superior to near infrared system in terms of pedestrian detection distance. Near infrared images were rated to have significantly higher visual clutter compared with far infrared images. Visual clutter has been shown to correlate with reduction in detection distance of pedestrians. Far infrared images are perceived as being more unusual and therefore more difficult to interpret, although the image appearance is likely related to the lower visual clutter. However, the main issue comparing the two technologies should be how well they solve the driver's problem with insufficient visibility under low beam conditions, especially of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. With the addition of an automatic detection aid, a main issue will be whether the advantage of FIR systems will vanish given NIR systems with well performing automatic pedestrian detection functionality. The first night vision introductions did not generate the sales volumes initially expected. A renewed interest in night vision systems are however to be expected after the release of night vision systems by BMW, Mercedes and Honda, the latter with automatic pedestrian detection.

  7. Dual education and industrial cooperation in electrical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Váradiné Szarka, A.


    Dual education in higher education is a new system in Hungary introduced by Mercedes Benz with cooperation of Kecskemet College. In the new system companies support certain number of students and provide them strong practical education in their field. Students applying successfully for dual education study together with non-dual students at the university, so they go through the same university courses as their non-dual colleagues, but while non-dual students’ academic year includes 2×14 weeks active semester and 2×6 weeks exam session, all over 40 weeks, dual students have 48 working weeks including study at the university and practicing at the company. The main question of the success which one is the most effective model to be applied. This paper summarises 2 models of dual education with their advantages and disadvantages and also it presents practical realization at the University of Debrecen with special attention to measurement and instrumentation. Dual education in BSc level electrical engineering course cooperates with 6 multinational companies of the region in four specialization. Dual education also has great impact to the modernisation of engineering education. Detailed study of dual education in field of instrumentation and measurement is provided in the paper.

  8. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.


    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis


    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  9. Committees and Sponsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Local Organizing Committee J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC) Laura Castelló Gomar (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mikel Fernández Méndez (IEM, CSIC) Iñaki Garay Elizondo (Univ. País Vasco) Luis J Garay Elizondo (Univ. Complutense, Madrid) Mercedes Martín-Benito (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Daniel Martín de Blas (IEM, CSIC) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC) Javier Olmedo Nieto (IEM, CSIC) Gonzalo Olmo Alba (IFIC, CSIC) Tomasz Pawlowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Eduardo J Sánchez Villaseñor (Univ. Carlos III, Madrid) Scientific International Committee Abhay Ashtekar (Penn State University, USA) J Fernando Barbero González (IEM, CSIC, Spain) John Barrett (University of Nottingham, UK) José Manuel Cidade Mourão (Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa, Portugal) Laurent Freidel (Perimeter Institute, Canada) Jerzy Lewandowski (Warsaw University, Poland) Guillermo A Mena Marugán (IEM, CSIC, Spain) Jorge Pullin (Louisiana State University, USA) Carlo Rovelli (Univ. Méditerranée, Marseille, France) Thomas Thiemann (Univ. Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) Sponsors MinisterioBBVA CSICESF UniCarlosCPAN

  10. Subdermal liposuction.


    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M; Emiliozzi, P; Gargani, G


    Liposuction is a widely used technique today and indications are that it is becoming even more popular due to new technical refinements. The use of cannulae with a smaller diameter allows suction of the fat immediately under the dermis. The cannula we use to perform this new kind of fat suction is straight and has an external diameter of less than 2 mm. This cannula, the so-called Mercedes cannula, has a bullet tip and a three-hole head. Moreover, the holes are not round but are slit-shaped and oriented in the same plane at 120 degrees. This cannula is specifically designed to produce less trauma. The cannula with one downward-facing orifice is not suitable for suction of the subdermal layer and an upward-facing orifice would be too traumatic. The advantage of this new technique, apart from the possibility of treating patients with very slight adiposity, is to allow an effective skin retraction. When a large amount of fat has already been aspirated, residual deformities can occur. These skin irregularities represent the lack of an effective cutaneous retraction mostly due to the permanence of the subdermal fat. In fact, the presence of a thick subdermal adipose layer decreases the possibility of skin retraction. Therefore, indications for liposuction of the subdermal fat are mainly the slight adiposities and the remnant deformities of a previous liposuction operation. Moreover, this technique is applied to every lipoplasty whenever better skin retraction is needed.

  11. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.


    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M


    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms.

  12. Energy saving through LED in signaling functions for automotive exterior lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bony, Alexis; Hamami, Khaled; Tebbe, Frank; Mertens, Jens


    Safety considerations have always driven the way for improving exterior automotive lighting legal requirements. With the recent adoption of day-time running lamps for passenger cars, the steadily increasing need for reduction of vehicle power consumption has led to the introduction of LED-based day-time running lamps. Solutions with incandescent bulbs have also been implemented, as they present price advantages while offering limited design perspectives. In the meantime, technology developments has turned LED sources into ideal candidates for daytime running lamps by increasing their lumen per watt efficiency ratio towards values around 100 lm/W or higher. In this work, taking as an example the new Mercedes-Benz roadster SLK (R172), we present the first single LED daytime- running lamp, with a total power consumption below 5W per vehicle. After reviewing legal requirements, the optical and electronic concepts are discussed. Details on the tail lamp LED functions are also discussed, and particularly the advantages from the realization of fog lamp with LEDs.

  13. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver


    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  14. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.


    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  15. [Lipids in the amphipod Talorchestia margaritae (Amphipoda: Talitridae) and its relationship with the ecology of the species].


    López, Sandra; Díaz, Yusbelly; Noris, Karem; Cabrera, Aivle


    T. margaritae, an endemic species inhabiting Venezuelan coasts, plays an important ecological role in plant and animal decomposition. To understand this issue in some animal groups, especially small ones, lipid composition analysis has been an interesting tool to describe their trophic relationships and food preferences. In order to assess this and visualize the components of their diet, we determined the lipid composition differences between males and females and among age classes in this species. Two sandy beaches were selected: Mangle Quemao and Las Mercedes de Paparo, from which sand samples of known volume were collected at the supralittoral area in 2007. Organisms were separated by age and sex classes, and their size, weight, density, biomass, total lipids (TL), lipid classes and fatty acid markers present in their tissues were determined. The sizes were similar for all age classes between the two locations, while the weights were higher for Mangle Quemao. The TL and lipid classes showed similar proportions between sexes, age classes and locations (TL: 3-5%; Phospholipids: 20-30%; Glycolipids: <1%; sterols: 4%). On the other hand, Triglycerides (TAG) were higher in Mangle Quemao, which may be related to the difference between the weights of two locations. The most abundant fatty acid biomarkers in the two studied sites were 16:0 and 18:1(n-9); this last one is characteristic of a carnivorous diet. The other nine markers were identified with changes in their distribution in organisms at Mangle Quemao and between males and females of both populations. Based on observed fatty acids markers we can assume T. margaritae as a generalist carnivore. Those populations were influenced by available food; inducing differences in weight, TAG proportion and markers diversity.

  16. Architectural acoustics and the heritage of theater architecture in Andalusia (Acustica arquitectonica y patrimonio teatral en Andalucia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Angel Luis


    This thesis reports on the study of the acoustic properties of 18 theaters belonging to the Andalusian historical and architectural heritage. These theaters have undergone recent renovations to modernize and equip them appropriately. Coincident with this work, evaluations and qualification assessments with regard to their acoustic properties have been carried out for the individual theaters and for the group as a whole. Data measurements for this purpose consisted of acoustic measurements in situ, both before the renovation and after the renovation. These results have been compared with computer simulations of sound fields. Variables and parameters considered include the following: reverberation time, rapid speech transition index, back-ground noise, definition, clarity, strength, lateral efficiency, interaural cross-correlation coefficient, volume/seat ratio, volume/audience-area ratio. Based on the measurements and analysis, general conclusions are given in regard to the acoustic performance of theaters whose typology and size are comparable to those that were used in this study (between 800 and 8000 cubic meters). It is noted that these properties are comparable to those of the majority of European theaters. The results and conclusions are presented so that they should be of interest to architectural acoustics practitioners and to architects who are involved in the planning of renovation projects for theaters Thesis advisors: Juan J. Sendra and Jaime Navarro Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the author, Angel L. Leon, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address:

  17. Luxury for the masses.


    Silverstein, Michael J; Fiske, Neil


    Increasingly wide income disparities, higher levels of education, and greater awareness of other cultures' ideas of the good life have given rise to a new class of American consumer. And a new category of products and services, including automobiles, apparel, food, wine, and spirits, has sprung into being to cater to it. That category is called new luxury. America's middle-market consumers are trading up to higher levels of quality and taste than ever before. Members of the middle market (those earning $50,000 and above annually) collectively have around $1 trillion of disposable income. And they will pay premiums of 20% to 200% for well-designed, well-engineered, and well-crafted goods that can't be found in the mass middle market and that have the artisanal touches of traditional luxury items. Most important, even when they address basic necessities, such goods evoke and engage consumers' emotions while feeding their aspirations for a better life. Supply-side forces are essential to the rise of new luxury. Like the consumers of their goods, entrepreneurs are better educated and more sophisticated about their customers than ever before. In addition, global sourcing, falling trade barriers and transportation costs, and rising offshore manufacturing standards are making possible the economical production of alluring products of high quality. Unlike old-luxury goods, new-luxury products can generate high sales volumes despite their relatively high prices. As a result, new-luxury companies are achieving levels of profitability and growth beyond the reach of their conventional competitors. Whether the item in question is a $6 Panera sandwich or a $30,000 Mercedes, new luxury is a formula that middle-market companies, facing erosion of their market share by high-end and low-end producers, can ill afford to ignore.

  18. Estimates of inbreeding and relationship among registered Holstein females in the United States.


    Young, C W; Seykora, A J


    The estimate of inbreeding for registered Holstein females born during 1990 was 5.1 +/- 0.4% for a random sample of 600 two-line pedigrees. Previously published estimates were 4.7% for 1970, 3.8% for 1976, and 4.3% for 1982 from similar samples of pedigrees. These estimates were calculated using a base of approximately 1884, or the initiation of herd-book registration in the US. The estimate of relationship between randomly paired females born during 1990 was 10.2 +/- 0.8%; relationships were 5.2% for 1970, 7.3% for 1976, and 9.8% for 1982. Average relationship within the breed increased significantly without a corresponding increase in inbreeding. Inbreeding was also estimated for alternative base years with 10-yr increments to determine the effect of base year on estimates of inbreeding. Using 1950 as the base year, inbreeding was estimated at 0.5% for 1970, 0.3% for 1976, 1.6% for 1982, and 2.1% for 1990. Estimates using 1920 as the base year were 2.0% for 1970, 1.9% for 1976, 2.3% for 1982, and 3.2% for 1990. More recent base years gave lower estimates of inbreeding, as expected, but showed an exaggerated percentage of increase in inbreeding from 1970 to 1990. However, the annual amount of increase of inbreeding from 1976 to 1990 was not significantly affected by time of base year and ranged from 0.08 to 0.12/yr. The five most influential bulls of the breed were Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief 1427381, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation 1491007, S-W-D Valiant 1650414, Osborndale Ivanhoe 1189870, and Sir Pietertje Ormsby Mercedes 44931; estimated direct relationships to the breed were 0.123, 0.122, 0.096, 0.083, and 0.074, respectively.

  19. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).


    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John


    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  1. Experiments evaluating holograms in professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellamy, John A.; Butters, John N.


    The potential of holograms to achieve improved communication in education and training tasks has been investigated. Experiments in education have been carried out at the secondary level and additionally observations of pupil reactions have been observed for younger children. The holograms were found to command attention which is an important aspect of teaching. Some typical examples of the use of holograms included communication of visual information recorded from rare museum exhibits and science examples in physics and biology. The holograms were capable of displaying images in true perspective, thus conveying the same information as a model or real object, but being conviniently reproduced and requiring a minimum of maintenance and storage space. The experiments were extended to training in two study areas where interest was expressed by tutors and there was a willingness to cooperate in the creation and use of training material in holographic form. The areas concerned were in foundry technology and textiles. The requirements in foundry technology were to assist students in the comprehension of the solid form from engineering drawings and the reverse requirement to produce adequate engineering drawings to define a cast form. In the textile case holograms were used to assist the comprehension of the relationship between stitch form and fabric properties and to identify machine faults from stitch irregularities. The number of students formally tested was small leaving statistical analysis inconclusive, but tutors using holograms found that students learned faster when holograms were made available. As a parallel investigation, three undergraduate engineering students used holographic communication as the subject of their project. Subjects included a tutorial display of a carburettor showing the outside form with air and fuel passages in correct perspective. Other examples showed the transmission arrangement in a Mercedes car and the arrangement of cams for a new

  2. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles


    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  3. Sedimentology, diagenesis and ichnology of Cretaceous and Palaeogene calcretes and palustrine carbonates from Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Genise, Jorge F.; Verde, Mariano


    The Cretaceous (Mercedes Formation) and Paleogene (Queguay Formation) deposits cropping out in W and S Uruguay comprise two terrestrial limestone units that are very rich in trace fossils. The study of these units permits to propose a sedimentological model for palustrine limestones and calcretes in which the distribution of different types of trace fossils is considered. The study units include three main types of deposit: lacustrine limestones, palustrine limestones and calcretes. The lacustrine limestones are relatively homogeneous and contain gastropods, charophytes and ostracods, but no trace fossils. They were deposited in a relatively more perennial lacustrine environment. The palustrine limestones include four different facies: desiccated mudstones, nodular limestones, granular limestones and gravel-sheets. The desiccated mudstones indicate a lesser degree of pedogenic modification and the granular limestones a higher degree. The gravel-sheets are an indication of the reworking of previous limestones deposits during low lakewater levels. Most of the palustrine limestones (except the gravel sheets) contain the same bioclasts as the lacustrine limestones plus a variety of trace fossils such as Rebuffoichnus sciuttoi, Fictovichnus gobiensis and different ichnospecies of Celliforma. The calcretes are either massive (groundwater) or laminar. The massive calcretes are sandy limestones made up of a carbonate matrix and cements. The laminar calcretes (root mats), which contain alveolar septal structures, occur as centimetre-thick layers and can be seen in all types of deposit. They contain the same trace fossil association as the palustrine limestones; the massive calcretes are poorer in such fossils. The distribution of trace fossils in these environments is under strong facies control and provides good evidence of subaerial exposure and semi-arid climates. All the limestones are partially replaced and cemented by opal and quartz, but in all cases the primary

  4. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel


    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  5. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  6. Multi-criteria indexes to evaluate the effects of repeated organic amendment applications on soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obriot, Fiona; Stauffer, Marie; Goubard, Yolaine; Vieuble-Gonod, Laure; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine


    value of data set permits to normalized the data set, a principal component analysis was used for each data in order to explain the variability and at the end, the combination of all indicators selected and weighted by anterior steps defined SQI. Results The repeated applications of organic amendments increased soil fertility and microbial activity compared to control treatments as revealed by the corresponding indices. The largest improvements were observed in treatments that increased more the soil organic matter content (GWS, FYM and BIO) compared to MSW. The regular application of OWP did not significantly modify the SQI dedicated to biodiversity. A recent additional application did not lead to significant supplementary effect on the SQI. Physical properties, productivity and pollution index need more time to be explained. Conclusion The use of SQI allows the aggregation of different indicators to evaluate specific ecosystem services (soil fertility, soil biodiversity, vegetal productivity…) and disservices (heavy metal contamination) of the introduction of OWP in soil. Separate indices made possible to assess different aspects of soil quality separately. Other field results on the effect of OWP application would make possible to relate more precisely the observed effects to the SQIs. References [a] Velasquez, Elena, Patrick Lavelle, et Mercedes Andrade. « GISQ, a Multifunctional Indicator of Soil Quality ». Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, no 12 (décembre 2007): 3066 80. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.06.013.

  7. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge


    qualities, was illustrated. The TAUP Steering Committee recalls with deep gratitude that John Bahcall served continuously as a member of the TAUP International Advisory Committee and that he gave an inspired and brilliant conclusive talk at TAUP 2003 in Seattle. Our astroparticle community will miss him greatly. The TAUP 2005 Organizing Committee thanks Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza University, INFN, IUPAP, PaNAGIC and Ibercaja for sponsoring the Conference, and the Rector and Vice-Rector of the Zaragoza University for their hospitality in the magnificent Paraninfo Palace, where the meeting was held. We wish to thank Venya Berezinsky, José Bernabéu and José Angel Villar for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. Very special thanks are due to Ms Mercedes Fatás and Ms Franca Masciulli, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Leopolda Benazzato for her invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Cristina Gil, Francisco Javier Mena and Alfonso Ortiz de Solórzano for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2007 will be held in Sendai, Japan, hosted by the Tohoku University with the chairs of Professors Atsuto Suzuki and Kunio Inoue. COMMITTEES TAUP STEERING COMMITTEE F. T. Avignone, U. South Carolina B. Barish, CALTECH E. Bellotti, U. Milano/INFN J. Bernabéu, U. Valenciav A. Bottino (chair), U. Torino/INFN V. de Alfaro, U. Torino/INFN T. Kajita, ICRR Tokyo C. W. Kim, JHU Baltimore/KIAS Seoul E. Lorenz U. München V. Matveev, INR Moscow J. Morales, U. Zaragoza D. Sinclair, U. Carleton TAUP 2005 INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE J. J. Aubert, CNRS Marseille J. Bahcall, U. Princeton M. Baldo-Ceolin, U. Padova/INFN L. Bergström, U. Stockholm R. Bernabei, U. Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A. Bettini, U. Padova/INFN S

  8. Binary Stars "Flare" With Predictable Cycles, Analysis of Radio Observations Reveals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    Astronomers have completed a 5-year campaign to monitor continuously radio flares from two groups of binary star systems. This survey is of special interest because it provides evidence that certain binary star systems have predictable activity cycles like our Sun. The survey, which ran from January 1995 to October 2000, was conducted with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Green Bank Interferometer. The report was presented at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, by Mercedes Richards of the University of Virginia, and her collaborators Elizabeth Waltman of the Naval Research Laboratory, and Frank Ghigo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This long-term survey was critical to our understanding of the short- and long-term magnetic cycles of these intriguing star systems," said Richards. The survey focused on the binary star systems Beta Persei and V711 Tauri -- both are about 95 light-years from Earth. Beta Persei is the prototype of the "Algol" class of interacting binary stars. An Algol system contains a hot, blue, main sequence star, along with a cool, orange/red star that is more active than our Sun. V711 Tauri is an "RS Canum Venaticorum" binary, which contains two cool stars that behave like our Sun. "Our survey was the longest-running continuous radio flare survey of Algol or RS Canum Venaticorum binary star systems," said Richards. A flare is an enormous explosion on the surface of a star, which is accompanied by a release of magnetic energy. Flares can be detected over the full range of wavelengths from gamma rays to the radio. It is estimated that the energy release in a flare on the Sun is equivalent to a billion megatons of TNT. The strength of the magnetic field and the amount of activity it displays, like sunspots and flares, are directly related to the rotation or "spin" of the star. In Beta Persei and V711 Tauri, the cool star spins once every 3 days, compared to once every month in the

  9. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador


    ; all of them were ready for use! We cannot imagine him without his two old-fashioned Mercedes, also in his collection. He also has technical skills in construction and music and always has time for jogging. I would finally say that he is an even-tempered person. In brief, mens sana in corpore sano 1 . Dick is a theorist bound to experimental work, extremely intuitive and very dedicated. In his long stays outside Clemson, he always visited places where experiments were being carried out. He has been, and still is, of great help to experimental PhD students, postdocs or senior scientists in providing valuable advice and suggestions towards new measurements. Plausible interpretations of their results developing theoretical models or always searching for good agreement with experiment are two constants in his daily scientific work. Experimental work is present in most of his 150 papers. One of the main theoretical challenges in this field was to develop a formalism where the plethora of experimental results reported in the literature were accommodated. His transition matrix formalism was also seminal in the field of atom-surface scattering. Elastic and inelastic (single and double phonon) contributions were determined as well as the multiphonon background. This work was preceded by a theory for diffuse inelastic scattering and a posterior contribution for multiphonon scattering, both with V Celli. In a similar vein, a theory of molecule-surface scattering was also derived and, more recently, a theory for direct scattering, trapping and desorption. Very interesting extensions to scattering with molten metal and liquid surfaces have also been carried out. Along with collaborators he has studied energy accommodation and sticking coefficients, providing a better understanding of their meaning. G Armand and Dick proposed the well-known corrugated Morse potential as an interaction potential model providing reliable results of diffraction patterns and selective adsorption