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Sample records for mercury detection induced

  1. Detection of mercury ions based on mercury-induced switching of enzyme-like activity of platinum/gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chao-Wei; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2012-10-01

    In this study, bimetallic platinum/gold nanoparticles (Pt/Au NPs) were found to exhibit peroxidase-like activity, and the deposition of mercury was found to switch the enzymatic activity to a catalase-like activity. Based on this phenomenon, we developed a new method for detecting mercury ions through their deposition on bimetallic Pt/Au NPs to switch the catalytic activity of Pt/Au NPs. Pt/Au NPs could be easily prepared through reduction of Au3+ and Pt4+ by sodium citrate in a one-pot synthesis. The peroxidase catalytic activity of the Pt/Au NPs was controlled by varying the ratios of Pt to Au. The Pt0.1/Au NPs (prepared with a [Au3+]/[Pt4+] molar ratio of 9.0/1.0) showed excellent oxidation catalysis for H2O2-mediated oxidation of Amplex® Red (AR) to resorufin. The oxidized product of AR, resorufin, fluoresces more strongly (excitation/emission wavelength maxima ca. 570/585 nm) than AR alone. The peroxidase catalytic activity of Pt0.1/Au NPs was switched to catalase-like activity in the presence of mercury ions in a 5.0 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-borate solution (pH 7.0) through the deposition of Hg on the particle surfaces owing to the strong Hg-Au metallic bond. The catalytic activity of Hg-Pt0.1/Au NPs is superior (by at least 5-fold) to that of natural catalase (from bovine liver). Under optimal solution conditions [5.0 mM Tris-borate (pH 7.0), H2O2 (50 mM), and AR (10 μM)] and in the presence of the masking agents polyacrylic acid and tellurium nanowires, the Pt0.1/Au NPs allowed the selective detection of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury ions (MeHg+) at concentrations as low as several nanomolar. This simple, fast, and cost-effective system enabled selective determination of the spiked concentrations of Hg2+ and MeHg+ in tap, pond, and stream waters.In this study, bimetallic platinum/gold nanoparticles (Pt/Au NPs) were found to exhibit peroxidase-like activity, and the deposition of mercury was found to switch the enzymatic

  2. Mercury detection with thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Z. W.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the work performed to design a gauge to detect mercury concealed within walls, floors, pipes, and equipment inside a building. The project arose out of a desire to decontaminate and decommission (D&D) a building in which mercury had been used as part of a chemical process. The building contains plumbing and equipment, some with residual mercury even after draining, sumps, and hollow walls. So that releases of mercury to the environment might be minimized during D&D activities, it was considered advisable to locate pockets of mercury that may have collected in concealed spaces so that they might be drained in a controlled fashion prior to the application of the wrecking ball or sledge hammer. The detection of such pockets within a building presents some problems not ordinarily encountered in a laboratory environment. Often, only a single side of a wall or pipe is accessible. This condition disqualifies transmission gauges (such as conventional x radiography) in which a probe is sent through the volume under test (VUT) from one side and its passage or attenuation is detected on the opposite side. A robust, one-sided system was needed.

  3. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOEpatents

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  5. A novel cationic triazatetrabenzcorrole: selective detection of mercury(II) by nucleic acid-induced aggregation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yangyang; Deng, Minggang; Du, Yuanyuan; Yan, Shengyong; Huang, Rong; Weng, Xiaocheng; Yang, Chuluo; Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhou, Xiang

    2011-03-07

    In the present work, a novel water-soluble cationic triazatetrabenzcorrole compound was synthesised. Its aggregation and fluorescence quenching properties are demonstrated by serval methods, such as UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic studies and naked-eye visualization. Unlike the traditional Hg(2+) sensor based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine, we use a novel approach, exploiting the high affinity of Hg(2+) for sulfur in phosphorothioate DNA. Based on the S-Hg(2+)-S pairs, we designed the phosphorothioate DNA T4G4-S3 as an Hg(2+) sensor, which can detect Hg(2+) sensitively and selectively in aqueous solution. And this sensing system is fairly fast and convenient.

  6. Time resolved long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of inorganic energetic materials by a rapid mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Brown, Eiei; Hommerich, Uwe; Khurgin, Jacob B; Samuels, Alan C

    2016-11-10

    A mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5 s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared region (LWIR, ∼5.6-10 μm) was recently developed. Similar to the conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering a 5.6-10 μm spectral region could be acquired from just a single laser-induced micro-plasma. Intense and distinct atomic and molecular LWIR emission signatures of various solid inorganic energetic materials were readily observed and identified. Time resolved emissions of inorganic energetic materials were studied to assess the lifetimes of LWIR atomic and molecular emissions. The LWIR atomic emissions generally decayed fast on the scale of tens of microseconds, while the molecular signature emissions from target molecules excited by the laser-induced plasma appeared to be very long lived (∼millisecond). The time dependence of emission intensities and peak wavelengths of these signature emissions gave an insight into the origin and the environment of the emitting target species. Moreover, observed lifetimes of these LWIR emissions can be utilized for further optimization of the signal quality and detection limits of this technique.

  7. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  8. Conductometric Sensors for Detection of Elemental Mercury Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Kisor, A. K.; Manatt, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Several organic and inorganic materials have been tested for possible incorporation into a sensing array in order to add elemental mercury vapor to the suite of chemical species detected. Materials have included gold films, treated gold films, polymer-carbon composite films, gold-polymer-carbon composite films and palladium chloride sintered films. The toxicity of mercury and its adverse effect on human and animal health has made environmental monitoring of mercury in gas and liquid phases important (1,2). As consumer products which contain elemental mercury, such as fluorescent lighting, become more widespread, the need to monitor environments for the presence of vapor phase elemental mercury will increase. Sensors in use today to detect mercury in gaseous streams are generally based on amalgam formation with gold or other metals, including noble metals and aluminum. Recently, NASA has recognized a need to detect elemental mercury vapor in the breathing atmosphere of the crew cabin in spacecraft and has requested that such a capability be incorporated into the JPL Electronic Nose (3). The detection concentration target for this application is 10 parts-per-billion (ppb), or 0.08 mg/m3. In order to respond to the request to incorporate mercury sensing into the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) platform, it was necessary to consider only conductometric methods of sensing, as any other transduction method would have required redesign of the platform. Any mercury detection technique which could not be incorporated into the existing platform, such as an electrochemical technique, could not be considered.

  9. Conductometric Sensors for Detection of Elemental Mercury Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Kisor, A. K.; Manatt, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Several organic and inorganic materials have been tested for possible incorporation into a sensing array in order to add elemental mercury vapor to the suite of chemical species detected. Materials have included gold films, treated gold films, polymer-carbon composite films, gold-polymer-carbon composite films and palladium chloride sintered films. The toxicity of mercury and its adverse effect on human and animal health has made environmental monitoring of mercury in gas and liquid phases important (1,2). As consumer products which contain elemental mercury, such as fluorescent lighting, become more widespread, the need to monitor environments for the presence of vapor phase elemental mercury will increase. Sensors in use today to detect mercury in gaseous streams are generally based on amalgam formation with gold or other metals, including noble metals and aluminum. Recently, NASA has recognized a need to detect elemental mercury vapor in the breathing atmosphere of the crew cabin in spacecraft and has requested that such a capability be incorporated into the JPL Electronic Nose (3). The detection concentration target for this application is 10 parts-per-billion (ppb), or 0.08 mg/m3. In order to respond to the request to incorporate mercury sensing into the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) platform, it was necessary to consider only conductometric methods of sensing, as any other transduction method would have required redesign of the platform. Any mercury detection technique which could not be incorporated into the existing platform, such as an electrochemical technique, could not be considered.

  10. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Jewell, April; Manatt, Kenneth; Torres, Julia; Soler, Jessica; Taylor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Palladium chloride films have been found to be useful as alternatives to the gold films heretofore used to detect airborne elemental mercury at concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb). Somewhat more specifically, when suitably prepared palladium chloride films are exposed to parts-per-billion or larger concentrations of airborne mercury, their electrical resistances change by amounts large enough to be easily measurable. Because airborne mercury adversely affects health, it is desirable to be able to detect it with high sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of leakage of mercury from lamps or other equipment. The detection of mercury by use of gold films involves the formation of gold/mercury amalgam. Gold films offer adequate sensitivity for detection of airborne mercury and could easily be integrated into an electronic-nose system designed to operate in the temperature range of 23 to 28 C. Unfortunately, in order to regenerate a gold-film mercury sensor, one must heat it to a temperature of 200 C for several minutes in clean flowing air. In preparation for an experiment to demonstrate the present sensor concept, palladium chloride was deposited from an aqueous solution onto sets of gold electrodes and sintered in air to form a film. Then while using the gold electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of the films, the films were exposed, at a temperature of 25 C, to humidified air containing mercury at various concentrations from 0 to 35 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury in room-temperature air at concentrations of at least 2.5 ppb and can readily be regenerated at temperatures <40 C.

  11. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  12. Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.

    1994-08-18

    In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them.

  13. Mercury-Induced Membranous Nephropathy: Clinical and Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Su-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ping; Zeng, Cai-Hong; Zheng, Chun-Xia; Li, Lei-Shi

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Long-term contact with mercury may induce membranous nephropathy (MN); however, the clinical pathologic features and pathogenesis of mercury-induced MN have not been investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The present study retrospectively evaluated 11 cases of mercury-induced MN to analyze its causes and its clinical and pathologic features. Results: A total of 10 women and 1 man ages 15 to 45 years were enrolled in the present study. Mercury exposure was caused by mercury-containing pills (five patients), skin lightening cream (four patients), hair-dyeing agents (one patient), and mercury vapor (one patient). The duration of contact with mercury ranged from 2 to 60 months, and the urinary mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 50 times higher than reference values. All patients presented with proteinuria and normal renal function; three had nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopy revealed thickened glomerular basement membrane and mildly proliferative mesangial cells. Acute tubulointerstitial injury occurred in three patients. The immunofluorescence findings showed granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary wall, mostly accompanied by deposits of C4 and C1q. IgG1 and IgG4 (predominantly IgG1) deposits were observed along the glomerular capillary loops. Nine patients reached complete remission in follow-up after withdrawal from mercury exposure. Conclusions: Deposits of IgG1 subclasses in renal tissues indicated that the pathogenesis of mercury-induced MN differs from that of idiopathic MN. It is important that clinicians are aware that mercury exposure should be considered a possible cause of membranous nephropathy. PMID:20089494

  14. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  15. Mercury-induced reproductive impairment in fish.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kate L; Trudeau, Vance L

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin, and increasing levels have led to concern for human and wildlife health in many regions of the world. During the past three decades, studies in fish have examined the effects of sublethal mercury exposure on a range of endpoints within the reproductive axis. Mercury studies have varied from highly concentrated aqueous exposures to ecologically relevant dietary exposures using levels comparable to those currently found in the environment. This review summarizes data from both laboratory and field studies supporting the hypothesis that mercury in the aquatic environment impacts the reproductive health of fish. The evidence presented suggests that the inhibitory effects of mercury on reproduction occur at multiple sites within the reproductive axis, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. Accumulation of mercury in the fish brain has resulted in reduced neurosecretory material, hypothalamic neuron degeneration, and alterations in parameters of monoaminergic neurotransmission. At the level of the pituitary, mercury exposure has reduced and/or inactivated gonadotropin-secreting cells. Finally, studies have examined the effects of mercury on the reproductive organs and demonstrated a range of effects, including reductions in gonad size, circulating reproductive steroids, gamete production, and spawning success. Despite some variation between studies, there appears to be sufficient evidence from laboratory studies to link exposure to mercury with reproductive impairment in many fish species. Currently, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown; however, several physiological and cellular mechanisms are proposed within this review.

  16. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Polymer/Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, Abhijit; Ryan, Margaret; Homer, Margie; Kisor, Adam; Jewell, April; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Manatt, Kenneth; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William

    2009-01-01

    Films made of certain polymer/carbon composites have been found to be potentially useful as sensing films for detecting airborne elemental mercury at concentrations on the order of tens of parts per billion or more. That is to say, when the polymer/carbon composite films are exposed to air containing mercury vapor, their electrical resistances decrease by measurable amounts. Because airborne mercury is a health hazard, it is desirable to detect it with great sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of a mercury leak from lamps or other equipment. The present effort to develop polymerbased mercury-vapor sensors complements the work reported in NASA Tech Briefs Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride (NPO- 44955), Vol. 33, No. 7 (July 2009), page 48 and De tecting Airborne Mer cury by Use of Gold Nanowires (NPO-44787), Vol. 33, No. 7 (July 2009), page 49. Like those previously reported efforts, the present effort is motivated partly by a need to enable operation and/or regeneration of sensors under relatively mild conditions more specifically, at temperatures closer to room temperature than to the elevated temperatures (greater than 100 C ) needed for regeneration of sensors based on noble-metal films. The present polymer/carbon films are made from two polymers, denoted EYN1 and EYN2 (see Figure 1), both of which are derivatives of poly-4-vinyl pyridine with amine functional groups. Composites of these polymers with 10 to 15 weight percent of carbon were prepared and solution-deposited onto the JPL ElectronicNose sensor substrates for testing. Preliminary test results showed that the resulting sensor films gave measurable indications of airborne mercury at concentrations on the order of tens of parts per billion (ppb) or more. The operating temperature range for the sensing films was 28 to 40 C and that the sensor films regenerated spontaneously, without heating above operating temperature (see Figure 2).

  17. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  18. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  19. MESSENGER observations of induced magnetic fields in Mercury's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Philpott, Lydia C.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Hauck, Steven A.; Heyner, Daniel; Phillips, Roger J.; Winslow, Reka M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-03-01

    Orbital data from the Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft allow investigation of magnetic fields induced at the top of Mercury's core by time-varying magnetospheric fields. We used 15 Mercury years of observations of the magnetopause position as well as the magnetic field inside the magnetosphere to establish the presence and magnitude of an annual induction signal. Our results indicate an annual change in the internal axial dipole term, g10, of 7.5 to 9.5 nT. For negligible mantle conductivity, the average annual induction signal provides an estimate of Mercury's core radius to within ±90 km, independent of geodetic results. Larger induction signals during extreme events are expected but are challenging to identify because of reconnection-driven erosion. Our results indicate that the magnetopause reaches the dayside planetary surface 1.5-4% of the time.

  20. MESSENGER Observations of Induced Magnetic Fields at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Heyner, D.; Phillips, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Benna, M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    We use orbital data from the Magnetometer (MAG) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft to study induction signals from Mercury's core. The weak dipole moment (190 nT-RM3, where RM is Mercury's radius) yields a mean subsolar magnetopause distance,RSS, from the dipole origin of 1.45 RM. Time variations in Mercury's magnetopause position, and hence in the magnetopause fields, are driven by changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, Pram, and induce currents in Mercury's interior, in particular at the top of the large, highly conductive core. Mercury's eccentric orbit leads to periodic, annual variations in Pram with an amplitude of ˜50% of the mean Pram. Shorter-timescale, higher-amplitude variations in Pram also occur due to variability in the solar wind. We use a model of Mercury's magnetosphere derived from MESSENGER observations together with a two-layer, radial conductivity model to calculate the expected geometry and magnitude of induced field signatures. The inducing field geometry is obtained via a spherical harmonic expansion of the model magnetopause field at distinct RSS values corresponding to the range observed in MESSENGER MAG data. For the two-layer model and time variations in the field with periods longer than ~1 h, the transfer function between the inducing and induced fields depends only on the spherical harmonic degree and on the ratio of the core radius to the planetary radius. We observe two lines of evidence for an annual induced signature at Mercury. First, RSS varies with heliocentric distance, Rh, as Rhb where b < 1/3. Second, a stronger planetary dipole moment is observed at perihelion than at aphelion. The magnitudes of the observed signals are consistent with the recent estimate of Mercury's core radius (2020 × 30 km) derived from gravity and spin-state data, and independently rule out a core radius less than ˜1900 km. Larger amplitude induced signals are observed in association with

  1. Nanomaterial-based approaches for the detection and speciation of mercury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Lin, Jing; Li, Bai; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2015-12-07

    Mercury is toxic with widespread contamination. Highly sensitive and selective approaches for mercury analysis are desired. Although conventional techniques are accurate and sensitive in the determination of mercury, these procedures are time-consuming, labor-intensive and dependent heavily on expensive instrumentation. In recent years, nanomaterial-based approaches have been proved to be effective alternatives in the detection and speciation of mercury. In this review, the development of different nanomaterial-based approaches was summarized, as well as their utilization for the detection of mercury in environmental and biological samples, such as gold nanomaterials, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots and so on. Moreover, the speciation of mercury using nanomaterials was also reviewed.

  2. Detection of hand tremor in workers exposed to mercury vapor: a comparative study of three methods.

    PubMed

    Roels, H; Abdeladim, S; Braun, M; Malchaire, J; Lauwerys, R

    1989-08-01

    Hand tremor measurement was evaluated in a group of 54 male workers (mean age 38.5 years) exposed to mercury vapor (average duration of exposure 7.7 years) using an accelerometer test and two psychomotor tests (eye-hand coordination and hand steadiness). The results were compared with those obtained in a well-matched control group of 48 workers. The intensity of current mercury vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the mean (geometric) levels of mercury in blood (2.4 micrograms/dl) and in urine (63 micrograms/g creatinine). The hand steadiness test and eye-hand coordination test revealed preclinical alterations in postural and intentional tremor, whereas the changes evidenced by the accelerometer test were not statistically significant. Furthermore the practical advantage of the psychomotor tests over the accelerometer test makes them most appropriate for the early detection of mercury-induced hand tremor. The present study also suggests that young adults (less than 21 years) may be more susceptible to the neurotoxic effect of mercury vapor.

  3. A chromosomally based luminescent bioassay for mercury detection in red soil of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, He; Cheng, Han; Ting, Mao; Wen-Hui, Zhong; Xian-Gui, Lin

    2010-07-01

    A luminescent reporter gene system was constructed by fusing the mercury-inducible promoter, P ( merT ), and its regulatory gene, merR, with a promoterless reporter gene EGFP. A stable and nonantibiotic whole-cell reporter (BMB-ME) was created by introducing the system cassette into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida strain and then applied it for mercury detection in the red soil of China. Spiked with 10 and 100 microg g(-1) Hg(2+) and after 15 and 30 days incubation, soil samples were extracted and evaluated water soluble, bioavailable, organic matter bound, and residual fractions of mercury by both BMB-ME and chemical way. The expression of EGFP was confirmed in soil extraction, and fluorescence intensity was quantified by luminescence spectrometer. The sensor strain BMB-ME appeared to have a detection range similar to that of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimal temperature for EGFP expression was 35 degrees C and the lowest detectable concentration of Hg(2+) 200 nM. Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Sn(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), Ag(+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), and Pb(2+) ions at nanomolar level did not interfere with the measurement. These results showed that the BMB-ME constitute an adaptable system for easy sensing of small amounts of mercury in the red soil of China.

  4. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002476.htm Mercury To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses poisoning from mercury. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  5. Solution cathode glow discharge induced vapor generation of mercury and its application to mercury speciation by high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Qian; Zhu, Zhenli; Hu, Shenghong; Jin, Lanlan

    2011-07-15

    A novel solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) induced vapor generation was developed as interface to on-line couple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methyl-mercury (MeHg) and ethyl-mercury (EtHg). The decomposition of organic mercury species and the reduction of Hg(2+) could be completed in one step with this proposed SCGD induced vapor generation system. The vapor generation is extremely rapid and therefore is easy to couple with flow injection (FI) and HPLC. Compared with the conventional HPLC-CV-AFS hyphenated systems, the proposed HPLC-SCGD-AFS system is very simple in operation and eliminates auxiliary redox reagents. Parameters influencing mercury determination were optimized, such as concentration of formic acid, discharge current and argon flow rate. The method detection limits for HPLC-SCGD-AFS system were 0.67 μg L(-1) for Hg(2+), 0.55 μg L(-1) for MeHg and 1.19 μg L(-1) for EtHg, respectively. The developed method was validated by determination of certified reference material (GBW 10029, tuna fish) and was further applied for the determination of mercury in biological samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial availability of mercury: effective detection and organic ligand effect using a whole-cell bioluminescent bioreporter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Oliff, Kathryn; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    A luxCDABE-based genetically engineered bacterial bioreporter (Escherichia coli ARL1) was used to detect bioavailable ionic mercury (Hg(II)) and investigate the effects of humic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bioavailability of mercury in E. c oli. Results showed that the E. c oli ARL1 bioreporter was sensitive to mercury, with a detection limit of Hg(II) of 0.5 µg/L and a linear dose/response relationship up to 2000 µg Hg(II)/L. Humic acids and EDTA decreased the Hg(II)-induced bioluminescent response of strain ARL1, suggesting that the two organic ligands reduced the bioavailability of Hg(II) via complexation with Hg(II). Compared with traditional chemical methods, the use of E. c oli ARL1 is a cost-effective, rapid, and reliable approach for measuring aqueous mercury at very low concentrations and thus has potential for applications in field in situ monitoring.

  7. Did 26Al and impact-induced heating differentiate Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, G. K.; Sahijpal, S.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models dealing with the planetary scale differentiation of Mercury are presented with the short-lived nuclide, 26Al, as the major heat source along with the impact-induced heating during the accretion of planets. These two heat sources are considered to have caused differentiation of Mars, a planet with size comparable to Mercury. The chronological records and the thermal modeling of Mars indicate an early differentiation during the initial 1 million years (Ma) of the formation of the solar system. We theorize that in case Mercury also accreted over an identical time scale, the two heat sources could have differentiated the planets. Although unlike Mars there is no chronological record of Mercury's differentiation, the proposed mechanism is worth investigation. We demonstrate distinct viable scenarios for a wide range of planetary compositions that could have produced the internal structure of Mercury as deduced by the MESSENGER mission, with a metallic iron (Fe-Ni-FeS) core of radius 2000 km and a silicate mantle thickness of 400 km. The initial compositions were derived from the enstatite and CB (Bencubbin) chondrites that were formed in the reducing environments of the early solar system. We have also considered distinct planetary accretion scenarios to understand their influence on thermal processing. The majority of our models would require impact-induced mantle stripping of Mercury by hit and run mechanism with a protoplanet subsequent to its differentiation in order to produce the right size of mantle. However, this can be avoided if we increase the Fe-Ni-FeS contents to 71% by weight. Finally, the models presented here can be used to understand the differentiation of Mercury-like exoplanets and the planetary embryos of Venus and Earth.

  8. Fluorescent optical fibre chemosensor for the detection of mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. Hien; Wren, Stephen P.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to develop a stable, compact and portable fibre optic sensing system which is capable of real time detection of the mercury ion (II), Hg2+. A novel fluorescent polymeric material for Hg2+ detection, based on a coumarin derivative (acting as the fluorophore) and an azathia crown ether moiety (acting as the mercury ion receptor), has been designed and synthesized. The material was covalently attached to the distal end of an optical fibre and exhibited a significant increase in fluorescence intensity in response to Hg2+ in the μM concentration range via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. The sensor has also demonstrated a high selectivity for Hg2+ over other metal ions. A washing protocol was identified for sensor regeneration, allowing the probe to be re-used. The approach developed in this work can also be used for the preparation of sensors for other heavy metals.

  9. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  10. Semi-continuous detection of mercury in gases

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A new method for the semi-continuous detection of heavy metals and metalloids including mercury in gaseous streams. The method entails mass measurement of heavy metal oxides and metalloid oxides with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor having an uncoated substrate. An array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can be used where each sensor is for the semi-continuous emission monitoring of a particular heavy metal or metalloid.

  11. Impact-induced compositional variations on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Barr, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The surface of Mercury shows unexpected spectral variations spatially associated with crater and basin ejecta (the so-called 'low-reflectance material' or LRM; [1]). The low reflectance is suggested to be caused by a native darkening agent at depth that has been excavated and redeposited onto the surface [1]. Although LRM is generally associated with crater ejecta, it is not found within the ejecta blankets of many large impact craters, perhaps suggesting that the subsurface source is heterogeneous [2]. We have developed a 3-D Monte Carlo model of impact cratering, excavation, and ejecta blanket deposition. Our simulations of the effect of early impacts onto Mercury show that if the LRM originates from depth to cover ~15% of Mercury's surface [2], its source is ~30 km deep. Considering the estimated mercurian crustal thickness of 50 km [3] this implies the darkening agent is most probably located within a chemically distinct lower crust. Simulations show that repeated and overlapping impacts redistribute the darkening agent away from the basin source and create a weak association between crater size and LRM abundance. Thus subsurface heterogeneity is not required to produce the weak association between crater size and LRM abundance within crater ejecta; this is a natural consequence of overlapping impacts. Our results can elucidate the new high-resolution compositional mapping of Mercury's heavily cratered terrain and provide insight into subsurface composition. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution through the NASA Lunar Science Institute NNA09DB32A. References: [1] Denevi and Robinson, 2008, Icarus 197, 239-246. [2] Denevi et al., 2009, Science 324, 613-618. [3] Smith et al., 2012, Science 336, 214-217.

  12. Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: in vivo mechanistic insights from transcriptome analysis, phenotype anchoring and targeted gene expression validation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes detrimental effects to human health. Although the liver has been known to be a main target organ, there is limited information on in vivo molecular mechanism of mercury-induced toxicity in the liver. By using transcriptome analysis, phenotypic anchoring and validation of targeted gene expression in zebrafish, mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated and a number of perturbed cellular processes were identified and compared with those captured in the in vitro human cell line studies. Results Hepato-transcriptome analysis of mercury-exposed zebrafish revealed that the earliest deregulated genes were associated with electron transport chain, mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, nuclear receptor signaling and apoptotic pathway, followed by complement system and proteasome pathway, and thereafter DNA damage, hypoxia, Wnt signaling, fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, cell cycle and motility. Comparative meta-analysis of microarray data between zebrafish liver and human HepG2 cells exposed to mercury identified some common toxicological effects of mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in both models. Histological analyses of liver from mercury-exposed fish revealed morphological changes of liver parenchyma, decreased nucleated cell count, increased lipid vesicles, glycogen and apoptotic bodies, thus providing phenotypic evidence for anchoring of the transcriptome analysis. Validation of targeted gene expression confirmed deregulated gene-pathways from enrichment analysis. Some of these genes responding to low concentrations of mercury may serve as toxicogenomic-based markers for detection and health risk assessment of environmental mercury contaminations. Conclusion Mercury-induced hepatotoxicity was triggered by oxidative stresses, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, deregulation of nuclear receptor and kinase activities including Gsk3 that deregulates Wnt signaling pathway, gluconeogenesis, and

  13. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Gold Nanowires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Soler, Jessica; Mung, Nosang; Nix, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Like the palladium chloride (PdCl2) films described in the immediately preceding article, gold nanowire sensors have been found to be useful for detecting airborne elemental mercury at concentrations on the order of parts per billion (ppb). Also like the PdCl2 films, gold nanowire sensors can be regenerated under conditions much milder than those necessary for regeneration of gold films that have been used as airborne-Hg sensors. The interest in nanowire sensors in general is prompted by the expectation that nanowires of a given material covering a given surface may exhibit greater sensitivity than does a film of the same material because nanowires have a greater surface area. In preparation for experiments to demonstrate this sensor concept, sensors were fabricated by depositing gold nanowires, variously, on microhotplate or microarray sensor substrates. In the experiments, the electrical resistances were measured while the sensors were exposed to air at a temperature of 25 C and relative humidity of about 30 percent containing mercury at various concentrations from 2 to 70 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury at ppb concentrations in room-temperature air and can be regenerated by exposure to clean flowing air at temperatures <40 C.

  14. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction induced by mercury exposure at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Furieri, Lorena Barros; Briones, Ana María; Avendaño, María Soledad; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) has many harmful vascular effects by increasing oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular/endothelial dysfunction, all of which may contribute to cerebrovascular diseases development. We aimed to explore the effects of chronic low-mercury concentration on vascular function in cerebral arteries and the mechanisms involved. Basilar arteries from control (vehicle-saline solution, im) and mercury chloride (HgCl2)-treated rats for 30 days (first dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent dose 0.07μg/kg/day, im, to cover daily loss) were used. Vascular reactivity, protein expression, nitric oxide (NO) levels and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production were analyzed. HgCl2 exposure increased serotonin contraction and reduced the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to bradykinin. After NO synthase inhibition, serotonin responses were enhanced more in control than in mercury-treated rats while bradykinin-induced relaxation was abolished. NO levels were greater in control than Hg-treated rats. Tiron and indomethacin reduced vasoconstriction and increased the bradykinin-induced relaxation only in HgCl2-treated rats. Vascular O2(-) production was greater in mercury-treated when compared to control rats. Protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, copper/zinc (Cu/Zn), Manganese (Mn) and extracellular-superoxide dismutases were similar in cerebral arteries from both groups. Results suggest that Hg treatment increases cerebrovascular reactivity by reducing endothelial negative modulation and NO bioavailability; this effect seems to be dependent on increased reactive oxygen species and prostanoids generation. These findings show, for the first time, that brain vasculature are also affected by chronic mercury exposure and offer further evidence that even at small concentration, HgCl2 is hazardous and might be an environmental risk factor accounting for cerebral vasospasm development.

  15. Detection of mercury compounds using invertase-glucose oxidase-based biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Amine, A.; Cremisini, C.; Palleschi, G.

    1995-12-31

    Mercury compounds have been determined with an electrochemical biosensor based on invertase inhibition. When invertase is in presence of mercury its activity decreases; this causes a decrease of glucose production which is monitored by the glucose sensor and correlated to the concentration of mercury in solution. Parameters as pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and reaction and incubation time were optimized. Mercury compounds determination using soluble or immobilized invertase were reported. Results showed that the inhibition was competitive and reversible. Mercury compounds can be detected directly in aqueous solution in the range 2--10 ppb.

  16. Detection of mercury compounds using invertase-glucose oxidase-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amine, A.; Cremisini, C.; Palleschi, G.

    1995-10-01

    Mercury compounds have been determined with an electrochemical biosensor based on invertase inhibition. When invertase is in the presence of mercury its activity decreases; this causes a decrease of glucose production which is monitored by the glucose sensor and correlated to the concentration of mercury in solution. Parameters as pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and reaction and incubation time were optimized. Mercury compounds determination using soluble or immobilized invertase were reported. Results show that the inhibition was competitive and reversible. Mercury compounds can be detected directly in aqueous solution in the range 2 - 10 ppb.

  17. Relationship between expression of HSP70 and metallothionein and oxidative stress during mercury chloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Reus, Isabel Sánchez; Bando, Inmaculada; Andrés, David; Cascales, María

    2003-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal which induces oxidative stress. Metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are stress proteins involved in response to different stimuli. In the present study rats were administered per oral application by gavage, a single daily dose (0.1 mg/kg) of HgCl(2) for 3 consecutive days. To find a relation between these two stress proteins and mercury, parameters of liver injury, redox state of the cells, and the expression and protein levels of HSP70 and metallothionein by Northern and Western blot analysis were assayed either in blood or in liver. HgCl(2) at the doses of 0.1 mg/kg induced liver injury detected by a slight increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and by the enhanced levels of bilirubin. Oxidative stress was detected by a significant decrease in protein-SH and an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver following one dose of mercury. mRNA and protein levels of both metallothionein and HSP70 increased progressively from first to third doses of mercury. We conclude that against low doses of mercury that produce a slight liver injury and oxidative stress, the liver rapidly responds by inducing the expression of metallothionein and HSP70. We suggest that metallothionein induction attenuates the decrease in protein-SH induced by the first dose of mercury, since metallothionein increases the pool of thiol groups in the cytosol eliminating oxygen radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. From these results we can suggest that the changes observed in these stress proteins by the effect of mercury appear to be a response rapidly induced at transcriptional and at translational levels. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:161-168, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10074

  18. Oxidation of elemental mercury by chlorine: Gas phase, Surface,and Photo-induced reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Nai-Qiang; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2004-10-22

    Accurate oxidation rate constants of mercury gas are needed for determining its dispersion and lifetime in the atmosphere. They would also help in developing a technology for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. However, it is difficult to establish the accurate rate constants primarily due to the fact that mercury easily adsorbs on solid surface and its reactions can be catalyzed by the surface. We have demonstrated a procedure that allows the determination of gas phase, surface-induced, and photo-induced contributions in the kinetic study of the oxidation of mercury by chlorine gas. The kinetics was studied using reactors with various surface to volume ratios. The effect of the surface and the photo irradiation on the reaction was taken into consideration. The pressure dependent study revealed that the gas phase oxidation was a three-body collision process. The third order rate constant was determined to be 7.5({+-}0.2) x 10{sup -39} mL{sup 2} molecules{sup -2}s{sup -1} with N{sub 2} as the third body at 297 {+-} 1 K. The surface induced reaction on quartz window was second order and the rate constant was 2.7 x 10{sup -17} mL{sup 2} molecules{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sec. Meanwhile, the 253.7 nm photon employed for mercury detection was found to accelerate the reaction. The utilization efficiency of 253.7 nm photon for Hg{sup 0} oxidation was 6.7 x 10{sup -4} molecules photon{sup -1} under the conditions employed in this study.

  19. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Fank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi; Masad, Motasim A

    2009-10-01

    Mercury, a potent neurotoxin, is released to the environment in significant amounts by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. No natural hyperaccumulator plant has been reported for mercury phytoremediation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of Indian mustard, a higher biomass plant with faster growth rates, to mercury pollution. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and mercury-induced oxidative stress in order to examine the potential application of Indian mustard to mercury phytoremediation. Two common cultivars (Florida Broadleaf and Longstanding) of Indian mustard were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Plant uptake, antioxidative enzymes, peroxides, and lipid peroxidation under mercury stress were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) were the most sensitive indices of mercury-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H(2)O(2), resulting in lower H(2)O(2) in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. A majority of Hg was accumulated in the roots and low translocations of Hg from roots to shoots were found in two cultivars of Indian mustard. Thus Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration/phytostabilization of mercury contaminated waters and wastewater.

  20. 7 CFR 201.58c - Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. 201.58c Section 201.58c Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. The bioassay method may be used according to the...

  1. 7 CFR 201.58c - Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. 201.58c Section 201.58c Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. The bioassay method may be used according to the...

  2. 7 CFR 201.58c - Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. 201.58c Section 201.58c Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. The bioassay method may be used according to the procedure...

  3. 7 CFR 201.58c - Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. 201.58c Section 201.58c Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. The bioassay method may be used according to the...

  4. 7 CFR 201.58c - Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. 201.58c Section 201.58c Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Detection of captan, mercury, or thiram on seed. The bioassay method may be used according to the...

  5. A label free aptamer-based LPG sensor for detection of mercury in aquatic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbakht, Hamed; Latifi, Hamid; Ziaee, Farzaneh

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a label free fiber optic sensor for detection of mercury ions in aquatic solutions. This sensor utilizes aptamers as bio-recognition element which traps mercury ions and cause a refractive index change in the vicinity of the sensor. Refractive index variations lead to a change in the transmission spectrum that can be used to calculate the concentration of mercury ions in that solution. The concentration of 1 nM mercury ions was detected which is below the specific amount determined by the US environmental protection agency as the maximum authorized contaminant level of Hg2+ ions in drinking water.

  6. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    PubMed

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  7. Gold nanorods for surface Plasmon resonance detection of mercury (II) in flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Khang; Heider, Emily C; Brooks, Scott C; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the flow injection analysis of mercury (II) ions in tap water samples via surface Plasmon resonance detection. Quantitative analysis of mercury (II) is based on the chemical interaction of metallic mercury with gold nanorods immobilized on a glass substrate. A new flow cell design is presented with the ability to accommodate the detecting substrate in the sample compartment of commercial spectrometers. Two alternatives are here considered for mercury (II) detection, namely stop-flow and continuous flow injection analysis modes. The best limit of detection (2.4 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with the continuous flow injection analysis approach. The accurate determination of mercury (II) ions in samples of unknown composition is demonstrated with a fortified tap water sample.

  8. Mercury-induced micronuclei in skin fibroblasts of beluga whales

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.M.; Dubeau, H.; Rassart, E.

    1998-12-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence estuary are highly contaminated with environmental pollutants and have a high incidence of cancer. Environmental contaminants may be partly responsible for the high incidence of cancer observed in this population. DNA damage plays an important role in the development of cancer. The micronuclei assay was used to test the genotoxic potential of mercury compounds in skin fibroblasts of an Arctic beluga whale. Both mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) induced a highly significant dose-response increase of micronucleated cells. Statistically significant increases in micronucleated cells were observed for 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg and 0.05, 0.5, and 2 {micro}g/ml MeHg when compared to control cultures. Concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg induced a two-, three- and fourfold increase of micronucleated cells, respectively. Treatment with MeHg was one order of magnitude more potent in inducing micronuclei and in inhibiting cell proliferation than Hg. Although results of this in vitro study do not imply that mercury compounds are involved in the etiology of cancer in St. Lawrence beluga whales, significant increases in micronuclei frequency were found at low concentrations of MeHg that are believed to be comparable to concentrations present in certain whales of this population.

  9. Fluorescent and colorimetric sensors for environmental mercury detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guiqiu; Guo, Zhi; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to mercury ions can damage the human brain, the nervous system, the endocrine system, and other biological systems. Much effort has therefore been made to develop real-time monitoring of mercury variations, and many mercury-ion sensors have been reported recently. In this review, mercury-ion sensors reported since 2008 are described and discussed. The sensors are classified as molecular, nanomaterial based, and others. Molecular sensors are based on chemical and hydrogen bond formation, and the other types are based on changes in the materials used.

  10. Dual detection of nitrate and mercury in water using disposable electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Brockgreitens, John; Ahmed, Snober; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-11-15

    Here we report a disposable, cost effective electrochemical paper-based sensor for the detection of both nitrate and mercury ions in lake water and contaminated agricultural runoff. Disposable carbon paper electrodes were functionalized with selenium particles (SePs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs served as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrate ions using differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The AuNPs also served as a nucleation sites for mercury ions. The SePs further reinforced this mercury ion nucleation due to their high binding affinity to mercury. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry techniques were used to further enhance mercury ion accumulation on the modified electrode. The fabricated electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemistry techniques. The obtained results show that the PEG-SH/SePs/AuNPs modified carbon paper electrode has a dual functionality in that it can detect both nitrate and mercury ions without any interference. The modified carbon paper electrode has improved the analytical sensitivity of nitrate and mercury ions with limits of detection of 8.6µM and 1.0ppb, respectively. Finally, the modified electrode was used to measure nitrate and mercury in lake water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  12. Detection and quantification of gas-phase oxidized mercury compounds by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colleen P.; Lyman, Seth N.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Allen, Tanner; O'Neil, Trevor L.

    2016-05-01

    Most mercury pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, and the location and bioavailability of deposited mercury largely depends on poorly understood atmospheric chemical reactions that convert elemental mercury into oxidized mercury compounds. Current measurement methods do not speciate oxidized mercury, leading to uncertainty about which mercury compounds exist in the atmosphere and how oxidized mercury is formed. We have developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based system for identification and quantification of atmospheric oxidized mercury compounds. The system consists of an ambient air collection device, a thermal desorption module, a cryofocusing system, a gas chromatograph, and an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer. It was able to separate and identify mercury halides with detection limits low enough for ambient air collection (90 pg), but an improved ambient air collection device is needed. The GC/MS system was unable to quantify HgO or Hg(NO3)2, and data collected cast doubt upon the existence of HgO in the gas phase.

  13. Mercurial induced brain monoamine oxidase inhibition in the teleost Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.N.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1985-11-01

    Neurotoxic effects of mercurials are well established in a variety of animals including man. In mammals, mercury is known to alter brain monamine synthesis, high affinity uptake and central catecholamine development. However, such investigations on the fishes are meager. In the present communication, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and organic mercurial fungicide Emisan induced changes in the brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) content in the fish C. punctatus are described.

  14. Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for mercury (II) based on target-induced structure-switching DNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danhong; Zhang, Qing; Chu, Xia; Wang, Haibo; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-01-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor has been developed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) based on target-induced structure-switching DNA. A 33-mer oligonucleotide 1 with five self-complementary base pairs separated by seven thymine-thymine mismatches was first immobilized on the electrode via self-assembly of the terminal thiol moiety and then hybridized with a ferrocene-tagged oligonucleotide 2, leading to a high redox current. In the presence of Hg(2+), mercury-mediated base pairs (T-Hg(2+)-T) induced the folding of the oligonucleotide 1 into a hairpin structure, resulting in the release of the ferrocene-tagged oligonucleotide 2 from the electrode surface with a substantially decreased redox current. The response characteristics of the sensor were thoroughly investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of the reaction temperature on the response of the sensor was also studied in detail. The results revealed that the sensor showed sensitive response to Hg(2+) in a concentration range from 0.1 nM to 5 microM with a detection limit of 0.06 nM. In addition, this strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions, which was superior to that of previous anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV)-based techniques. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity signified the potential of the sensor for Hg(2+) detection in real environmental samples.

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... through a detection cell where ultraviolet light at 253.7 nanometers (nm) is directed...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... through a detection cell where ultraviolet light at 253.7 nanometers (nm) is directed...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... through a detection cell where ultraviolet light at 253.7 nanometers (nm) is directed...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... through a detection cell where ultraviolet light at 253.7 nanometers (nm) is directed...

  19. Preconcentration and detection of mercury with bioluminescent bioreporter E. coli ARL1.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Andrey I; Koštejn, Martin; Kuncova, Gabriela; Dostálek, Pavel; Rohovec, Jan; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    Cell wall envelopes treated with sodium hydroxide and spray-dried were used as mercury sorbents. The sorbent having sorption capacity 17.7 ± 0.1 μmol/g determined was employed for preconcentration of mercury containing 1-10 ng/L. After preconcentration, bioavailable mercury was detected in samples of soil, stream, and tap water via induction of bioluminescence of E. coli ARL1. Iron and manganese at concentrations of tenth microgram per liter interfered bioluminescence detection of mercury. In tap water was detected semiquantitatively 0.127 ± 0.1 nmol/L by the induction of bioluminescence of E. coli ARL1 in medium with tryptone after preconcentration using a method of standard addition.

  20. Flow injection analysis of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals based on enzyme inhibition and biosensor detection.

    PubMed

    Bertocchi, P; Ciranni, E; Compagnone, D; Magearu, V; Palleschi, G; Pirvutoiu, S; Valvo, L

    1999-06-01

    An enzymatic amperometric procedure for measurement of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals, based on the inhibition of invertase and on a glucose electrode was studied. Analytical parameters for measurements in batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) have been optimised. Mercury(II) was detected in the 10-60 ppb range with RSD < or =2%. A sample throughput of 6 h(-1) for batch and 15 h(-1) for FIA was obtained. The total mercury(II) from thimerosal (thiomersal, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate) in eye-drop samples was measured with the amperometric procedure after oxidative cleavage treatment. Results for both batch and FIA procedures correlated well with atomic absorbtion spectroscopy (AAS) data.

  1. Mercury speciation in environmental solid samples using thermal release technique with atomic absorption detection.

    PubMed

    Shuvaeva, Olga V; Gustaytis, Maria A; Anoshin, Gennadii N

    2008-07-28

    A sensitive and very simple method for determination of mercury species in solid samples has been developed involving thermal release analysis in combination with atomic absorption (AAS) detection. The method allows determination of mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury and mercury sulfide at the level of 0.70, 0.35 and 0.20ng with a reproducibility of the results of 14, 25 and 18%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed assay has been estimated using certified reference materials and by comparison of the results with those of an independent method. The method has been applied for Hg species determination in original samples of lake sediments and plankton.

  2. Early transcriptional responses to mercury: a role for ethylene in mercury-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Martín-Barranco, Amanda; Escobar, Carolina; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plant tolerance to mercury (Hg) is important for developing phytoremediation strategies of Hg-contaminated soils. The early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings to Hg were studied using transcriptomics analysis. A Medicago truncatula microarray was hybridized with high-quality root RNA from M. sativa treated with 3 μM Hg for 3, 6 and 24 h. The transcriptional pattern data were complementary to the measurements of root growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and NADPH-oxidase activity as stress indexes. Of 559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 91% were up-regulated. The majority of DEGs were shared between the 3 and 6 h (60%) time points, including the 'stress', 'secondary metabolism' and 'hormone metabolism' functional categories. Genes from ethylene metabolism and signalling were highly represented, suggesting that this phytohormone may be relevant for metal perception and homeostasis. Ethylene-insensitive alfalfa seedlings preincubated with the ethylene signalling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopronene and Arabidopsis thaliana ein2-5 mutants confirmed that ethylene participates in the early perception of Hg stress. It modulates root growth inhibition, NADPH-oxidase activity and Hg-induced apoplastic H2 O2 accumulation. Therefore, ethylene signalling attenuation could be useful in future phytotechnological applications to ameliorate stress symptoms in Hg-polluted plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. [Tn5037-a Tn21-like mercury transposon, detected in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Kaliaeva, E S; Kholodiĭ, G Ia; Bass, I A; Gorlenko, Zh M; Iur'eva, O V; Nikiforov, V G

    2001-08-01

    The 6645-bp mercury resistance transposon of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned and sequenced. This transposon, named Tn5037, belongs to the Tn21 branch of the Tn21 subgroup, many members of which have been isolated from clinical sources. Having the minimum set of the genes (merRTPA), the mercury resistance operon of Tn5037 is organized similarly to most of the Gram-negative bacteria mer operons and is closest to that of Thiobacillus 3.2. The operator-promoter region of the mer operon of Tn5037 also has the common (Tn21/Tn501-like) structure. However, its inverted, presumably MerR protein binding repeats in the operator/promoter element are two base pairs shorter than in Tn21/Tn501. In the merA region, this transposon shares 77.4, 79.1, 83.2 and 87.8% identical bases with Tn21, Tn501, T. ferrooxidance E-15, and Thiobacillus 3.2, respectively. No inducibility of the Tn5037 mer operon was detected in the in vivo experiments. The transposition system (terminal repeats plus gene tnpA) of Tn5037 was inactive in Escherichia coli K12, in contrast to its resolution system (res site plus gene tnpR). However, transposition of Tn5037 in this host was provided by the tnpA gene of Tn5036, a member of the Tn21 subgroup. Sequence analysis of the Tn5037 res site suggested its recombinant nature.

  4. Detection of mercury-TpT dinucleotide binding by Raman spectra: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Benda, Ladislav; Straka, Michal; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Bouř, Petr; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-08-16

    The Hg(2+) ion stabilizes the thymine-thymine mismatched base pair and provides new ways of creating various DNA structures. Recently, such T-Hg-T binding was detected by the Raman spectroscopy. In this work, detailed differences in vibrational frequencies and Raman intensity patterns in the free TpT dinucleotide and its metal-mediated complex (TpT·Hg)(2) are interpreted on the basis of quantum chemical modeling. The computations verified specific marker Raman bands indicating the effect of mercury binding to DNA. Although the B3LYP functional well-describes the Raman frequencies, a dispersion correction had to be added for all atoms including mercury to obtain realistic geometry of the (TpT·Hg)(2) dimer. Only then, the DFT complex structure agreed with those obtained with the wave function-based MP2 method. The aqueous solvent modeled as a polarizable continuum had a minor effect on the dispersion interaction, but it stabilized conformations of the sugar and phosphate parts. A generalized definition of internal coordinate force field was introduced to monitor covalent bond mechanical strengthening and weakening upon the Hg(2+) binding. Induced vibrational frequency shifts were rationalized in terms of changes in electronic structure. The simulations thus also provided reliable insight into the complex structure and stability.

  5. Ultrasensitive Quantum Dot Fluorescence quenching Assay for Selective Detection of Mercury Ions in Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  6. Ultrasensitive Quantum Dot Fluorescence quenching Assay for Selective Detection of Mercury Ions in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples. PMID:25005836

  7. Ultrasensitive quantum dot fluorescence quenching assay for selective detection of mercury ions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-09

    Mercury is one of the most acutely toxic substances at trace level to human health and living thing. Developing a rapid, cheap and water soluble metal sensor for detecting mercury ions at ppb level remains a challenge. Herein, a metal sensor consisting of MPA coated Mn doped ZnSe/ZnS colloidal nanoparticles was utilized to ultrasensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) ions with a low detection limit (0.1 nM) over a dynamic range from 0 to 20 nM. According to strong interaction between thiol(s) and mercury ions, mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was used as a highly unique acceptor for mercury ions in the as-obtained ultrasensitive sensor. In the presence of mercury ions, colloidal nanoparticles rapidly agglomerated due to changes of surface chemical properties, which results in severe quenching of fluorescent intensity. Meanwhile, we find that the original ligands are separated from the surface of colloidal nanoparticles involving strongly chelation between mercury ion and thiol(s) proved by controlled IR analysis. The result shows that the QD-based metal ions sensor possesses satisfactory precision, high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be applied for the quantification analysis of real samples.

  8. In situ and denuder-based measurements of elemental and reactive gaseous mercury with analysis by laser-induced fluorescence - results from the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Anthony J.; Everhart, Stephanie; Bauer, Dieter; Remeika, James; Tatum Ernest, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The University of Miami (UM) deployed a sequential two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (2P-LIF) instrument for the in situ measurement of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (RAMIX) campaign. A number of extended sampling experiments, typically lasting 6-8 h but on one occasion extending to ˜ 24 h, were conducted, allowing the 2P-LIF measurements of Hg(0) concentrations to be compared with two independently operated instruments using gold amalgamation sampling coupled with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopic (CVAFS) analysis. At the highest temporal resolution, ˜ 5 min samples, the three instruments measured concentrations that agreed to within 10-25 %. Measurements of total mercury (TM) were made by using pyrolysis to convert total oxidized mercury (TOM) to Hg(0). TOM was then obtained by difference. Variability in the ambient Hg(0) concentration limited our sensitivity for measurement of ambient TOM using this approach. In addition, manually sampled KCl-coated annular denuders were deployed and analyzed using thermal dissociation coupled with single-photon LIF detection of Hg(0). The TOM measurements obtained were normally consistent with KCl denuder measurements obtained with two Tekran speciation systems and with the manual KCl denuder measurements but with very large uncertainty. They were typically lower than measurements reported by the University of Washington (UW) Detector for Oxidized Hg Species (DOHGS) system. The ability of the 2P-LIF pyrolysis system to measure TM was demonstrated during one of the manifold HgBr2 spikes but the results did not agree well with those reported by the DOHGS system. The limitations of the RAMIX experiment and potential improvements that should be implemented in any future mercury instrument intercomparison are discussed. We suggest that instrumental artifacts make a substantial contribution to the discrepancies in the reported measurements over the

  9. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have "allergic" symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with mastocytosis, characterized by numerous hyperactive mast cells in most tissues, is 10-fold higher than the general population suggesting mast cell involvement. We, therefore, investigated the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on human mast cell activation. Methods Human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells and normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs) were stimulated by HgCl2 (0.1-10 μM) for either 10 min for beta-hexosaminidase release or 24 hr for measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-6 release by ELISA. Results HgCl2 induced a 2-fold increase in β-hexosaminidase release, and also significant VEGF release at 0.1 and 1 μM (311 ± 32 pg/106 cells and 443 ± 143 pg/106 cells, respectively) from LAD2 mast cells compared to control cells (227 ± 17 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p < 0.05). Addition of HgCl2 (0.1 μM) to the proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP, 0.1 μM) had synergestic action in inducing VEGF from LAD2 mast cells. HgCl2 also stimulated significant VEGF release (360 ± 100 pg/106 cells at 1 μM, n = 5, p < 0.05) from hCBMCs compared to control cells (182 ± 57 pg/106 cells), and IL-6 release (466 ± 57 pg/106 cells at 0.1 μM) compared to untreated cells (13 ± 25 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p < 0.05). Addition of HgCl2 (0.1 μM) to SP (5 μM) further increased IL-6 release. Conclusions HgCl2 stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells. This phenomenon could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. As a result, the findings of the present study provide a biological mechanism for how low levels of mercury may contribute to ASD

  10. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  11. Novel biomarkers of mercury-induced autoimmune dysfunction: a Cross-sectional study in Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Motts, Jonathan A.; Shirley, Devon L.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causing both neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Given its ability to amalgamate gold, mercury is frequently used in small-scale artisanal gold mining. We have previously reported that elevated serum titers of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are associated with mercury exposures of miners in gold mining. The goal of this project was to identify novel serum biomarkers of mercury-induced immunotoxicity and autoimmune dysregulation. We conducted an analysis of serum samples from a cross-sectional epidemiological study on miners working in Amazonian Brazil. In proteomic screening analyses, samples were stratified based on mercury concentrations and ANA titer and a subset of serum samples (N=12) were profiled using Immune Response Biomarker Profiling ProtoArray protein microarray for elevated autoantibodies. Of the up-regulated autoantibodies in the mercury-exposed cohort, potential target autoantibodies were selected based on relevance to pro-inflammatory and macrophage activation pathways. ELISAs were developed to test the entire sample cohort (N=371) for serum titers to the highest of these autoantibodies (anti-glutathione S-transferase alpha, GSTA1) identified in the high mercury/high ANA group. We found positive associations between elevated mercury exposure and up-regulated serum titers of 3760 autoantibodies as identified by ProtoArray. Autoantibodies identified as potential novel biomarkers of mercury-induced immunotoxicity include antibodies to the following proteins: GSTA1, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13, linker for activation of T cells, signal peptide peptidase like 2B, stimulated by retinoic acid 13, and interferon induced transmembrane protein. ELISA analyses confirmed that mercury-exposed gold miners had significantly higher serum titers of anti-GSTA1 autoantibody [unadjusted odds ratio = 89.6; 95% confidence interval: 27.2, 294.6] compared to emerald miners (referent population

  12. A smart nanofibrous material for adsorbing and detecting elemental mercury in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macagnano, Antonella; Perri, Viviana; Zampetti, Emiliano; Bearzotti, Andrea; De Cesare, Fabrizio; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    The combination of the affinity of gold for mercury and nanosized frameworks has allowed for the design and fabrication of novel kinds of sensors with promising sensing features for environmental applications. Specifically, conductive sensors based on composite nanofibrous electrospun layers of titania easily decorated with gold nanoparticles were developed to obtain nanostructured hybrid materials capable of entrapping and revealing gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) traces from the environment. The electrical properties of the resulting chemosensors were measured. A few minutes of air sampling were sufficient to detect the concentration of mercury in the air, ranging between 20 and 100 ppb, without using traps or gas carriers (LOD: 1.5 ppb). Longer measurements allowed the sensor to detect lower concentrations of GEM. The resulting chemosensors are expected to be low cost and very stable (due to the peculiar structure), requiring low power, low maintenance, and simple equipment.

  13. Dual-channel detection of metallothioneins and mercury based on a mercury-mediated aptamer beacon using thymidine-mercury-thymidine complex as a quencher.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Han; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Yan-Qin

    2015-01-01

    A novel dual-channel strategy for the detection of metallothioneins (MTs) and Hg(2+) has been developed based on a mercury-mediated aptamer beacon (MAB) using thymidine-mercury-thymidine complex as a quencher for the first time. In the presence of Hg(2+), the T-rich oligonucleotide with a 6-carboxyfluorescein (TRO-FAM) can form an aptamer beacon via the formation of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs, which results in a fluorescence quenching of the sensing system owing to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the fluorophore of FAM to the terminated T-Hg(2+)-T base pair. The addition of MTs into this solution leads to the disruption of the T-Hg(2+)-T complex, resulting in an increase of the fluorescent signal of the system. In the optimizing condition, ΔF was directly proportional to the concentrations ranging from 5.63 nM to 0.275 μM for MTs, and 14.2 nM to 0.30 μM for Hg(2+) with the detection limits of 1.69 nM and 4.28 nM, respectively. The proposed dual-channel method avoids the label steps of a quencher in common molecular beacon strategies, without tedious procedure or the requirement of sophisticated equipment, and is rapid, inexpensive and sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rice from mercury contaminated areas in Guizhou Province induces c-jun expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Ping; Wang, Wen-Hua; Qu, Li-Ya; Jia, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Min; Ji, Xiu-Ling; Yuan, Tao

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg), as one of the priority pollutants and also a hot topic of frontier environmental research in many countries, has been paid higher attention in the world since the middle of the last century. Guizhou Province (at N24 degrees 30'-29 degrees 13', E103 degrees 1'-109 degrees 30', 1 100 m above the sea level, with subtropical humid climate) in southwest China is an important mercury production center. It has been found that the mercury content in most media of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and in biomass of corns, plants and animals, is higher than the national standard. The present study aims to explore the influence of mercury pollution on the health of local citizens. The effect of rice from two mercury polluted experimental plots of Guizhou Province on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat brain and c-jun protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma was observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury polluted rice induced expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein significantly. Selenium can reduce Hg uptake, an antagonism between selenium and mercury on the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-jun protein. c-jun participates in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted rice, the expression of c-jun mRNA in brain, and c-jun protein in rat cortex and hippocampus can predict neurotoxicity of mercury polluted rice. People should be advised to be cautious in eating any kind of Hg-polluted foods. To reveal the relationship between c-jun induction and apoptosis, further examinations are required.

  15. Detection of toxic mercury ions using a ratiometric CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal sensor.

    PubMed

    Page, Leah E; Zhang, Xi; Jawaid, Ali M; Snee, Preston T

    2011-07-21

    We have developed a strategy for the ratiometric detection of toxic Hg(2+) ions using a semiconductor nanocrystal energy-transfer donor coupled to a mercury-sensitive "turn-on" dye acceptor. The results demonstrate a new paradigm of toxic metal sensing that resolves the difficulties with the use of semiconductor nanotechnology for this purpose.

  16. Protective effects of propolis on inorganic mercury induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Quan; Wen, Yi-Fei; Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Sharma, Abhilasha; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Shukla, Sangeeta; Agrawal, Om Prakash; Mathur, Ramesh

    2009-04-01

    Protective potential of propolis was evaluated against mercury induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic alterations in mice liver. Exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 5 mg/kg; ip) induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level along with concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes. Mercury intoxication deviated the activity of liver marker enzymes in serum. Conjoint treatment of propolis (200 mg/kg; po) inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level, whereas increased glutathione level. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also restored concomitantly towards control after propolis administration. Release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and y-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly restored towards control after propolis treatment. Results suggest that propolis augments the antioxidants defense against mercury induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepatoprotective agent.

  17. Is the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea a valuable model for evaluating mercury induced oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N R; Nunes, M E M; Silva, D G C; Zemolin, A P P; Meinerz, D F; Cruz, L C; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2013-08-01

    Organic and inorganic forms of mercury are highly neurotoxic environmental contaminants. The exact mechanisms involved in mercury neurotoxicity are still unclear. Oxidative stress appears to play central role in this process. In this study, we aimed to validate an insect-based model for the investigation of oxidative stress during mercury poisoning of lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. The advantages of using insects in basic toxicological studies include the easier handling, rapid proliferation/growing and absence of ethical issues, comparing to rodent-based models. Insects received solutions of HgCl2 (10, 20 and 40mgL(-1) in drinking water) for 7d. 24h after mercury exposure, animals were euthanized and head tissue samples were prepared for oxidative stress related biochemical determinations. Mercury exposure caused a concentration dependent decrease in survival rate. Cholinesterase activity was unchanged. Catalase activity was substantially impaired after mercury treatment 40mgL(-1). Likewise, GST had a significant decrease, comparing to control. Peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity was inhibited at concentrations of 20mgL(-1) and 40mgL(-1) comparing to control. These results were accompanied by decreased GSH levels and increased hydroperoxide and TBARS formation. In conclusion, our results show that mercuric compounds are able to induce oxidative stress signs in insect by modulating survival rate as well as inducing impairments on important antioxidant systems. In addition, our data demonstrates for the first time that Nauphoeta cinerea represents an interesting animal model to investigate mercury toxicity and indicates that the GSH and thioredoxin antioxidant systems plays central role in Hg induced toxicity in insects.

  18. Detecting cavitation in mercury exposed to a high-energy pulsed proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Manzi, Nicholas J; Chitnis, Parag V; Holt, Ray G; Roy, Ronald A; Cleveland, Robin O; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source employs a high-energy pulsed proton beam incident on a mercury target to generate short bursts of neutrons. Absorption of the proton beam produces rapid heating of the mercury, resulting in the formation of acoustic shock waves and the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. The subsequent collapse of these cavitation bubbles promote erosion of the steel target walls. Preliminary measurements using two passive cavitation detectors (megahertz-frequency focused and unfocused piezoelectric transducers) installed in a mercury test target to monitor cavitation generated by proton beams with charges ranging from 0.041 to 4.1 C will be reported on. Cavitation was initially detected for a beam charge of 0.082 C by the presence of an acoustic emission approximately 250 s after arrival of the incident proton beam. This emission was consistent with an inertial cavitation collapse of a bubble with an estimated maximum bubble radius of 0.19 mm, based on collapse time. The peak pressure in the mercury for the initiation of cavitation was predicted to be 0.6 MPa. For a beam charge of 0.41 C and higher, the lifetimes of the bubbles exceeded the reverberation time of the chamber (~300 s), and distinct windows of cavitation activity were detected, a phenomenon that likely resulted from the interaction of the reverberation in the chamber and the cavitation bubbles.

  19. Detecting cavitation in mercury exposed to a high-energy pulsed proton beam.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Nicholas J; Chitnis, Parag V; Holt, R Glynn; Roy, Ronald A; Cleveland, Robin O; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source employs a high-energy pulsed proton beam incident on a mercury target to generate short bursts of neutrons. Absorption of the proton beam produces rapid heating of the mercury, resulting in the formation of acoustic shock waves and the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. The subsequent collapse of these cavitation bubbles promote erosion of the steel target walls. Preliminary measurements using two passive cavitation detectors (megahertz-frequency focused and unfocused piezoelectric transducers) installed in a mercury test target to monitor cavitation generated by proton beams with charges ranging from 0.041 to 4.1 muC will be reported on. Cavitation was initially detected for a beam charge of 0.082 muC by the presence of an acoustic emission approximately 250 mus after arrival of the incident proton beam. This emission was consistent with an inertial cavitation collapse of a bubble with an estimated maximum bubble radius of 0.19 mm, based on collapse time. The peak pressure in the mercury for the initiation of cavitation was predicted to be 0.6 MPa. For a beam charge of 0.41 muC and higher, the lifetimes of the bubbles exceeded the reverberation time of the chamber ( approximately 300 mus), and distinct windows of cavitation activity were detected, a phenomenon that likely resulted from the interaction of the reverberation in the chamber and the cavitation bubbles.

  20. Direct determination of mercury in white vinegar by matrix assisted photochemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyang

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes the use of photochemical vapor generation with acetic acid as sample introduction for the direct determination of ultra-trace mercury in white vinegars by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under ultraviolet irradiation, the sample matrix (acetic acid) can reduce mercury ion to atomic mercury Hg 0, which is swept by argon gas into an atomic fluorescence spectrometer for subsequent analytical measurements. The effects of several factors such as the concentration of acetic acid, irradiation time, the flow rate of the carrier gas and matrix effects were discussed and optimized to give detection limits of 0.08 ng mL -1 for mercury. Using the experimental conditions established during the optimization (3% v/v acetic acid, 30 s irradiation time and 20 W mercury lamp), the precision levels, expressed as relative standard deviation, were 4.6% (one day) and 7.8% (inter-day) for mercury ( n = 9). Addition/recovery tests for evaluation of the accuracy were in the range of 92-98% for mercury. The method was also validated by analysis of vinegar samples without detectable amount of Hg spiked with aqueous standard reference materials (GBW(E) 080392 and GBW(E) 080393). The results were also compared with those obtained by acid digestion procedure and determination of mercury by ICP-MS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  1. Detection and spatial mapping of mercury contamination in water samples using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingshan; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Feng, Steve; Yan, Eddie; Ki, So Jung; Caire, Romain; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-02-25

    Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs <40 g, we quantified mercury(II) ion concentration in water samples by using a two-color ratiometric method employing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 523 and 625 nm, where a custom-developed smart application was utilized to process each acquired transmission image on the same phone to achieve a limit of detection of ∼ 3.5 ppb. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we generated a mercury contamination map by measuring water samples at over 50 locations in California (USA), taken from city tap water sources, rivers, lakes, and beaches. With its cost-effective design, field-portability, and wireless data connectivity, this sensitive and specific heavy metal detection platform running on cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time.

  2. Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs <40 g, we quantified mercury(II) ion concentration in water samples by using a two-color ratiometric method employing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 523 and 625 nm, where a custom-developed smart application was utilized to process each acquired transmission image on the same phone to achieve a limit of detection of ∼3.5 ppb. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we generated a mercury contamination map by measuring water samples at over 50 locations in California (USA), taken from city tap water sources, rivers, lakes, and beaches. With its cost-effective design, field-portability, and wireless data connectivity, this sensitive and specific heavy metal detection platform running on cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time. PMID:24437470

  3. "Off-On"switching electrochemiluminescence biosensor for mercury(II) detection based on molecular recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wei, BingGuo; He, Ling Ling; Mao, Ling; Zhang, Jie; Ceng, JinXiang; Kong, DeRong; Chen, ChaDan; Cui, HanFeng; Hong, Nian; Fan, Hao

    2017-02-01

    A novel "off-On" electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been developed for the detection of mercury(II) based on molecular recognition technology. The ECL mercury(II) biosensor comprises two main parts: an ECL substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Ruthenium(II) tris-(bipyridine)(Ru(bpy)3(2+))/Cyclodextrins-Au nanoparticles(CD-AuNps)/Nafion on the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE), and the ECL intensity switch is the single hairpin DNA probe designed according to the "molecular recognition" strategy which was functionalized with ferrocene tag at one end and attached to Cyclodextrins (CD) on modified GCE through supramolecular noncovalent interaction. We demonstrated that, in the absence of Hg(II) ion, the probe keeps single hairpin structure and resulted in a quenching of ECL of Ru(bpy)3(2+). Whereas, in the presence of Hg(II) ion, the probe prefers to form the T-Hg(II)-T complex and lead to an obvious recovery of ECL of Ru(bpy)3(2+), which provided a sensing platform for the detection of Hg(II) ion. Using this sensing platform, a simple, rapid and selective "off-On" ECL biosensor for the detection of mercury(II) with a detection limit of 0.1 nM has been developed.

  4. SUNLIGHT AND IRON(III)-INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVED GASEOUS MERCURY IN FRESHWATER. (R827632)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic understanding of sunlight-induced natural processes for
    production of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in freshwaters has remained
    limited, and few direct field tests of the mechanistic hypotheses are available.
    We exposed ferric iron salt-spiked fresh s...

  5. SUNLIGHT AND IRON(III)-INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVED GASEOUS MERCURY IN FRESHWATER. (R827632)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic understanding of sunlight-induced natural processes for
    production of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in freshwaters has remained
    limited, and few direct field tests of the mechanistic hypotheses are available.
    We exposed ferric iron salt-spiked fresh s...

  6. Rapid methods to detect organic mercury and total selenium in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of concern and selenium is believed to afford protection against mercury risk though few approaches exist to rapidly assess both chemicals in biological samples. Here, micro-scale and rapid methods to detect organic mercury (< 1.5 ml total sample volume, < 1.5 hour) and total selenium (Se; < 3.0 ml total volume, < 3 hour) from a range of biological samples (10-50 mg) are described. Results For organic Hg, samples are digested using Tris-HCl buffer (with sequential additions of protease, NaOH, cysteine, CuSO4, acidic NaBr) followed by extraction with toluene and Na2S2O3. The final product is analyzed via commercially available direct/total mercury analyzers. For Se, a fluorometric assay has been developed for microplate readers that involves digestion (HNO3-HClO4 and HCl), conjugation (2,3-diaminonaphthalene), and cyclohexane extraction. Recovery of organic Hg (86-107%) and Se (85-121%) were determined through use of Standard Reference Materials and lemon shark kidney tissues. Conclusions The approaches outlined provide an easy, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective platform for monitoring organic Hg and total Se in biological samples. Owing to the importance of organic Hg and Se in the pathophysiology of Hg, integration of such methods into established research monitoring efforts (that largely focus on screening total Hg only) will help increase understanding of Hg's true risks. PMID:21232132

  7. Target-induced structure-switching DNA hairpins for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of mercury (II).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junyang; Fu, Libing; Tang, Dianping; Xu, Mingdi; Chen, Guonan; Yang, Huanghao

    2013-01-15

    A simple, sensitive and reusable electrochemical sensor was designed for determination of mercury (II) (Hg(2+)) by coupling target-induced conformational switch of DNA hairpins with thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry. The hairpin probe consisted of a stem of 6 base pairs enclosing a 14 nucleotide (nt) loop and an additional 12 nt sticky end at the 3' end. Each hairpin was labeled with ferrocene (Fc) redox tag in the middle of the loop, which was immobilized on the electrode via self-assembly of the terminal thiol moiety at the 5' end. In the presence of target analyte, Hg(2+)-mediated base pairs induced the conformational change from the sticky end to open the hairpins, resulting in the ferrocene tags close to the electrode for the increasing redox current. The strong coordination reaction of T-Hg(2+)-T resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 10%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 5.0nM to 1.0μM Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 2.5nM at the 3s(blank) level. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions. Inspiringly, the developed sensor could be reused by introduction of iodide (I(-)).

  8. The Fluorescence Enhancement of Mercury Detected in Food Based on Rhodamine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cai-ling; Xie, Pu-hui; Cui, Shu-min; Yang, Li-na; Sun, Qing; Ai, Zhi-lu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the problem of food security is more and more serious, and people pay attention to mercury because of the toxic of it. A new approach for the determination of mercury content in foodstuff is devised. In this paper, first, we design and synthesis a new kind of fluorescent probe whose matrix based on rhodamine B, hydrazine hydrate and hydroxy benzaldehyde. Through the analysis of H-NMR spectra of the synthesized product L1, we confirm that the synthetic substance is the adjacent carboxyl benzaldehyde hydrazone structure generation of rhodamine B. Then, we measure the fluorescence signal intensity of the probe with different concentrations of mercury ions fully upon complexation by fluorescence spectrometer and we can study the relationship between the mercury ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity and draw the standard working curve. Following, It's time to discuss the microwave digestion processing of tea, after digestion we use the synthetic probe Li for determination of mercury content in tea. The experimental results show that the maximum excitation wavelength of the probe and coordination compound are 568. 05 and 560. 00 nm, the maximum emission wavelength are 587. 94 and 580. 00 nm. Then we can find the best testing conditions to improve the degree of accuracy, that is: room temperature, 50% the methanol solution, 3. 0 mL pH 4. 0 buffer solution, in the extent of 30 min. The experimental results show that Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+ have little impact on the fluorescence intensity of the:probe. Fe3+, Mg2+, Ba2+ has a weak enhancement to the fluorescence intensity of the probe. While a low concentrations of Hg2+ have an obviously enhanced effect on the fluorescence intensity of the probe. In contrast to other metal ions, the probe for Hg2+ has a good selectivity. Linear relationship between the magnitude of increase in fluorescence intensity and concentration of mercury ion was in the range of 5~20 ng . L-1 with detection limit (3S/N) of

  9. Old tree with new shoots: silver nanoparticles for label-free and colorimetric mercury ions detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuyan; Jia, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Mercury in the environment from global mercury emissions as well as various forms of contamination poses severe threats to both human health and the environment. Long-term exposure to high levels of Hg-based toxins results in serious and irreversible damage of the central nervous system and other organs. Therefore, the development of effective sensing systems for mercury detection becomes an increasing demand. In this article, a yogurt-mediated silver nanostructure is reported to be unprecedentedly used in the naked-eye and label-free detection of mercury. The method relies on the redox reaction resulting from the electrode potential difference between Ag+/Ag (0.7996 V) and Hg2+/Hg2 2+ (0.920 V) that makes colorless Hg2+ ions which oxidize colored silver nanoparticle (AgNP) to colorless Ag+. The labor-intensive modification of AgNPs and expensive labeling are avoided, and the traditional AuNPs are substituted by AgNPs in this Hg2+ ions sensing platform, which makes it facile, low-cost, and particularly useful for home, clinic, or field applications as well as resource-limited conditions. This sensing system achieves a detection limit as low as 10 nM, lower than the toxicity level of Hg2+ ions in drinking water (30 nM) defined by World Health Organization, and exhibits excellent selectivity, largely free from the matrix effect of the real water samples. This visual label-free Hg2+ ions sensing motif shows great promise for sensing Hg2+ ions in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, cost, and maneuverability. It is also a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials, which may trigger interest in furthering biosystems for environmental science applications.

  10. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-07-29

    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world's attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg(2+) ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species.

  11. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world’s attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg2+ ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species. PMID:27483277

  12. A test strip platform based on DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles for on-site detection of mercury (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Duan, Jing; Yang, Fei; Li, Min; Hao, Tingting; Wang, Sui; Wei, Danyi

    2012-05-15

    A test strip, based on DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles for Hg(2+) detection, has been developed, optimized and validated. The developed colorimetric mercury sensor system exhibited a highly sensitive and selective response to mercury. The measurement principle is based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry and streptavidin-biotin interaction. A biotin-labeled and thiolated DNA was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) surface through a self-assembling method. Another thymine-rich DNA, which was introduced to form DNA duplexes on the AuNPs surface with thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination in the presence of Hg(2+), was immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane as the test zone. When Hg(2+) ions were introduced into this system, they induced the two strands of DNA to intertwist by forming T-Hg(2+)-T bonds resulting in a red line at the test zone. The biotin-labeled and thiolated DNA-functionalized AuNPs could be captured by streptavidin which was immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane as the control zone. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit for Hg(2+) was 3 nM, which is lower than the 10nM, maximum contaminant limit defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water. A parallel analysis of Hg(2+) in pool water samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. Therefore, the results obtained in this study could be used as basic research for the development of Hg(2+) detection, and the method developed could be a potential on-site screening tool for the rapid detection of Hg(2+) in different water samples without special instrumentation. All experimental variables that influence the test strip response were optimized and reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury exposure induces proinflammatory enzymes in vascular fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Millán Longo, Alberto; Montero Saiz, Óscar; Sarró Fuente, Claudia; Aguado Martínez, Andrea; Salaices Sánchez, Mercedes

    2017-09-18

    Previous studies show that mercury exposure increases cardiovascular risk, although the underlying cellular mechanisms have still not been fully studied. The aim of this project is to study, in vascular fibroblasts (VF), the effect of HgCl2 exposure on the expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules have been shown to participate in the inflammatory response associated with cardiovascular diseases. Adventitial VF cultures of Sprague-Dawley rat aortas, shown to be α-actin negative by immunofluorescence, were exposed to HgCl2 (0.05-5μg/mL) for 48h. mRNA and protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1), thromboxane A2 synthase (TXAS), NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1), and 4 (NOX-4) where analyzed using qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. NOX activity was determined by chemiluminescence. HgCl2 exposure increased COX-2, mPGES-1, TXAS, and NOX-1 expression and NOX activity, and decreased NOX-4 expression. The increase in NOX-1 and COX-2 expression was abolished by the treatment with inhibitors of COX-2 (10μM celecoxib) and NOX (300μM apocynin, 0.5μM ML-171). 1) HgCl2 increases the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes involved in ROS and prostanoid synthesis in VF. 2) There is a reciprocal regulation between COX-2 and NOX-1 pathways. 3) These effects can contribute to explain the increase in cardiovascular risk associated to mercury. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmonic detection of mercury via amalgam formation on surface-immobilized single Au nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, Carola; Martín, Alfonso; Iacopino, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Au nanorods were used as plasmonic transducers for investigation of mercury detection through a mechanism of amalgam formation at the nanorod surfaces. Marked scattering color transitions and associated blue shifts of the surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths (λ max) were measured in individual nanorods by darkfield microscopy upon chemical reduction of Hg(II). Such changes were related to compositional changes occurring as a result of Hg–Au amalgam formation as well as morphological changes in the nanorods’ aspect ratios. The plot of λ max shifts vs. Hg(II) concentration showed a linear response in the 10–100 nM concentration range. The sensitivity of the system was ascribed to the narrow width of single nanorod scattering spectra, which allowed accurate determination of peak shifts. The system displayed good selectivity as the optical response obtained for mercury was one order of magnitude higher than the response obtained with competitor ions. Analysis of mercury content in river and tap water were also performed and highlighted both the potential and limitation of the developed method for real sensing applications. PMID:28179959

  15. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  16. Optimization of a miniaturized DBD plasma chip for mercury detection in water samples.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majeed, Wameath S; Parada, Jaime H Lozano; Zimmerman, William B

    2011-11-01

    In this work, an optimization study was conducted to investigate the performance of a custom-designed miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma chip to be utilized as a radiation source for mercury determination in water samples. The experimental work was implemented by using experimental design, and the results were assessed by applying statistical techniques. The proposed DBD chip was designed and fabricated in a simple way by using a few microscope glass slides aligned together and held by a Perspex chip holder, which proved useful for miniaturization purposes. Argon gas at 75-180 mL/min was used in the experiments as a discharge gas, while AC power in the range 75-175 W at 38 kHz was supplied to the load from a custom-made power source. A UV-visible spectrometer was used, and the spectroscopic parameters were optimized thoroughly and applied in the later analysis. Plasma characteristics were determined theoretically by analysing the recorded spectroscopic data. The estimated electron temperature (T(e) = 0.849 eV) was found to be higher than the excitation temperature (T(exc) = 0.55 eV) and the rotational temperature (T(rot) = 0.064 eV), which indicates non-thermal plasma is generated in the proposed chip. Mercury cold vapour generation experiments were conducted according to experimental plan by examining four parameters (HCl and SnCl(2) concentrations, argon flow rate, and the applied power) and considering the recorded intensity for the mercury line (253.65 nm) as the objective function. Furthermore, an optimization technique and statistical approaches were applied to investigate the individual and interaction effects of the tested parameters on the system performance. The calculated analytical figures of merit (LOD = 2.8 μg/L and RSD = 3.5%) indicates a reasonable precision system to be adopted as a basis for a miniaturized portable device for mercury detection in water samples.

  17. Mercury-induced genotoxicity in marine diatom (Chaetoceros tenuissimus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Desai, Somashekhar R; Verlecar, Xivanand N; Sarker, Munmun Saha; Sarkar, A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of genotoxic responses in marine diatom, Chaetoceros tenuissimus, isolated from Kandla Creek (lat 23.03° N, long 70.22° E), Gujarat, India, in terms of impairment of DNA integrity as a function of their exposure to elevated levels of mercury (Hg) under laboratory conditions. DNA integrity in C. tenuissimus was determined by partial alkaline unwinding assay. To our knowledge, this is the first such genotoxicity study to be conducted on marine diatom cultures towards understanding the relationship between Hg toxicity and DNA damage. Furthermore, we studied the impact of Hg on the growth of C. tenuissimus as a function of their exposure to enhanced levels of Hg in terms of decreasing chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations. The data show the genotoxic effect of Hg on the growth of C. tenuissimus as well as DNA integrity to a great extent. Based on the results of our investigations, it is suggested that C. tenuissimus can be used as sentinel species for bio-monitoring of pollution due to genotoxic contaminants.

  18. Mercury-induced biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Quynh Nguyeh, Thi Thuy; Hsiung, Yu-Chywan; Chia, Li-Chiao; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threats to the planet. Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated cellular, biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots under Hg stress. Root growth rate was decreased and Hg, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase activity were increased significantly with increasing Hg concentration in roots. We revealed a time-dependent alteration in total glutathione content and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during Hg stress. 2-D electrophoresis revealed differential expression of 25 spots with Hg treatment of roots: 14 spots were upregulated and 11 spots downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-MS/MS to be involved in cellular functions including redox and hormone homeostasis, chaperone activity, metabolism, and transcription regulation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Hg stress response in plants.

  19. Determination of methyl mercury by aqueous phase Eehylation, followed by gas chromatographic separation with cold vapor atomic fluorescence detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Wild, John F.; Olsen, Mark L.; Olund, Shane D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent national sampling of streams in the United States revealed low methyl mercury concentrations in surface waters. The resulting median and mean concentrations, calculated from 104 samples, were 0.06 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and 0.15 ng/L, respectively. This level of methyl mercury in surface water in the United States has created a need for analytical techniques capable of detecting sub-nanogram per liter concentrations. In an attempt to create a U.S. Geological Survey approved method, the Wisconsin District Mercury Laboratory has adapted a distillation/ethylation/ gas-phase separation method with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy detection for the determination of methyl mercury in filtered and unfiltered waters. This method is described in this report. Based on multiple analyses of surface water and ground-water samples, a method detection limit of 0.04 ng/L was established. Precision and accuracy were evaluated for the method using both spiked and unspiked ground-water and surface-water samples. The percent relative standard deviations ranged from 10.2 to 15.6 for all analyses at all concentrations. Average recoveries obtained for the spiked matrices ranged from 88.8 to 117 percent. The precision and accuracy ranges are within the acceptable method-performance limits. Considering the demonstrated detection limit, precision, and accuracy, the method is an effective means to quantify methyl mercury in waters at or below environmentally relevant concentrations

  20. Mercurial induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical complex in relation to reproduction in the teleostean fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.N.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-09-01

    Although extensive work has been done on neurotoxic, teratologic and genetic effects of mercurials in a variety of animals including man, very little is known about their impacts on the neuroendocrine physiology of reproduction. The available investigations largely pertain to mammals. However, reports on the toxic effects of longterm exposure to mercury compounds on physiology of reproduction are meagre in fish. In the present communication, inorganic mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) and organic mercurial fungicide (Emisan) induced changes in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysical system in relation to reproduction of C. punctatus are described after chronic exposure for 6 months.

  1. Egg white-derived peptides prevent male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; da Silva, Taiz Martins; Uranga-Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress in known to contribute to the male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury (Hg). Our study tested the hypothesis that the egg white hydrolysate (EWH), a potent antioxidant in vitro, is able to prevent the effects of prolonged Hg exposure on male reproductive system in rats. For this, rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Untreated - saline solution (i.m.); b) Hydrolysate - EWH (1 g/kg/day, gavage); c) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6 μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 μg/kg/day, i.m.); d) Hydrolysate-Mercury. At the end of the treatment, sperm motility, count and morphological studies were performed; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, histological and immunohistochemical assays on testis and epididymis were also carried out. As results, HgCl2-treatment decreased sperm number, increased sperm transit time in epididymis and impaired sperm morphology. However, these harmful effects were prevented by EWH. HgCl2-treatment also increased ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in testis and epididymis as well as promoted testicular inflammation and histological changes in epididymis. EWH improved histological and immunohistochemical alterations, probably due to its antioxidant property. In conclusion, the EWH could represent a powerful natural alternative to protect the male reproductive system against Hg-induced sperm toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury induced community tolerance in microbial biofilms is related to pollution gradients in a long-term polluted river.

    PubMed

    Kovac Virsek, Manca; Hubad, Barbara; Lapanje, Ales

    2013-11-15

    The net toxicity of different forms of mercury, in the long-term during their transformation processes, leads to the selection of resistant bacterial cells and this result in community tolerance which is pollution induced. Accordingly, based on profiles of a bacterial community structure, analysis of Hg resistant culturable bacteria and quantification of merA genes, we assessed development of pollution induced community tolerance in a mercury-polluted gradient in the Idrijca River. TTGE analysis did not show effects of mercury pollution to bacterial community diversity, while quantification of merA genes showed that merA genes can be correlated precisely (R(2)=0.83) with the total concentration of mercury in the biofilm microbial communities in the pollution gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of soil mercury and radon gas surveys to assist the detection of concealed faults in Fuzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangcai; Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Wuzhou; Zhang, Peiren

    2006-10-01

    Soil gas approaches have been proven useful for detecting buried faults in field survey. How about their applicability in urban area? A trial soil gas survey has been conducted in an attempt to evaluate this in Fuzhou City, Southeastern China. The detection was performed by measuring the adsorbed mercury, free mercury and radon gases in soil in the sites such as crop soil, refilled soil and those with shallow groundwater levels. The resulting distributions show that anomalous concentrations of soil gases over faults are generally two to four times as much as those in the surrounding areas. The locations of peak values of absorbed and free mercury could possibly be applied to assist to determine the trend of faults. The background values of free mercury seems to be more stable and the anomalous zones narrower than those of radon gas, therefore, the free mercury method seems to be good for detection at this area, especially in those sites with shallow groundwater levels. The false gas anomalies may occur in such a site as refilled with external soil, refilled pond and abandoned construction bases.

  4. Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of bioaccumulation of methyl-mercury in fish samples via Ag⁰/Hg⁰ amalgamation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Li, Yan; Yan, Xiuping; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Cheng; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Shaojun; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-02-17

    Methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)), the common organic source of mercury, is well-known as one of the most toxic compounds that is more toxic than inorganic or elemental mercury. In seabeds, the deposited Hg(2+) ions are converted into CH3Hg(+) by bacteria, where they are subsequently consumed and bioaccumulated in the tissue of fish, and finally, to enter the human diet, causing severe health problems. Therefore, sensitive and selective detection of bioaccumulation of CH3Hg(+) in fish samples is desirable. However, selective assay of CH3Hg(+) in the mercury-containing samples has been seriously hampered by the difficulty to distinguish CH3Hg(+) from ionic mercury. We report here that metal amalgamation, a natural phenomenon occurring between mercury atoms and certain metal atoms, combining with DNA-protected silver nanoparticles, can be used to detect CH3Hg(+) with high sensitivity and superior selectivity over Hg(2+) and other heavy metals. In our proposed approach, discrimination between CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) ions was realized by forming Ag/Hg amalgam with a CH3Hg(+)-specific scaffold. We have found that Ag/Hg amalgam can be formed on a CH3Hg(+)-specific DNA template between silver atoms and mercury atoms but cannot between silver atoms and CH3Hg(+). With a dye-labeled DNA strand, the sensor can detect CH3Hg(+) down to the picomolar level, which is >125-fold sensitive over Hg(2+). Moreover, the presence of 50-fold Hg(2+) and 10(6)-fold other metal ions do not interfere with the CH3Hg(+) detection. The results shown herein have important implications for the fast, easy, and selective detection and monitoring of CH3Hg(+) in environmental and biological samples.

  5. Exploiting the higher specificity of silver amalgamation: selective detection of mercury(II) by forming Ag/Hg amalgam.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Ouyang, Xiangyuan; Jin, Jianyu; Ma, Cheng; Jiang, Ying; Zheng, Jing; Li, Jishan; Li, Yinhui; Tan, Weihong; Yang, Ronghua

    2013-09-17

    Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and the environment. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of mercury, this article demonstrates, for the first time, that silver/mercury amalgamation, combining with DNA-protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), can be used for rapid, easy and reliable screening of Hg(2+) ions with high sensitivity and selectivity over competing analytes. In our proposed approach, Hg(2+) detection is achieved by reducing the mercury species to elemental mercury, silver atoms were chosen as the mercury atoms' acceptors by forming Ag/Hg amalgam. To signal fluorescently this silver amalgamation event, a FAM-labeled ssDNA was employed as the signal reporter. AgNPs were grown on the DNA strand that resulted in greatly quenching the FAM fluorescence. Formation of Ag/Hg amalgam suppresses AgNPs growth on the DNA, leading to fluorescence signal increase relative to the fluorescence without Hg(2+) ions, as well as marked by fluorescence quenching. This FAM fluorescence enhancement can be used for detection of Hg(2+) at the a few nanomolar level. Moreover, due to excellent specificity of silver amalgamation with mercury, the sensing system is highly selective for Hg(2+) and does not respond to other metal ions with up to millimolar concentration levels. This sensor is successfully applied to determination of Hg(2+) in tap water, spring water and river water samples. The results shown herein have important implications in the development of new fluorescent sensors for the fast, easy, and selective detection and quantification of Hg(2+) in environmental and biological samples.

  6. Electron transport in mercury vapor: magnetic field effects, dimer induced NDC and multi-term analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Zoran; Miric, Jasmina; Simonovic, Ilija; Dujko, Sasa

    2016-09-01

    A multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulation technique are used to investigate electron transport in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields in mercury vapor. Using different sets of cross sections for electron scattering in mercury as an input in our Boltzmann and Monte Carlo codes, we have calculated data for electron transport as a function of reduced electric and magnetic fields. A multitude of kinetic phenomena in electron transport has been observed and discussed using physical arguments. In particular, we discuss two important phenomena: (1) for certain values of electric and magnetic field, we find regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field, and (2) the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) for higher pressures and temperatures. In particular, NDC is induced by the presence of mercury dimers. The measured drift velocities agree very well with our Monte Carlo results only if the superelastic collisions are included in our calculations. Spatially-resolved electron transport properties are calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique in order to understand these phenomena.

  7. Detection of neutral sodium above Mercury during the transit on 2003 May 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, H.; Wiedemann, G.; Wöhl, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Soltau, D.

    2004-10-01

    The extent of the exosphere of Mercury above the planet's limb could for the first time be observed by detecting an excess absorption in the solar sodium line D_2 during the transit of Mercury across the solar disk on 2003 May 7. The observations were performed with a 2d Fabry-Perot spectrograph of the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Izaña, Tenerife. The absorption excess, blue-shifted by 13 pm relative to the solar line, is mainly concentrated near the polar regions. There, the absorption excess can be traced up to ≈700 km above the limb. Between the two polar regions, along the eastern limb, a weaker absorption excess can be seen. A possible streamer-like feature stretches more than 2000 km above the northern region. Assuming the density to decrease exponentially with height, we derive for the polar maxima vertical column densities of 3 × 1010 cm-2, volume densities at the surface of 2.5 × 103 cm-3, and a density scale height of 150 km.

  8. Mercury's Time-Averaged and Induced Magnetic Fields from MESSENGER Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Purucker, M. E.; Korth, H.; Al Asad, M. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Baker, D. N.; Hauck, S. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Observations from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) have allowed the construction of a baseline, time-averaged model for Mercury's magnetosphere. The model, constructed with the approximation that the magnetospheric shape can be represented as a paraboloid, includes two external (magnetopause and magnetotail) current systems and an internal (dipole) field. We take advantage of the geometry of the orbital MAG data to constrain all but one of the model parameters, and their ranges, directly from the observations. These parameters are then used as a priori constraints in the magnetospheric model, and the remaining parameter, the dipole moment, is estimated from a grid search. The model provides an excellent fit to the MAG observations, with a root-mean-square misfit of less than 20 nT globally. The mean distance from the planetary dipole origin to the magnetopause subsolar point, RSS, is 1.45 RM (where RM = 2440 km) and the mean planetary dipole moment is 190 nT- RM3. Temporal variations in the global-scale magnetic fields result from changes in solar wind ram pressure, Pram, at Mercury that arise from the planet's 88-day eccentric orbit around the Sun and from transient, rapid changes in solar wind conditions. For a constant planetary dipole moment, RSS varies as Pram-1/6. However, magnetopause crossings obtained from several Mercury years of MESSENGER observations indicate that RSS is proportional to Pram-1/a where a is greater than 6, suggesting induction in Mercury's highly conducting metallic interior. We obtain an effective dipole moment that varies by up to ˜15% about its mean value. We further investigate the periodic 88-day induction signature and use the paraboloid model to describe the spatial structure in the inducing magnetopause field, together with estimates for the outer radius of Mercury's liquid core and possible overlying solid iron sulfide layer, to calculate induced core fields. The baseline magnetospheric model is adapted to include the 88-day

  9. LP/LIF STUDY OF THE FORMATION AND CONSUMPTION OF MERCURY (I) CHLORIDE: KINETICS OF MERCURY CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser photolysis/laser induced flourescence (LP/LIF) technique has been applied to studies of gas-phase mercury (Hg) chlorination. Mercury (I) chloride (HgCl) has been detected via LIF at 272 nm from reactions of elemental Hg and Cl atoms generated from the 193 nm photolysis ...

  10. LP/LIF STUDY OF THE FORMATION AND CONSUMPTION OF MERCURY (I) CHLORIDE: KINETICS OF MERCURY CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser photolysis/laser induced flourescence (LP/LIF) technique has been applied to studies of gas-phase mercury (Hg) chlorination. Mercury (I) chloride (HgCl) has been detected via LIF at 272 nm from reactions of elemental Hg and Cl atoms generated from the 193 nm photolysis ...

  11. Heavy metal chelator TPEN attenuates fura-2 fluorescence changes induced by cadmium, mercury and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Masato; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Mitsuya

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation with heavy metals is known to induce calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization in many cell types. Interference with the measurement of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by the heavy metals in cells loaded with Ca(2+) indicator fura-2 is an ongoing problem. In this study, we analyzed the effect of heavy metals on the fura-2 fluorescence ratio in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by using TPEN, a specific cell-permeable heavy metal chelator. Manganese chloride (30-300 µM) did not cause significant changes in the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. A high concentration (300 µM) of lead acetate induced a slight elevation in the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. In contrast, stimulation with cadmium chloride, mercury chloride or MeHg (3-30 µM) elicited an apparent elevation of the fura-2 fluorescence ratio in a dose-dependent manner. In cells stimulated with 10 or 30 µM cadmium chloride, the addition of TPEN decreased the elevated fura-2 fluorescence ratio to basal levels. In cells stimulated with mercury or MeHg, the addition of TPEN significantly decreased the elevation of the fura-2 fluorescence ratio induced by lower concentrations (10 µM) of mercury or MeHg, but not by higher concentrations (30 µM). Pretreatment with Ca(2+) channel blockers, such as verapamil, 2-APB or lanthanum chloride, resulted in different effects on the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. Our study provides a characterization of the effects of several heavy metals on the mobilization of divalent cations and the toxicity of heavy metals to neuronal cells.

  12. Simplified X-ray film method for detection of bacterial volatilization of mercury chloride by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, K; Nakahara, H

    1988-01-01

    A simplified X-ray film method for detecting bacterial production of Hgo by Escherichia coli was developed. There was excellent agreement of results between this X-ray film method and radioactive mercury volatilization assays. Although not quantitative, the X-ray film method has the advantages of being rapid, simple to perform, and inexpensive. Images PMID:3063210

  13. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Meng; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yu, Shiting; Shen, Haicong; Bian, Hongfen; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-08

    The detection of environmental mercury (Hg) contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg(2+) detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone), which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg(2+), which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg(2+) in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg(2+) concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL-32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg(2+). The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment.

  14. A Portable Smart-Phone Readout Device for the Detection of Mercury Contamination Based on an Aptamer-Assay Nanosensor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Meng; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yu, Shiting; Shen, Haicong; Bian, Hongfen; Tang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The detection of environmental mercury (Hg) contamination requires complex and expensive instruments and professional technicians. We present a simple, sensitive, and portable Hg2+ detection system based on a smartphone and colorimetric aptamer nanosensor. A smartphone equipped with a light meter app was used to detect, record, and process signals from a smartphone-based microwell reader (MR S-phone), which is composed of a simple light source and a miniaturized assay platform. The colorimetric readout of the aptamer nanosensor is based on a specific interaction between the selected aptamer and Hg2+, which leads to a color change in the reaction solution due to an aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MR S-phone-based AuNPs-aptamer colorimetric sensor system could reliably detect Hg2+ in both tap water and Pearl River water samples and produced a linear colorimetric readout of Hg2+ concentration in the range of 1 ng/mL–32 ng/mL with a correlation of 0.991, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.28 ng/mL for Hg2+. The detection could be quickly completed in only 20 min. Our novel mercury detection assay is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and it provides new strategies for the on-site detection of mercury contamination in any environment. PMID:27834794

  15. Ultrasensitive SERS detection of mercury based on the assembled gold nanochains.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liguang; Yin, Honghong; Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-05-15

    Mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) mediate the transformation of single-stranded DNA to form double helical DNA by T-Hg(2+)-T interaction between base pairs. With this strategy, DNA modified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were assembled into chains which were displayed remarkable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal. Under optimized conditions, the length of gold nanochains was directly proportional to the mercuric ions concentrations over 0.001-0.5 ng mL(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) in drinking water was as low as 0.45 pg mL(-1). With ultrasensitivity and excellent selectivity, this feasible and simple method is potentially as a promising tool for monitoring of mercury ions in food safety and environmental applications.

  16. Astrocytes as modulators of mercury-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aschner, M

    1996-01-01

    The case for significant toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) to the CNS is strongly supported by both in vivo and in vitro studies. MeHg perturbs a number of cellular processes which most certainly include astrocytic failure to maintain the composition of the extracellular fluid. Astrocytic predisposition to be damaged by MeHg offers a potential explanation for its neurotoxicity. Consistent with this concept is the ability of astrocytes to preferentially concentrate brain MeHg. The present commentary elaborates on the role of astrocytes in mediating MeHg-induced injuries, detailing their function in maintaining the extracellular concentrations of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate. It continues with a discussion on the effects of MeHg on astrocytic swelling and the ensuing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Recent work demonstrating that primary astrocyte cultures constitutively express a cluster of sulfhydryl (-SH)-containing proteins, collectively referred to as metallothioneins (MTs), is also reviewed with particular reference to the role of MTs both as protectors and facilitators of MeHg intoxication.

  17. Protective effect of Bacopa monniera on methyl mercury-induced oxidative stress in cerebellum of rats.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Christinal, Johnson; Anusha, Chandran

    2012-08-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant leading to neurological and developmental deficits in animals and human beings. Bacopa monniera (BM) is a perennial herb and is used as a nerve tonic in Ayurveda, a traditional medicine system in India. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera extract (BME) could potentially inhibit MeHg-induced toxicity in the cerebellum of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with BME (40 mg/kg, orally) for 21 days. After the treatment period, we observed that MeHg exposure significantly inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and increased the glutathione reductase activity in cerebellum. It was also found that the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was increased with the concomitant decrease in the glutathione level in MeHg-induced rats. These alterations were prevented by the administration of BME. Behavioral interference in the MeHg-exposed animals was evident through a marked deficit in the motor performance in the rotarod task, which was completely recovered to control the levels by BME administration. The total mercury content in the cerebellum of MeHg-induced rats was also increased which was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of NO(2) (-) and NO(3) (-) in the serum were found to be significantly increased in the MeHg-induced rats, whereas treatment with BME significantly decreased their levels in serum to near normal when compared to MeHg-induced rats. These findings strongly implicate that BM has potential to protect brain from oxidative damage resulting from MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rat.

  18. Reusable DNA-functionalized-graphene for ultrasensitive mercury (II) detection and removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Wang, Xiangqing; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-15

    Mercury is a bioaccumulative and highly toxic heavy metal. Thus, the removal and detection of Hg(2+) from the environment is a major challenge. This paper reports a novel bio-nanomaterial for the simultaneous determination and removal of Hg(2+) with the use of rGO-Fe3O4 functionalized with Hg(2+)-specific thymine oligonucleotide (T-DNA). T-DNA interacts with Hg(2+) and changes from having a random coil into a hairpin structure, thereby increasing the fluorescence of SYBR Green I. Such fluorescence turn-on process allows the detection of Hg(2+) in the concentration range of 1-20ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.82ng/mL. Removal is achieved by exploiting the T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs and the large surface area of graphene; these bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent removal efficiency (over 80%) and rapid separation from the aqueous solution. Moreover, bio-nanomaterials can be regenerated after a simple treatment. The proposed method also demonstrates the evident practicability of the simultaneous detection and removal of Hg(2+) in lake water samples.

  19. Naked-eye and Selective Detection of Mercury (II) Ions in Mixed Aqueous Media Using a Cellulose-based Support

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Gil, César; Caballero, Antonio; Ratera, Imma; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro; Veciana, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    A test paper for high-selectivity detecting Hg2+ ions in mixed acetonitrile-water solutions has been achieved using a bis(ferrocenyl) azine, as chromogenic chemosensor molecule, and a solid cellulose fibre, as a substrate. Depending on the amount of mercury ions in contact with the detecting molecule a spectacular color change in the cellulose indicator is produced, being possible to determine the concentration of Hg2+ ions either by naked eye or spectroscopically.

  20. Mangiferin, a Dietary Xanthone Protects Against Mercury-Induced Toxicity in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sobhika; Rao, B. Nageshwar; Mudholkar, Kaivalya; Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Rao, B. S. Satish

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is one of the noxious heavy metal environmental toxicants and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone found in Mangifera indica, reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of MGN, against mercury chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line. The cytoprotective effect of MGN on HgCl2 induced toxicity was assessed by colony formation assay, while antiapoptotic effect by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and DNA fragmentation pattern assays. Further, the cytoprotective effect of MGN against HgCl2 toxicity was assessed by using biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) by spectrophotometrically, mitochondrial membrane potential by flowcytometry and the changes in reactive oxygen species levels by DCFH-DA spectrofluoremetric analysis. A significant increase in the surviving fraction was observed with 50 µM of MGN administered two hours prior to various concentrations of HgCl2. Further, pretreatment of MGN significantly decreased the percentage of HgCl2 induced apoptotic cells. Similarly, the levels of ROS generated by the HgCl2 treatment were inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) by MGN. MGN also significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited the HgCl2 induced decrease in GSH, GST, SOD, and CAT levels at all the post incubation intervals. Our study demonstrated the cytoprotective potential of MGN, which may be attributed to quenching of the ROS generated in the cells due to oxidative stress induced by HgCl2, restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and normalization of cellular antioxidant levels. PMID:20629087

  1. Colorimetric detection of mercury ion based on unmodified gold nanoparticles and target-triggered hybridization chain reaction amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaohai; Liu, Pei; Wang, Kemin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Jianbo; Song, Chunxia; Wang, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    A novel unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based colorimetric strategy for label-free, specific and sensitive mercury ion (Hg2+) detection was demonstrated by using thymine-Hg2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) recognition mechanism and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification strategy. In this protocol, a structure-switching probe (H0) was designed to recognize Hg2+ and then propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between two other hairpin probes (H1 and H2). In the absence of Hg2+, all hairpin probes could stably coexist in solution, the exposed sticky ends of hairpin probes were capable of stabilizing AuNPs. As a result, salt-induced AuNPs aggregation could be effectively prevented. In the presence of Hg2+, thymine bases of H0 could specifically interact with Hg2+ to form stable T-Hg2+-T complex. Consequently, the hairpin structure of H0 probe was changed. As H1/H2 probes were added, the HCR process could be triggered and nicked double-helixes were formed. Since it was difficult for the formed nicked double-helixes to inhibit salt-induced AuNPs aggregation, a red-to-blue color change was observed in the colloid solution as the salt concentration increased. With the elegant amplification effect of HCR, a detection limit of around 30 nM was achieved (S/N = 3), which was about 1-2 orders of magnitudes lower than that of previous unmodified AuNPs-based colorimetric methods. By using the T-Hg2+-T recognition mechanism, high selectivity was also obtained. As an unmodified AuNPs-based colorimetric strategy, the system was simple in design, convenient in operation, and eliminated the requirements of separation processes, chemical modifications, and sophisticated instrumentations.

  2. Low concentration of mercury induces autophagic cell death in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Ray, Atish; Mukherjee, Sandip; Agarwal, Soumik; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the induction of autophagy in rat hepatocytes by a low concentration of mercury. Hepatocytes treated with different doses of mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM) and at different time intervals (0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h) show autophagic cell death only at 5 µM HgCl2 within 30 min of incubation. At 1 and 2.5 µM HgCl2, no cell death is recorded, while apoptosis is found at 10 µM HgCl2, as evidenced by the activation of caspase 3. Autophagic cell death is confirmed by the presence of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) positive hepatocytes which is found to be highest at 1 h. Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation triggers the autophagic pathway within 30 min of 5 µM HgCl2 treatment and continues till 4 h of incubation. In addition, damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression gradually increases from 30 min to 4 h of treatment with mercury and a corresponding linear decrease in p53 has been observed. It is concluded that a low concentration (5 µM HgCl2) of mercury induces autophagy or nonapoptotic programmed cell death following an Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation pathway, which is modulated by DRAM in a p53-dependent manner.

  3. A nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for magnified fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yin; Li, Bianmiao; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-04-07

    In this communication, we present a nano-graphite-DNA hybrid sensor for fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution for the first time. Furthermore, an amplification strategy based on nano-graphite for Hg(2+) detection by using DNase I was demonstrated. The proposed amplified assay was simple and cost-effective with a limit of detection (LOD) for Hg(2+) of 0.5 nM, which was about 20-fold lower than that of traditional unamplified homogeneous assays. We further demonstrated its practical application to detect Hg(2+) in a real sample.

  4. Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Dwayne J.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis arises from the active initiation and propagation of a series of highly orchestrated specific biochemical events leading to the demise of the cell. It is a normal physiological process, which occurs during embryonic development as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Diverse groups of molecules are involved in the apoptosis pathway and it functions as a mechanism to eliminate unwanted or irreparably damaged cells. However, inappropriate induction of apoptosis by environmental agents has broad ranging pathologic implications and has been associated with several diseases including cancer. The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity results in our laboratory indicating an LD50 of 3.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL for mercury in HepG2 cells. The study data indicated a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and the degree of early and late-stage apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.03 ± 0.03%, 5.19 ± 0.04%, 6.36 ± 0.04%, and 8.84 ± 0.02% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively, indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells undergoing late apoptosis were 3.58 ± 0.03%, 17.06 ± 0.05%, 23.32 ± 0.03%, and 34.51 ± 0.01% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively

  5. Photo-induced cold vapor generation with low molecular weight alcohol, aldehyde, or carboxylic acid for atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunfang; Zheng, Chengbin; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Guanglei; Lv, Yi; Hou, Xiandeng

    2007-06-01

    With UV irradiation, Hg(2+) in aqueous solution can be converted into Hg(0) cold vapor by low molecular weight alcohols, aldehydes, or carboxylic acids, e.g., methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, or malonic acid. It was found that the presence of nano-TiO(2) more or less improved the efficiency of the photo-induced chemical/cold vapor generation (photo-CVG) with most of the organic reductants. The nano-TiO(2)-enhanced photo-CVG systems can be coupled to various analytical atomic spectrometric techniques for the determination of ultratrace mercury. In this work, we evaluated the application of this method to the atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) determination of mercury in cold vapor mode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the instrumental limits of detection (based on three times the standard deviation of 11 measurements of a blank solution) were around 0.02-0.04 microg L(-1), with linear dynamic ranges up to 15 microg L(-1). The interference of transition metals and the mechanism of the photo-CVG are briefly discussed. Real sample analysis using the photo-CVG-AFS method revealed that it was promising for water and geological analysis of ultralow levels of mercury.

  6. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Gordon W.; Tan, Swee Ngin; Stillman, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As3+ and Hg2+. A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As3+ and 45 ppb for Hg2+. While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor. PMID:28335390

  7. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gordon W; Tan, Swee Ngin; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-03-13

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As(3+) and Hg(2+). A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As(3+) and 45 ppb for Hg(2+). While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor.

  8. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing. Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 Å resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} diffracting to 2.2 Å resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L{sub III} edge)

  9. Mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: changes in RT6+ T-lymphocytes of susceptible and resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Kosuda, L L; Greiner, D L; Bigazzi, P E

    1993-06-01

    The repeated administration of mercury to rats of the Brown Norway (BN) inbred strain results in a self-limiting production of autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin) and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. In contrast, rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain do not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment. Suppressor T-cells and/or the idiotype-anti-idiotype network have been implicated in the control of autoimmunity in susceptible (BN) rats as well as the "resistant" state of nonsusceptible (LEW) animals. In our investigations of the immune regulation of mercury-induced autoimmune glomerulonephritis, we have performed a phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleens and lymph nodes of mercury-treated and control LEW, BN, and (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats. Of particular interest were RT6+ T-cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes that may have immunoregulatory properties and show a relative decrease in mercury-treated BN rats concomitantly with the development of autoimmune responses to renal autoantigens. LEW rats did not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment and had no significant change in the ratio of RT6+ to RT6- T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, the administration of mercury to (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats caused effects similar to those observed in the BN strain. Auto-immune responses to antigens of the kidney coincided with a change in the balance within the RT6 cell population, which was altered in favor of T-lymphocytes that do not express the RT6 phenotype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: changes in RT6+ T-lymphocytes of susceptible and resistant rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kosuda, L L; Greiner, D L; Bigazzi, P E

    1993-01-01

    The repeated administration of mercury to rats of the Brown Norway (BN) inbred strain results in a self-limiting production of autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin) and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. In contrast, rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain do not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment. Suppressor T-cells and/or the idiotype-anti-idiotype network have been implicated in the control of autoimmunity in susceptible (BN) rats as well as the "resistant" state of nonsusceptible (LEW) animals. In our investigations of the immune regulation of mercury-induced autoimmune glomerulonephritis, we have performed a phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleens and lymph nodes of mercury-treated and control LEW, BN, and (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats. Of particular interest were RT6+ T-cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes that may have immunoregulatory properties and show a relative decrease in mercury-treated BN rats concomitantly with the development of autoimmune responses to renal autoantigens. LEW rats did not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment and had no significant change in the ratio of RT6+ to RT6- T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, the administration of mercury to (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats caused effects similar to those observed in the BN strain. Auto-immune responses to antigens of the kidney coincided with a change in the balance within the RT6 cell population, which was altered in favor of T-lymphocytes that do not express the RT6 phenotype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8354205

  11. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Fengping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.

  12. Aggregation induced emission enhancement from Bathophenanthroline microstructures and its potential use as sensor of mercury ions in water.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Prativa; Das, Debasish; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Salgado-Morán, Guillermo; Misra, Ajay

    2014-04-07

    Bathophenanthroline (BA) microstructures of various morphologies have been synthesized using a reprecipitation method. The morphologies of the particles are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. An aqueous dispersion of BA microstructures shows aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) compared to BA in a good solvent, THF. This luminescent property of aggregated BA hydrosol is used for the selective detection of trace amounts of mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in water. It is observed that Hg(2+) ions can quench the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of BA aggregates even at very low concentrations, compared to other heavy metal ions e.g. nickel (Ni(2+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), ferrous (Fe(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)). This strong fluorescence quenching of aggregated BA in the presence of Hg(2+) ions has been explained as a complex interplay between the ground state complexation between BA and Hg(2+) ions and external heavy atom induced perturbation by Hg(2+) ions on the excited states of the fluorophore BA.

  13. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain.

    PubMed

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 A resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracting to 2.2 A resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L(III) edge).

  14. Relationship between genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by mercury on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues.

    PubMed

    García-Medina, Sandra; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Ruiz-Lara, Karina; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gasca-Pérez, Eloy

    2017-09-21

    Mercury is one of the most toxic metals in aquatic systems since it is able to induce neurobehavioral disorders as well as renal and gastrointestinal tract damage. The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an important species from both an ecological and economic viewpoint as it is consumed in many countries, the top producers being Mexico, China, India and Japan. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation between Hg-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in diverse tissues of C. carpio. Specimens were exposed to 0.01mgHg/L (the maximum permissible limit for aquatic life protection), and lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated at 96h. Micronuclei frequency and DNA damage by comet assay were determined at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Hg induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity on exposed fish, since inhibition of antioxidant enzymes activity and increases in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and micronuclei frequency occurred. Blood, gill and liver were more susceptible to oxidative stress, while blood were more sensitive to genotoxicity. In conclusion, Hg at concentrations equal to the maximum permissible limit for aquatic life protection induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity on C. carpio, and these two effects prove to be correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Allium sativum L. extract prevents methyl mercury-induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood leukocytes (LS).

    PubMed

    Abdalla, F H; Bellé, L P; De Bona, K S; Bitencourt, P E R; Pigatto, A S; Moretto, M B

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is involved in purine metabolism and plays a significant role in the immune system. The focus of this investigation was to examine the effects of low concentrations of organic mercury on ADA activity in human leukocytes and to investigate the relationship between these effects and cell death. We have examined the protective potential effects of Allium sativum extract (GaE) against Methylmercury (MeHg)-induced cytotoxic effects on human leucocytes under in vitro conditions. MeHg (0.05-10 microM) significantly decreased leukocyte viability (58.97% for MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and 51.67% for Alamar Blue (AB) and this decrease was positively correlated to the MeHg-induced inhibition of ADA activity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and GaE prevented both the MeHg-induced cytotoxic effects on leukocytes according to MTT and AB assays and the effects on the ADA activity. The present results suggest that the protective effects of GaE against MeHg-induced leukocyte damage is related to the removal of oxidant species generated in the presence of MeHg due to the antioxidant efficacy of garlic constituents. It is important to point out that the intense presence of ADA in Leukocyte suspension (LS) highlights the relevant effects in the immune system and in vitro cytotoxicity of MeHg exposure.

  16. Selective detection of mercury (II) ion using nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Darbha, Gopala Krishna; Singh, Anant Kumar; Rai, Uma Shanker; Yu, Eugene; Yu, Hongtao; Chandra Ray, Paresh

    2008-06-25

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metal ions has been an important concern throughout the world for decades. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of mercury in environmental samples, this article demonstrates for the first time that nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of MPA-HCys-PDCA-modified gold nanoparticles can be used for rapid, easy and reliable screening of Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution, with high sensitivity (5 ppb) and selectivity over competing analytes. The hyper Rayleigh scattering (HRS) intensity increases 10 times after the addition of 20 ppm Hg(2+) ions to modified gold nanoparticle solution. The mechanism for HRS intensity change has been discussed in detail using particle size-dependent NLO properties as well as a two-state model. Our results show that the HRS assay for monitoring Hg(II) ions using MPA-HCys-PDCA-modified gold nanoparticles has excellent selectivity over alkali, alkaline earth (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)), and transition heavy metal ions (Pb(2+), Pb(+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)).

  17. Using L-arginine-functionalized gold nanorods for visible detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiehao; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-04-01

    A rapid and simple approach for visible determination of mercury ions (Hg(2+) ) in aqueous solutions was developed based on surface plasmon resonance phenomenon using L-arginine-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNRs). At pH greater than 9, the deprotonated amine group of L-arginine on the AuNRs bound with Hg(2+) leading to the side-by-side assembly of AuNRs, which was verified by transmission electron microscopy images. Thus, when Hg(2+) was present in the test solution, a blue shift of the typical longitudinal plasmon band of the AuNRs was observed in the ultra violet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectra, along with a change in the color of the solution, which occurred within 5 min. After carefully optimizing the potential factors affecting the performance, the L-arginine/AuNRs sensing system was found to be highly sensitive to Hg(2+) , with the limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 3); it is also very selective and free of interference from 10 other metal ions (Ba(2+) , Ca(2+) , Cd(2+) , Co(2+) , Cs(+) , Cu(2+) , K(+) , Li(+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The result suggests that the L-arginine-functionalized AuNRs can potentially serve as a rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use colorimetric biosensor useful for determining Hg(2+) in food and environmental samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing Detection of Mercury and Lead Ions Based on Conducting Polymer Composite

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Sadrolhosseini, Amir R.; Mat Yunus, Wan Mahmood; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Tahir, Paridah Md.

    2011-01-01

    A new sensing area for a sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury and lead ions. The gold surface used for SPR measurements were modified with polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CHI) conducting polymer composite. The polymer layer was deposited on the gold surface by electrodeposition. This optical sensor was used for monitoring toxic metal ions with and without sensitivity enhancement by chitosan in water samples. The higher amounts of resonance angle unit (ΔRU) were obtained for PPy-CHI film due to a specific binding of chitosan with Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions. The Pb2+ ion bind to the polymer films most strongly, and the sensor was more sensitive to Pb2+ compared to Hg2+. The concentrations of ions in the parts per million range produced the changes in the SPR angle minimum in the region of 0.03 to 0.07. Data analysis was done by Matlab software using Fresnel formula for multilayer system. PMID:21931763

  19. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Vervack, Ronald J; Bradley, E Todd; Killen, Rosemary M; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L; Burger, Matthew H; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2009-05-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of the exosphere, as well as differing spatial distributions of magnesium, calcium, and sodium atoms in both the tail and the nightside, near-planet exosphere. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby, as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  20. Determination of mercury species in fish reference materials by gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence detection after closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Nevado, Juan José Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Carmen Rodríguez; Bernardo, Francisco Javier Guzmán; Moreno, María Jiménez

    2005-11-04

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for speciation analysis of inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in biological tissues. The procedure is based on the quantitative closed-vessel microwave-assisted leaching of mercury from biological samples with an alkaline extractant. The extracted mercury species are ethylated and analysed by capillary gas chromatography coupled to an atomic fluorescence detector via pyrolysis (CGC-pyro-AFS). The coupling between capillary gas chromatography and atomic fluorescence detector was optimized with the aim of minimizing the detection limits and time necessary for the species-selective determination of mercury compounds. The use of closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction along with no clean-up steps before the ethylation leads to a significant total analysis time decrease with respect to similar procedures. The detection limit was 2 pg for MMHg (as Hg) and 1 pg for inorganic mercury. The method was validated by the analysis of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and DOLT-3 (dogfish liver) certified reference materials. The inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations found were in good agreement with the certified values. Recovery studies of fish muscle tissue spiked with inorganic mercury and MMHg were done to check the reliability of the method. In all cases satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) were obtained.

  1. Cadmium and mercury cause an oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B; Baynes, John W

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the ability of cadmium and mercury ions to cause endothelial dysfunction in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers. Exposure of monolayers for 48 h to metal concentrations greater than 3-5 microM produced profound cytotoxicity (increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage), a permeability barrier failure, depletion of glutathione and ATP and almost complete inhibition of the activity of key thiol enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In contrast, metal concentrations less than 1-2 microM induced increases in glutathione and thiol-enzyme activities with minimal changes in LDH leakage, barrier function and ATP content. At shorter incubation times (24 h or less), high concentrations of cadmium caused glutathione induction rather than depletion. Thus, oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by lower concentrations of the metal ions stimulate compensatory responses, including increased synthesis of glutathione, which presumably preserved the activity of key thiol enzymes, however these responses were not sustainable at higher metal ion concentrations. We conclude, while high concentrations of heavy metals are cytotoxic, lower concentration induce a compensatory protective response, which may explain threshold effects in metal-ion toxicity.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Randall; Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine; McCabe, Michael J.; Rosenspire, Allen

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.

  3. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    PubMed

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  4. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  5. A new method for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Macaskie, Lynne E; Brown, Nigel L

    2005-11-01

    A method is described for the removal of mercury from solution by using the off-gas produced from aerobic cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae M426. Cells growing in Hg-supplemented medium produced a black precipitate containing mercury and sulphur. The ratio of Hg:S was determined as approximately 1:1 by analysis using proton-induced X-ray emission, suggesting precipitation of HgS within the culture. The outlet gases produced by a mercury-unsupplemented aerated culture were bubbled into an external chamber supplemented with up to 10 mg HgCl(2)/ml. A yellowish-white precipitate formed, corresponding to 99% removal of the mercury from solution within 120 min. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that this metal precipitate consisted of mercury, carbon and sulphur. Formation of mercury carbonate was discounted since similar precipitation occurred at pH 2 and no oxygen was detected in the solid, which gave an X-ray powder pattern suggesting an amorphous material, with no evidence of HgS. Precipitation of mercury with a volatile organosulphur compound is suggested. Bio-precipitation of heavy metals by using culture off-gas is a useful approach because it can be used with concentrated or physiologically incompatible solutions. Since the metal precipitate is kept separate from the bacterial biomass, it can be managed independently.

  6. Glutamate‑mediated effects of caffeine and interferon‑γ on mercury-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ayse Basak; Engin, Evren Doruk; Golokhvast, Kirill; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2017-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating mercury‑induced neurotoxicity are not yet completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of MeHg‑ and HgCl2‑mediated cytotoxicity to SH‑SY5Y human dopaminergic neurons can be attenuated by regulating glutamate‑mediated signal‑transmission through caffeine and interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ). The SH‑SY5Y cells were exposed to 1, 2 and 5 µM of either MeHgCl2 or HgCl2 in the presence or absence of L‑glutamine. To examine the effect of adenosine receptor antagonist, the cells were treated with 10 and 20 µM caffeine. The total mitochondrial metabolic activity and oxidative stress intensity coefficient were determined in the 1 ng/ml IFN‑γ‑ and glutamate‑stimulated SH‑SY5Y cells. Following exposure to mercury, the concentration‑dependent decrease in mitochondrial metabolic activity inversely correlated with oxidative stress intensity. MeHg was more toxic than HgCl2. Mercury‑induced neuronal death was dependent on glutamate‑mediated excitotoxicity. Caffeine reduced the mercury‑induced oxidative stress in glutamine-containing medium. IFN‑γ treatment decreased cell viability and increased oxidative stress in glutamine‑free medium, despite caffeine supplementation. Although caffeine exerted a protective effect against MeHg-induced toxicity with glutamate transmission, under co‑stimulation with glutamine and IFN‑γ, caffeine decreased the MeHg‑induced average oxidative stress only by half. Thereby, our data indicate that the IFN‑γ stimulation of mercury‑exposed dopaminergic neurons in neuroinflammatory diseases may diminish the neuroprotective effects of caffeine.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Gill, Randall; Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K-L Catherine; McCabe, Michael J; Rosenspire, Allen

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures.

  8. Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on golden nanoparticles and cold vapour generation technique for the detection of mercury in aqueous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jimmy; Chirinos, José; Gutiérrez, Héctor; La Cruz, Marie

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a surface plasmon resonance sensor for determination of Hg based on golden nanoparticles was developed. The sensor follows the change of the signal from solutions in contact with atomic mercury previously generated by the reaction with sodium borohydride. Mie theory predicts that Hg film, as low as 5 nm, induced a significant reduction of the surface plasmon resonance signal of 40 nm golden nanoparticles. This property was used for quantification purposes in the sensor. The device provide limits of detection of 172 ng/L that can compared with the 91 ng/L obtained with atomic fluorescence, a common technique used for Hg quantification in drinking water. This result was relevant, considering that it was not necessary to functionalize the nanoparticles or use nanoparticles deposited in a substrate. Also, thanks that Hg is released from the matrix, the surface plasmon resonance signal was not affected by concomitant elements in the sample.

  9. Sensitive detection for coralyne and mercury ions based on homo-A/T DNA by exonuclease signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailiang; Shi, Shuo; Zheng, Xuyue; Yao, Tianming

    2015-09-15

    Based on specific homo-A/T DNA binding properties, a strategy for coralyne and mercury ions detection was realised by exonuclease-aided signal amplification. Coralyne could specifically bind homo-A DNA and protect it from the hydrolysis of exonuclease I. The coralyne-protected DNA was subsequently used as a trigger strand to hydrolyze DNA2 in exonuclease-aided signal amplification process. Thiazole orange was used to quantify the remainder DNA2. Under the optimal condition, the fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of coralyne in the range of 0.2-100 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.31 nM, which presented the lowest LOD for coralyne among all reported. With homo-T and Hg(2+) taking the place of homo-A DNA and coralyne, respectively, the system could also be used for Hg(2+) detection. The experiments in real samples also showed good results. This method was label-free, low-cost, easy-operating and highly repeatable for the detection of coralyne and mercury ions. It could also be extended to detect various analytes, such as other metal ions, proteins and small molecules by using appropriate aptamers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of mercury chloride-induced toxicity and the relevance of P2X7 receptor activation in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Campos, Maria Martha; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been adopted as a model for behavioral, immunological and toxicological studies. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal released into the environment. There is evidence indicating that heavy metals can modulate ionotropic receptors, including the purinergic receptor P2X7. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vivo effects of acute exposure to mercury chloride (HgCl2) in zebrafish larvae and to investigate the involvement of P2X7R in mercury-related toxicity. Larvae survival was evaluated for 24 h after exposure to HgCl2, ATP or A740003. The combination of ATP (1 mM) and HgCl2 (20 μg/L) decreased survival when compared to ATP 1 mM. The antagonist A740003 (300 and 500 nM) increased the survival time, and reversed the mortality caused by ATP and HgCl2 in association. Quantitative real time PCR showed a decrease of P2X7R expression in the larvae treated with HgCl2 (20 μg/L). Evaluating the oxidative stress our results showed decreased CAT (catalase) activity and increased MDA (malondialdehyde) levels. Of note, the combination of ATP with HgCl2 showed an additive effect. This study provides novel evidence on the possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity induced by mercury, indicating that it is able to modulate P2X7R in zebrafish larvae.

  11. [Determination of trace mercury in wastewater by a flow injection analysis composed of immobilized ionic liquid enrichment and colorimetric detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Mao, Li-li; Yang, Gui-peng; Gao, Xian-chi; Tang, Xu-li

    2010-07-01

    Amberlite XAD-7 resin was modified by room temperature ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6 mim]PF6) coating through a maceration method, gaining a new sort of hydrophobic adsorbent for the solid phase extraction mini-column. Trace inorganic mercury in wastewater samples was preconcentrated and determined by flow injection online mini-column sampling coupled with spectrophotometric determination. In acid medium, dithizone was employed as chelator with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) to form a red neutral mercury-dithizone complex, which could be extracted quantificationally by solid phase extraction technique on the mini-column. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity and the detection limit of the proposed method were found to be 0.35 to 50.0 microg x L(-1) Hg2+ and 0.067 microg x L(-1) Hg2+, respectively. The enrichment factor of 25 times could be achieved with a 50 mL sampling volume and the developed procedure was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in the certified reference material (GSBZ50016-90) and the spiked dock wastewater samples with the recovery of 99%-103%.

  12. Selective detection of endogenous thiols using microchip-based flow analysis and mercury/gold amalgam microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Batz, Nicholas G; Martin, R Scott

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of thin-layer mercury/gold amalgam microelectrodes and their integration with microchip-based flow injection analysis. This microchip platform allows on-chip injection and lysis of erythrocytes followed by selective detection of intracellular glutathione (GSH) at low potentials. The thin-layer gold microelectrodes were amalgamated by electrodeposition of mercury. The electrodes produced a linear response for both GSH and cysteine in flow injection analysis studies utilizing both off-chip and on-chip injection. Comparative experiments using diamide and on-chip injection were performed to demonstrate the ability of the microchip device to detect changes in GSH concentration. Finally, rabbit erythrocyte samples (2% hematocrit) were injected and lysed on-chip and the amount of GSH detected corresponded to 312 amol/cell, which is in agreement with previously reported values. The selectivity, short time between injection and detection (approximately 5 s), and the continuous introduction of sample to the on-chip injector should enable the study of dynamically changing systems such as the glutathione redox system found in erythrocytes.

  13. Single-Drop Solution Electrode Discharge-Induced Cold Vapor Generation Coupling to Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion: A Robust Approach for Sensitive Quantification of Total Mercury Distribution in Fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Lin, Yao; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Li; Yang, Lu; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2017-02-07

    Sensitive quantification of mercury distribution in fish is challenging because of insufficient sensitivities of conventional analytical methods, the limited mass of organs (tens of micrograms to several milligrams), and dilution of analyte concentration from sample digestion. In this work, a simple and robust approach coupling multiwall carbon nanotubes assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MWCNTs-MSPD) to single-drop solution electrode glow discharge-induced cold vapor generation (SD-SEGD-CVG) was developed for the sensitive determination of mercury in limited amount of sample. Mercury species contained in a limited amount of sample can be efficiently extracted into a 100 μL of eluent by MWCNTs-MSPD, which are conveniently converted to Hg(0) by SD-SEGD-CVG and further transported to atomic fluorescence spectrometry for their determination. Therefore, analyte dilution resulted from sample preparation is avoided and sensitivity is significantly improved. On the basis of consumption of 1 mg of sample, a limit of detection of 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) was obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.2% and 4.6% for 2 and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analysis of three Certified Reference Materials with satisfying results. To confirm that SD-SEGD-CVG-AFS coupling to MWCNTs-MSPD is a promising method to quantify mercury distribution in fish, this method was successfully applied for the sensitive determination of mercury in seven organs of common carps (muscle, gill, intestine, liver, gallbladder, brain, and eye) after dietary of mercury species. The proposed method provides advantages of minimum sample dilution, low blank, high sample introduction efficiency, high sensitivity, and minimum toxic chemicals and sample consumption.

  14. SCR atmosphere induced reduction of oxidized mercury over CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Shaokang; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-06-16

    CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst synthesized by a sol-gel method was employed to investigate mercury conversion under a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere (NO, NH3 plus O2). Neither NO nor NH3 individually exhibited an inhibitive effect on elemental mercury (Hg(0)) conversion in the presence of O2. However, Hg(0) conversion over the CuCeTi catalyst was greatly inhibited under SCR atmosphere. Systematic experiments were designed to investigate the inconsistency and explore the in-depth mechanisms. The results show that the copresence of NO and NH3 induced reduction of oxidized mercury (Hg(2+), HgO in this study), which offset the effect of catalytic Hg(0) oxidation, and hence resulted in deactivation of Hg(0) conversion. High NO and NH3 concentrations with a NO/NH3 ratio of 1.0 facilitated Hg(2+) reduction and therefore lowered Hg(0) conversion. Hg(2+) reduction over the CuCeTi catalyst was proposed to follow two possible mechanisms: (1) direct reaction, in which NO and NH3 react directly with HgO to form N2 and Hg(0); (2) indirect reaction, in which the SCR reaction consumed active surface oxygen on the CuCeTi catalyst, and reduced species on the CuCeTi catalyst surface such as Cu2O and Ce2O3 robbed oxygen from adjacent HgO. Different from the conventionally considered mechanisms, that is, competitive adsorption responsible for deactivation of Hg(0) conversion, this study reveals that oxidized mercury can transform into Hg(0) under SCR atmosphere. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance in developing efficient and economical mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants.

  15. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha; Wiggers, Giulia A.; Roque, Fernanda R.; Redondo, Santiago; Peçanha, Franck; Martín, Angela; Fortuño, Ana; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Tejerina, Teresa; Salaices, Mercedes; and others

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number of SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces

  16. Comparison of the Detection Characteristics of Trace Species Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Breakdown Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid and precise element measurement of trace species, such as mercury, iodine, strontium, cesium, etc. is imperative for various applications, especially for industrial needs. The elements mercury and iodine were measured by two detection methods for comparison of the corresponding detection features. A laser beam was focused to induce plasma. Emission and ion signals were detected using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LB-TOFMS). Multi-photon ionization and electron impact ionization in the plasma generation process can be controlled by the pressure and pulse width. The effect of electron impact ionization on continuum emission, coexisting molecular and atomic emissions became weakened in low pressure condition. When the pressure was less than 1 Pa, the plasma was induced by laser dissociation and multi-photon ionization in LB-TOFMS. According to the experimental results, the detection limits of mercury and iodine in N2 were 3.5 ppb and 60 ppb using low pressure LIBS. The mercury and iodine detection limits using LB-TOFMS were 1.2 ppb and 9.0 ppb, which were enhanced due to different detection features. The detection systems of LIBS and LB-TOFMS can be selected depending on the condition of each application. PMID:25769051

  17. Comparison of the detection characteristics of trace species using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping

    2015-03-11

    The rapid and precise element measurement of trace species, such as mercury, iodine, strontium, cesium, etc. is imperative for various applications, especially for industrial needs. The elements mercury and iodine were measured by two detection methods for comparison of the corresponding detection features. A laser beam was focused to induce plasma. Emission and ion signals were detected using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LB-TOFMS). Multi-photon ionization and electron impact ionization in the plasma generation process can be controlled by the pressure and pulse width. The effect of electron impact ionization on continuum emission, coexisting molecular and atomic emissions became weakened in low pressure condition. When the pressure was less than 1 Pa, the plasma was induced by laser dissociation and multi-photon ionization in LB-TOFMS. According to the experimental results, the detection limits of mercury and iodine in N2 were 3.5 ppb and 60 ppb using low pressure LIBS. The mercury and iodine detection limits using LB-TOFMS were 1.2 ppb and 9.0 ppb, which were enhanced due to different detection features. The detection systems of LIBS and LB-TOFMS can be selected depending on the condition of each application.

  18. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities.

  19. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment reduces mercury-induced neurotoxicity in the developing rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Lin, Lulu; Sokolowski, Katie; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Buckley, Brian; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is an environmental toxicant that can disrupt brain development. However, while progress has been made in defining its neurotoxic effects, we know far less about available therapies that can effectively protect brain in exposed individuals. We previously developed an animal model in which we defined the sequence of events underlying neurotoxicity: Methylmercury (MeHg) injection in postnatal rat acutely induced inhibition of mitosis and stimulated apoptosis in the hippocampus, that later resulted in intermediate term deficits in structure size and cell number. NAC is the N-acetyl derivative of L-cysteine used clinically for treatment of drug intoxication. Here, based on its known efficacy in promoting MeHg urinary excretion, we evaluated NAC for protective effects in the developing brain. In immature neurons and precursors MeHg (3µM) induced a >50% decrease in DNA synthesis at 24hr, an effect that was completely blocked by NAC co-incubation. In vivo, injection of MeHg (5µg/gbw) into 7 day-old rats induced a 22% decrease in DNA synthesis in whole hippocampus and a 4-fold increase in activated caspase-3 immunoreactive cells at 24hr, and reduced total cell numbers by 13% at 3 weeks. Treatment of MeHg exposed rats with repeated injections of NAC abolished MeHg toxicity. NAC prevented the reduction in DNA synthesis and the marked increase in caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Moreover, the intermediate term decrease in hippocampal cell number provoked by MeHg was fully blocked by NAC. Altogether, these results suggest that MeHg toxicity in the perinatal brain can be ameliorated by using NAC, opening potential avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22420031

  20. Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic beta-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yawen; Huang Chunfa; Yang Chingyao; Yen Chengchieh; Tsai Kehsung; Liu Shinghwa

    2010-03-15

    Mercury is a well-known highly toxic metal. In this study, we characterize and investigate the cytotoxicity and its possible mechanisms of inorganic mercury in pancreatic beta-cells. Mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) dose-dependently decreased the function of insulin secretion and cell viability in pancreatic beta-cell-derived HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. HgCl{sub 2} significantly increased ROS formation in HIT-T15 cells. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively reversed HgCl{sub 2}-induced insulin secretion dysfunction in HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Moreover, HgCl{sub 2} increased sub-G1 hypodiploids and annexin-V binding in HIT-T15 cells, indicating that HgCl{sub 2} possessed ability in apoptosis induction. HgCl{sub 2} also displayed several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals including disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activations of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. Exposure of HIT-T15 cells to HgCl{sub 2} could significantly increase both apoptotic and necrotic cell populations by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining. Meanwhile, HgCl{sub 2} could also trigger the depletion of intracellular ATP levels and increase the LDH release from HIT-T15 cells. These HgCl{sub 2}-induced cell death-related signals could be significantly reversed by N-acetylcysteine. The intracellular mercury levels were markedly elevated in HgCl{sub 2}-treated HIT-T15 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HgCl{sub 2}-induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity involved the co-existence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

  1. Low-Dose Inorganic Mercury Increases Severity and Frequency of Chronic Coxsackievirus-Induced Autoimmune Myocarditis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, Jennifer F.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Shirley, Devon L.; Davis, Sarah E.; Rose, Noel R.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with neurotoxic impacts that have been observed over a range of exposures. In addition, there is increasing evidence that inorganic mercury (iHg) and organic mercury (including methyl mercury) have a range of immunotoxic effects, including immune suppression and induction of autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated the effect of iHg on a model of autoimmune heart disease in mice induced by infection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). We examined the role of timing of iHg exposure on disease; in some experiments, mice were pretreated with iHg (200 μg/kg, every other day for 15 days) before disease induction with virus inoculation, and in others, they were treated with iHg after the acute (viral) phase of disease but before the development of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). iHg alone had no effect on heart pathology. Pretreatment with iHg before CVB3 infection significantly increased the severity of chronic myocarditis and DCM compared with control animals receiving vehicle alone. In contrast, treatment with iHg after acute myocarditis did not affect the severity of chronic disease. The increased chronic myocarditis, fibrosis, and DCM induced by iHg pretreatment were not due to increased viral replication in the heart, which was unaltered by iHg treatment. iHg pretreatment induced a macrophage infiltrate and mixed cytokine response in the heart during acute myocarditis, including significantly increased interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. IL-17 levels were also significantly increased in the spleen during chronic disease. Thus, we show for the first time that low-dose Hg exposure increases chronic myocarditis and DCM in a murine model. PMID:21984480

  2. Catalytic effect of potassium in Na(1-x)KxCdPb3(PO4)3 to detect mercury (II) in fish and seawater using a carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Lahrich, S; Manoun, B; El Mhammedi, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a synthesis of a new lacunar apatite, KCdPb3(PO4)3, using solid state method, and its application as modifier of carbon paste electrode (KLA-CPE) to determine mercury (II). Sodium replacement with potassium induced a linear variation of the crystallographic parameters a and c according to Vegard's law and led to amplify the electrical signal of the working electrode. The peak currents of mercury (II) increased linearly with their concentration at the range from 2.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The detection limit was found to be 1.11×10(-8)molL(-1). The use of this electrochemical sensor has been successfully implemented for the determination of Hg (II) in seawater and fish samples. The obtained results were found to be very satisfactory.

  3. Pressure induced stiffening, thermal softening of bulk modulus and brittle nature of mercury chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Shriya, Swarna; Sapkale, Raju; Varshney, Meenu; Ameri, M.

    2015-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent elastic properties of mercury chalcogenides (HgX; X = S, Se and Te) with pressure induced structural transition from ZnS-type (B3) to NaCl-type (B1) structure have been analyzed within the framework of a model interionic interaction potential with long-range Coulomb and charge transfer interactions, short-range overlap repulsion and van der Waals (vdW) interactions as well as zero point energy effects. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the Bulk modulus with pressure and temperature dependency to yield the Poisson's ratio ν, the Pugh ratio ϕ, anisotropy parameter, Shear and Young's modulus, Lamé's constant, Klein man parameter, elastic wave velocity and Debye temperature. The Poisson's ratio behavior infers that HgX are brittle in nature. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of elastic and thermodynamical properties explicitly the ductile (brittle) nature of HgX and still awaits experimental confirmations.

  4. Radiative Transfer Modeling of MESSENGER VIR Spectra of Mercury: Detection and Mapping of Submicroscopic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, D.; Lucey, P. G.; Izenberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Mercury is elusive because the planet is optically dark and exhibits a relatively featureless red visible and near-infrared spectrum. Studies have invoked opaque minerals and space weathering to explain these characteristics. In this study we used radiative transfer modeling of MESSENGER VIRS data to show that carbon is required to explain the detailed shape of the spectrum of Mercury from 0.3-1.5 µm. In this model, we assume the regolith comprises a high albedo host mineral, which contains nanophase and microphase iron and carbon. We varied the abundance of nanophase and microphase iron and carbon to fit the observed spectra. We found that the nanophase and microphase iron alone inadequately fits the visible portion of the observed spectra. By adding carbon, we find that nanophase and microphase iron and nanophase amorphous carbon fit the VIRS spectra consistently. We produced a global nanophase amorphous carbon map as well as nanophase and microphase iron maps. From the carbon map (see figure), we find that nanophase amorphous carbon is sensitive to geologic features associated with space weathering, such as fresh crater rays. Thus, amorphous carbon is a new indicator for regolith maturity. We also observe that the global average submicroscopic carbon content is 1.4±0.3 wt.% C, which is consistent with MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measurements. Using this abundance, we can constrain the source of water and carbon on Mercury. Assuming the water ice in the poles is derived from wet impactors, both asteroids and comets, and knowing C/H ratios of those sources, the surface nanophase carbon layer can be no thicker than 10 m if all carbon is derived from an exogenous source. It is almost certain the space weathered regolith on Mercury is thicker than 10 m, so the majority of carbon on Mercury must be endogenous. Figure: Nanophase amorphous carbon map. In this map, fresh craters and their rays are distinguishable by the lower proportion of

  5. Compromised immune competence in free-living tree swallows exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Dana M; Hallinger, Kelly K; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant and a well-documented immunosuppressor. However, little is known about the effects of mercury contamination on health of free-living vertebrate populations. The South River in Virginia, USA was heavily contaminated with industrial mercury from 1929 to 1950, and recent studies have documented high levels of circulating mercury in riparian songbirds breeding below the site of contamination. Here we used two standardized immune assays, mitogen-induced swelling in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), to test for effects of mercury toxicity on the immune system of female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) which feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects along the contaminated waterway. We found that females breeding at mercury-contaminated sites mounted significantly weaker PHA-induced swelling responses than those at reference sites in both years of study. However, among females on the contaminated sites, individual bloodstream mercury concentration did not predict the extent of mitogen-induced swelling. We did not detect any differences between reference and contaminated females in the strength of antibody responses to SRBCs, but sample sizes for this assay were significantly smaller. Overall, our results suggest that mercury toxicity can exert sub-lethal immunosuppression in free-living, insectivorous songbirds. The potential fitness consequences of the detected differences in immunocompetence caused by mercury toxicity warrant further study.

  6. Patterns of urban mercury contamination detected by bioindication with terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Sager, Manfred; Werner, Richard; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a trace element with high toxicological impact on potential receptors, including human beings. Global Hg emissions are predicted to increase significantly during the next 40 years. After emission, the metal is transported by air currents and precipitations, leading to increasing depositions even in areas far from emission sources. In the terrestrial environment, Hg is subjected to redistribution and transformation into different inorganic and metal-organic species that are taken up by vegetation and soil organisms. In the present study, the woodlouse (Porcellio scaber) was used as a biological indicator of total Hg pollution in the city of Dornbirn (province of Vorarlberg), Austria. Woodlice were collected from 30 sampling points scattered over the city area, 25 of them situated within a rectangular transect crossing the city area from west-northwest to east-southeast, starting near the Rheintal motorway and ending at the slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. In addition to woodlice, soil substrate samples were collected at nine of the selected sampling points. Total Hg concentrations were measured in isopod tissues and soil substrate samples by means of an Hg analyzer. Total Hg concentrations in isopod tissues were significantly correlated with Hg soil contents (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gradient of increasing Hg concentrations was observed in isopod samples along the transect across Dornbirn, with the lowest concentrations detected in woodlouse samples near the Rheintal motorway and the highest levels toward the ascending slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. This gradient of increasing Hg concentrations across the city matches a concomitant increase in wet precipitations along the same direction, indicating that deposition by wet precipitation may be an important source for Hg contamination in the city of Dornbirn. Overall, the degree of Hg contamination across the study area can be regarded as rather low, i.e., comparable with concentrations observed

  7. Experimental detection of quantum oscillations of anomalous Hall resistance in mercury selenide crystals with cobalt impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.; Pamyatnykh, E. A.; Paranchich, L. D.

    2017-04-01

    Quantum oscillations of the anomalous component of Hall resistance with an amplitude exceeding the amplitude of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of transverse magnetoresistance are observed in mercury selenide crystals doped with low concentrations of cobalt impurity. In accordance with the predictions of the Hall effect theory for systems with spontaneous spin polarization of hybridized donor electrons, the observed oscillations correspond to magnetic quantum oscillations caused by the thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect.

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inspections b. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—ultraviolet light absorption detector A sample of gas is drawn... vapor in the cell room and other areas a. Portable mercury vapor analyzer—ultraviolet light...

  9. A Comparative Electrochemical Behaviour Study and Analytical Detection of the p-Nitrophenol Using Silver Solid Amalgam, Mercury, and Silver Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Djenaine; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a comparative electrochemical behaviour study and p-nitrophenol analytical detection using silver solid amalgam, hanging dropping mercury, and silver electrodes. For this, square wave voltammetry was employed, where the analytical responses and the redox mechanisms could be compared for reduction processes of 4-nitrophenol by analysis of the voltammetric responses. The analytical performance of the electrode was evaluated and detection and quantification limits, recovery percentages, repeatability, and reproducibility for the silver solid amalgam and hanging dropping mercury electrodes presented similar values; the results presented for the silver electrode indicated worse analytical parameters than the other electrodes. The results indicate that the silver solid amalgam electrode can be considered a suitable tool and an interesting alternative for the analytical determination of 4-nitrophenol, as well as for the determination of other biological and environmentally interesting compounds that present analytical responses on mercury surfaces. PMID:21647286

  10. The X-Ray Spectrometer for Mercury MESSENGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R. D.; Ho, G. C.; Schlemm, C.; Gold, R. E.; Goldsten, J. O.; Boynton, W. V.; Trombka, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and because it is so close, it is difficult to study from Earth-based observatories. Its proximity to the Sun has also limited the number of spacecraft to visit this tiny planet to just one, Mariner 10, which flew by Mercury twice in 1974 and once in 1975. Mariner 10 provided a wealth of new information about Mercury, yet much still remains unknown about Mercury's geologic history and the processes that led to its formation. The origin of Mercury's metal-rich composition is just one area of investigation awaiting more and improved data to sort between competing hypotheses. Mercury plays an important role in comparative planetology, and many of the processes that were important during its formation are relevant to the Earth's early history. MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) is a Discovery mission that has been designed to fly by and orbit Mercury. It will launch in March 2004, flyby Mercury in 2007 and 2008 and enter an elliptical orbit in April 2009. During the one-year orbital phase, a suite of instruments on board the MESSENGER spacecraft will study the exosphere, magnetosphere, surface, and interior of Mercury. One of these instruments will be an X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) that will measure surface elemental abundances. Remote X-ray spectroscopy has been accomplished before on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, and more recently on NEAR Shoemaker. The MESSENGER XRS will measure characteristic X-ray emissions induced in the surface of Mercury by the incident solar flux. The Ka lines for the elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe will be detected with spatial resolution on the order of 40 km when counting statistics are not a limiting factor. These measurements can be used to obtain quantitative information on elemental composition.

  11. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by environmental exposure to mercury in Liza aurata using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves; Guilherme, Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes; Barroso, Carlos Miguel Miguez; Verschaeve, Luc; Pacheco, Mário Guilherme Garcês; Mendo, Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo basin, a particularly contaminated area of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) well known for its Hg contamination gradient. (1) Fish were seasonally caught at Laranjo basin and at a reference site (S. Jacinto), and (2) animals from the reference site were transplanted and caged (at bottom and surface), for 3 days, in two different locations within Laranjo basin. Using the comet assay, blood was analyzed for genetic damage and apoptotic cell frequency. The seasonal survey showed greater DNA damage in the Hg-contaminated area for all sampling seasons excluding winter. The temporal variation pattern of DNA lesions was: summer approximately autumn > winter > spring. Fish caged at Laranjo also exhibited greater DNA damage than those caged at the reference site, highlighting the importance of gill uptake on the toxicity of this metal. No increased susceptibility to apoptosis was detected in either wild or caged fish, indicating that mercury damages DNA of blood cells by a nonapoptotic mechanism. Both L. aurata and the comet assay proved to be sensitive and suitable for genotoxicity biomonitoring in mercury-contaminated coastal systems.

  12. Structural modification of rhodamine-based sensors toward highly selective mercury detection in mixed organic/aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhu, Xiang; Wua, Dayu; He, Cheng; Hu, Xiaoyue; Duan, Chunying

    2009-12-21

    In virtue of the sulfurphilic nature of Hg(2+), three new sensors RN1, RN2 and RST1 that combine a thiophene group and one or two rhodamine choromophores, or a thiospirolactam rhodamine chromophore, were designed and prepared for the selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous media, respectively. These sensors all displayed good brightness and fluorescence enhancement following Hg(2+) coordination with limits of detection for Hg(2+) at the ppb level. Thus, they have the potential for distinguishing between safe and toxic levels of inorganic mercury in drinking water. RN1 exhibited chromogenic and fluorogenic selectivity over alkali, alkaline earth metals, divalent first-row transition metal ions as well as heavy metals, but the presence of Cu(2+) had a small but significant influence on the absorption detection of Hg(2+). Compared to RN1, the introduction of sufficient sulfur atoms could increase the binding capability of RST1 towards Hg(2+) relative to the sensor RN1, but decrease its Hg specific ability. The existence of some heavy and transition metal ions, such as Pb(2+), Ag(+), Cu(2+) enhance the silent absorption spectra of RST1. Spectral evidence and X-ray structural investigations of the mercury complex revealed a possible 1:2 complexation behaviour between the Hg(2+) ion and the sensor RN1 or RST1. Sensor RN2 which contains two rhodamine carboxhydrazone arms exhibited better selectivity, compared to those of RN1 and RST1. The addition of Cu(2+) only caused a small interference for the absorption detection of Hg(2+) under the same conditions, demonstrating the efficiency of the robust bis-chelating mode with regard to the selectivity for Hg(2+).

  13. Using group-specific PCR to detect predation of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) by wolf spiders (Lycosidae) at a mercury-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Northam, Weston T; Allison, Lizabeth A; Cristol, Daniel A

    2012-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of contaminants can occur across ecosystem boundaries via transport by emergent aquatic insects. In the South River, Virginia, USA, aquatic mercury has contaminated songbirds nesting in adjacent riparian forests. Spiders contribute the majority of mercury to these songbirds' diets. We tested the hypothesis that massive annual mayfly emergences provide a vector for mercury from river sediments to the Lycosid spiders most frequently eaten by contaminated songbirds. We designed mayfly-specific PCR primers that amplified mtDNA from 76% of adult mayflies collected at this site. By combining this approach with an Agilent 2100 electrophoresis system, we created a highly sensitive test for mayfly predation by Lycosids, commonly known as wolf spiders. In laboratory spider feeding trials, mayfly DNA could be detected up to 192h post-ingestion; however, we detected no mayfly predation in a sample of 110 wolf spiders collected at the site during mayfly emergence. We suggest that mayfly predation is not an important mechanism for dietary transfer of mercury to wolf spiders and their avian predators at the South River. Instead, floodplain soil should be considered as a potential proximate source for mercury in the terrestrial food web.

  14. Phase transfer membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with large volume sample injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for the speciation of inorganic and organic mercury.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingjing; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Bin

    2011-12-30

    In this paper, a novel sample pretreatment technique termed phase transfer based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (PT-LLLME) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction of inorganic and organic mercury species. In PT-LLLME, an intermediate solvent (acetonitrile) was added into the donor phase to improve the contacting between target mercury species and complexing reagent. Meanwhile, a membrane supported (MS)-LLLME unit was designed to realize the PT-LLLME procedure. By using nylon membrane as supporting carrier, larger than 50 μL of acceptor solution could be hung up. Following PT/MS-LLLME, the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis/ultraviolet detection (LVSS-CE/UV). Accordingly, a new method of PT/MS-LLLME combined with LVSS-CE/UV was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic and organic mercury species. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT/MS-LLLME were investigated in details. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 160- to 478-fold were obtained for the extraction of target mercury species by PT/MS-LLLME. By combining PT/MS-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 12,138-fold and the limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were at sub ppb level. The established approach of PT/MS-LLLME-LVSS-CE/UV was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water samples.

  15. Use of selenium to detect mercury in water and cells: an enhancement of the sensitivity and specificity of a seleno fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Ding, Baiyu; Xu, Kehua; Tong, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Seleno fluorescent probe: An organoselenium fluorescent probe (FSe-1) for mercury was designed based on the irreversible deselenation mechanism. FSe-1 exhibits an ultrahigh selectivity and sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection only for reactive selenium atom sites, due the strong affinity between Se and Hg. Furthermore, the new probe has been successfully used for imaging mercury ions in RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line; see figure).Inspired by the antitoxic function of selenium towards heavy-metal ions, we designed an organoselenium fluorescent probe (FSe-1) for mercury. The reaction of FSe-1 and Hg(2+) is an irreversible deselenation mechanism based on the selenophilic character of mercury. FSe-1 exhibits an ultrahigh selectivity and sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection only for reactive selenium atom sites due to the strong affinity between Se and Hg. The experimental results proved that FSe-1 was selective for Hg(2+) ions over other relevant metal ions and bioanalytes, and also showed an enhancement in sensitivity of up to 1.0 nM, which is lower than the current Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Furthermore, the new probe has been successfully applied to the imaging of mercury ions in RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line) with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  16. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  17. Measurement of hand tremor induced by industrial exposure to metallic mercury.

    PubMed Central

    Fawer, R F; de Ribaupierre, Y; Guillemin, M P; Berode, M; Lob, M

    1983-01-01

    Hand tremor due to industrial exposure to metallic mercury vapour was recorded in 26 exposed and 25 non-exposed male workers by an accelerometer attached to the dorsum of the hand. The subjects were instructed to hold the hand and the forearm in the same position first without and then with a load of 1250 g supported by the hand. Analysis of the records showed that the highest peak frequencies (HPF) (the frequency corresponding to the highest acceleration) were higher in the exposed men than in the controls and were related to the duration of exposure to mercury and to age. The changes in HPF between rest and load were again higher in the exposed men than in the controls and again related to the duration of exposure and to age. The second moment (M2) (an index taking into account the whole recorded spectrum) was similar in the exposed men and controls at rest. The changes in M2 between rest and load were higher in the exposed men than in the controls but were related to duration of exposure and to the biological measurements (loge of mercury in urine or blood) and not to age. These neurophysiological impairments might result from the tendency of metallic mercury to accumulate in the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that metallic mercury, even at concentrations probably below the current TLV-TWA of 0.05 mg/m3, can lead to neurological disorders. PMID:6830719

  18. A competitive immunochromatographic assay based on a novel probe for the detection of mercury (II) ions in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pan, Fengguang; Li, Yansong; Lu, Shiying; Ren, Honglin; Shen, Qingfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Junhui; Chen, Qijun; Liu, Zengshan

    2010-07-15

    Mercury ions (Hg(2+)) are one of the most dangerous pollutants. Even at low concentration, it causes serious environmental and health problems. Current methods for the detection of Hg(2+) in environmental samples are tedious and time consuming because they require sophisticated instrumentation and complicated sample pre-treatment processes. In this work, a novel probe with high selectivity towards Hg(2+) was synthesized and a one step competitive immunochromatographic assay based on the probe for the detection of Hg(2+) was developed and applied for water samples. The detection conjugate was immobilized on one end of the nitrocellulose membrane (detection line) and anti-BSA polyclonal antibody was immobilized on the other end of the membrane (control line). Hg(2+) in samples competed with the probe to bind with immobilized detection conjugate. The visual detection limit of Hg(2+) in spiked water samples was found to be about 1 ppb. The qualitative assay can be performed within 15 min. The advantages of the technique are rapidity, low cost and without the need of any equipment and complicated sample preparation.

  19. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury induces biochemical and morphological changes in the salivary glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Aragão, W A B; da Costa, N M M; Fagundes, N C F; Silva, M C F; Alves-Junior, S M; Pinheiro, J J V; Amado, L L; Crespo-López, M E; Maia, C S F; Lima, R R

    2017-09-20

    Mercury exposure is considered to be a public health problem due to the generation of toxic effects on human health as a result of environmental and occupational conditions. The inorganic form of mercury (HgCl2) can cause several biological changes in cells and tissues through its cumulative toxic potential, but little has been experimentally proven about the effects of inorganic mercury on salivary glands, an important modulator organ of oral health. This study analyzes the effects of prolonged low dose exposure to HgCl2 on the salivary glands of rats. Adult animals received a dose of 0.375 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a period of 45 days. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for analysis of the mercury levels and evaluation of oxidative stress, histological parameters and immunomodulation for metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II). In this investigation, biochemical and tissue changes in the salivary glands were verified due to the mercury levels, causing reduction in antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, with consequent cellular lipid peroxidation and an increase in nitrite levels, volumetric changes and cytoskeletal damage in the submandibular glands, with less severe damage to the parotid glands. The results also have shown the occurrence of a cytoprotection mechanism due to increased MT-I/II expression, but not enough to avoid the morphology and oxidative damage. This evidence highlights, for the first time, that inorganic mercury is able to alter the morphology and oxidative biochemistry in salivary glands when exposed for a long time in low doses.

  20. ISA - An Accelerometer to Detect the Disturbing Accelerations Acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the BepiColombo ESA Cornerstone Mission to Mercury: on Ground Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Fois, M.; Persichini, M.

    2006-06-01

    To reach the ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury, among which the planet structure and rotation and test Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) to an unprecedented accuracy, an accelerometer has been selected to fly on-board the MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter), the main spacecraft of the two to be placed around the innermost planet of our solar system around 2017. The key role of the on-board accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that disturbs the pure gravitational orbit of the MPO spacecraft in the strong radiation environment of Mercury. In this way the ``corrected'' orbit of the MPO may be regarded as a geodesic in the field of Mercury. Then, thanks to the very precise tracking from Earth, the possibility to study Mercury's center-of-mass around the Sun and estimate several parameters related to the planet structure and verify the theory of GR. The selected accelerometer named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is an high sensitive instrument with an intrinsic noise of 10-10 g⊕ / Hz (with g⊕ ≅ 9.8 m / s2) in the frequency band 3 . 10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axis accelerometer with a characteristic configuration, in order to minimize the disturbing accelerations due to the gravity-gradients and the apparent forces on the Nadir pointing MPO spacecraft. Because of the complex and strong radiation environment of Mercury, the modelling of the non-gravitational acceleration is quite difficult, while, with the use of ISA accelerometer we are able to gain a factor 100 in accuracy. In this brief paper we will focus on the characteristics of the ISA accelerometer, on its positioning on-board the MPO and in particularly to the techniques for on ground calibration, avoiding the effects of the Earth gravity.

  1. Induced plant uptake and transport of mercury in the presence of sulphur-containing ligands and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Fabio N; Anderson, Christopher W N; Stewart, Robert B; Robinson, Brett H; Ghomshei, Mory; Meech, John A

    2005-05-01

    The induced accumulation of mercury (Hg) by plants was investigated for the species Phaseolus vulgaris (Bush bean), Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), and Vicia villosa (Hairy vetch). All plants were grown in modified Hg-contaminated mine tailings and were treated with sulphur-containing ligands to induce Hg accumulation. The effects of varied substrate Hg concentration and humic acid (HA) level on the induced plant-Hg accumulation for B. juncea were examined. Thiosulphate salts (ammonium and sodium) mobilised Hg in the substrates and caused an increase in the Hg concentration of roots and shoots of all tested plant species. Root Hg accumulation was positively correlated to extractable Hg for (NH4)2S2O3-treated B. juncea plants grown in HA-amended substrates. However, shoot Hg translocation for this species was inhibited at 1.25 g HA kg(-1) of substrate. Mercury-thiosulphate complexes could be translocated and accumulated in the upper parts of the plants up to 25 times the Hg concentration in the substrate. We conclude that shoot Hg accumulation in the presence of thiosulphate salts is dependent upon plant species characteristics (e.g. root surface area) and humic acid content.

  2. An Ionic 1,4-Bis(styryl)benzene-Based Fluorescent Probe for Mercury(II) Detection in Water via Deprotection of the Thioacetal Group

    PubMed Central

    Le, Van Sang; Jeong, Ji-Eun; Huynh, Huy Tuan; Lee, Jiae; Woo, Han Young

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive and selective mercury detection in aqueous media is urgently needed because mercury poisoning usually results from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury by inhalation and/or ingesting. An ionic conjugated oligoelectrolye (M1Q) based on 1,4-bis(styryl)benzene was synthesized as a fluorescent mercury(II) probe. The thioacetal moiety and quaternized ammonium group were incorporated for Hg2+ recognition and water solubility. A neutral Hg2+ probe (M1) was also prepared based on the same molecular backbone, and their sensor characteristics were investigated in a mixture of acetonitrile/water and in water. In the presence of Hg2+, the thioacetal group was converted to aldehyde functionality, and the resulting photoluminescence intensity decreased. In water, M1Q successfully demonstrated highly sensitive detection, showing a binding toward Hg2+ that was ~15 times stronger and a signal on/off ratio twice as high, compared to M1 in acetonitrile/water. The thioacetal deprotection by Hg2+ ions was substantially facilitated in water without an organic cosolvent. The limit of detection was measured to be 7 nM with a detection range of 10–180 nM in 100% aqueous medium. PMID:27941624

  3. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of a novel fluorescent sensor bearing dansyl fluorophores for the highly selective detection of mercury (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wanichacheva, Nantanit; Watpathomsub, Supranee; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Grudpan, Kate

    2010-03-12

    A new macromolecule possessing two dansyl moieties and based on 2-[4-(2-aminoethylthio)butylthio]ethanamine was prepared as a fluorescent sensor and its mercury sensing properties toward various transition metal, alkali, and alkali earth ions were investigated. The designed compound exhibited pronounced Hg2+-selective ON-OFF type fluorescence switching upon binding. The new compound provided highly selective sensing to Hg2+ in acetonitrile-water solvent mixtures with a detection limit of 2.49 x 10(-7) M or 50 ppb. The molecular modeling results indicated that ions-recognition of the sensor originated from a self assembly process of the reagent and Hg2+ to form a helical wrapping structure with the favorable electrostatic interactions of Hg2+coordinated with sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen atoms and aromatic moieties.

  5. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  6. A new peptidyl fluorescent chemosensors for the selective detection of mercury ions based on tetrapeptide.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi, Ponnaboina; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2013-12-15

    A novel peptidyl chemosensor (PySO2-His-Gly-Gly-Lys(PySO2)-NH2, 1) was synthesized by incorporation of two pyrene (Py) fluorophores into the tetrapeptide using sulfonamide group. Compound 1 exhibited selective fluorescence response towards Hg(II) over the other metal ions in aqueous buffered solutions. Furthermore, 1 with the potent binding affinity (Kd=120 nM) for Hg(II) detected Hg(II) without interference of other metal ions such as Ag(I), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II). The binding mode of 1 with Hg(II) was investigated by UV absorbance spectroscopy, (1)H NMR titration experiment, and pH titration experiment. The addition of Hg(II) induced a significant decrease in both excimer and monomer emissions of the pyrene fluorescence. Hg(II) interacted with the sulfonamide groups and the imidazole group of His in the peptidyl chemosensor and then two pyrene fluorophores were close to each other in the peptide. The decrease of both excimer and monomer emission was mainly due to the excimer/monomer emission change by dimerization of two pyrene fluorophores and a quenching effect of Hg(II).

  7. Detecting and managing fisheries-induced evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Merilä, Juha

    2007-12-01

    Exploitation of fish populations can induce evolutionary responses in life histories. For example, fisheries targeting large individuals are expected to select for early maturation at smaller sizes, leading to reduced fecundity and thus also reduced fisheries yield. These predicted phenotypic shifts have been observed in several fish stocks, but disentangling the environmental and genetic causes behind them has proved difficult. Here, we review recent studies investigating phenotypic shifts in exploited populations and strategies for minimizing fisheries-induced evolution. Responses to selective harvesting will depend on species-specific life-history traits, and on community-level and environmental processes. Therefore, the detection of fisheries-induced evolution and successful fish stock management requires routine population monitoring, and a good understanding of genetics, relevant ecological processes and changing environmental conditions.

  8. Thioether-Based Fluorescent Covalent Organic Framework for Selective Detection and Facile Removal of Mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Ding, San-Yuan; Dong, Ming; Wang, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yan-Tao; Wang, Huai-Zhen; Su, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-09

    Heavy metal ions are highly toxic and widely spread as environmental pollutants. New strategies are being developed to simultaneously detect and remove these toxic ions. Herein, we take the intrinsic advantage of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and develop fluorescent COFs for sensing applications. As a proof-of-concept, a thioether-functionalized COF material, COF-LZU8, was "bottom-up" integrated with multifunctionality for the selective detection and facile removal of mercury(II): the π-conjugated framework as the signal transducer, the evenly and densely distributed thioether groups as the Hg(2+) receptor, the regular pores facilitating the real-time detection and mass transfer, together with the robust COF structure for recycle use. The excellent sensing performance of COF-LZU8 was achieved in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, easy visibility, and real-time response. Meanwhile, the efficient removal of Hg(2+) from water and the recycling of COF-LZU8 offers the possibility for practical applications. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state NMR investigations verified the strong and selective interaction between Hg(2+) and the thioether groups of COF-LZU8. This research not only demonstrates the utilization of fluorescent COFs for both sensing and removal of metal ions but also highlights the facile construction of functionalized COFs for environmental applications.

  9. Specific detection of mercury(II) irons using AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengyan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Ding, Kai; Zhang, Bintian; Lin, Zhang; Huang, Feng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most environmentally important cations, mercury(II) iron has the biological toxicity which impacts wild life ecology and human health heavily. A Hg2+ biosensor based on AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors with high sensitivity and short response time is demonstrated experimentally. To achieve highly specific detection of Hg2+, an one-end thiol-modified ssDNA with lots of T thymine is immobilized to the Au-coated gate area of the high electron mobility transistors by a covalent modification method. The introduction of Hg2+ to the gate of the high electron mobility transistors affects surface charges, which leads to a change in the concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas in the AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. Thus, the saturation current curves can be shifted with the modification of the gate areas and varied concentrations of Hg2+. Under the bias of 100 mV, a detection limit for the Hg2+ as low as10 nM is achieved. Successful detection with minute quantity of the sample indicates that the sensor has great potential in practical screening for a wide population. In addition, the dimension of the active area of the sensor is 20×50 μm2 and that of the entire sensor chip is 1×2 mm2, which make the Hg2+ biosensor portable.

  10. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage. PMID:26559602

  11. Label-free colorimetric detection of mercury via Hg2+ ions-accelerated structural transformation of nanoscale metal-oxo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; She, Shan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Bayaguud, Aruuhan; Wei, Yongge

    2015-11-01

    Mercury and its compounds are known to be extremely toxic but widely distributed in environment. Although many works have been reported to efficiently detect mercury, development of simple and convenient sensors is still longed for quick analyzing mercury in water. In this work, a nanoscale metal-oxo cluster, (n-Bu4N)2[Mo5NaO13(OCH3)4(NO)], (MLPOM), organically-derivatized from monolacunary Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate, is found to specifically react with Hg2+ in methanol/water via structural transformation. The MLPOM methanol solution displays a color change from purple to brown within seconds after being mixed with an aqueous solution containing Hg2+. By comparing the structure of polyoxomolybdate before and after reaction, the color change is revealed to be the essentially structural transformation of MLPOM accelerated by Hg2+. Based on this discovery, MLPOM could be utilized as a colorimetric sensor to sense the existence of Hg2+, and a simple and label-free method is developed to selectively detect aqueous Hg2+. Furthermore, the colorimetric sensor has been applied to indicating mercury contamination in industrial sewage.

  12. Mercury induced haemocyte alterations in the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus as novel biomarker.

    PubMed

    Leomanni, Alessandro; Schettino, Trifone; Calisi, Antonio; Lionetto, Maria Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of a suite of cellular and biochemical markers in the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus exposed to mercury in view of future use as sensitive tool suitable for mercury polluted soil monitoring and assessment. Besides standardized biomarkers (metallothionein, acetylcholinesterase, and lysosomal membrane stability) novel cellular biomarkers on haemolymph cells were analyzed, including changes in the spread cells/round cells ratio and haemocyte morphometric alterations. The animals were exposed for 14 days to Lactuca sativa soaked for 1h in HgCl2 solutions (0.5 e 1 μM). The temporal dynamics of the responses were assessed by measurements at 3, 7 and 14 days. Following exposure to HgCl2 a significant alteration in the relative frequencies of round cells and spread cells was evident, with a time and dose-dependent increase of the frequencies of round cells with respect to spread cells. These changes were accompanied by cellular morphometric alterations. Concomitantly, a high correspondence between these cellular responses and metallothionein tissutal concentration, lysosomal membrane stability and inhibition of AChE was evident. The study highlights the usefulness of the terrestrial snail C. apertus as bioindicator organism for mercury pollution biomonitoring and, in particular, the use of haemocyte alterations as a suitable biomarker of pollutant effect to be included in a multibiomarker strategy.

  13. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  14. The role of intracellular glutathione in inorganic mercury-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Alan; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-09-01

    It is well known that antioxidants containing sulfhydryl (-SH) groups are protective against the toxic effects of mercury. The current study was designed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the cytoprotective effects of glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the toxicity of inorganic mercury (HgCl(2)) in neuroblastoma cells (N-2A). The obtained results demonstrated the protective effects of these compounds in a dose dependant manner up to 95 and 74% cell viability, respectively as compared to the control of HgCl(2) of 10%. The administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased the toxicity of HgCl(2) in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, BSO treatment attenuated the levels of the cellular free -SH concentrations at low concentrations (1-100 microM) of HgCl(2). The data also show that cellular thiol concentrations were augmented in the presence of GSH and NAC and these compounds were cytoprotective against HgCl(2) and this is due to up regulating of GSH synthesis. A reduction in intracellular levels of GSH was observed with treatment of HgCl(2). In addition, the ratio of GSH/GSSG increased from 16:1 to 50:1 from 1 to 10 microM concentration of HgCl(2.) The ratio of GSH/GSSG then decreased from 4:1 to 0.5:1 with the increase of concentration of HgCl(2) between 100 microM and 1 mM due to the collapse of the N-2A cells. It was of interest to note that the synthesis of GSH was stimulated in cells exposed to low concentration of HgCl(2) when extra GSH is available. These data support the idea that the loss of GSH plays a contributing role to the toxic effects of HgCl(2) and that inorganic mercury adversely affects viability, through altering intracellular -SH concentrations. The data further indicate that the availability of GSH to the cells may not be sufficient to provide protection against mercury toxicity and the de novo synthesis of intracellular GSH is required to prevent the damaging effects of mercury.

  15. Mitochondrial viability and apoptosis induced by aluminum, mercuric mercury and methylmercury in cell lines of neural origin.

    PubMed

    Toimela, Tarja; Tähti, Hanna

    2004-10-01

    Mercury and aluminum are considered to be neurotoxic metals, and they are often connected with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, mercuric mercury, methylmercury and aluminum were studied in three different cell lines of neural origin. To evaluate the effects, mitochondrial cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by the metals were measured after various incubation times. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, U 373MG glioblastoma, and RPE D407 retinal pigment epithelial cells were subcultured to appropriate cell culture plates and 0.01-1,000 microM concentrations of methylmercury, mercuric and aluminum chloride were added into the growth medium. In the assay measuring the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, WST-1, the cultures were exposed for 15 min, 24 or 48 h before measurement. Cells were allowed to recover from the exposure in part of the study. Apoptosis induced by the metals was measured after 6-, 24- and 48-h exposure times with the determination of activated caspase 3 enzyme. Mitochondrial assays showed a clear dose-response and exposure time-response to the metals. The most toxic was methylmercury (EC50 ~0.8 microM, 48 h), and the most sensitive cell line was the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Furthermore, there was marked mitochondrial activation, especially in connection with aluminum and methylmercury at low concentrations. This activation may be important during the initiation of cellular processes. All the metals tested induced apoptosis, but with a different time-course and cell-line specificity. In microscopic photographs, glioblastoma cells formed fibrillary tangles, and neuroblastoma cells settled along the fibrilles in cocultures of glial and neuronal cell lines during aluminum exposure. The study emphasized the toxicity of methylmercury to neural cells and showed that aluminum alters various cellular activities.

  16. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-9 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle, was the last flight of the Mercury Project. The Faith 7 spacecraft orbited the Earth 22 times in 1-1/2 days.

  17. l-Tryptophan-capped carbon quantum dots for the sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of mercury ion in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xuejuan; Li, Shifeng; Zhuang, Lulu; Tang, Jiaoning

    2016-07-01

    l-Tryptophan-capped carbon quantum dots ( l-CQDs) were facilely synthesized through "green" methodology, and the obtained material was utilized as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for mercury ion (Hg2+) in pure aqueous solutions. Carboxyl-functionalized CQDs were first green synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal route, and l-tryptophan was then attached to CQDs via direct surface condensation reaction in aqueous solution at room temperature. The as-synthesized l-CQDs had an average size of ca. 5 nm with a good dispersity in water, and exhibited a favorable selectivity for Hg2+ ions over a range of other common metal cations in aqueous solution (10 mM PBS buffer, pH 6.0). Upon the addition of Hg2+, a complete fluorescence quenching (ON-OFF switching) of l-CQDs was evident from the fluorescence titration experiment, and the fluorescence detection limit of Hg2+ was calculated to be 11 nM, which indicated that the obtained environmentally friendly l-CQDs had sensitive detection capacity for Hg2+ in aqueous solution.

  18. The comparison of two MCNP models used for prompt gamma in vivo detection of cadmium and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, J.; Grinyer, J.; Chettle, D. R.; Byun, S. H.

    2007-10-01

    In vivo detection of trace elements is one of the most important research areas at the Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department at McMaster University. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) used for detection of cadmium and mercury takes place simultaneously at two different experimental sites; the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) and the 238Pu/Be neutron source site. This particular study consists of two parts. In the first part the water phantoms (125 mL) were used in MCNP simulations. The water phantoms were doped with different concentrations of Cd, Hg and HCl. This is done in order to compare the (n, γ) prompt gamma reaction rate; in fact, the rate of neutron capture by the nuclides of interest; 113Cd, 199Hg and 35Cl. The second part involves, the neutron and photon dosimetry calculations that were performed for both sites using MCNP compatible body builder software developed in Los Alamos. The output of this program is the actual MCNP geometry description for various human anthropomorphic phantoms (different sex and ages). This phantom geometry output is incorporated into the original MCNP geometry and the dosimetry calculations were performed for various organs at risk.

  19. A highly selective sulfur-free iridium(III)-complex-based phosphorescent chemidosimeter for detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Yu, Fang; Dai, Jun; Sun, Huiqin; Lu, Zhiyun; Li, Ming; Jiang, Qing; Huang, Yan

    2012-04-28

    A neutral phosphorescent coordination compound bearing a benzimidazole ligand, Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) (Hpbi = 1,2-diphenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole; Hacac = acetylacetone), is demonstrated to be the first example of a sulfur-free iridium complex for the detection of Hg(2+) cations with high selectivity and sensitivity. Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) shows a multisignaling response towards mercury(II) ions through UV-vis absorption, phosphorescence and electrochemistry measurements. Upon addition of Hg(2+) ions, solutions of this complex change from yellow to colorless, which could be observed easily by the naked eye, while its phosphorescence turns from bright green (λ(PLmax) = 520 nm) into faint skyblue (λ(PLmax) = 476 nm), and the detection limit is calculated to be 2.4 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopic titration as well as ESI-MS results indicate that the decomposition of Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) in the presence of Hg(2+) through rupture of Ir-O bonds is responsible for the significant variations in both optical and electrochemical signals.

  20. Novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based ultrasensitive sensors for trace mercury(II) detection in water: A review.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Ettore, Nicholas; Jacobs, Zachary L; Zarr, Asha; Weir, Mark H; Scheuerman, Phillip R; Kanel, Sushil R; Dubey, Brajesh

    2017-01-01

    Infamous for "Mad hatter syndrome" and "Minamata disease", mercury (Hg) is ranked high on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's priority list of hazardous substances for its potent neurologic, renal, and developmental toxicities. Most typical exposures are via contaminated water and food. Although regulations and advisories are exercised at various levels, Hg pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources has remained a major public health and safety concern. Rapid detection of solvated aqueous Hg(2+) ions at low levels is critical for immediate response and protection of those who are vulnerable (young children, pregnant and breast-feeding women) to acute and chronic exposures to Hg(2+). Various types of sensors capable of detecting Hg in water have been developed. In particular, the novel use of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has garnered attention due to their specificity and sensitivity towards Hg(2+) detection in solution. In this focused review, we describe the sensitivity, selectivity and mechanisms of Hg(2+) ion sensing at trace levels by employing CNT-based various sensor designs, and appraise the open literature on the currently applied and "proof-of-concept" methods. Five different types of CNT-based sensor systems are described: potentiometric, DNA-based fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), colorimetric, and stripping voltammetric assays. In addition, the recognized merits and shortcomings for each type of electrochemical sensors are discussed. The knowledge from this succinct review shall guide the development of the next generation CNT-based biochemical sensors for rapid Hg(2+) detection in the environment, which is a significant first step towards human health risk analysis of this legacy toxicant.

  1. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 expressed during mercury-induced membranous nephropathy are toxic for cultured podocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coers, W; Vos, J T; Van der Meide, P H; Van der Horst, M L; Huitema, S; Weening, J J

    1995-01-01

    The subepithelial immune deposits of Dorus Zadel Black (DZB) rats with mercury-induced membranous nephropathy consist of autoantibodies directed to laminin P1 and of complement. The animals develop massive proteinuria within 10-14 days which is associated with obliteration of foot processes of glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GVEC), or podocytes. Previous studies indicate that these autoantibodies are probably not the sole mediator of proteinuria and GVEC damage. In this study we investigated whether circulating or macrophage-derived cytokines can contribute to the GVEC changes as detected in vivo. In vivo at the height of the proteinuria, increased intraglomerular IFN-gamma immunoreactivity was found. In diseased rats a five-fold increase in intraglomerular macrophages was found, but we could not detect intraglomerular IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-1 beta or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by using immunohistology. Subsequently, we exposed cultured GVEC to these cytokines to investigate their cytotoxic effects on several physiological and structural parameters. IFN-gamma and IL-4 were the only cytokines that exerted toxic effects, resulting in a rapidly decreased transepithelial resistance of confluent monolayers, which was closely associated with altered immunoreactivity of the tight junction protein ZO-1. IL-4 also affected vimentin and laminin immunoreactivity. IFN-gamma and IL-4 only interfered with monolayer integrity when added to the basolateral side of the GVEC, indicating specific (receptor-mediated) effects. Only IL-4 decreased the viability of the cells, and treated monolayers demonstrated an increased passage of the 44-kD protein horseradish peroxidase. From our experiments we concluded that IFN-gamma subtly affected monolayer integrity at the level of the tight junctions, and that IL-4 additionally induced cell death. We hypothesize that the toxic effects of the cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-4 as seen with cultured podocytes are necessary

  2. Mercury specifically induces LINE-1 activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    L1 retro-elements comprise 17% of the human genome. Approximately 100 copies of these autonomous mobile elements are active in our DNA and can cause mutations, gene disruptions, and genomic instability. Therefore, human cells control the activities of L1 elements, in order to prevent their deleterious effects through different mechanisms. However, some toxic agents increase the retrotransposition activity of L1 elements in somatic cells. In order to identify specific effects of neurotoxic metals on L1 activity in neuronal cells, we studied the effects of mercury and cobalt on L1-retroelement activity by measuring levels of cellular transcription, protein expression, and genomic retrotransposition in a neuroblastoma cell line compared with the effects in three non-neuronal cell lines. Our results show that mercury increased the expression of L1 RNA, the activity of the L1 5'UTR, and L1 retrotransposition exclusively in the neuroblastoma cell line but not in non-neuronal cell lines. However, cobalt increased the expression of L1 RNA in neuroblastoma cells, HeLa cells, and wild-type human fibroblasts, and also increased the activity of the L1 5'UTR as well as the SV40 promoter in HeLa cells but not in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to cobalt did not result in increased retrotransposition activity in HeLa cells or neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that non-toxic levels of the neurotoxic agent mercury could influence DNA by increasing L1 activities, specifically in neuronal cells, and may make these cells susceptible to neurodegeneration over time.

  3. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  4. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  5. Application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer for detection of mercury, lead and iron ions using surface plasmon resonance technique.

    PubMed

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A S M; Bahrami, Afarin; Lim, H N; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2014-01-01

    Polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layers were used to modify the gold layer to measure heavy metal ions using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The new sensor was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) ions. In the present research, the sensitivity of a polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer and a polypyrrole layer were compared. The application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor for detecting ions in an aqueous solution due to the binding of mercury, lead, and iron ions to the sensing layer. The Hg ion bonded to the sensing layer more strongly than did the Pb and Fe ions. The limitation of the sensor was calculated to be about 0.1 ppm, which produced an angle shift in the region of 0.3° to 0.6°.

  6. Application of Polypyrrole Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Layer for Detection of Mercury, Lead and Iron Ions Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Bahrami, Afarin; Lim, H. N.; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Mahdi, Mohd. Adzir

    2014-01-01

    Polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layers were used to modify the gold layer to measure heavy metal ions using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The new sensor was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) ions. In the present research, the sensitivity of a polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer and a polypyrrole layer were compared. The application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor for detecting ions in an aqueous solution due to the binding of mercury, lead, and iron ions to the sensing layer. The Hg ion bonded to the sensing layer more strongly than did the Pb and Fe ions. The limitation of the sensor was calculated to be about 0.1 ppm, which produced an angle shift in the region of 0.3° to 0.6°. PMID:24733263

  7. Experimental cross-sections for proton induced nuclear reactions on mercury up to 65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szücs, Z.; Brezovcsik, K.

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sections for formation of activation products induced by protons on natural mercury targets were measured. Results for 196m,196g,197g(cum), 198m,198g,199g(cum), 200g(cum), 201,202Tl, 194g(cum), 195g(cum), 196g(cum), 198m,199g(cum) Au and 195m,197m,203Hg are presented up to 65 MeV incident particle energy, many of these for the first time. The experimental data are compared with literature values and with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 code (results taken from TENDL-2015 on-line library), thick target yields were derived and possible applications in biomedical sciences are discussed.

  8. Role of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: Experimental manipulations of {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuda, L.L.; Hosseinzadeh, H.; Bigazzi, P.E.; Greiner, D.L. |

    1994-12-31

    Brown Norway (BN) rats, {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, experience a decrease of peripheral RT6.2{sup +} T lymphocytes after the injection of relatively low doses of mercury chloride. This change coincides with the appearance of circulating autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin). Lewis (LEW) rats, {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, do not show significant decreases of RT6{sup +} T cells. It is possible that BN rats are particularly sensitive to stress induced by mercury and that secretion of adrenocortical hormones decreases levels of RT6{sup +} T cells in this rat strain. Alternatively, mercury may induce a graft-versus-host-like syndrome in BN rats, resulting in higher levels of corticosteroids capable of affecting RT6{sup +} lymphocytes. To eliminate the possible influence of adrenocortical hormones, we have adrenalectomized BN rats prior to administration of mercury. Autoimmune responses to renal antigens were not affected by this experimental manipulation. Similarly, adrenalectomized rats exposed to mercury showed a significant decrease of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in cervical lymph nodes. Overall, these observations do not support the hypothesis that increases in adrenocortical hormones play a major role in mercury-induced changes of RT6{sup +} T cells. We have also explored whether experimental depletion of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes would result in autoimmunity. Gamma irradiation of BN rats led to a decrease of RT6{sup +} T splenocytes, but by itself (i.e., without exposure to mercury) did not cause autoimmune responses to renal antigens. In addition, gamma-irradiated BN rats treated with mercury had autoimmune responses similar to those observed in mercury-treated nonirradiated controls. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  10. Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  11. ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF LATE VENEER IMPACTORS FROM IMPACT-INDUCED MIXING ON MERCURY

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Barr, A. C.

    2014-02-10

    Late accretion of a ''veneer'' of compositionally diverse planetesimals may introduce chemical heterogeneity in the mantles of the terrestrial planets. The size of the late veneer objects is an important control on the angular momenta, eccentricities, and inclinations of the terrestrial planets, but current estimates range from meter-scale bodies to objects with diameters of thousands of kilometers. We use a three-dimensional global Monte Carlo model of impact cratering, excavation, and ejecta blanket formation to show that evidence of mantle heterogeneity can be preserved within ejecta blankets of mantle-exhuming impacts on terrestrial planets. Compositionally distinct provinces implanted at the time of the late veneer are most likely to be preserved in bodies whose subsequent geodynamical evolution is limited. Mercury may have avoided intensive mixing by solid-state convection during much of its history. Its subsequent bombardment may have then excavated evidence of primordial mantle heterogeneity introduced by the late veneer. Simple geometric arguments can predict the amount of mantle material in the ejecta blanket of mantle-exhuming impacts, and deviations in composition relative to geometric predictions can constrain the length-scale of chemical heterogeneities in the subsurface. A marked change in the relationship between mantle and ejecta composition occurs when chemically distinct provinces are ∼250 km in diameter; thus, evidence of bombardment by thousand-kilometer-sized objects should be readily apparent from the variation in compositions of ejecta blankets in Mercury's ancient cratered terrains.

  12. Effects of methyl mercury on arrays of microtubules and macromolecular synthesis in Daucus carota cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.; Seagull, R.W.; Tran, H.; Cloutier, L.

    1987-08-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota were exposed to methyl mercury at concentrations between 0 and 6 micrograms/ml for 1, 3, or 24 hr. Microtubule arrays exhibited no detectable disruption (as compared with controls) when treated with 1, 2, and 3 micrograms/ml methyl mercury. Disorganization of microtubules did occur at higher concentrations (4-6 micrograms/ml) in a concentration/time-dependent manner. No recovery of microtubule arrays was evident when cells were placed in methyl mercury-free medium for up to 7 days. Analyses of soluble protein and carbohydrate content, dry weight, and cell viability (reducing capacity) indicate that methyl mercury exposure has inhibitory effects on cell metabolism. The observed disruption of plant cell microtubules, induced by exposure to methyl mercury, may be secondary in response to an initial inhibition of synthetic pathways and membrane perturbations.

  13. Highly selective and quantitative colorimetric detection of mercury(II) ions by carrageenan-functionalized Ag/AgCl nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-03-15

    The natural algal polysaccharide carrageenan was used for the greener synthesis of silver/silver chloride nanoparticles (Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs) without any toxic chemicals. We report the robust, highly selective, and sensitive colorimetric sensing of Hg(2+) ions using Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs without any further surface modification. The dark-brown color of a solution of Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs turned to white in a concentration-dependent manner with the addition of Hg(2+) ions, confirming the interaction of Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs with Hg(2+) ions. The plot of the extinction ratio of absorbance at 350nm to 450nm (A350/A450) for Carr-Ag/AgCl NPs against the concentration of [Hg(2+)] ions was linear, and the calibration curve was A350/A450=1.05254+0.00318×CHg with a lower detection limit of 1μM. This portable and cost-effective method for mercury(II) ion sensing is widely applicable in on-field qualitative and quantitative measurements of [Hg(2+)] ions in environmental or biological samples.

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Aptasensor for Sensitive Detection of Mercury(II) Based on Signal Amplification with Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zong-Mu; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2012-01-01

    We show that a short mercury-specific aptamer (MSA) along with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) can be used to determine Hg(II) ion by a combination of a QCM-based sensor and a flow system. The MSA binds specifically to Hg(II), and the Au-NPs can amplify the signal to enhance sensitivity. Specifically, the short thiolated MSAs are immobilized on the surface of the QCM as the capture probe, and the MSAs are linked to the Au-NPs as the linking probe. The two components can form a sandwich structure of the T-Hg(II)-T type in the presence of Hg(II) ions. This leads to change in the mass on the QCM and a change in the resonance frequency. Hg(II) can be determined with a detection limit of 0.24 ± 0.06 nM which is better by three orders of magnitude than previous methods. The sensor can be regenerated by disrupting the T-Hg(II)-T base pairs with a solution of cysteine. PMID:22969338

  15. Design of a gold nanoprobe for rapid and portable mercury detection with the naked eye.

    PubMed

    He, Shijiang; Li, Di; Zhu, Changfeng; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Long, Yitao; Fan, Chunhai

    2008-10-28

    A gold nanoprobe that can respond colorimetrically to Hg(2+) is designed and coupled with a power-free PDMS device; the system can be used for rapid and visual detection of low micromolar Hg(2+) in real environmental samples.

  16. MESSENGER: The Discovery Mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Gold, R. E.; Domingue, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochenistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched on 3 August 2004, has begun its voyage to initiate a new era in our understanding of the terrestrial planets. The mission, spacecraft, and payload are designed to answer six fundamental questions regarding the innermost planet: What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high metal/silicate ratio? What is the geological history of Mercury? What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks on and near Mercury? Planet formational hypotheses will be tested by measuring the surface abundances of major elements by X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. The geological history will be determined from high-resolution color imaging of the heavily cratered highlands, intercrater plains, and smooth plains. MESSENGER will provide detailed views of both the Caloris basin and its antipodal terrain. Topographic, mineralogical, and elemental abundance data will be used to seek evidence of volcanic features and units. Measurement of Mercury's magnetic field and its interaction with the solar wind will distinguish the intrinsic dipole and quadrupole components while separating these from the current systems driven by solar-wind-induced convection. The structure of the internal field will put constraints on dynamo models. Such models will also be constrained by measuring Mercury's libration to determine the extent of a fluid outer core. Both water ice and sulfur have been postulated as major constituents of the high-radar-backscatter polar deposits. MESSENGER will combine gamma-ray and neutron spectrometry of the surface with ultraviolet spectrometry and in situ particle measurements to detect both neutral and charged species originating from the surface. Such measurements will address the

  17. Ultratrace Naked-Eye Colorimetric Detection of Hg(2+) in Wastewater and Serum Utilizing Mercury-Stimulated Peroxidase Mimetic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-PEI-Pd Nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouting; Zhang, Dongxu; Zhang, Xuehong; Shang, Denghui; Xue, Zhonghua; Shan, Duoliang; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-03-21

    Herein, we developed a general strategy for rapid, highly selective, and ultratrace naked-eye colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions. Two dimensional rGO/PEI/Pd nanohybrids, where rGO, PEI, and Pd were referred to as reduced graphene oxide, polyethylenimine, and Pd nanoparticles, respectively, were synthesized and used as mimetic peroxidase for selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg(2+) in water and human serum samples. In the presence of mercury ions, the peroxidase mimetic activity of rGO/PEI/Pd nanohybrids was found to be stimulated and enhanced significantly, which promoted the effective oxidation and color change of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in solution to dark blue that was detected by the naked-eye and the absorption spectroscopic method. The proposed sensing strategy coupled with spectroscopic detection method showed an ultralow detection limit of 0.39 nM for Hg(2+) in ddH2O and ∼1 nM in wastewater as well as serum samples, respectively. On the basis of the colorimetric assay, a minimum concentration of ∼10 nM for Hg(2+) in wastewater and human serum can be detected with the naked-eye. The naked-eye-based colorimetric assay for sensitive and selective detection of mercury is expected to hold huge potentials in applications such as environmental monitoring, clinical diagnosis, and pharmaceutical analysis.

  18. Mercury toxicity and treatment: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, Robin A

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described.

  19. A zinc fluorescent sensor used to detect mercury (II) and hydrosulfide.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Min; Lee, Jae Jun; Nam, Eunju; Lim, Mi Hee; Kim, Cheal; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-05-05

    A zinc sensor based on quinoline and morpholine has been synthesized. The sensor selectively fluoresces in the presence of Zn(2+), while not for other metal ions. Absorbance changes in the 350nm region are observed when Zn(2+) binds, which binds in a 1:1 ratio. The sensor fluoresces due to Zn(2+) above pH values of 6.0 and in the biological important region. The Zn(2+)-sensor complex has the unique ability to detect both Hg(2+) and HS(-). The fluorescence of the Zn(2+)-sensor complex is quenched when it is exposed to aqueous solutions of Hg(2+) with sub-micromolar detection levels for Hg(2+). The fluorescence of the Zn(2+)-sensor complex is also quenched by aqueous solutions of hydrosulfide. The sensor was used to detect Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) in living cells.

  20. Observations and modeling of bromine induced mercury oxidation in the tropical free troposphere during TORERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Sean; Wang, Siyuan; terSchure, Arnout; Evans, Matt; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    The Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO (Jan/Feb 2012) probed air-sea exchange of very short lived halogens and organic carbon species over the full tropospheric air column above the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is well known that halogens influence the oxidative capacity in the marine boundary layer, but their distribution and abundance is less clear in the tropical free troposphere, where most of tropospheric ozone mass resides, and about 80% of the global methane destruction occurs. The oxidation of elemental mercury (GEM) by halogens (i.e., bromine) further forms gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and this oxidation is accelerated at the low temperatures in the free troposphere compared to the boundary layer. Free tropospheric halogen radical abundances are thus of particular importance to understand the entry pathways for GOM deposition from the free troposphere to ecosystem, and the subsequent bio-accumulation of this neurotoxin. This presentation summarizes new observational evidence for halogen vertical distributions over the full tropospheric air column, and their abundance in the tropical troposphere, at mid-latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemisphere. BrO and IO were measured simultaneously by the CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument, and organic halogen precursors were measured by online GC-MS (TOGA) during 22 research flights aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft. We employ atmospheric box modeling constrained by observations of gas-phase hydrocarbons, aerosols, photolysis frequencies, and meterological parameters measured aboard the plane to test the observed BrO and IO abundances, and evaluate the rate of GEM oxidation in light of recent updates about the stability of the Hg-Br adduct, and it's fate (Goodsite et al., 2012; Dibble et al., 2012). Finally, we compare our measurements with output from the GEOS-Chem model for selected case studies.

  1. Potentiometric detection of mercury(II) ions using a carbon paste electrode modified with substituted thiourea-functionalized highly ordered nanoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Mehran; Divsar, Faten; Badiei, Alireza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Chaloosi, Marzieh; Abdi Jahangir, Ali

    2009-06-01

    A potentiometric sensor is reported for the mercury(II) detection, which uses substituted thiourea-functionalized nanoporous silica (FTU-LUS-1) as the sensitive material. Substituted thiourea (FTU) and FTU-LUS-1 were first prepared and then characterized by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, XRD, TG and CNS elemental analysis. The electrodes with FTU-LUS-1 proportion of 10.0 wt% demonstrated very stable potentials. The prepared electrodes exhibit a Nernstian slope of 28.4 +/- 1.0 mV decade(-1) for mercury(II) ion over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-1) mol dm(-3). The electrode exhibited a detection limit of 7.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3). Moreover, the selectivity coefficient, response time, performance, sensitivity and stability of the modified electrode were investigated. The electrode presented a response time of about 35 s, a high performance and sensitivity in a wide range of cation activities as well as good long term stability (more than 9 months). The method was satisfactory and could also be used to monitor the mercury(II) ion concentration in waste water and fish samples.

  2. Got Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, Torin J.; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2010-09-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed by the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may vaporize completely when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. We estimated mercury vapor releases from stowed lamps during missions lasting ≤ 30 days, whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from stowed lamps during missions lasting > 30 days and from operating lamps regardless of mission duration. The toxicity of mercury and its lack of removal have led Johnson Space Center’s Toxicology Group to recommend stringent safety controls and verifications for hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations > 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting ≤ 30 days, or concentrations > 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting > 30 days.

  3. Application of a DNA-based luminescence switch-on method for the detection of mercury(II) ions in water samples from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Fu, Wai-Chung; Shiu-Hin Chan, Daniel; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that damages the endocrine and central nervous systems. In view of the contamination of Hong Kong territorial waters with anthropogenic pollutants such as trace heavy metals, we have investigated the application of our recently developed DNA-based luminescence methodology for the rapid and sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in real water samples. The assay was applied to water samples from Shing Mun River, Nam Sang Wai and Lamma Island sea water, representing natural river, wetland and sea water media, respectively. The results showed that the system could function effectively in real water samples under conditions of low turbidity and low metal ion concentrations. However, high turbidity and high metal ion concentrations increased the background signal and reduced the performance of this assay.

  4. Ion-directed assembly of gold nanorods: a strategy for mercury detection.

    PubMed

    Placido, Tiziana; Aragay, Gemma; Pons, Josefina; Comparelli, Roberto; Curri, M Lucia; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble gold nanorods (Au NRs) have been functionalized with an N-alkylaminopyrazole ligand, 1-[2-(octylamino)ethyl]-3,5-diphenylpyrazole (PyL), that has been demonstrated able to coordinate heavy metal ions. The N-alkylaminopyrazole functionalized Au NRs have been characterized by electron microscopy and spectroscopic investigation and tested in optical detection experiments of different ions, namely, Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and As(3+). In particular, the exposure of the functionalized NRs to increasing amounts of Hg(2+) ions has resulted in a gradual red-shift and broadening of the longitudinal plasmon band, up to 900 nm. Interestingly, a significantly different response has been recorded for the other tested ions. In fact, no significant shift in the longitudinal plasmon band has been observed for any of them, while a nearly linear reduction in the plasmon band intensity versus ion concentration in solution has been detected. The very high sensitivity for Hg(2+) with respect to other investigated ions, with a limit of detection of 3 ppt, demonstrates that the functionalization of Au NRs with PyL is a very effective method to be implemented in a reliable colorimetric sensing device, able to push further down the detection limit achieved by applying similar strategies to spherical Au NPs.

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-07-21

    Astronaut Virgil Gus Grissom awaits America's second marned space mission, Mercury-Redstone 4 (MR-4) on July 21, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7 Mercury spacecraft reached an altitude of 118 miles and traveled 303 miles downrange. It was the fourth flight of the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle (MR-4), developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Ham, a three-year-old chimpanzee, in the spacesuit he would wear for the second Mercury- Redstone (MR-2) suborbital test flight in January, 1961. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury capsule before launching the fisrt American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in May 1961. The Mercury capsule rode atop a modified Redstone rocket, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  7. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's (ABMA) Development Operations Division, poses with the original Mercury astronauts in ABMA's Fabrication Laboratory during a 1959 visit. Inspecting Mercury-Redstone hardware are from left to right, Alan Shepard, Donald Deke Slayton, Virgil Gus Grissom, von Braun, Gordon Cooper, Wally Schirra, John Glenn, and Scott Carpenter. Project Mercury officially began October 7, 1958 as the United States' first manned space program.

  8. Protective effects of selenium on mercury induced immunotoxic effects in mice by way of concurrent drinking water exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui

    2014-07-01

    Selenium (Se) has been recognized as one key to understanding mercury (Hg) exposure risks. To explore the effects of Se on Hg-induced immunotoxicity, female Balb/c mice were exposed to HgCl2- or MeHgCl-contaminated drinking water (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM as Hg) with coexisting Na2SeO3 at different Se/Hg molar ratios (0:1, 1/3:1, 1:1 and 3:1). The potential immunotoxicity induced by Na2SeO3 exposure alone (by way of drinking water) was also determined within a wide range of concentrations. After 14 days' exposure, the effects of Hg or Se on the immune system of Balb/c mice were investigated by determining the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes and the activity of natural killer cells. Hg exposure alone induced a dose-dependent suppression effect, whereas Se provided promotion effects at low exposure level (<0.01 mM) and inhibition effects at high exposure level (>0.03 mM). Under Hg and Se coexposure condition, the effects on immunotoxicity depended on the Hg species, Se/Hg ratio, and exposure concentration. At low Hg concentration (0.001 mM), greater Se ingestion exhibited stronger protective effects on Hg-induced suppression effect mainly by way of decreasing Hg concentrations in target organs. At greater Hg concentration (0.01 and 0.1 mM), immunotoxicity induced by Se (>0.03 mM) became evident, and the protective effects appeared more significant at an Se/Hg molar ratio of 1:1. The complex antagonistic effects between Se and Hg suggested that both Se/Hg molar ratio and concentration should be considered when evaluating the potential health risk of Hg-contaminated biota.

  9. Fluorescent graphene quantum dot nanoprobes for the sensitive and selective detection of mercury ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baojuan; Zhuo, Shujuan; Chen, Luyang; Zhang, Yongjun

    2014-10-15

    Graphene quantum dots were prepared by ultrasonic route and served as a highly selective water-soluble probe for sensing of Hg(2+). The fluorescence emission spectrum of graphene quantum dots was at about 430nm. In the presence of Hg(2+), the fluorescence of the quantum dots significantly quenched. And the fluorescence intensity gradually decreased with the increasing concentration of Hg(2+). The change of fluorescence intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of Hg(2+). Under optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of Hg(2+) was 8.0×10(-7) to 9×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-7)M. In addition, the preliminary mechanism of fluorescence quenching was discussed in the paper. The constructed sensor with high sensitivity and selectivity, simple, rapid properties makes it valuable for further application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoporous gold based optical sensor for sub-ppt detection of mercury ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Chang, Haixin; Hirata, Akihiko; Wu, Hongkai; Xue, Qi-Kun; Chen, Mingwei

    2013-05-28

    Precisely probing heavy metal ions in water is important for molecular biology, environmental protection, and healthy monitoring. Although many methods have been reported in the past decade, developing a quantitative approach capable of detecting sub-ppt level heavy metal ions with high selectivity is still challenging. Here we report an extremely sensitive and highly selective nanoporous gold/aptamer based surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) sensor. The optical sensor has an unprecedented detection sensitivity of 1 pM (0.2 ppt) for Hg(2+) ions, the most sensitive Hg(2+) optical sensor known so far. The sensor also exhibits excellent selectivity. Dilute Hg(2+) ions can be identified in an aqueous solution containing 12 metal ions as well as in river water and underground water. Moreover, the SERRS sensor can be reused without an obvious loss of the sensitivity and selectivity even after 10 cycles.

  11. Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-20

    Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs...detection . colorimetric sensor . gold nanoparticles . aptamers A RTIC LE Terms of Use WEI ET AL. VOL. 8 ’ NO. 2 ’ 1121–1129 ’ 2014 www.acsnano.org 1122...a colorimetric assay utilizing citrate-stabilized plasmonic AuNPs and aptamers (Apt) mixed within disposable test tubes. Due to the shift in the

  12. An infrared spectroscopic based method for mercury(II) detection in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandrasoma, Asela; Hamid, Amer Al Abdel; Bruce, Alice E; Bruce, Mitchell R M; Tripp, Carl P

    2012-05-30

    A new method that uses solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with FTIR spectroscopy to detect Hg(II) in aqueous samples is described. The technique is envisioned for on-site, field evaluation rather than lab-based techniques. This paper presents the "proof of principle" of this new approach toward measurements of Hg(II) in water and identifies mass transport issues that would need to be overcome in order to migrate from a lab based method to field operation. The SPE material supported on a Si wafer is derivatized with an acylthiosemicarbazide, which undergoes a reaction in the presence of aqueous Hg(II) to form an oxadiazole ring. The progress of the reaction is monitored by IR spectroscopy. Following EPA guidelines, the method of detection limit (MDL) for the SPE/IR was 5 μg of Hg(II)cm(-2). In a 1L sample and a 1cm(2) Si wafer, this translates to a detection limit of 5 ppb. This system shows a high selectivity toward aqueous Hg(II) over other thiophilic heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) and other metal ions such as Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), In(III), Ru(III), Na(I), and Ag(I) in aqueous solutions.

  13. Lanthanide based dual-emission fluorescent probe for detection of mercury (II) in milk.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongliang; Li, Qian; Ma, Chanjiao; Song, Yonghai; Xu, Fugang; Chen, Shouhui; Wang, Li

    2015-01-15

    It is highly desirable to develop a simple and sensitive method for Hg(2+) detection because of the dangerous nature of Hg(2+). In this work, we prepared a dual-emission fluorescent probe for Hg(2+) detection by combining two lanthanide chelates with different emission wavelengths. Green-emitting terbium (Tb(3+)) chelates as reference signals were embedded into SiO2 nanoparticles and red-emitting europium (Eu(3+)) chelates as response units were covalently linked to the surface of silica shell. Upon the addition of Hg(2+), the fluorescence of Eu(3+) chelates can be selectively quenched, while the fluorescence of Tb(3+) chelates remained unchanged. As a kind of Hg(2+) nanosensor, the dual-emission fluorescent probe exhibited excellent selectivity to Hg(2+) and high sensitivity up to 7.07 nM detection limit. The Hg(2+) levels in drinking water and milk samples were determined by using the dual-emission fluorescent probe with satisfied recovery. Additionally, our probe has a long enough fluorescence lifetime, which can avoid the interference from autofluorescence of the biological samples. We envision that the proposed probe could find great potential applications for ultrasensitive time-resolved fluorometric assays and biomedical imaging in the future.

  14. Recent Advances in Mercury Research

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic, non-essential, naturally occurring metal with a variety of uses. Mercury is not required for any known biological process and its presence in the human body may be detrimental, especially to the nervous system. Both genetic and behavioral studies suggest that mercury levels, age (both of exposure and at testing), and genetic background determine disease processes and outcome. The metal receptors and genes responsible for mercury metabolism also appear to play a pivotal role in the etiology of mercury-induced pathology. This review presents information about the latest advances in mercury research, with particular focus on low-level exposures and the contribution of genetics to toxic outcome. Future studies should address the contribution of genetics and low-level mercury exposure to disease, namely gene x environment interactions, taking into consideration age of exposure as developing animals are exquisitely more sensitive to this metal. In addition to recent advances in understanding the pathology associated with mercury exposure, the review highlights transport mechanisms, cellular distribution and detoxification of mercury species in the body. PMID:28018837

  15. A cell line with decreased sensitivity to the methyl mercury-induced stimulation of alpha-amanitin sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Ducote, J; Reboulleau, C P; Gierthy, J

    1988-01-01

    1. In nuclei isolated from cells of the B50 rat neuroblastoma line the stimulatory effect of methyl mercury on alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis is very much reduced compared to the stimulatory effect in HeLa nuclei (see: Frenkel G. D. and Randles K. (1982) Specific stimulation of alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated HeLa nuclei by methyl mercury. J. biol. Chem. 257, 6275-6279). 2. The stimulatory effect of another mercury compound, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, was also much less pronounced in the B50 nuclei. 3. Similar results were obtained with nuclei isolated from B50 cells which had been induced to differentiate by exposure to dibutaryl cyclic AMP. 4. Nuclei isolated from cells of another rat neuroblastoma line (B35), and nuclei from cells of a human neuroblastoma line both exhibited levels of stimulation similar to that of HeLa nuclei. 5. The B50 and HeLa cells were also compared as to their sensitivity to other effects of methyl mercury.

  16. Observations of mercury-containing aerosols.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D M; Hudson, P K; Thomson, l D S; Sheridan, P J; Wilson, J C

    2006-05-15

    In situ analyses with a laser ionization mass spectrometer have shown that a large fraction of aerosols in the bottom few kilometers of the stratosphere contain small amounts of mercury (1). Electron microscopy of particles collected near the tropopause has also detected mercury. The distribution of mercury onto many particles, including those less than 20 nm in diameter, indicates that the mercury is from local condensation of mercury compounds onto particles rather than transport of mercury-rich aerosols from surface sources. Although the results are only semiquantitative, they suggest that most of the mercury in the lower stratosphere is converted into the particulate phase. Mercury-containing particles were present at both middle latitudes and the tropics in two seasons. There is therefore good reason to believe that particulate mercury above the tropopause is global and could affect the atmospheric lifetime of mercury. There are indications that bromine and/ or iodine may be involved in the conversion of mercury from the gas to particle phase. Measurements at altitudes below 5 km did not find mercury in any particles despite sampling some particles that clearly originated in the stratosphere. This indicates that the particulate mercury from the lower stratosphere may be volatile enough to evaporate or decompose once particles reach warmer temperatures.

  17. Selective and “turn-off” fluorimetric detection of mercury(II) based on coumarinyldithiolane and coumarinyldithiane in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yuan; An, Jing; Tang, Haoyang; Peng, Mengjiao; Suzenet, Franck

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Visual fluorescence emission of probe 3a. - Highlights: • Five novel coumarin-based fluorescent probes were developed. • A reasonable reaction mechanism was proposed and verified. • All the probes showed excellent optical properties. - Abstract: In this work, five novel coumarin-based fluorescent probes for mercury ions were developed. The recognition of mercury ions was performed via the mercury(II)-promoted desulfurization of the probes and a reasonable reaction mechanism was proposed and verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) and fluorescence intensity measurements. All the probes showed excellent optical properties and exclusively distinguish mercury ions from various metal ions in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4. The linear response of the fluorescence emission intensity for all the probes to the concentration of mercury ions was obtained over a wide range of 0.06–1.5 μM (0.06–0.9 μM for probe 3e). In addition, the biological toxicity and the confocal fluorescence images of probe 3a were also tested on MCF-7 cells.

  18. Label free and high specific detection of mercury ions based on silver nano-liposome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, Eepsita; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Pradhan, Arun K.; Pradhan, Pallavi

    2016-06-01

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly, mild and one-pot approach for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via a lipopeptide biosurfactant - CHBS. The biosurfactant forms liposome vesicles when dispersed in an aqueous medium. The amino acid groups of the biosurfactant assists in the reduction of Ag+ ions leading to the production of homogeneous silver nanoparticles, encapsulated within the liposome vesicle, as confirmed from TEM analysis. Rate of synthesis and size of particle were greatly dependent on pH and reaction temperature. Kinetic analysis suggests the involvement of an autocatalytic reaction and the observed rate constant (kobs) was found to decrease with temperature, suggesting faster reaction with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticles served as excellent probes for highly selective and sensitive recognition of Hg2 + ions. Interaction with Hg2 + ions results in an immediate change in colour of nanoparticle solution form brownish red to milky white. With increasing Hg2 + ions concentration, a gradual disappearance of SPR peak was observed. A linear relationship (A420/660) with an R2 value of 0.97 was observed in the range of 20 to 100 ppm Hg2 + concentration. Hg2 + ions are reduced to their elemental forms which thereby interact with the vesicles, leading to aggregation and precipitation of particles. The detection method avoids the need of functionalizing ligands and favours Hg2 + detection in aqueous samples by visible range spectrophotometry and hence can be used for simple and rapid analysis.

  19. Label free and high specific detection of mercury ions based on silver nano-liposome.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Eepsita; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Pradhan, Arun K; Pradhan, Pallavi

    2016-06-15

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly, mild and one-pot approach for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via a lipopeptide biosurfactant - CHBS. The biosurfactant forms liposome vesicles when dispersed in an aqueous medium. The amino acid groups of the biosurfactant assists in the reduction of Ag(+) ions leading to the production of homogeneous silver nanoparticles, encapsulated within the liposome vesicle, as confirmed from TEM analysis. Rate of synthesis and size of particle were greatly dependent on pH and reaction temperature. Kinetic analysis suggests the involvement of an autocatalytic reaction and the observed rate constant (kobs) was found to decrease with temperature, suggesting faster reaction with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticles served as excellent probes for highly selective and sensitive recognition of Hg(2+) ions. Interaction with Hg(2+) ions results in an immediate change in colour of nanoparticle solution form brownish red to milky white. With increasing Hg(2+) ions concentration, a gradual disappearance of SPR peak was observed. A linear relationship (A420/660) with an R(2) value of 0.97 was observed in the range of 20 to 100ppm Hg(2+) concentration. Hg(2+) ions are reduced to their elemental forms which thereby interact with the vesicles, leading to aggregation and precipitation of particles. The detection method avoids the need of functionalizing ligands and favours Hg(2+) detection in aqueous samples by visible range spectrophotometry and hence can be used for simple and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in fish diets and food web mercury bioaccumulation induced by an invasive planktivorous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Colwell, Arthur E.; Anderson, Norman L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    The invasion, boom, collapse, and reestablishment of a population of the planktivorous threadfin shad in Clear Lake, California, USA, were documented over a 20-year period, as were the effects of changing shad populations on diet and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in nearshore fishes. Threadfin shad competitively displaced other planktivorous fish in the lake, such as inland silversides, young-of-year (YOY) largemouth bass, and YOY bluegill, by reducing zooplankton abundance. As a result, all three species shifted from a diet that was dominated by zooplankton to one that was almost entirely zoobenthos. Stable carbon isotopes corroborated this pattern with each species becoming enriched in δ13C, which is elevated in benthic vs. pelagic organisms. Concomitant with these changes, Hg concentrations increased by ∼50% in all three species. In contrast, obligate benthivores such as prickly sculpin showed no relationship between diet or δ13C and the presence of threadfin shad, suggesting that effects of the shad were not strongly linked to the benthic fish community. There were also no changes in Hg concentrations of prickly sculpin. The temporary extirpation of threadfin shad from the lake resulted in zooplankton densities, foraging patterns, isotope ratios, and Hg concentrations in pelagic fishes returning to pre-shad values. These results indicate that even transient perturbations of the structure of freshwater food webs can result in significant alterations in the bioaccumulation of Hg and that food webs in lakes can be highly resilient.

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    In this 1959 photograph, technicians prepare tail sections for Mercury-Redstone vehicles in Building 4706 at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone, the Mercury-Redstone launched the first two marned U.S. missions.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    The recovery operation of the Faith 7 spacecraft after the completion of the 1-1/2 day orbital flight (MA-9 mission) with Astronaut Gordon Cooper. Navy frogmen attach the flotation collar to the spacecraft. The MA-9 mission was the last flight of the Mercury Project and launched on May 15, 1963 boosted by The Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-09

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The Freedom 7 spacecraft boosted by Mercury-Redstone vehicle for the MR-3 mission made the first marned suborbital flight and Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Walter M. "Wally" Schirra, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-8 (Mercury-Atlas) mission with Sigma 7 spacecraft was the third marned orbital flight by the United States, and made the six orbits in 9-1/4 hours.

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut John H. Glenn, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-6 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, was the first manned orbital launch by the United States, and carried Astronaut Glenn aboard the Friendship 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth.

  7. Size, weight, and power reduction of mercury cadmium telluride infrared detection modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Ihle, Tobias; Wendler, Joachim C.; Lutz, Holger; Rutzinger, Stefan; Schallenberg, Timo; Hofmann, Karl C.; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    Application requirements driving present IR technology development activities are improved capability to detect and identify a threat as well as the need to reduce size weight and power consumption (SWaP) of thermal sights. In addition to the development of 3rd Gen IR modules providing dual-band or dual-color capability, AIM is focused on IR FPAs with reduced pitch and high operating temperature for SWaP reduction. State-of-the-art MCT technology allows AIM the production of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detectors operating at temperatures exceeding 120 K without any need to sacrifice the 5-μm cut-off wavelength. These FPAs allow manufacturing of low cost IR modules with minimum size, weight, and power for state-of-the-art high performance IR systems. AIM has realized full TV format MCT 640×512 mid-wave and long-wave IR detection modules with a 15-μm pitch to meet the requirements of critical military applications like thermal weapon sights or thermal imagers in unmanned aerial vehicles applications. In typical configurations like an F/4.6 cold shield for the 640×512 MWIR module an noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) <25 mK @ 5 ms integration time is achieved, while the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) modules achieve an NETD <38 mK @ F/2 and 180 μs integration time. For the LWIR modules, FPAs with a cut-off up to 10 μm have been realized. The modules are available either with different integral rotary cooler configurations for portable applications that require minimum cooling power or a new split linear cooler providing long lifetime with a mean time to failure (MTTF) > 20000, e.g., for warning sensors in 24/7 operation. The modules are available with optional image processing electronics providing nonuniformity correction and further image processing for a complete IR imaging solution. The latest results and performance of those modules and their applications are presented.

  8. Rhodamine functionalized magnetic core-shell nanocomposite: An emission 'Off-On' sensing system for mercury ion detection and extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Wu, Yan; Ma, Wuze

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured composite with superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide as the inner core and silica molecular sieve as the outer shell. A rhodamine based sensing dye was covalently grafted into the highly ordered tunnels of silica molecular sieve, so that mercury ion sensing and extraction could be achieved from this composite. This probe loaded core-shell structure was characterized by electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption measurement. This composite showed increased emission with increasing mercury ion concentration, along with high sensitivity and good selectivity. Linear response and good regenerating performance were also observed from this composite.

  9. An Inhibitive Enzyme Assay to Detect Mercury and Zinc Using Protease from Coriandrum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Zn2+, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg2+ and Zn2+ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC50 values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg2+ and Zn2+ in the aquatic environments. PMID:24194687

  10. An inhibitive enzyme assay to detect mercury and zinc using protease from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC₅₀ values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in the aquatic environments.

  11. Oral administration of Moringa oleifera oil but not coconut oil prevents mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, S O; Benjamin, S; Ebah, S G; Obilor, G; Agbam, G

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of administration of coconut oil (CO) and Moringa oleifera oil (MO) on testicular oxidative stress, sperm quality and steroidogenesis parameters in rats treated with mercury chloride (HgCl2 ). After 15 days of oral administration of CO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) and MO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) along with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HgCl2 (5 mg kg(-1) body weight) alone or in combination, we found that CO treatment did not protect against HgCl2 -induced poor sperm quality (motility, count) as well as decreased testosterone level and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity. Treatment with CO alone decreased glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rat's testis, whereas MO did not change these parameters. Cotreatment with MO prevented HgCl2 -induced testicular catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, poor sperm quality and low testosterone level and also blocks the adverse effect of CO+HgCl2 (2 ml kg(-1) body weight + 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) on the investigated endpoints. In conclusion, MO and not CO decreased the deleterious effects of HgCl2 on sperm quality and steroidogenesis in rats and also strengthen the antioxidant defence of the testes. Therefore, MO is beneficial as an antioxidant in HgCl2 -induced oxidative damage.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle for the selective and sensitive colorimetric detection of mercury (II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Devendra K; Mohan, Sweta; Bano, Daraksha; Gundampati, Ravi Kumar; Hasan, Syed Hadi

    2017-03-01

    An ecofriendly and zero cost approach has been developed for the photoinduced synthesis of more stable AgNPs using an aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEM) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The exposed reaction mixture of AEM and AgNO3 to sunlight turned dark brown which primarily confirmed the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The biosynthesis was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which exhibited a sharp SPR band at 430nm after 30min of sunlight exposure. The optimum conditions for biosynthesis of AgNPs were 30min of sunlight exposure, 2.0% (v/v) of AEM inoculuam dose and 4.0mM AgNO3 concentration. TEM analysis confirmed the presence of spherical AgNPs with average size 8.6nm. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was confirmed by XRD analysis where the Bragg's diffraction pattern at (111), (200), (220) and (311) corresponded to face centered cubic crystal lattice of metallic silver. The surface texture was analyzed by AFM analysis where the average roughness of the synthesized AgNPs was found 1.8nm. FTIR analysis was recorded between 4000 and 400cm(-1) which confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the synthesis of AgNPs. On the basis of the linear relationship between SPR band intensity and different concentration of Hg(2+), the synthesized AgNPs can be used for colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) with a linear range from 50nm to 500μM. Based on experimental findings, an oxidation-reduction mechanism between AgNPs and Hg(2+) was also proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury Chalcohalide Semiconductor Hg3Se2Br2 for Hard Radiation Detection

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hao; Meng, Fang; Malliakas, Christos D.; ...

    2016-09-28

    We present Hg3Se2Br2 that has a wide band gap semiconductor (2.22 eV) with high density (7.598 g/cm3) and crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m with cell parameters of a = 17.496 (4) Å, b = 9.3991 (19) Å, c = 9.776(2) Å, β = 90.46(3)°, V = 1607.6(6) Å3. It melts congruently at a low temperature, 566°C, which allows for an easy single crystal growth directly from the stoichiometric melt. Single crystals of Hg3Se2Br2 up to 1 cm long have been grown using the Bridgman method. Hg3Se2Br2 single crystals exhibit a strong photocurrent response when exposed to Ag X-raymore » and blue diode laser. The resistivity of Hg3Se2Br2 measured by the two probe method is on the order of 1011 Ω·cm, and the mobility-lifetime product (μτ) of the electron and hole carriers estimated from the energy spectroscopy under Ag X-ray radiation are (μτ)e ≈ 1.4 × 10–4cm2/V and (μτ)h ≈ 9.2 × 10–5cm2/V. Electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level indicate a direct band gap and a relatively small effective mass for carriers. Lastly, on the basis of the photoconductivity and hard X-ray spectrum, Hg3Se2Br2 is a promising candidate for X-ray and γ-ray radiation detection at room temperature.« less

  14. Water Ice on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This orthographic projection view from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft provides a look at Mercury north polar region. The yellow regions in many of the craters mark locations that show evidence for water ice, as detected by Earth-based radar observations from Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. MESSENGER has collected compelling new evidence that the deposits are indeed water ice, including imaging within the permanently shaded interiors of some of the craters, such as Prokofiev and Fuller. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Arecibo Radar Image: In yellow (Harmon et al., 2011, Icarus 211, 37-50) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19411

  15. Simultaneous automatic electrochemical detection of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead ions in environmental samples using a thin-film mercury electrode and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-12-30

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933).

  16. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  17. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-31

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  18. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  19. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, J. C.; Mosher, D.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD) is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU) object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK) diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  20. The use of emulsions for the determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in fish-eggs oil by cold vapor generation in a flow injection system with atomic absorption spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Burguera, J L; Quintana, I A; Salager, J L; Burguera, M; Rondón, C; Carrero, P; Anton de Salager, R; Petit de Peña, Y

    1999-04-01

    An on-line time based injection system used in conjunction with cold vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-aided oxidation with potassium persulfate has been developed for the determination of the different mercury species in fish-eggs oil samples. A three-phase surfactant-oil-water emulsion produced an advantageous flow when a peristaltic pump was used to introduce the highly viscous sample into the system. The optimum proportion of the oil-water mixture ratio was 2:3 v/v with a Tween 20 surfactant concentration in the emulsion of 0.008% v/v. Inorganic mercury was determined after reduction with sodium borohydride while total mercury was determined after an oxidation step with persulfate prior to the reduction step to elemental mercury with the same reducing agent. The difference between total and inorganic mercury determined the organomercury content in samples. A linear calibration graph was obtained in the range 0.1-20 micrograms l-1 of Hg2+ by injecting 0.7 ml of samples. The detection limits based on 3 sigma of the blank signals were 0.11 and 0.12 microgram l-1 for total and inorganic mercury, respectively. The relative standard deviation of ten independent measurements were 2.8 and 2.2% for 10 micrograms l-1 and 8.8 and 9.0% for 0.1 microgram l-1 amounts of total and inorganic mercury, respectively. The recoveries of 0.3, 0.6 and 8 micrograms l-1 of inorganic and organic mercury added to fish-eggs oil samples ranged from 93.0 to 94.8% and from 100 to 106%, respectively. Good agreement with those values obtained for total mercury content in real samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also obtained, differences between mean values were < 7%. With the proposed procedure, 22 proteropterous catfish-eggs oil samples from the northwestern coast of Venezuela were measured; while the organic mercury lay in the range 2.0 and 3.3 micrograms l-1, inorganic mercury was not detected.

  1. Sensitive mercury speciation by reversed-phase column high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection after solid-phase extraction using 6-mercaptopurine and dithizone.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Moghaddam, Hamid; Saber-Tehrani, Mohamad

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method was developed for preconcentration of inorganic and organic mercury compounds followed by reversed-phase column high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV-visible detection. The method was based on the reaction of mercury with 6-mercaptopurine and solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the complex on an octadecylsilane (C18) cartridge. The complex was then treated with ammoniacal dithizone solution, and the complexes of inorganic and organic mercury with dithizone were eluted by methanol. The speciation analysis of methylmercury (MeHg), phenylmercury (PhHg), and inorganic Hg (II) was carried out by RP-HPLC. Some experimental variables that influence the SPE and derivatization, such as pH, chelating and derivatizing agent concentration, and surfactant addition, were investigated. The calibration graphs of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II) were linear [correlation coefficient (r) > 0.999] from the detection limits (0.12, 0.16, and 0.14 ng) to 8.5, 6.0, and 6.7 ng Hg, respectively. By applying the SPE procedure, a 100-fold concentration of the sample was obtained. The procedure was applied to sea water and tuna fish samples. The method's accuracy was investigated by using tuna fish certified reference material BCR 464 and by spiking the samples with different amounts of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II). The average recoveries of MeHg, PhHg, and Hg (II) from spiked samples (0.1-2.0 microg/L Hg) were 96 +/- 4, 98 +/- 3, and 104 +/- 4%, respectively.

  2. Microarray Analysis of Mercury-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells: Importance in Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ayensu, Wellington K.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Mercury is widely distributed in the biosphere, and its toxic effects have been associated with human death and several ailments that include cardiovascular diseases, anemia, kidney and liver damage, developmental abnormalities, neurobehavioral disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancers in experimental animals. At the cellular level, mercury has been shown to interact with sulphydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, to damage DNA, and to modulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of mercury toxicity remain to be elucidated. Our laboratory has demonstrated that mercury exposure induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis, modulates cell cycle, and transcriptionally activates specific stress genes in human liver carcinoma cells. The liver is one of the few organs capable of regeneration from injury. Dormant genes in the liver are therefore capable of reactivation. In this research, we hypothesize that mercury-induced hepatotoxicity is associated with the modulation of specific gene expressions in liver cells that can lead to several disease states involving immune system dysfunctions. In testing this hypothesis, we used an Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray with probe sets complementary to more than 20,000 genes to determine whether patterns of gene expressions differ between controls and mercury (1–3μg/mL) treated cells. There was a clear separation in gene expression profiles between controls and mercury-treated cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 2,211 target genes that were affected. One hundred and thirty-eight of these genes were up-regulated, among which forty three were significantly over-expressed (p = 0.001) with greater than a two-fold change, and ninety five genes were moderately over-expressed with an increase of more than one fold (p = 0.004). Two thousand and twenty-three genes were down-regulated with only forty five of them reaching a statistically significant decline at p = 0.05 according

  3. Detection of Crater Rims by Image Analysis in Very High Resolution Images of Mars, Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, P.; Marques, J. S.; Bandeira, L.

    2013-12-01

    The adaptive nature of automated crater detection algorithms permits achieving a high level of autonomous detections in different surfaces and consequently becoming an important tool in the update of crater catalogues. Nevertheless, the available approaches assume all craters as circular and only provide as output the radius and location of each crater. However, the delineation of impact craters following the local variability of the rims is also important to, among others, evaluate their degree of degradation or preservation, namely those studies related to ancient climate analysis. This contour determination is normally prepared in a manual way but can advantageously be done by image analysis methods, eliminating subjectivity and allowing large scale delineations. We have recently proposed a pair of independent approaches to tackle with this problem, one based on processing the crater image in polar coordinates [1], the other using morphological operators [2], which achieved a good degree of success on very high resolution images from Mars [3-4], but where enough room for improvement was still available. Thus, the integration of both approaches into a single one, suppressing the individual drawbacks of the previous approaches, permitted to strength the detection procedure. We describe now the novel sequence of processing that we have built and test it intensively in a wider variety of planetary surfaces, namely, those of Mars, Mercury and the Moon, using the very high resolution images provided by HiRISE, MDIS and LROC cameras. The automated delineations of the craters are compared to a ground-truth reference (manually delineated contours), so a quantitative evaluation can be performed; on a dataset constituted by more than one thousand impact craters we have obtained a global high delineation rate. The breakdown by crater size on each surface is performed. The whole processing procedure works on raster images and also delivers the output in the same image format

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Dr. von Braun addresses a crowd celebrating in front of the Madison County Alabama Courthouse following the successful launch of Astronaut Alan Shepard (America's first astronaut in space) into space on a Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Freedom 7. Shepard's Mercury Spacecraft, was launched from Cape Canaveral. He reached a speed of 5200 mph. His flight lasted 15-1/2 minutes. May 5, 1961 (Photo: Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    A Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle awaits test-firing in the Redstone Test Stand during the late 1950s. Between 1953 and 1960, the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama performed hundreds of test firings on the Redstone rocket, over 200 on the Mercury-Redstone vehicle configuration alone. It was this configuration which launched America's first two marned space missions, Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7,in 1961.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. awaits liftoff in the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft on May 5, 1961. This third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, developed by D. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, was the first marned space mission for the United States. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, Shepard reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  7. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Alan B. Shepard, Jr., America's first astronaut, stands in front of the Freedom 7 spacecraft shortly after completion of the third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, May 5, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft, launched atop a modified Redstone rocket developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  8. CDP-choline circumvents mercury-induced mitochondrial damage and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Franco, Martha; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Pavón, Natalia; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Correa, Francisco; Jasso, Ricardo; Pichardo-Ramos, Gregorio; Santamaría, José; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Soto, Virgilia; Díaz-Ruíz, Jorge L; Chávez, Edmundo

    2017-09-08

    Heavy metal ions are known to produce harmful alterations on kidney function. Specifically, the accumulation of Hg(2+) in kidney tissue may induce renal failure. In this work, the protective effect of CDP-choline against the deleterious effects induced by Hg(2+) on renal function was studied. CDP-choline administered ip at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight prevented the damage induced by Hg(2+) administration at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. The findings indicate that CDP-choline guards mitochondria against Hg(2+) -toxicity by preserving their ability to retain matrix content, such as accumulated Ca(2+) . This nucleotide also protected mitochondria from Hg(2+) -induced loss of the transmembrane electric gradient and from the generation of hydrogen peroxide and membrane TBARS. In addition, CDP-choline avoided the oxidative damage of mtDNA and inhibited the release of the interleukins IL-1 and IL6, recognized as markers of acute inflammatory reaction. After the administration of Hg(2+) and CDP, CDP-choline maintained nearly normal levels of renal function and creatinine clearance, as well as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Mangiferin: A xanthone attenuates mercury chloride induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaivalya, Mudholkar; Nageshwar Rao, B N; Satish Rao, B S

    2011-01-01

    Mangiferin (MGN), a dietary C-glucosylxanthone present in Mangifera indica, is known to possess a spectrum of beneficial pharmacological properties. This study demonstrates antigenotoxic potential of MGN against mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. Treatment of HepG2 cells with various concentrations of HgCl2 for 3 h caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency and elevation in DNA strand breaks (olive tail moment and tail DNA). Pretreatment with MGN significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited HgCl2 -induced (20 µM for 30 h) DNA damage. An optimal antigenotoxic effect of MGN, both in micronuclei and comet assay, was observed at a concentration of 50 µM. Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of HgCl2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, indicating an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, MGN by itself failed to generate ROS at a concentration of 50 µM, whereas it could significantly decrease HgCl2 -induced ROS. Our study clearly demonstrates that MGN pretreatment reduced the HgCl2-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells, thus demonstrating the genoprotective potential of MGN, which is mediated mainly by the inhibition of oxidative stress.

  10. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  11. Convective forcing of mercury and ozone in the Arctic boundary layer induced by leads in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Obrist, Daniel; Steffen, Alexandra; Staebler, Ralf M; Douglas, Thomas A; Richter, Andreas; Nghiem, Son V

    2014-02-06

    The ongoing regime shift of Arctic sea ice from perennial to seasonal ice is associated with more dynamic patterns of opening and closing sea-ice leads (large transient channels of open water in the ice), which may affect atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic. Mercury and ozone are rapidly removed from the atmospheric boundary layer during depletion events in the Arctic, caused by destruction of ozone along with oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to snow and ice. Ozone depletion events can change the oxidative capacity of the air by affecting atmospheric hydroxyl radical chemistry, whereas atmospheric mercury depletion events can increase the deposition of mercury to the Arctic, some of which can enter ecosystems during snowmelt. Here we present near-surface measurements of atmospheric mercury and ozone from two Arctic field campaigns near Barrow, Alaska. We find that coastal depletion events are directly linked to sea-ice dynamics. A consolidated ice cover facilitates the depletion of Hg(0) and ozone, but these immediately recover to near-background concentrations in the upwind presence of open sea-ice leads. We attribute the rapid recoveries of Hg(0) and ozone to lead-initiated shallow convection in the stable Arctic boundary layer, which mixes Hg(0) and ozone from undepleted air masses aloft. This convective forcing provides additional Hg(0) to the surface layer at a time of active depletion chemistry, where it is subject to renewed oxidation. Future work will need to establish the degree to which large-scale changes in sea-ice dynamics across the Arctic alter ozone chemistry and mercury deposition in fragile Arctic ecosystems.

  12. Preventive effect of CuCl₂ on behavioral alterations and mercury accumulation in central nervous system induced by HgCl2 in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Silva, L; Siqueira, L F; Oliveira, V A; Oliveira, C S; Ineu, R P; Pedroso, T F; Fonseca, M M; Pereira, M E

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the benefits of Cu preexposition on Hg effects on behavioral tests, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Hg, and essential metal contents in the cerebrum and cerebellum of neonate rats. Wistar rats received (subcutaneous) saline or CuCl2 ·2H2O (6.9 mg/kg/day) when they were 3 to 7 days old and saline or HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg/day) when they were 8 to 12 days old. Mercury exposure reduced the performance of rats in the negative geotaxis (3-13 days) and beaker test (17-20 days), inhibited cerebellum AChE activity (13 days), increased cerebrum and cerebellum Hg (13 days), cerebrum Cu (13 days), and cerebrum and cerebellum Zn levels (33 days). The performance of rats in the tail immersion and rotarod tests as well as Fe and Mg levels were not altered by treatments. Copper prevented all alterations induced by mercury. These results are important to open a new perspective of prevention and/or therapy for mercury exposure.

  13. Novel cellulose polyampholyte-gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric competition assay for the detection of cysteine and mercury(II).

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Hu, Haoze; Zhou, Jinping; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Yaping; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2013-04-23

    We provide a highly sensitive and selective assay to detect cysteine (Cys) and Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions using Au nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by carboxylethyl quaternized cellulose (CEQC). This method is based on the thiophilicity of Hg(2+) and Au NPs as well as the unique optical properties of CEQC-stabilized Au NPs. CEQC chains are good stabilizing agents for Au NPs even in a high-salt solution. The addition of Cys results in the aggregation of CEQC-stabilized Au NPs, which induces the visible color change and obvious redshift in UV-visible absorption spectra. On the other hand, Hg(2+) is more apt to interact with thiols than Au NPs; thus, it can remove the Cys and trigger Au NP aggregate redispersion again. By taking advantage of this mechanism, a novel off-on colorimetric sensor has been established for Cys and Hg(2+) detection. This new assay could selectively detect Cys and Hg(2+) with the detection limits as low as 20 and 40 nM in aqueous solutions, respectively.

  14. Differential toxicological effects induced by mercury in gills from three pedigrees of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping; Yu, Junbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Lianzhen; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Li, Chenghua; Liu, Dongyan; Wu, Huifeng

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a hazardous pollutant in the Bohai marine environments due to its high toxicity to the marine organisms and subsequent ecological risk. Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of important sentinel organisms in 'Mussel Watch Program' launched in China and therefore used as a bioindicator in marine and coastal ecotoxicology. There are dominantly distributed three pedigrees of clam (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra) in Yantai population endowed with different tolerances to environmental stressors. In this study, gill tissues were collected from both untreated and mercury exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams, and the extracts were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics to compare the original metabolomes and the toxicological effects induced by mercury exposure in three pedigrees. The major abundant metabolites in White clam sample were branched-chain amino acids, lactate, alanine, arginine, acetoacetate, glutamate, succinate, citrate, malonate and taurine, while the metabolite profile of Liangdao Red clam sample comprises relative high levels of alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate and glycogen. For Zebra clam sample, the metabolite profile exhibited relatively high amount of aspartate, acetylcholine and homarine. After 48 h exposure of 20 μg l(-1) Hg(2+), the metabolic profiles from all the three pedigrees of clams commonly showed significant increases in alanine, arginine, glutamate, aspartate, α-ketoglutarate, glycine and ATP/ADP, and decreases in citrate, taurine and homarine. The unique metabolic differences between the metabolomes of gill tissues from Hg(2+)-exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams were found, including elevated acetylcholine and branched-chain amino acids in White clams, and the declined succinate in both White and Liangdao Red samples as well as the declined betaine in Zebra and White clams. Overall, our findings showed the differential toxicological responses to mercury exposure and that White clams could be a

  15. Attenuation by methyl mercury and mercuric sulfide of pentobarbital induced hypnotic tolerance in mice through inhibition of ATPase activities and nitric oxide production in cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Huang, Zih-Ning; Yu, Hsun-Hsin; Chang, Liang-Hao; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2008-06-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg). After a short period (7 days) of oral administration to mice, a nontoxic dose (0.1 g/kg) of HgS not only significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis but also attenuated tolerance induction; while a higher dose (1 g/kg) of HgS or cinnabar exerted an almost irreversible enhancing effect on pentobarbital-hypnosis similar to that of MeHg (2 mg/kg) tested, which was still effective even after 10 or 35 days cessation of administration. To study comparatively the effects of different mercury forms from oral administration of MeHg and HgS on membrane ATPase activities of experimental mice, analysis of the Hg content in the cerebral cortex revealed that correlated with the decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, NO levels of blood but not that of cerebral cortex were also decreased by mercuric compounds. Although pentobarbital alone enhanced cytochrome p450-2C9 in time dependent manner, all of mercurial compounds tested had no such effect. All of these findings indicated that the mercurial compounds including cinnabar, HgS and MeHg exert a long-lasting enhancing hypnotic activity without affecting pentobarbital metabolism, which provides evidence-based sedative effect of cinnabar used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years. The nontoxic HgS dosing (0.1 g/kg/day) for consecutive 7 days is perhaps useful for delaying or preventing pentobarbital-tolerance.

  16. Mercury-induced dark-state instability and photobleaching alterations of the visual g-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Margarita; Toledo, Darwin; Pérez, Juan Jesús; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2014-07-21

    Mercuric compounds were previously shown to affect the visual phototransduction cascade, and this could result in vision impairment. We have analyzed the effect of mercuric chloride on the structure and stability of the dim light vision photoreceptor rhodopsin. For this purpose, we have used both native rhodopsin immunopurified from bovine retinas and a recombinant mutant rhodopsin carrying several Cys to Ser substitutions in order to investigate the potential binding site of mercury on the receptor. Our results show that mercuric chloride dramatically reduces the stability of dark-state rhodopsin and alters the molecular features of the photoactived conformation obtained upon illumination by eliciting the formation of an altered photointermediate. The thermal bleaching kinetics of native and mutant rhodopsin is markedly accelerated by mercury in a concentration-dependent manner, and its chromophore regeneration ability is severely reduced without significantly affecting its G-protein activation capacity. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on the retinal release process, ensuing illumination, suggest that mercury impairs complete retinal release from the receptor binding pocket. Our results provide further support for the capacity of mercury as a hazardous metal ion with reported deleterious effect on vision and provide a molecular explanation for such an effect at the rhodopsin photoreceptor level. We suggest that mercury could alter vision by acting in a specific manner on the molecular components of the retinoid cycle, particularly by modifying the ability of the visual photoreceptor protein rhodopsin to be regenerated and to be normally photoactivated by light.

  17. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  18. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  19. Mercury toxicity and neurodegenerative effects.

    PubMed

    Carocci, Alessia; Rovito, Nicola; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is among the most toxic heavy metals and has no known physiological role in humans. Three forms of mercury exist: elemental, inorganic and organic. Mercury has been used by man since ancient times. Among the earliest were the Chinese and Romans, who employed cinnabar (mercury sulfide) as a red dye in ink (Clarkson et al. 2007). Mercury has also been used to purify gold and silver minerals by forming amalgams. This is a hazardous practice, but is still widespread in Brazil's Amazon basin, in Laos and in Venezuela, where tens of thousands of miners are engaged in local mining activities to find and purify gold or silver. Mercury compounds were long used to treat syphilis and the element is still used as an antiseptic,as a medicinal preservative and as a fungicide. Dental amalgams, which contain about 50% mercury, have been used to repair dental caries in the U.S. since 1856.Mercury still exists in many common household products around the world.Examples are: thermometers, barometers, batteries, and light bulbs (Swain et al.2007). In small amounts, some organo mercury-compounds (e.g., ethylmercury tiosalicylate(thimerosal) and phenylmercury nitrate) are used as preservatives in some medicines and vaccines (Ballet al. 2001).Each mercury form has its own toxicity profile. Exposure to Hg0 vapor and MeHg produce symptoms in CNS, whereas, the kidney is the target organ when exposures to the mono- and di-valent salts of mercury (Hg+ and Hg++, respectively)occur. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury produces stomatitis, erethism and tremors. Chronic MeHg exposure induced symptoms similar to those observed in ALS, such as the early onset of hind limb weakness (Johnson and Atchison 2009).Among the organic mercury compounds, MeHg is the most biologically available and toxic (Scheuhammer et a!. 2007). MeHg is neurotoxic, reaching high levels of accumulation in the CNS; it can impair physiological function by disrupting endocrine glands (Tan et a!. 2009).The most

  20. Geno- and cytotoxicity induced on Cyprinus carpio by aluminum, iron, mercury and mixture thereof.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Mendoza-Zenil, Youssef Paolo; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Del Carmen; Rodríguez-Fariñas, Nuria; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; García-Medina, Sandra; Pérez-Pastén Borja, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Metals such as Al, Fe and Hg are used in diverse anthropogenic activities. Their presence in water bodies is due mainly to domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater discharges and constitutes a hazard for the organisms inhabiting these environments. The present study aimed to evaluate geno- and cytotoxicity induced by Al, Fe, Hg and the mixture of these metals on blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Specimens were exposed to the permissible limits in water for human use and consumption according to the pertinent official Mexican norm [official Mexican norm NOM-127-SSA1-1994] Al (0.2mgL(-1)), Fe (0.3mgL(-1)), Hg (0.001mgL(-1)) and their mixture for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. Significant increases relative to the control group (p<0.05) were observed in all biomarkers at all exposure times in all test systems; however, damage was greater when the metals were present as a mixture. Furthermore, correlations between metal concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity were found only at certain exposure times. In conclusion, Al, Fe, Hg and the mixture of these metals induce geno- and cytotoxicity on blood of C. carpio.

  1. Mercury exposure and early effects: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kazantzis, G

    2002-01-01

    This paper was given as a keynote address at the conference on The Assessment of the Effects Due to Low Doses of Inorganic Mercury following Environmental and Occupational Exposures: Human and in vitro Studies on the Specific Mechanisms of Toxicity in Gargnano, Italy, in September 2001. The most relevant literature over the past 40 years has been reviewed, and in particular, the proceedings of the World Health Organisation conferences on the health effects of inorganic and organic mercury exposure have been considered. In an uncontaminated environment the general population is exposed to mercury vapour from the atmosphere and from dental amalgam, while the diet, mainly from fish, is the principal source for methyl mercury absorption. Mercury vapour release from amalgam fillings increases with chewing, with absorption and uptake by the brain and kidneys. Infants exposed to phenyl mercury from treated diapers and young children ingesting mercurous chloride in teething powders have developed acrodynia (pink disease), and Kawasaki disease and the use of mercurial skin lightening creams has been followed by the development of the nephrotic syndrome. Both mercury compounds and mercury vapour have given rise to contact dermatitis in the general population. Epidemics of mercury poisoning have followed release of mercury into the environment from industrial activity, with uptake of methyl mercury from fish eating in Minamata Bay and uptake of both inorganic and methyl mercury following release of mercury vapour and deposition into waterways from gold recovery procedures in the Amazon basin. The ingestion of wheat and barley seed treated with an alkyl mercury fungicide for sowing, by a largely illiterate population in Iraq, led to a major outbreak of poisoning with a high fatality rate. Following exposure to mercury vapour, the earliest clinically observed adverse effects at urine mercury levels of the order of 30-100 mg/g creatinine, are objectively detectable tremor

  2. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  3. Mercury depletion events over Antarctic and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M. G.; Gardfeldt, K.; Wangberg, I.; Jourdain, B.; Dommergue, A.; Kuronen, P.; Pirrone, N.; Jacobi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and in its elemental form it is spread by air to remote areas far away from point sources. In Antarctic and Arctic regions the airborne mercury may be oxidized, followed by deposition of the metal on land and sea surfaces. It is previously known that during early spring in these regions, processes involving halogen radical photochemistry induce an oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air. This phenomenon is known as an atmospheric mercury depletion event (AMDE) and is characterized by sudden and remarkable decreases in GEM that occurs within hours or days. All or most part of the GEM in air is transformed into gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate mercury (HgP). Equivalent ozone depletion events (ODE) do also occur in Antarctic and Arctic regions and the halogen radical photolytic processes involved for AMDEs and ODEs are interrelated. During two oceanographic campaigns at the Weddell Sea onboard RV Polarstern, ANTXXIX/6 (130608-130812) and ANTXXIX/7 (130814-131016), continuous measurements of GEM, GOM and HgP in air were performed using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. This is the first time such long time series of GEM-, GOM- and HgP data has been achieved over water in the Antarctic during winter and spring. Several mercury depletion events were detected as early as in the middle of July and are correlated and verified with ozone measurements onboard the ship. The observed depletion events were characterised by sudden major decreases in both GEM and ozone concentrations and highly elevated values of HgP. A depletion event is a local phenomenon but evidences show that traces of such events can be detected far away from its origin. During a spring campaign at the Pallas-Matorova station in northern Finland (68o00'N, 24o14'E), GEM, GOM and HgP were measured during three weeks in April 2012 using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. Traces of remote AMDEs were observed by sudden decreases of GEM

  4. Effects of glucan on immunosuppressive actions of mercury.

    PubMed

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2009-10-01

    Global cycling of mercury results in the presence of mercury salts in the environment. The well-established negative effects of mercury on the immune system led us to the study whether natural immunomodulator glucan can overcome the immunosuppressive effects of mercury. Two types of mercury, thimerosal and mercury acetate, were administered in a dose of 2-8 mg/L of drinking water to mice. After 2 weeks, all mice exhibited profound suppression of both cellular (phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, mitogen-induced proliferation, and expression of CD markers) and humoral (antibody formation and secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-12, and interferon-gamma) responses. The mice were then fed with a diet containing a standard dose of glucan. Our results showed that simultaneous treatment with mercury and glucan resulted in significantly lower immunotoxic effects of mercury, which suggests that glucans can be successfully used as a natural remedy of low-level exposure to mercury.

  5. The protective effect of clay minerals against damage to adsorbed DNA induced by cadmium and mercury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yakun; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Nengwu

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of Salmon Sperm DNA on three kinds of raw clay (rectorite, montmorillonite and sericite) was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and the concentrations of DNA and phosphate ions in solution. The DNA adsorption was reduced in the following order: rectorite>montmorillonite>sericite. Based on these findings, there is a strong evidence that the mechanisms for DNA adsorption on clay involve electrostatic forces, cation bridging and ligand exchange. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to compare the properties of unbound DNA and the absorbed DNA on rectorite, both in the absence and presence of Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) inaqueous solutions. The interaction of heavy metals with the unbound DNA was evidenced by the disappearance of reduction peaks in CV, a small bathochromic shift in UV-vis spectroscopy and an incomplete quenching in the emission spectra. Such changes were not observed in the DNA-rectorite hybrids, which is evidence that adsorption on the clay can reduce the extent of the DNA damage caused by heavy metals. Therefore, in these experience the rectorite played an important role in protecting DNA against Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) induced damage.

  6. RCRA materials analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Detection limits in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Koskelo, A.; Cremers, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) that this report supports is research, development, testing and evaluation of a portable analyzer for RCRA and other metals. The instrumentation to be built will be used for field-screening of soils. Data quality is expected to be suitable for this purpose. The data presented in this report were acquired to demonstrate the detection limits for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of soils using instrument parameters suitable for fieldable instrumentation. The data are not expected to be the best achievable with the high pulse energies available in laboratory lasers. The report presents work to date on the detection limits for several elements in soils using LIBS. The elements targeted in the Technical Task Plan are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, and zirconium. Data for these elements are presented in this report. Also included are other data of interest to potential customers for the portable LIBS apparatus. These data are for barium, mercury, cesium and strontium. Data for uranium and thorium will be acquired during the tasks geared toward mixed waste characterization.

  7. Effect of non-toxic mercury, zinc or cadmium pretreatment on the capacity of human monocytes to undergo lipopolysaccharide-induced activation

    PubMed Central

    Koropatnick, J; Zalups, R K

    1997-01-01

    Metal salts can inhibit cell activity through direct toxicity to critical cellular molecules and structures. On the other hand, they can also change cell behaviour by inducing specific genes (including genes encoding members of the metallothionein [MT] gene family). Therefore, transition metals may affect cell functions either by acting as a toxin, or by transmitting or influencing signals controlling gene expression.To explore the latter possibility, we measured the ability of low, non-toxic metal pretreatment to alter immune cell behaviour. We previously found that pretreatment of human monocytes with zinc induces metallothionein gene expression and alters their capacity to undergo a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced respiratory burst. We showed here that cadmium and mercury salts, at concentrations that exert no discernible toxicity, inhibit activation of human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells. CdCl2 1 μM, ZnCl2 20–40 μM or HgCl2 2 μM pretreatment for 20 h induced MT-2 mRNA and total MT protein accumulation and had no effect on proliferation potential or metabolic activity, but significantly inhibited the ability of subsequent lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce the oxidative burst, increased adhesion to plastic, and MT-2 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA accumulation.The phenomenon of metal-induced suppression of monocyte activation, at metal concentrations that have no effect on cell viability, has important implications for assessment of acceptable levels of human exposure to cadmium, zinc and mercury. PMID:9138684

  8. Characterization of Mercury's Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenza, Monica; Storini, Marisa; Diego, Piero; Massetti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Helios spacecraft have been revised to identify different solar wind conditions (interplanetary magnetic field intensity, solar wind density, velocity and temperature) at Mercury's location, as they induce critcal changes in the Hermean environment. In particular, the weak magnetic field of the planet and the increasing weight of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BX component at Mercury's orbit, introduce critical differences in the Mercury magnetosphere, such as a strong north-south asymmetry. Different geometries of the Mercury's magnetosphere are also calculated as response to the different solar wind conditions through aToffoletto-Hill modified model (Massetti et al., 2007). Results allow to compute the cutoff rigidities, in order to estimate the energetic charged particle transmission through the Hermean magnetosphere to the specific location of the BepiColombo spacecraft Work partly supported by the Italian Space Agency

  9. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  11. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-09-01

    An Atlas launch vehicle carrying the Big Joe capsule leaves its launching pad on a 2,000-mile ballistic flight to the altitude of 100 miles. The Big Joe capsule is a boilerplate model of the marned orbital capsule under NASA's Project Mercury. The capsule was recovered and studied for the effect of re-entry heat and other flight stresses.

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    The group portrait of the original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project. NASA selected its first seven astronauts on April 27, 1959. Left to right at front: Walter M. Wally Schirra, Donald K. Deke Slayton, John H. Glenn, Jr., and Scott Carpenter. Left to right at rear: Alan B. Shepard, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

  15. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  16. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-15

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  17. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project pose in front of an Air Force Jet. From left to right: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, Walter M. Wally Schirra, Alan B. Shepard, and Donald K. Deke Slayton.

  18. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The launch of the Little Joe booster for the LJ1B mission on the launch pad from the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury capsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  19. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The Little Joe launch vehicle for the LJ1 mission on the launch pad at the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury cupsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  20. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan Shepard underwent a physical examination prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7 carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan Shepard fitted with space suit prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7, carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. during suiting for the first manned suborbital flight, MR-3 mission. The Freedom 7 spacecraft, carrying the first American, Astronaut Shepard and boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    This photo depicts the recovery operations of the MR-3 mission. Astronaut Alan Shepard was picked up by a U.S. Marine helicopter after the completion of the first marned suborbital flight by MR-3 (Mercury-Redstone) with the Freedom 7 capsule.

  5. Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Todd Ashley

    Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces was monitored by spectroscopic techniques. Adsorption of elemental mercury to colloidal gold nanoparticles causes a color change from wine-red to orange that was quantified by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The wavelength of the surface plasmon mode of 5, 12, and 31 nm gold particles blue-shifts 17, 14, and 7.5 nm, respectively, after a saturation exposure of mercury vapor. Colorimetric detection of inorganic mercury was demonstrated by employing 2.5 nm gold nanoparticles. The addition of low microgram quantities of Hg 2+ to these nanoparticles induces a color change from yellow to peach or blue. It is postulated that Hg2+ is reduced to elemental mercury by SCN- before and/or during adsorption to the nanoparticle surface. It has been demonstrated that surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) is sensitive to mercury adsorption to gold and silver surfaces. By monitoring the maximum change in reflectivity as a function of amount of mercury adsorbed to the surface, 50 nm Ag films were shown to be 2--3 times more sensitive than 50 nm Au films and bimetallic 15 nm Au/35 nm Ag films. In addition, a surface coverage of ˜40 ng Hg/cm2 on the gold surface results in a 0.03° decrease in the SPR angle of minimum reflectivity. SPRS was employed to follow Hg exposure to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au. The data indicate that the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of the SAM has a significant effect on the efficiency of Hg penetration. Water adsorbed to carboxylic acid end group of the hydrophilic SAMs is believed to slow the penetration of Hg compared to methyl terminated SAMs. Finally, two protocols were followed to remove mercury from gold films: immersion in concentrated nitric acid and thermal annealing up to 200°C. The latter protocol is preferred because it removes all of the adsorbed mercury from the gold surface and does not affect the morphology of the gold surface.

  6. Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described. PMID:22235210

  7. A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaojie; Qu, Lingbo; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Yuchen; Li, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Cysteamine (CA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) (CA-CdTe QDs) were prepared by the reflux method and utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescent sensor to detect mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+) ). Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching effect of CA-CdTe QDs was linear at Hg(2+) concentrations in the range of 6.0-450 nmol/L. The detection limit was calculated to be 4.0 nmol/L according to the 3σ IUPAC criteria. The influence of 10-fold Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the determination of Hg(2+) was < 7% (superior to other reports based on crude QDs). Furthermore, the detection sensitivity and selectivity were much improved relative to a sensor based on the CA-CdTe QDs probe, which was prepared using a one-pot synthetic method. This CA-CdTe QDs sensor system represents a new feasibility to improve the detection performance of a QDs sensor by changing the synthesis method.

  8. Gold nanoparticles and the corresponding filter membrane as chemosensors and adsorbents for dual signal amplification detection and fast removal of mercury(ii).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gaosong; Hai, Jun; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisheng; Chen, Fengjuan; Wang, Baodui

    2017-03-02

    Nowadays, the development of a multifunction system for the simultaneous multiple signal amplification detection and fast removal of Hg(2+) remains a major challenge. Herein, we for the first time used gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and the corresponding filter membrane as chemosensors and adsorbents for dual signal amplification detection and fast removal of Hg(2+). Such a system was based on the formation of gold amalgam and a gold amalgam-based reaction between rhodamine B (RhB) and NaBH4 with fluorescence and colorimetric sensing functions. When the gold amalgam catalyzes the reduction of RhB, the red color and orange fluorescence of RhB gradually changed to colorless by switching the amount of Hg(2+) deposited on 13 nm Au NPs. The detection limit of the fluorescence assay and colorimetric assay is 1.16 nM and 2.54 nM for Hg(2+), respectively. Interestingly, the color and fluorescence of RhB could be recovered when the above colorless reaction solution was exposed to air for about 2 hours. Taking advantage of the above optical phenomenon, a recyclable paper-based sensor has been developed by immobilizing the Au NPs and RhB dye on filter paper and has been successfully used for detection of Hg(2+) in real water samples. In addition, the filter membrane immobilized Au NPs could allow fast removal of mercury ions in Yellow river water and tap water with the removal efficiency close to 99%.

  9. Highly Selective Mercury Detection at Partially Oxidized Graphene/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanocomposite Film Modified Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Nael; Sundramoorthy, Ashok; Chang, Woo-Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Partially oxidized graphene flakes (po-Gr) were obtained from graphite electrode by an electrochemical exfoliation method. As-produced po-Gr flakes were dispersed in water with the assistance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The po-Gr flakes and the po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite (po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, we demonstrated the potential use of po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS electrode in electrochemical detection of mercury ions (Hg2+) in water samples. The presence of po-Gr sheets in PEDOT:PSS film greatly enhanced the electrochemical response for Hg2+. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a well-defined Hg2+ redox peaks with a cathodic peak at 0.23 V, and an anodic peak at 0.42 V. Using differential pulse stripping voltammetry, detection of Hg2+ was achieved in the range of 0.2 to 14 µM (R2 = 0.991), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.19 µM for Hg2+. The electrode performed satisfactorily for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ in real samples, and the po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS film remains stable on the electrode surface for repeated use. Therefore, our method is potentially suitable for routine Hg2+ sensing in environmental water samples.

  10. Detection of mercury ions (II) based on non-cross-linking aggregation of double-stranded DNA modified gold nanoparticles by resonance Rayleigh scattering method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Song, Wei Wei; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2015-03-15

    This work describes a sensitive approach utilizing non-cross-linking aggregation of double-stranded DNA modified gold nanoparticles (dsDNA-AuNPs) for the detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) by resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) method for the first time. The double-stranded DNA contains a mismatched T-T base pair in the chain terminus, resulting in a flexible DNA tail and preventing the AuNPs from aggregation. Thus, a low RRS signal is obtained. However, in the presence of Hg(2+), the non-cross-linking aggregation of dsDNA-AuNPs occurs, due to the Hg(2+)-mediated coordination of T-Hg(2+)-T base pair. The aggregation of nanoparticles generates a high RRS value. Particularly, the solution color and ultraviolet-visible absorption barely changed under the same conditions, while it is capable of detecting by RRS method with a low detection limit (0.4nM), which is 1000-fold lower than that of the colorimetric method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of Hg(2+) in real samples. The sensitive and selective assay might be inspiring for the development of new detectors for other metal ions or biomolecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury audit at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Jensen, M.K.; Anderson, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental compliance audit to identify potential mercury-containing equipment in 261 building and 197 tanks at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The RMA, located near Denver, Colorado, is undergoing clean up and decommissioning by the Department of the Army. Part of the decommissioning procedure is to ensure that all hazardous wastes are properly identified and disposed of. The purpose of the audit was to identify any mercury spills and mercury-containing instrumentation. The audit were conducted from April 7, 1992, through July 16, 1992, by a two-person team. The team interviewed personnel with knowledge of past uses of the buildings and tanks. Information concerning past mercury spills and the locations and types of instrumentation that contain mercury proved to be invaluable for an accurate survey of the arsenal. The team used a Jerome{reg_sign} 431-X{trademark} Mercury Vapor Analyzer to detect spills and confirm locations of mercury vapor. Twelve detections were recorded during the audit and varied from visible mercury spills to slightly elevated readings in the corners of rooms with past spills. The audit also identified instrumentation that contained mercury. All data have been incorporated into a computerized data base that is compatible with the RMA data base.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica Papaya fruit extract under sunlight irradiation and their colorimetric detection of mercury ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M.; Andriana, S.; Elvinawati; Alwi, W.; Swistoro, E.; Ruyani, A.; Sundaryono, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have successfully synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using aqueous extract of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit as bioreductant under sunlight irradiation without additional capping agent. Characterizations were done using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized AgNPs have yellowish-brown color with surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Good selectivity of the AgNPs towards hazardous heavy metal of mercury ions in aqueous solution has been developed as a green environmental sensor. The presence of Hg(II) ions in the mixture changed the yellowish-brown color of AgNPs to colorless due to oxidation of Ag(O) in AgNPs to Ag(I) ions. Effect of samples matrix such as alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and transition metal ions were evaluated.

  13. Indicators: Sediment Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment mercury is mercury that has become embedded into the bottom substrates of aquatic ecosystems. Mercury is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems and it can have a substantial impact on both human and wildlife health.

  14. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  15. Arsenic- and mercury-induced phytotoxicity in the Mediterranean shrubs Pistacia lentiscus and Tamarix gallica grown in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, E; Esteban, E; Carpena-Ruiz, R O; Peñalosa, J M

    2009-09-01

    Hg and As resistance and bioaccumulation were studied in hydroponically grown Pistacia lentiscus and Tamarix gallica plants. Both elements caused growth inhibition in roots and shoots, with mercury showing greater phytotoxicity than arsenic. Accumulation of both elements by plants increased in response to element supply, with the greatest uptake found in T. gallica. Both elements affected P and Mn status in plants, reduced chlorophyll a concentration and increased MDA and thiol levels. These stress indices showed good correlations with As and Hg concentration in plant tissues, especially in the roots. Toxic responses to mercury were more evident than for arsenic, especially in shoot tissues. T. gallica showed higher resistance to both Hg and As than P. lentiscus, as well accumulating more As and Hg.

  16. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  17. Detection of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein by capillary electrophoresis laser induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Craig, D B; Wong, J C; Dovichi, N J

    1997-01-01

    Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein was assayed by capillary electrophoresis using post-capillary laser-induced fluorescence detection in a sheath flow cuvette. The limit of detection was 3.0 x 10(-12) M protein in an injection volume of 17 nL, corresponding to a mass of 3100 molecules.

  18. Heat induced damage detection in composite materials by terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzieński, Maciej; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-03-01

    In recent years electromagnetic Terahertz (THz) radiation or T-ray has been increasingly used for nondestructive evaluation of various materials such as polymer composites and porous foam tiles in which ultrasonic waves cannot penetrate but T-ray can. Most of these investigations have been limited to mechanical damage detection like inclusions, cracks, delaminations etc. So far only a few investigations have been reported on heat induced damage detection. Unlike mechanical damage the heat induced damage does not have a clear interface between the damaged part and the surrounding intact material from which electromagnetic waves can be reflected back. Difficulties associated with the heat induced damage detection in composite materials using T-ray are discussed in detail in this paper. T-ray measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure of composite specimens.

  19. Novel Lipid-Soluble Thiol-Redox Antioxidant and Heavy Metal Chelator, N,N′-bis(2-Mercaptoethyl)Isophthalamide (NBMI) and Phospholipase D-Specific Inhibitor, 5-Fluoro-2-Indolyl Des-Chlorohalopemide (FIPI) Attenuate Mercury-Induced Lipid Signaling Leading to Protection Against Cytotoxicity in Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Jordan D.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Gurney, Travis O.; Patel, Rishi B.; Kefauver, Nicholas R.; Gupta, Niladri; Morris, Andrew J.; Haley, Boyd E.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we investigated thiol-redox-mediated phospholipase D (PLD) signaling as a mechanism of mercury cytotoxicity in mouse aortic endothelial cell (MAEC) in vitro model utilizing the novel lipid-soluble thiol-redox antioxidant and heavy metal chelator, N,N′-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI) and the novel PLD-specific inhibitor, 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI). Our results demonstrated (i) mercury in the form of mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury, and thimerosal induced PLD activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; (ii) NBMI and FIPI completely attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced PLD activation; (iii) mercury induced upstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) leading to downstream threonine phosphorylation of PLD1 which was attenuated by NBMI; (iv) mercury caused loss of intracellular glutathione which was restored by NBMI; and (v) NBMI and FIPI attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced cytotoxicity in MAECs. For the first time, this study demonstrated that redox-dependent and PLD-mediated bioactive lipid signaling was involved in mercury-induced vascular EC cytotoxicity which was protected by NBMI and FIPI. PMID:21994240

  20. Discharge residue from mercury fulminate-primed ammunition.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J S

    1998-01-01

    The scarcity of mercury in discharge residue particles from mercury-containing ammunition was investigated. It was found that 86% of the mercury was vaporized after discharge, mainly via the muzzle, 88% of which was not detectable by SEM. Of the 0.16% exiting via the breech, only approximately 40% was detectable by SEM. Only a small proportion of this was deposited on the firer. The recovered mercury did not make a significant contribution to the elemental composition of the discharge residue particles. The rate of loss of mercury from the spent cartridge case was also examined but was found to be of no practical value in estimating time of discharge.

  1. Radar detection of radiation-induced ionization in air

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Koehl, Eugene R.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2015-07-21

    A millimeter wave measurement system has been developed for remote detection of airborne nuclear radiation, based on electromagnetic scattering from radiation-induced ionization in air. Specifically, methods of monitoring radiation-induced ionization of air have been investigated, and the ionized air has been identified as a source of millimeter wave radar reflection, which can be utilized to determine the size and strength of a radiation source.

  2. Detection of cystic structures using pulsed ultrasonically induced resonant cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Kovach, John S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and method for early detection of cystic structures indicative of ovarian and breast cancers uses ultrasonic wave energy at a unique resonance frequency for inducing cavitation in cystic fluid characteristic of cystic structures in the ovaries associated with ovarian cancer, and in cystic structures in the breast associated with breast cancer. Induced cavitation bubbles in the cystic fluid implode, creating implosion waves which are detected by ultrasonic receiving transducers attached to the abdomen of the patient. Triangulation of the ultrasonic receiving transducers enables the received signals to be processed and analyzed to identify the location and structure of the cyst.

  3. Label-free SERS study of galvanic replacement reaction on silver nanorod surface and its application to detect trace mercury ion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaohui; Wen, Guiqing; Ye, Lingling; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    It is significant to explore a rapid and highly sensitive galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method for detection of trace mercury ions. This article was reported a new GRR SERS analytical platform for detecting Hg(II) with label-free molecular probe Victoria blue B (VBB). In HAc-NaCl-silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, the molecular probe VBB exhibited a strong SERS peak at 1609 cm−1. Upon addition of Hg(II), the GRR occurred between the AgNR and Hg(II), and formed a weak SERS activity of Hg2Cl2 that deposited on the AgNR surfaces to decrease the SERS intensity at 1609 cm−1. The decreased SERS intensity was linear to Hg(II) concentration in the range of 1.25–125 nmol/L, with a detection limit of 0.2 nmol/L. The GRR was studied by SERS, transmission electron microscopy and other techniques, and the GRR mechanism was discussed. PMID:26792071

  4. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-10-01

    Work on the Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) mercury spectrometer this past quarter concentrated on the actual detection of mercury and the beginning of flue gas interference testing. After obtaining the initial mercury signal detection was done at various pressures and concentrations. The Alexandrite laser system used for the CRD spectrometer has a narrow enough linewidth to spectrally resolve the isotopic structure of mercury. This includes both isotopic frequency shifts as well as hyperfine splittings due to a couple of the odd isotopes of mercury. Initial flue gas inteferent testing concentrated on SO{sub 2}, which is expected to cause the greatest interference with mercury detection due to its absorption of ultra-violet light in the same region as that of the mercury atomic line.

  5. Mercury - Full-disk radar images and the detection and stability of ice at the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Muhleman, Duane O.; Slade, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    The first full-disk radar images of Mercury are discussed. About 77 percent of the surface was imaged at resolutions as good as 150 km. The North Pole was visible at the time of the observations, and the feature with the highest same sense (SS) circular reflectivity in the images is near the nominal polar position. The peak SS reflectivity of this feature is 7.9 percent and the circular polarization ratio through much of it is over one. The diameter of the feature is estimated to be less than about 350 km. The signal strength and polarization characteristics suggest the presence of very clean ices deposited in a relatively short period. The reflectivity of the north polar feature is slightly depressed compared to absolute reflectivities of other ice bodies and regions in the solar system. This may be due to a layer of dust or soil covering the ice. Other prominent features in the unphotographed hemisphere correpond to positions where atmospheric sodium enhancements have been measured from earth. These sites may be large basins similar to the Caloris basin.

  6. Mercury - Full-disk radar images and the detection and stability of ice at the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Muhleman, Duane O.; Slade, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    The first full-disk radar images of Mercury are discussed. About 77 percent of the surface was imaged at resolutions as good as 150 km. The North Pole was visible at the time of the observations, and the feature with the highest same sense (SS) circular reflectivity in the images is near the nominal polar position. The peak SS reflectivity of this feature is 7.9 percent and the circular polarization ratio through much of it is over one. The diameter of the feature is estimated to be less than about 350 km. The signal strength and polarization characteristics suggest the presence of very clean ices deposited in a relatively short period. The reflectivity of the north polar feature is slightly depressed compared to absolute reflectivities of other ice bodies and regions in the solar system. This may be due to a layer of dust or soil covering the ice. Other prominent features in the unphotographed hemisphere correpond to positions where atmospheric sodium enhancements have been measured from earth. These sites may be large basins similar to the Caloris basin.

  7. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  8. Voltammetric detection of lead(II) and mercury(II) using a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SAMMS).

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Zemanian, Thomas S; Fryxell, Glen E

    2003-05-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol terminated self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SH-SAMMS) provides a new sensor for simultaneous detection of lead (Pb2+) and mercury (Hg2+) in aqueous solutions. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the stripping analysis. Factors affecting the performance of the SH-SAMMS modified electrodes were investigated, including electrode activation and regeneration, electrode composition, preconcentration time, electrolysis time, and composition of electrolysis and stripping media. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 20% SH-SAMMS and 80% carbon paste. The optimal operating conditions were a sequence with a 2 min preconcentration period, then a 60 s electrolysis period of the preconcentrated species in 0.2 M nitric acid, followed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from -1.0 V to 0.6 V in 0.2 M nitric acid. The areas of the peak responses were linear with respect to metal ion concentrations in the ranges of 10-1500 ppb Pb2+ and 20-1600 ppb Hg2+. The detection limits for Pb2+ and Hg2+ were 0.5 ppb Pb2+ and 3 ppb Hg2+ after a 20 min preconcentration period.

  9. Can fractal methods applied to video tracking detect the effects of deltamethrin pesticide or mercury on the locomotion behavior of shrimps?

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Filho, Eurípedes Alves; Neiva, Gentileza Santos Martins; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro; Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; da Silva, Themis de Jesus; Silva, Emerson Carlos Soares E; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2017-08-01

    Shrimps can accumulate environmental toxicants and suffer behavioral changes. However, methods to quantitatively detect changes in the behavior of these shrimps are still needed. The present study aims to verify whether mathematical and fractal methods applied to video tracking can adequately describe changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to low concentrations of toxic chemicals, such as 0.15µgL(-1) deltamethrin pesticide or 10µgL(-1) mercuric chloride. Results showed no change after 1min, 4, 24, and 48h of treatment. However, after 72 and 96h of treatment, both the linear methods describing the track length, mean speed, mean distance from the current to the previous track point, as well as the non-linear methods of fractal dimension (box counting or information entropy) and multifractal analysis were able to detect changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to deltamethrin. Analysis of angular parameters of the track points vectors and lacunarity were not sensitive to those changes. None of the methods showed adverse effects to mercury exposure. These mathematical and fractal methods applicable to software represent low cost useful tools in the toxicological analyses of shrimps for quality of food, water and biomonitoring of ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quencher-Free Fluorescence Method for the Detection of Mercury(II) Based on Polymerase-Aided Photoinduced Electron Transfer Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haisheng; Ma, Linbin; Ma, Changbei; Du, Junyan; Wang, Meilan; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    A new quencher-free Hg2+ ion assay method was developed based on polymerase-assisted photoinduced electron transfer (PIET). In this approach, a probe is designed with a mercury ion recognition sequence (MRS) that is composed of two T-rich functional areas separated by a spacer of random bases at the 3′-end, and a sequence of stacked cytosines at the 5′-end, to which a fluorescein (FAM) is attached. Upon addition of Hg2+ ions into this sensing system, the MRS folds into a hairpin structure at the 3′-end with Hg2+-mediated base pairs. In the presence of DNA polymerase, it will catalyze the extension reaction, resulting in the formation of stacked guanines, which will instantly quench the fluorescence of FAM through PIET. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection for Hg2+ ions was estimated to be 5 nM which is higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard limit. In addition, no labeling with a quencher was requiring, and the present method is fairly simple, fast and low cost. It is expected that this cost-effective fluorescence method might hold considerable potential in the detection of Hg2+ ions in real biological and environmental samples. PMID:27869723

  12. Mercury exposure induces cytoskeleton disruption and loss of renal function through epigenetic modulation of MMP9 expression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafizurrahman; Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Gangopadhyay, Siddhartha; Roy, Somendu Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Srivastava, Vikas

    2017-07-01

    Mercury is one of the major heavy metal pollutants occurring in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Due to ban on most inorganic mercury containing products, human exposure to mercury generally occurs as methylmercury (MeHg) by consumption of contaminated fish and other sea food. Animal and epidemiological studies indicate that MeHg affects neural and renal function. Our study is focused on nephrotoxic potential of MeHg. In this study, we have shown for the first time how MeHg could epigenetically modulate matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) to promote nephrotoxicity using an animal model of sub chronic MeHg exposure. MeHg caused renal toxicity as was seen by increased levels of serum creatinine and expression of early nephrotoxicity markers (KIM-1, Clusterin, IP-10, and TIMP). MeHg exposure also correlated strongly with induction of MMP9 mRNA and protein in a dose dependent manner. Further, while induction of MMP9 promoted cytoskeleton disruption and loss of cell-cell adhesion (loss of F-actin, Vimentin and Fibronectin), inhibition of MMP9 was found to reduce these disruptions. Mechanistic studies by ChIP analysis showed that MeHg modulated MMP9 by promoting demethylation of its regulatory region to increase its expression. Bisulfite sequencing identified critical CpGs in the first exon of MMP9 which were demethylated following MeHg exposure. ChIP studies also showed loss of methyl binding protein, MeCP2 and transcription factor PEA3 at the demethylated site confirming decreased CpG methylation. Our studies thus show how MeHg could epigenetically modulate MMP9 to promote cytoskeleton disruption leading to loss of renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TELEPHONIC PRESENTATION: MERCURY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While traditional methods for determining mercury in solid samples involve the use of aggressive chemicals to dissolve the matrix and the use of other chemicals to properly reduce the mercury to the volatile elemental form, pyrolysis-based analyzers can be used by directly weighing the solid in a sampling boat and initiating the instrumental analysis for total mercury. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee wo

  14. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  15. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  16. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  17. Mercury and health care

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  18. The inhibition of glycerol permeation through aquaglyceroporin-3 induced by mercury(II): A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Angelo; de Almeida, Andreia; Casini, Angela; Barone, Giampaolo

    2016-07-01

    Mercurial compounds are known to inhibit water permeation through aquaporins (AQPs). Although in the last years some hypotheses were proposed, the exact mechanism of inhibition is still an open question and even less is known about the inhibition of the glycerol permeation through aquaglyceroporins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of human aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have been performed up to 200ns in the presence of Hg(2+) ions. For the first time, we have observed the unbiased passage of a glycerol molecule from the extracellular to cytosolic side. Moreover, the presence of Hg(2+) ions covalently bound to Cys40 leads to a collapse of the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter (ar/R SF), blocking the passage of both glycerol and water. Interestingly, the local conformational changes of the protein follow mercury coordination by water and by aminoacidic donor atoms. Overall, the obtained results are important to improve the design of selective AQP inhibitors for future therapeutic and imaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of organic and inorganic amendments induce changes in the mobility of mercury and macro- and micronutrients of soils.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Sípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg · kg(-1) Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils.

  20. Applications of Organic and Inorganic Amendments Induce Changes in the Mobility of Mercury and Macro- and Micronutrients of Soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Šípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg·kg−1 Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils. PMID:25401138

  1. Micelles entrapped Cresyl Violet can selectively detect copper and mercury ions in solution: A fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nirmal Kumar; Ghosh, Subhadip; Jaiswal, Sunidhi; Tewary, Anu; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic interaction of Cresyl Violet (CV) in different micellar systems has been demonstrated in single molecular level by FCS studies. The SDS micelle entrapped CV efficiently detected Cu2+ ions in solution with a limit of detection (LOD) of 70 nM, which is further substantiated with the gradual enhancement of the translational motion. The CV entrapped in the DTAB micelles could selectively detect Hg2+ ions in solution with a LOD of 35 nM. The micelle encapsulated CV was effective in detecting these metal ions in real water samples from different sources.

  2. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  3. Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S; Enayati, A; Redwood, L; Roger, H; Binstock, T

    2001-04-01

    Autism is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that autism may affect 1 in 150 US children. Exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Thimerosal, a preservative added to many vaccines, has become a major source of mercury in children who, within their first two years, may have received a quantity of mercury that exceeds safety guidelines. A review of medical literature and US government data suggests that: (i) many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury exposure from thimerosal; (ii) this type of autism represents an unrecognized mercurial syndrome; and (iii) genetic and non-genetic factors establish a predisposition whereby thimerosal's adverse effects occur only in some children.

  4. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  5. An unusual OFF-ON fluorescence sensor for detecting mercury ions in aqueous media and living cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Maozhong; Liu, Libing; Li, Yongjun; Hu, Ruifeng; Liu, Taifeng; Liu, Huibiao; Wang, Shu; Li, Yuliang

    2014-02-25

    A novel azo derivative sensor (BDAA) based on alkynes was designed and utilized to direct detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution and living cells. The new strategy achieved off to on switchable fluorescence. permits the highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg(2+). This sensor can be used for imaging of Hg(2+) in living cells.

  6. Innate stimulatory capacity of high molecular weight transition metals Au (gold) and Hg (mercury).

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Alsalem, Inás W A; Bontkes, Hetty J; Verstege, Marleen I; Gibbs, Sue; von Blomberg, B M E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, cobalt and palladium ions can induce an innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which is present on dendritic cells (DC). Here we studied mechanisms of action for DC immunotoxicity to gold and mercury. Next to gold (Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O) and mercury (HgCl2), nickel (NiCl2) was included as a positive control. MoDC activation was assessed by release of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-8. Also PBMC were studied, and THP-1 cells were used as a substitution for DC for evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, as well as phenotypic, alterations in response to gold and mercury. Our results showed that both Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O and HgCl2 induce substantial release of IL-8, but not IL-6, CCL2 or IL-10, from MoDc, PBMC, or THP-1 cells. Also gold and, to a lesser extent mercury, caused modest dendritic cell maturation as detected by increased membrane expression of CD40 and CD80. Both metals thus show innate immune response capacities, although to a lower extent than reported earlier for NiCl2, CoCl2 and Na2 [PdCl4]. Importantly, the gold-induced response could be ascribed to TLR3 rather than TLR4 triggering, whereas the nature of the innate mercury response remains to be clarified. In conclusion both gold and mercury can induce innate immune responses, which for gold could be ascribed to TLR3 dependent signalling. These responses are likely to contribute to adaptive immune responses to these metals, as reflected by skin and mucosal allergies.

  7. Temporal variation of Mercury's sodium density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusegawa, Ayaka; Dairoku, Hayato; Kameda, Shingo; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

    2013-04-01

    Mercury has a thin atmosphere. In the past, Mercury has been observed by Mariner 10 and MESSENGER, and ground-based observations have also been carried out. H, He, O, Na, Mg, K, and Ca were detected in its atmosphere. Solar-photon-stimulated desorption, sputtering by impacting solar particles, and meteoroid vaporization are considered to be the source processes of Mercury's exosphere. However, the primary process among these three processes is unknown as yet. The resonance scattering constitutes exospheric emission. The NaD emission is well suited for study by ground-based observations because of its high intensity. Past observations have shown that the temporal variation and north-south asymmetry of intensity of sodium emission. We have observed Mercury's sodium exosphere at the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii since April 2011. The observations were performed using a 40 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, a high-dispersion spectrograph, and a CCD camera. We determined the temporal variation of the sodium density using the observational data. It is possible that the temporal variation of the sodium density is caused by variation of solar wind magnetic field if solar wind ion sputtering is the primary source process of Mercury's exosphere. To verify this assumption, we checked the temporal variation of solar wind magnetic field observed by MESSENGER, and then we compared these variations with our observational result. CMEs toward Mercury probably cause the increase of the sodium density. Potter et al. (1999) suggested that the total amount of sodium on Mercury increased monotonically during several days of observation after CMEs occurred on the same side of the Sun as Mercury. We observed Mercury's sodium exosphere on November 23, 2011 when MESSENGER observed variation of solar wind magnetic field, which indicated CMEs arrived at Mercury. However, our results have not shown large variation of the sodium density like that of Potter et al. (1999). From these results, we

  8. Aerospect operations criteria for Mercury thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards anticipated from a large scale mercury spill during a possible failure in the preflight and early flight stages of the Space Shuttle were studied. Toxicity thresholds were investigated as well as other consequences of mercury interacting with the environment. Three sites of mercury spill were investigated: land, water, and atmosphere. A laboratory study of interactions between mercury vapor and ozone in a low pressure, high ultraviolet radiation environment approximated the conditions of a mercury vapor release in the ozone layer region of the stratosphere. Clear evidence of an interaction leading to the destruction of ozone by conversion to oxygen was obtained. The impact of a spill on the Earth's environment and methods of early detection of a developing hazard wave of primary concern in the study.

  9. Measurement of mercury in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. M.; Clarke, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS2O4 followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm. No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3·0-9·7 μg of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  10. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  11. Mariner 10 mercury encounter.

    PubMed

    Dunne, J A

    1974-07-12

    Mariner 10's closet approach to Mercury on 29 March 1974 occurred on the dark side of the planet at a range of approximately 700 kilometers. The spacecraft trajectory passed through the shadows of both the sun and Earth. Experiments conducted included magnetic fields, plasma and charged particle studies of the solar wind interaction region, television photography, extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the atmosphere, the detection of infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and a dual-frequency radio occultation in search of an ionosphere.

  12. Effects of methyl and inorganic mercury exposure on genome homeostasis and mitochondrial function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lauren H; Luz, Anthony L; Cao, Xiou; Maurer, Laura L; Blawas, Ashley M; Aballay, Alejandro; Pan, William K Y; Meyer, Joel N

    2017-04-01

    Mercury toxicity mechanisms have the potential to induce DNA damage and disrupt cellular processes, like mitochondrial function. Proper mitochondrial function is important for cellular bioenergetics and immune signaling and function. Reported impacts of mercury on the nuclear genome (nDNA) are conflicting and inconclusive, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) impacts are relatively unknown. In this study, we assessed genotoxic (mtDNA and nDNA), metabolic, and innate immune impacts of inorganic and organic mercury exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genotoxic outcomes measured included DNA damage, DNA damage repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER; base excision repair, BER), and genomic copy number following MeHg and HgCl2 exposure alone and in combination with known DNA damage-inducing agents ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which cause bulky DNA lesions and oxidative DNA damage, respectively. Following exposure to both MeHg and HgCl2, low-level DNA damage (∼0.25 lesions/10kb mtDNA and nDNA) was observed. Unexpectedly, a higher MeHg concentration reduced damage in both genomes compared to controls. However, this observation was likely the result of developmental delay. In co-exposure treatments, both mercury compounds increased initial DNA damage (mtDNA and nDNA) in combination with H2O2 exposure, but had no impact in combination with UVC exposure. Mercury exposure both increased and decreased DNA damage removal via BER. DNA repair after H2O2 exposure in mercury-exposed nematodes resulted in damage levels lower than measured in controls. Impacts to NER were not detected. mtDNA copy number was significantly decreased in the MeHg-UVC and MeHg-H2O2 co-exposure treatments. Mercury exposure had metabolic impacts (steady-state ATP levels) that differed between the compounds; HgCl2 exposure decreased these levels, while MeHg slightly increased levels or had no impact. Both mercury species reduced mRNA levels for immune signaling-related genes, but

  13. Detection of cocaine induced rat brain activation by photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) was used to detect the progressive changes on the cerebral cortex of Sprague Dawley rats after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Different concentrations (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution were injected into Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. Cerebral cortex images of the animals were continuously acquired by PAT. For continuous observation, PAT system used multi-transducers to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The obtained photoacoustic images were compared with each other and confirmed that changes in blood volume were induced by cocaine hydrochloride injection. The results demonstrate that PAT may be used to detect the effects of drug abuse-induced brain activation. PMID:21163301

  14. Heat Induced Damage Detection by Terahertz (THz) Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Wu, Ziran; Xin, Hao

    2011-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) and sub-terahertz imaging and spectroscopy are becoming increasingly popular nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage detection and characterization of materials. THz radiation is being used for inspecting ceramic foam tiles used in TPS (Thermal Protection System), thick polymer composites and polymer tiles that are not good conductors of ultrasonic waves. Capability of THz electromagnetic waves in detecting heat induced damage in porous materials is investigated in this paper. Porous pumice stone blocks are subjected to long time heat exposures to produce heat induced damage in the block. The dielectric properties extracted from THz TDS (Time Domain Spectroscopy) measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure. Experimental results show noticeable and consistent change in dielectric properties with increasing levels of heat exposure, well before its melting point.

  15. Balanced-detection Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Casella, Michele; Molotokaite, Egle; Gatti, Davide; Kukura, Philipp; Manzoni, Cristian; Polli, Dario; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We introduce balanced-detection (BD) Raman-induced Kerr-effect (RIKE) as a powerful coherent Raman scattering (CRS) technique. RIKE relies on the Raman-induced birefringence that occurs when the pump-Stokes frequency detuning is in resonance with a vibrational transition. We show how a balanced-detection configuration, inspired by that applied in electro-optic sampling, suppresses both the linear and nonlinear backgrounds that affect other CRS techniques. BD-RIKE enables homodyne amplification of the signal and linear dependence on the concentration of the target oscillators, as well as cancellation of laser intensity noise. In addition, it allows straightforward selection of either the imaginary or the real part of the nonlinear vibrational response.

  16. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl; Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza; Gupta, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-((9E,10E)-1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diylidene) bis(hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO-IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO-IIP. The prepared RGO-IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO-IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) (S/N=3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported.

  17. Trifunctional molecular beacon-mediated quadratic amplification for highly sensitive and rapid detection of mercury(II) ion with tunable dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Huaqing; Chen, Feng; Bai, Min; Zhao, Junwu; Zhao, Yongxi

    2016-12-15

    Analyses of target with low abundance or concentration varying over many orders of magnitude are severe challenges faced by numerous assay methods due to their modest sensitivity and limited dynamic range. Here, we introduce a homogeneous and rapid quadratic polynomial amplification strategy through rational design of a trifunctional molecular beacon, which serves as not only a reporter molecule but also a bridge to couple two stage amplification modules without adding any reaction components or process other than basic linear amplification. As a test bed for our studies, we took mercury(II) ion as an example and obtained a high sensitivity with detection limit down to 200 pM within 30min. In order to create a tunable dynamic range, homotropic allostery is employed to modulate the target specific binding. When the number of metal binding site varies from 1 to 3, signal response is programmed accordingly with useful dynamic range spanning 50, 25 and 10 folds, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed method in river water and biological samples are successfully verified with good recovery and reproducibility, indicating considerable potential for its practicality in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical detection of DNA binding by tumor suppressor p53 protein using osmium-labeled oligonucleotide probes and catalytic hydrogen evolution at the mercury electrode.

    PubMed

    Němcová, Kateřina; Sebest, Peter; Havran, Luděk; Orság, Petr; Fojta, Miroslav; Pivoňková, Hana

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present an electrochemical DNA-protein interaction assay based on a combination of protein-specific immunoprecipitation at magnetic beads (MBIP) with application of oligonucleotide (ON) probes labeled with an electroactive oxoosmium complex (Os,bipy). We show that double-stranded ONs bearing a dT20 tail labeled with Os,bipy are specifically recognized by the tumor suppressor p53 protein according to the presence or absence of a specific binding site (p53CON) in the double-stranded segment. We demonstrate the applicability of the Os,bipy-labeled probes in titration as well as competition MBIP assays to evaluate p53 relative affinity to various sequence-specific or structurally distinct unlabeled DNA substrates upon modulation of the p53-DNA binding by monoclonal antibodies used for the immunoprecipitation. To detect the p53-bound osmium-labeled probes, we took advantage of a catalytic peak yielded by Os,bipy-modified DNA at the mercury-based electrodes, allowing facile determination of subnanogram quantities of the labeled oligonucleotides. Versatility of the electrochemical MBIP technique and its general applicability in studies of any DNA-binding protein is discussed.

  19. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  20. Green synthesis of carbon nanodots as an effective fluorescent probe for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbo; Qin, Xiaoyun; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O.; Sun, Xuping

    2013-01-01

    The present communication reports on the use of sweet potatoes as carbon source for green synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) ranging from 1 to 3 nm. We further demonstrate the use of such CNDs as a very effective fluorescent probe for label-free, sensitive, and selective detection of Hg2+ with a detection limit as low as 1 nM. The feasibility of the CNDs for analysis of Hg2+ in a real water sample is also demonstrated successfully.

  1. Diagnosing congenital syphilis using Hutchinson's method: Differentiating between syphilitic, mercurial, and syphilitic-mercurial dental defects.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Stella; Sassani, Sadaf; Henneberg, Maciej; Henneberg, Renata J

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the dental abnormalities observed by Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, Henry Moon and Alfred Fournier in patients with congenital syphilis and in those treated with mercury, in order to define alterations in dental morphology attributable to each of these causes. These definitions are applied to reported paleopathological cases, exploring various etiologies behind the defects, in order to aid in the diagnosis of congenital syphilis. Original works were examined for descriptions of dental abnormalities in congenital syphilis and in mercurial treatments. These descriptions were compared with dentitions of paleopathological cases (n = 4) demonstrating abnormalities attributed to congenital syphilis. Distinct morphological differences were recognized between congenital syphilitic teeth and teeth affected by mercury. Mercury produces a pronounced deficiency in enamel of incisors, canines and first permanent molars that become rugged and pitted, and of dirty grey honeycombed appearance. Mercury-induced dental changes are evident in three out of four cases studied here. In one case, only syphilitic changes were present. Dental changes in congenital syphilis range from no visible signs to those beyond the classical models of Hutchinson, Moon and Fournier. Treatment of neonates and infants with mercury produces additional changes. Signs of disease and treatment with mercury on teeth may occur together; permanent incisors, first molars and canines, are typically affected, premolars and second/third molars are usually spared. Signs of treatment with mercury might be the only evidence of the occurrence of the disease as mercury was rarely used to treat other diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dieguez-Acuña, F J; Ellis, M E; Kushleika, J; Woods, J S

    2001-06-15

    Mercuric ion (Hg(2+)), one of the strongest thiol-binding agents known, mediates the toxicity associated with elemental, inorganic, and organic mercurial compounds. Studies of cellular events associated with Hg(2+) toxicity have focused largely on disruption of cell membranes and impairment of mitochondrial functions. In contrast, few studies have sought to define the specific molecular mechanisms through which Hg(2+) might affect toxicity via alteration of thiol-dependent signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival. Of particular interest in this regard is the effect of Hg(2+) on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pleiotropic transcriptional factor that is known to require reduced cysteine moieties at critical steps of activation and DNA binding. Here, we evaluated the effects of Hg(2+) on the expression of NF-kappaB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells, a principal target of Hg(2+) toxicity. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible form of NF-kappaB was readily detected in kidney cells and has been characterized as the p50p65 heterodimer. NF-kappaB-DNA binding was prevented in a dose-related manner by Hg(2+) (0-55 microM) in vitro when added to DNA binding reactions containing the nonthiol reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP). Similarly, Hg(2+) at the same concentrations prevented DNA binding of a human recombinant wild-type p50p50 homodimer in binding reactions, and this effect was attenuated using a mutant form of the p50 protein containing a cys(62)-->ser(62) mutation. The inhibition of p50-DNA binding by Hg(2+) was reversible in a dose-related manner in vitro by competitive thiols DTT, GSH, and l-cysteine in binding reactions. In contrast, competitive thiols added to nuclear binding reactions were unable to reverse attenuation of LPS-mediated NF-kappaB-DNA binding affinity when cells were pretreated in vivo with Hg(2+) at concentrations as low as 2 microM prior to LPS administration

  3. Studying Mercury subsurface structure composition by Russian Mercury Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer (MGNS) onboard BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Mokrousov, M.; Malachov, A.; Vostruchin, A.; Rogozhin, A.; Gurvits, L.

    Introduction: Mercury is the celestial body of the Solar system, after Mars and Moon, for which elementary composition of the shallow subsurface might be studied by observations of induced nuclear gamma-ray lines and neutron emission. Secondary gamma-rays and neutrons are produced by energetic galactic cosmic rays colliding with nuclei of regolith within a 1-2 meter layer of subsurface. For detection gamma- ray and neutron flux, the nuclear experiment on BepiColombo includes MGNS instrument (Mercury Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer), which consist of both the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) segment for detection of gamma-ray lines and the neutron spectrometer (NS) segment for measurement of the neutron leakage spectral flux density. To test know theoretical models of Mercury composition, MGNS will provide the data for the set of gamma-ray lines, which are necessary and sufficient to discriminate between the models. Neutron data are known to be very sensitive for detection of hydrogen within heavy soil-forming elements. Mapping measurements of neutrons and 2.2 MeV line will allow us to study the content of hydrogen on the surface of Mercury. There are three natural radioactive elements, K, Th and U, which contents in the celestial bodies soil characterizes the physical condition of their formation in the protoplanetary cloud. The data from GRS segment will allow comparing Mercury with Earth, Moon and Mars. Instrument description: The MGNS instrument consists of two segments: GRS and NS. Three sensors of NS for thermal and epithermal neutrons are made with similar 3 He proportional counters (SD1, SD2 and MD) but have different polyethylene enclosures. The fourth sensor of NS for high energy neutrons 1-10 MeV contains an organic scintillator stylbene (CS/N) with cylindrical shape of size Ø30×40 cm. The segment of GRS contains scintillation crystal LaBr3 for detection of gamma-ray photons with very high spectral resolution of 3 % at 662 keV. The total mass of MGNS

  4. Phytotoxicity of mercury in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Frank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Two common cultivars (Florida Broad Leaf and Long-standing) were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Mercury exhibited a significant phytotoxicity in these two cultivars of Indian mustard at elevated concentrations (>or=2 mg L(-1)). Mercury uptake induced a significant reduction in both biomass and leaf relative water content. Microscopy studies indicated that elevated mercury concentrations in plants significantly changed leaf cellular structure: thickly stained areas surrounding the vascular bundles; decreases in the number of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells; and reduced cell size and clotted depositions. The palisade chloroplasts exhibited decreases in their amounts and starch grains as well as a loss of spindle shape. However, due to high accumulation of mercury in plants, especially in the roots, Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration of contaminated water and phytostabilization of mercury-contaminated soils.

  5. Chemical Detection Based on Adsorption-Induced and Photo-Induced Stresses in MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.

    1999-04-05

    Recently there has been an increasing demand to perform real-time in-situ chemical detection of hazardous materials, contraband chemicals, and explosive chemicals. Currently, real-time chemical detection requires rather large analytical instrumentation that are expensive and complicated to use. The advent of inexpensive mass produced MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) devices opened-up new possibilities for chemical detection. For example, microcantilevers were found to respond to chemical stimuli by undergoing changes in their bending and resonance frequency even when a small number of molecules adsorb on their surface. In our present studies, we extended this concept by studying changes in both the adsorption-induced stress and photo-induced stress as target chemicals adsorb on the surface of microcantilevers. For example, microcantilevers that have adsorbed molecules will undergo photo-induced bending that depends on the number of absorbed molecules on the surface. However, microcantilevers that have undergone photo-induced bending will adsorb molecules on their surfaces in a distinctly different way. Depending on the photon wavelength and microcantilever material, the microcantilever can be made to bend by expanding or contracting the irradiated surface. This is important in cases where the photo-induced stresses can be used to counter any adsorption-induced stresses and increase the dynamic range. Coating the surface of the microstructure with a different material can provide chemical specificity for the target chemicals. However, by selecting appropriate photon wavelengths we can change the chemical selectivity due to the introduction of new surface states in the MEMS device. We will present and discuss our results on the use of adsorption-induced and photo-induced bending of microcantilevers for chemical detection.

  6. Induction by mercury compounds of metallothioneins in mouse tissues: inorganic mercury accumulation is not a dominant factor for metallothionein induction in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Among the naturally occurring three mercury species, metallic mercury (Hg(0)), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and methylmercury (MeHg), Hg(II) is well documented to induce metallothionein (MT) in tissues of injected animals. Although Hg(0) and MeHg are considered to be inert in terms of directly inducing MT, MT can be induced by them after in vivo conversion to Hg(II) in an animal body. In the present study we examined accumulations of inorganic mercury and MT inductions in mouse tissues (brain, liver and kidney) up to 72 hr after treatment by one of three mercury compounds of sub-lethal doses. Exposure to mercury compounds caused significant mercury accumulations in mouse tissues examined, except for the Hg(II)-treated mouse brain. Although MeHg caused the highest total mercury accumulation in all tissues among mercury compounds, the rates of inorganic mercury were less than 10% through the experimental period. MT inductions that depended on the inorganic mercury accumulation were observed in kidney and brain. However, MT induction in the liver could not be accounted for by the inorganic mercury accumulation, but by plasma IL6 levels, marked elevation of which was observed in Hg(II) or MeHg-treated mouse. The present study demonstrated that MT was induced in mouse tissues after each of three mercury compounds, Hg(0), Hg(II) and MeHg, but the induction processes were different among tissues. The induction would occur directly through accumulation of inorganic mercury in brain and kidney, whereas the hepatic MT might be induced secondarily through mercury-induced elevation in the plasma cytokines, rather than through mercury accumulation in the tissue.

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence-cued, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy biological-agent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hybl, John D.; Tysk, Shane M.; Berry, Shaun R.; Jordan, Michael P

    2006-12-01

    Methods for accurately characterizing aerosols are required for detecting biological warfare agents. Currently, fluorescence-based biological agent sensors provide adequate detection sensitivity but suffer from high false-alarm rates. Combining single-particle fluorescence analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides additional discrimination and potentially reduces false-alarm rates. A transportable UV laser-induced fluorescence-cued LIBS test bed has been developed and used to evaluate the utility of LIBS for biological-agent detection. Analysis of these data indicates that LIBS adds discrimination capability to fluorescence-based biological-agent detectors.However, the data also show that LIBS signatures of biological agent simulants are affected by washing. This may limit the specificity of LIBS and narrow the scope of its applicability in biological-agent detection.

  8. Invertase-labeling gold-dendrimer for in situ amplified detection mercury(II) with glucometer readout and thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhenli; Shu, Jian; Jin, Guixiao; Xu, Mingdi; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2016-03-15

    A simple, low-cost transducer with glucometer readout was designed for sensitive detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)), coupling with thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry and invertase-functionalized gold-dendrimer nanospheres for the signal amplification. Initially, nanogold-encapsulated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (Au DENs) were synthesized by in-situ reduction of gold(III). Thereafter, the as-prepared Au DENs were utilized for the labeling of invertase and T-rich signal DNA probe. In the presence of target Hg(2+), the functionalized Au DENs were conjugated to capture DNA probe-modified electrode via T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. Accompanying the Au DENs, the labeled invertase could hydrolyze sucrose into glucose, which could be quantitatively monitored by an external personal glucometer (PGM). The PGM signal increased with the increasing target Hg(2+) in the sample. Under the optimal conditions, our designed sensing platform exhibited good PGM responses toward target Hg(2+), and allowed the detection of Hg(2+) at a concentration as low as 4.2 pM. This sensing system also displayed remarkable specificity relative to target Hg(2+) against other competing ions, and could be applied for reliable monitoring of spiked Hg(2+) into the environmental water samples with satisfactory results. With the advantages of cost-effectiveness, simplicity, portability, and convenience, our strategy provides a tremendous potential to be a promising candidate for point-of-use monitoring of non-glucose targets by the public.

  9. A new isoindoline-based highly selective "turn-on" fluorescent chemodosimeter for detection of mercury ion.

    PubMed

    Zali-Boeini, Hassan; Zareh Jonaghani, Mohammad; Fadaei, Negar; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2017-05-05

    A new isoindoline-based highly efficient turn-on fluorescent chemodosimeter S with a thioamide functionality as a binding site for selective detection of Hg(2+) ion has been developed. The chemodosimeter S showed an extreme selectivity for detection of Hg(2+) ion among various two and three-valent metal ions in acetonitrile/water (70/30, v/v). It was found that, in the presence of Hg(2+) ion the non-fluorescent chemodosimeter S was efficiently and rapidly desulfurized to the corresponding highly fluorescent amide 1. A good linear relationship was shown between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Hg(2+) within the range of 0-1μM, with a detection limit of 2.03×10(-8)M.

  10. A new isoindoline-based highly selective "turn-on" fluorescent chemodosimeter for detection of mercury ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zali-Boeini, Hassan; Zareh Jonaghani, Mohammad; Fadaei, Negar; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2017-05-01

    A new isoindoline-based highly efficient turn-on fluorescent chemodosimeter S with a thioamide functionality as a binding site for selective detection of Hg2 + ion has been developed. The chemodosimeter S showed an extreme selectivity for detection of Hg2 + ion among various two and three-valent metal ions in acetonitrile/water (70/30, v/v). It was found that, in the presence of Hg2 + ion the non-fluorescent chemodosimeter S was efficiently and rapidly desulfurized to the corresponding highly fluorescent amide 1. A good linear relationship was shown between the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Hg2 + within the range of 0-1 μM, with a detection limit of 2.03 × 10- 8 M.

  11. The muon-induced neutron indirect detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Carissimo, C.; Gooch, C.; Kneißl, R.; Langford, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.

    2017-04-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with a GEANT4-based package for two different sets of physics models of relevance for neutron production by muons is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. In addition, the time evolution of the muon-induced signal is not well described by the simulations.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-06-24

    Testing of Mercury Capsule Shape A by the Hydrodynamics Division of Langley. Joseph Shortal wrote (vol. 3, p. 19): The Hydrodynamics Division provided assistance in determining landing loads. In this connection, after PARD engineers had unofficially approached that division to make some water impact tests with the boilerplate capsule, J.B. Parkinson, Hydrodynamics Chief visited Shortal to find out if the request had his support. Finding out that it did, Parkinson said, Its your capsule. If you want us to drop it in the water, we will do it. From Shortal (Vol. 3, p. 16): The basic design of the capsule was made by M.A. Faget and his coworkers at PARD during the winter of 1957-1958. It was natural, then, that extensive use was made of the facilities at Wallops during the development of the spacecraft. The tests at Wallops consisted of 26 full-size capsules, either launched from the ground by rocket power or dropped from airplanes at high altitude and 28 scaled models, either rocket boosted or released from balloons. Emphasis in the Wallops program was on dynamic stability and aerodynamic heating of the capsule, and effectiveness of the pilot-escape and parachute-recovery systems. The biggest part of the Wallops program was the series of full-size capsules, rocket launched with the Little Joe booster, developed especially for Mercury. -- Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition.

  13. Mercury content in low cost skin lightening cream products.

    PubMed

    Naser, J; Kirm, I

    2012-04-01

    Skin lightening creams were randomly collected from local markets in Sultanate of Oman for analysis of mercury (II) content. All the products collected were of low cost imported materials from different countries. Cream samples were digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at elevated temperature using a microwave digester. The mercury content was measured using Flow Injection Atomic Spectroscopy (FIAS)-Mercury Hydride System. Out of forty cream samples analyzed, about one fourth of the samples contained higher levels of mercury which is more than the maximum mercury content of 1 microg/g permitted by the Food and Drug Administration regulation. The mercury level in the analyzed samples is found to be in the range from 0.02 to 25.7 microg/g. Among the analyzed skin lightening cream samples half of the materials did not have any detectable mercury content.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of virus-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei-dong; Perk, Masis; Nation, Patric N.; Power, Robert F.; Liu, Liying; Jiang, Xiuyan; Lucas, Alexandra

    1994-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LF) has been developed as a diagnostic tool for the detection of atherosclerosis. We have examined the use of LF for the identification of accelerated atherosclerotic plaque growth induced by Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) infection in White Leghorn rooster chicks (R) as well as plaque regression after treatment. Twenty-eight newborn R were infected with 12,000 cfu of MDV. Twelve parallel control R had saline injection. LF spectra were recorded from the arteries in vitro with a CeramOptec laser angioplasty catheter during 308 nm XeCl excimer laser excitation. Significant differences were detected at 440 to 475, 525, 550, 600, and 650 nm in MDV-R (p<0.05). In a subsequent study, 60 R were infected with 5,000 cfu of MDV, and were then treated with either Pravastatin (PRV) or placebo at 3 months post infection. These PRV-R were followed for 6 months to detect changes in atherosclerotic plaque development. PRV reduced intimal proliferation produced by MDV infection on histological examination (PRV-R 128.0+/- 44.0 micrometers , placebo-R 412.2+/- 91.5 micrometers , pequals0.007). MDV infected, PRV treated R were examined for LF changes that correlated with decreased atherosclerosis. There was an associated significant increase in LF intensity in PRV-R at 405 to 425 nm (p<0.001). In conclusion, LF can detect intimal proliferation in virus- induced atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque regression after PRV therapy.

  15. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  16. Detection of mercury(II) with a surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor based on functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Peng; Shi, Xiaofei; Curtin, Kathrine; Yang, Feng; Wu, Nianqiang

    2017-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid can selectively capture Hg2+ in the presence of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, generating a fingerprint surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peak at 374 cm-1. This SERS sensor exhibits a limit of detection of 5 ppt toward Hg2+ in water.

  17. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  18. Global trends in mercury management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: southeast Georgia.

    PubMed

    George, Bagie M; Batzer, Darold

    2008-03-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury.

  20. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  1. Hydrogen leak detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ball, A J; Hohreiter, V; Hahn, D W

    2005-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated as a technique for real-time monitoring of hydrogen gas. Two methodologies were examined: The use of a 100 mJ laser pulse to create a laser-induced breakdown directly in a sample gas stream, and the use of a 55 mJ laser pulse to create a laser-induced plasma on a solid substrate surface, with the expanding plasma sampling the gas stream. Various metals were analyzed as candidate substrate surfaces, including aluminum, copper, molybdenum, stainless steel, titanium, and tungsten. Stainless steel was selected, and a detailed analysis of hydrogen detection in binary mixtures of nitrogen and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was performed. Both the gaseous plasma and the plasma initiated on the stainless steel surface generated comparable hydrogen emission signals, using the 656.28 Halpha emission line, and exhibited excellent signal linearity. The limit of detection is about 20 ppm (mass) as determined for both methodologies, with the solid-initiated plasma yielding a slightly better value. Overall, LIBS is concluded to be a viable candidate for hydrogen sensing, offering a combination of high sensitivity with a technique that is well suited to implementation in field environments.

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence detection of stomach cancer using hypericin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Buryi, Alexander N.; Melnik, Ivan S.; Joffe, Alexander Y.; Rusina, Tatyana V.

    1996-12-01

    Natural photodynamic pigment hypericin having intrinsic antitumor properties was applied for fluorescence detection of cancer. Clinical investigation of hypericin was performed to ensure high tumor/normal fluorescence contrast in digestion organs. Laser-induced autofluorescence and exogenous fluorescence analysis of normal tissue and stomach adenocarcinoma was performed using helium-cadmium laser (8 mW, 442 nm). Twenty-one patients have undergone procedure of fluorescence detection of tumors before and after photosensitization. For sensitization of patients we used five or seven capsules containing hypericin in amount of 1 mg which have been administered orally. Strong yellow-red fluorescence of hypericin in tissue with maximum at 603 nm and autofluorescence peak at 535 nm gives an intensity ratio I(603 nm)/I(535 nm) of 2 - 2.5 from cancerous tissue and provides 85% specificity. Preliminary in vivo results of auto- and fluorescence analysis using hypericin photosensitization from one patient with esophageal cancer and eleven patients with stomach cancer proven histologically are encouraging and indicate the high reliability of laser-induced fluorescence technique with hypericin in detection of early stage malignant lesions.

  3. Implications of mercury speciation in thiosulfate treated plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Wang, Heng; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Tiandou

    2012-05-15

    Mercury uptake was induced in two cultivars of Brassica juncea under field conditions using thiosulfate. Analysis was conducted to better understand the mechanism of uptake, speciation of mercury in plants, and redistribution of mercury in the soil. Plant mercury and sulfur concentrations were increased after thiosulfate treatment, and a linear correlation between mercury and sulfur was observed. Mercury may be absorbed and transported in plants as the Hg-thiosulfate complex. The majority of mercury in treated plant tissues (two cultivars) was bound to sulfur in a form similar to β-HgS (66-94%). Remaining mercury was present in forms similar to Hg-cysteine (1-10%) and Hg-dicysteine (8-28%). The formation of β-HgS may relate to the transport and assimilation of sulfate in plant tissues. Mercury-thiosulfate complex could decompose to mercuric and sulfate ions in the presence of free protons inside the plasma membrane, while sulfide ions would be produced by the assimilation of sulfate. The concomitant presence of mercuric ions and S(2-) would precipitate β-HgS. The mercury concentration in the rhizosphere decreased in the treated relative to the nontreated soil. The iron/manganese oxide and organic-bound fractions of soil mercury were transformed to more bioavailable forms (soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed) and taken up by plants.

  4. Diphenyl diselenide, a simple organoselenium compound, decreases methylmercury-induced cerebral, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and mercury deposition in adult mice.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Andressa Sausen; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Rotta, Mariana dos Santos; Bohrer, Denise; Mörschbächer, Vanessa; Puntel, Robson Luís; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-04-06

    Oxidative stress has been pointed out as an important molecular mechanism in methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. At low doses, diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2), a structurally simple organoselenium compound, has been shown to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we have examined the possible in vivo protective effect of diphenyl diselenide against the potential pro-oxidative effects of MeHg in mouse liver, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum. The effects of MeHg exposure (2 mg/(kg day) of methylmercury chloride 10 ml/kg, p.o.), as well as the possible antagonist effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 and 0.4 mg/(kg day); s.c.) on body weight gain and on hepatic, cerebellar, cerebral and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content, mercury concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were evaluated after 35 days of treatment. MeHg caused an increase in TBARS and decreased NPSH levels in all tissues. MeHg also induced a decrease in hepatic ascorbic acid content and in renal GPx and CAT activities. Diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg) conferred protection against MeHg-induced hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and at both doses prevented the reduction in hepatic NPSH levels. Diphenyl diselenide also conferred a partial protection against MeHg-induced oxidative stress (TBARS and NPSH) in liver and cerebellum. Of particular importance, diphenyl diselenide decreased the deposition of Hg in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney and liver. The present results indicate that diphenyl diselenide can protect against some toxic effects of MeHg in mice. This protection may be related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce Hg body burden. We posit that formation of a selenol intermediate, which possesses high nucleophilicity and high affinity for MeHg, accounts for the ability of diphenyl diselenide to ameliorate MeHg-induced

  5. Carbon nanoparticle-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for detecting mercury ions in aqueous media and living cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Minhuan; Zhang, Jinfeng; Chui, Ying-San; Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, Chun-Sing; Kwong, Hoi-Lun; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-12-10

    A novel nanohybrid ratiometric fluorescence sensor is developed for selective detection of mercuric ions (Hg(2+)), and the application has been successfully demonstrated in HEPES buffer solution, lake water, and living cells. The sensor comprises water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and Rhodamine B (RhB) and exhibits their corresponding dual emissions peaked at 437 and 575 nm, respectively, under a single excitation wavelength (350 nm). The photoluminescence of the CNPs in the nanohybrid system can be completely quenched by Hg(2+) through effective electron or energy transfer process due to synergetic strong electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand coordination between the surface functional group of CNPs and Hg(2+), while that of the RhB remains constant. This results in an obviously distinguishable fluorescence color variation (from violet to orange) of the nanohybrid solution. This novel sensor can effectively identify Hg(2+) from other metal ions with relatively low background interference even in a complex system such as lake water. The detection limit of this method is as low as 42 nM. Furthermore, the sensing technique is applicable to detect Hg(2+) in living cells.

  6. DNA derived fluorescent bio-dots for sensitive detection of mercury and silver ions in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting; Zhu, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shenghai; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wei; Yuan, Qunhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the high affinity between heavy metal ions and bio-molecules as well as the low toxicity of carbon-based quantum dots, we demonstrated the first application of a DNA derived carbonaceous quantum dots, namely bio-dots, in metal ion sensing. The present DNA-derived bio-dots contain graphitic carbon layers with 0.242 nm lattice fringes, exhibit excellent fluorescence property and can be obtained via a facile hydrothermal preparation procedure. Hg(II) and Ag(I) are prone to be captured by the bio-dots due to the existence of residual thymine (T) and cytosine (C) groups, resulting in a quenched fluorescence while other heavy metal ions would cause negligible changes on the fluorescent signals of the bio-dots. The bio-dots could be used as highly selective toxic-free biosensors, with two detecting linear ranges of 0-0.5 μM and 0.5-6 μM for Hg(II) and one linear range of 0-10 μM for Ag(I). The detection limits (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were estimated to be 48 nM for Hg(II) and 0.31 μM for Ag(I), respectively. The detection of Hg(II) and Ag(I) could also be realized in the real water sample analyses, with satisfying recoveries ranging from 87% to 100%.

  7. Detection of mercury ions using silver telluride nanoparticles as a substrate and recognition element through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Zong-Hong; Roy, Prathik; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we unveil a new sensing strategy for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using Ag2Te nanoparticles (NPs) as a substrate and recognition element and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a reporter. Ag2Te NPs prepared from tellurium dioxide and silver nitrate and hydrazine in aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate at 90ºC with an average size of 26.8 ± 4.1 nm (100 counts) have strong SERS activity. The Ag2Te substrate provides strong SERS signals of R6G with an enhancement factor of 3.6 × 105 at 1360 cm-1, which is comparable to Ag NPs. After interaction of Ag2Te NPs with Hg2+, some HgTe NPs are formed, leading to decreases in the SERS signal of R6G, mainly because HgTe NPs relative to Ag2Te NPs have weaker SERS activity. Under optimum conditions, this SERS approach using Ag2Te as substrates is selective for the detection of Hg2+, with a limit of detection of 3 nM and linearity over 10-150 nM. The practicality of this approach has been validated for the determination of the concentrations of spiked Hg2+ in a pond water sample.

  8. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) processing characteristics of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.; Andersen, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    An experimental-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter was used in a series of tests to evaluate the processing characteristics of mercury in simulated defense waste under various melter operating conditions. This solidification technology had no detectable capacity for incorporating mercury into its borosilicate, vitreous, product, and essentially all the mercury fed to the melter was lost to the off-gas system as gaseous effluent. An ejector venturi scrubber condensed and collected 97% of the mercury evolved from the melter. Chemically the condensed mercury effluent was composed entirely of chlorides, and except in a low-temperature test, mercury chlorides (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) was the primary chloride formed. As a result, combined mercury accounted for most of the insoluble mass collected by the process quench scrubber. Although macroscopic quantities of elemental mercury were never observed in process secondary waste streams, finely divided and dispersed mercury that blackened all condensed Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} residues was capable of saturating the quenched process exhaust with mercury vapor. However, the vapor pressure of mercury in the quenched melter exhaust was easily and predictably controlled with an off-gas stream chiller. 5 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  10. Basic Information about Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposures to methylmercury than other animals in water ecosystems. Predators that eat these birds and mammals are ... Service (NPS): Effects of Air Toxics/Mercury on Ecosystems U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Mercury in the Environment ...

  11. Novel photon detection based on electronically induced stress in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panagiolis G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene; Egert, Charles M.

    1998-07-01

    The feasibility of microcantilever-based optical detection is demonstrated. Specifically, we report here on an evaluation of laboratory prototypes that are based on commercially available microcantilevers. In this work, optical transduction techniques were used to measure microcantilever response to photons and study the electronic stress in silicon microcantilevers, and their temporal and photometric response. The photo-generation of free charge carriers (electrons, holes) in a semiconductor gives rise to photo-induced (electronic) mechanical strain. The excess charge carriers responsible for the photo-induced stress, were produced via photon irradiation from a diode laser with wavelength (lambda) equals 780 nm. We found that for silicon, the photo-induced stress results in a contraction of the crystal lattice due to the presence of excess electron-hole-pairs. In addition, the photo-induced stress is of opposite direction and about four times larger than the stress resulting from direct thermal excitation. When charge carriers are generated in a short time, a very rapid deflection of the microcantilever is observed (response time approximately microseconds).

  12. Evaluation of the use of metallothionein as a biomarker for detecting physiological responses to mercury exposure in the bonnethead, Sphyrna tiburo.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christina J; Gelsleichter, James; Adams, Douglas H; Manire, Charles A

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sharks, perhaps more so than any other fishes, are capable of bioaccumulating the non-essential toxic metal mercury (Hg) to levels that threaten the health of human seafood consumers. However, few studies have explored the potential effects of Hg accumulation in sharks themselves. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine if physiological effects occur in sharks in response to environmentally relevant levels of Hg exposure. To address this goal, the relationship between muscle Hg concentrations and muscle/hepatic levels of metallothionein (MT), a widely used protein biomarker of toxic metal exposure in fish, was examined in bonnetheads, Sphyrna tiburo, from three Florida estuaries. Total Hg concentrations in bonnethead muscle, as determined using thermal decomposition and atomic absorption spectrometry, ranged from 0.22 to 1.78 μg/g wet weight and were correlated with animal size. These observations were consistent with earlier studies on Florida bonnetheads, illustrating that they experience bioaccumulation of Hg, often to levels that threaten the health of these animals or consumers of their meat. However, despite this, MT concentrations measured using Western blot analysis were not correlated with muscle Hg concentrations. These results suggest that either environmentally relevant levels of Hg exposure and uptake are below the physiological threshold for inducing effects in sharks or MT is a poor biomarker of Hg exposure in these fishes. Of these two explanations, the latter is favored based on a growing body of evidence that questions the use of MTs as specific indicators of Hg exposure and effects in fish.

  13. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Ebel, Denton S.; Nittler, Larry R.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Winslow, Reka M..; Helbert, Jorn; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Mouawad, Nelly; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.

    2014-01-01

    nanometer-scale particles may also account for Mercury's relatively featureless visible-near-infrared reflectance spectra. Characteristics of material returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa demonstrate that this nanometer-scale material need not be pure iron, raising the possibility that the nanometer-scale material on Mercury may have a composition different from iron metal [such as (Fe,Mg)S]. The expected depletion of volatiles and particularly alkali metals from solar-wind interaction processes are inconsistent with the detection of sodium, potassium, and sulfur within the regolith. One plausible explanation invokes a larger fine fraction (grain size less than 45 micron) and more radiation-damaged grains than in the lunar surface material to create a regolith that is a more efficient reservoir for these volatiles. By this view the volatile elements detected are present not only within the grain structures, but also as adsorbates within the regolith and deposits on the surfaces of the regolith grains. The comparisons with findings from the Moon and asteroids provide a basis for predicting how compositional modifications induced by space weathering have affected Mercury's surface composition.

  14. An optical sensor based on H-acid/layered double hydroxide composite film for the selective detection of mercury ion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyong; Jin, Lan; Zhang, Shitong; Shi, Wenying; Pu, Min; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2011-09-19

    A novel optical chemosensor was fabricated based on 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid sodium (H-acid) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) film via the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The film of H-acid/LDH with the thickness of 1 μm possesses a well c-orientation of the LDH microcrystals confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence detection for Hg(II) in aqueous solution was performed by using the H-acid/LDH film sensor at pH 7.0, with a linear response range in 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-8) mol L(-1). Furthermore, it exhibits excellent selectivity for Hg(II) over a large number of competitive cations including alkali, alkaline earth, heavy metal and transitional metals. The specific fluorescence response of the optical sensor is attributed to the coordination between Hg(II) and sulfonic group in the H-acid immobilized in the LDH matrix, which was verified by NMR spectroscopy and UV-vis spectra. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculation further confirms that the coordination occurs between one Hg(2+) and two O atoms in the sulfonic group, which is responsible for the significant fluorescence quenching of the H-acid/LDH film. The results indicate that the H-acid/LDH composite film can be potentially used as a chemosensor for the detection of Hg(2+) in the environmental and biomedical field.

  15. Real-time Microseismic Processing for Induced Seismicity Hazard Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, Eric M.

    2016-10-31

    Induced seismicity is inherently associated with underground fluid injections. If fluids are injected in proximity to a pre-existing fault or fracture system, the resulting elevated pressures can trigger dynamic earthquake slip, which could both damage surface structures and create new migration pathways. The goal of this research is to develop a fundamentally better approach to geological site characterization and early hazard detection. We combine innovative techniques for analyzing microseismic data with a physics-based inversion model to forecast microseismic cloud evolution. The key challenge is that faults at risk of slipping are often too small to detect during the site characterization phase. Our objective is to devise fast-running methodologies that will allow field operators to respond quickly to changing subsurface conditions.

  16. Detecting blast-induced infrasound in wind noise.

    PubMed

    Howard, Wheeler B; Dillion, Kevin L; Shields, F Douglas

    2010-03-01

    Current efforts seek to monitor and investigate such naturally occurring events as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, bolides entering the atmosphere, earthquakes, and tsunamis by the infrasound they generate. Often, detection of the infrasound signal is limited by the masking effect of wind noise. This paper describes the use of a distributed array to detect infrasound signals from four atmospheric detonations at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, USA in 2006. Three of the blasts occurred during times of low wind noise and were easily observed with array processing techniques. One blast was obscured by high wind conditions. The results of signal processing are presented that allowed localization of the blast-induced signals in the presence of wind noise in the array response.

  17. Highly sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) based on a zirconium metal-organic framework in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Xia, Tifeng; Jiang, Ke; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-09-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) fluorescent probe UiO-66-PSM is obtained by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction of UiO-66-N3 with phenylacetylene. The click-generated triazole unit can act as the metal binding site to coordinate with Hg2+, which exhibits the most pronounced fluorescence response (rapid response, excellent selectivity, and high sensitivity) over other metal ions. Moreover, it is capable of detecting Hg2+ in environmental water samples without any structural disintegration of the framework, indicating its high potential in practical applications.

  18. New discoveries from MESSENGER and insights into Mercury's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervack, R. J.; Killen, R. M.; McClintock, W. E.; Merkel, A. W.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.

    2016-11-01

    For most of the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a regular search for weakly emitting or less abundant species in Mercury's exosphere resulted in nondetections. However, during the final Earth year of the mission, emission from multiple lines of manganese, aluminum, and ionized calcium was detected. These observations validate the detection of a single line of ionized calcium during the third MESSENGER Mercury flyby, provide definitive confirmation for weak aluminum detections in ground-based observations, and represent the discovery of manganese in Mercury's exosphere. These detections occurred over a limited range of predawn local times and Mercury true anomaly angles (0°-70°), and each has a distinct spatial distribution. Equally interesting is the absence of detectable emission from oxygen at limits well below the levels reported for Mariner 10.

  19. Intraoperative metastases detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Young, J. D.; Chandra, Mudjianto; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Beeder, Clain; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-06-01

    The authors studied the ability of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for the intraoperative identification of metastases using a photosensitizing agent Photofrin IIr to enhance spectroscopic detection. A He-Cd laser source (442 nm) was used to produce low-power illumination of tissue via a hand-held 400 micrometers fiberoptic probe. Through the same fiber, reflected and emitted light was returned to an optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA III) for analysis. Spectroscopic signals were displayed on a screen for immediate examination. Lobund Wistar rats, inoculated with Pollard rat adenocarcinoma cells, were used as an animal model. Photofrin IIr was administered intraperitoneal 24 or 48 hours prior to surgical exploration in doses varying from 0.75-7.5 mg/kg. Metastases detection was performed during abdominal exploration directed to ipsilateral and contralateral inguinal, iliac, para-aortic and renal lymph nodes. Nineteen tissue samples, identified as abnormal by LIFS, were removed for histologic analysis; 11 of these samples were larger than 5mm and histologic examination revealed malignancy in all cases. While LIFS signals showed malignancy in 8 tissue samples with dimensions less than 5mm, histology confirmed this in only 3. However, serial histologic sections were not performed. From the initial results, it was concluded that LIFS detection of malignant tissue is feasible and enhanced by the addition of Photofrin IIr. LIFS may be a promising technique for the intraoperative detection of primary malignant and metastatic tissue.

  20. Simultaneous determination of methyl- and ethyl-mercury by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography atomic fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

    2009-12-18

    A method for trace level determination of organomercury species in different biota matrixes by using aqueous-phase propylation followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection has been optimized. To maximize peak area and symmetry factors of methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg) analyzed as propyl derivatives, carrier and make-up flow rates were optimized by a user-defined experimental design. A multiple response simultaneous optimization was applied using the desirability function to achieve global optimal operating conditions. They were attained at 2 and 6 mL min(-1) as carrier and make-up gas flow rates, respectively. In addition, pyrolyser temperature was also optimized, yielding the best value at 750 degrees C. Limits of detection and quantification at the optimum conditions were 0.04 ng g(-1) and 0.13 ng g(-1) for both, MeHg and EtHg. The developed analytical procedure was validated with a certified reference material (DORM-2) and applied to the determination of organomercury incurred in waterfowl egg and fish samples.

  1. Photocatalysis-Based Nanoprobes Using Noble Metal-Semiconductor Heterostructure for Visible Light-Driven in Vivo Detection of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lihua; Zeng, Xiaofan; Wang, Hao; Hai, Jun; Yang, Xiangliang; Wang, Baodui; Zhu, Yanhong

    2017-07-18

    The development of sensitive and reliable methods to monitor the presence of mercuric ions in cells and organisms is of great importance to biological research and biomedical applications. In this work, we propose a strategy to construct a solar-driven nanoprobe using a 3D Au@MoS2 heterostructure as a photocatalyst and rhodamine B (RB) as a fluorescent and color change reporter molecule for monitoring Hg(2+) in living cells and animals. The sensing mechanism is based on the photoinduced electron formation of gold amalgam in the 3D Au@MoS2 heterostructure under visible light illumination. This formation is able to remarkably inhibit the photocatalytic activity of the heterostructure toward RB decomposition. As a result, "OFF-ON" fluorescence and color change are produced. Such characteristics enable this new sensing platform to sensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) in water by fluorescence and colorimetric methods. The detection limits of the fluorescence assay and colorimetric assay are 0.22 and 0.038 nM for Hg(2+), respectively; these values are well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (10 nM). For the first time, such photocatalysis-based sensing platform is successfully used to monitor Hg(2+) in live cells and mice. Our work therefore opens a promising photocatalysis-based analysis methodology for highly sensitive and selective in vivo Hg(2+) bioimaging studies.

  2. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  4. Ancient Maya Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David M.

    1982-08-01

    Discovery of mercury in an ancient Maya offering at Lamanai, Belize, has stimulated examination of possible sources of the material in the Maya area. Two zones of cinnabar and native mercury deposits can be defined in the Maya highlands, and the presence of the native metal suggests that the ancient Maya collected rather than extracted the mercury from ore.

  5. Mercury in the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Lyon, W. S.; Shults, W. D.; Wallace, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems in assessing mercury concentrations in environmental materials are discussed. Data for situations involving air, water, rocks, soils, sediments, sludges, fossil fuels, plants, animals, foods, and man are drawn together and briefly evaluated. Details are provided regarding the toxicity of mercury along with tentative standards and guidelines for mercury in air, drinking water, and food.

  6. Fragmentation of mercury compounds under ultraviolet light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkonen, E.; Löytynoja, T.; Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, M.

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet light induced photofragmentation of mercury compounds is studied experimentally with electron energy resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques and theoretically with computational quantum chemical methods. A high resolution photoelectron spectrum using synchrotron radiation is presented. Fragmentation of the molecule is studied subsequent to ionization to the atomic-mercury-like d orbitals. State dependent fragmentation behaviour is presented and specific reactions for dissociation pathways are given. The fragmentation is found to differ distinctly in similar orbitals of different mercury compounds.

  7. Fragmentation of mercury compounds under ultraviolet light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkonen, E.; Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, M.; Löytynoja, T.

    2015-08-21

    Ultraviolet light induced photofragmentation of mercury compounds is studied experimentally with electron energy resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques and theoretically with computational quantum chemical methods. A high resolution photoelectron spectrum using synchrotron radiation is presented. Fragmentation of the molecule is studied subsequent to ionization to the atomic-mercury-like d orbitals. State dependent fragmentation behaviour is presented and specific reactions for dissociation pathways are given. The fragmentation is found to differ distinctly in similar orbitals of different mercury compounds.

  8. Development of an electromagnetically actuated mercury microvalve

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Wong, C.C.

    1998-08-01

    The development of microscale fluid handling components has been recognized as a crucial element in the design of microscale chemical detection systems. Recently, work has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories to construct a valve that uses a small mercury droplet to control the flow of gas through capillary passages. Electromagnetic forces that are provided by small permanent magnets and a current supply are used to drive the mercury into position. Driving the mercury droplet into a tapered passage halts gas flow through a capillary, while surface tension forces prevent the mercury from passing through the passage. Models have been developed to describe the movement of the mercury droplet and the sealing of the gas passage, and millimeter-scale units have been tested to explore design options. Predictions from the model show that a valve with 10 micron sized features can seal against pressures up to 1.5 atmospheres. Experiments have highlighted the promise of mercury valves and demonstrated problems that can arise from contamination of the mercury.

  9. Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence for bioaerosols standoff detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Stadnyk, Laurie; Rowsell, Susan; Simard, Jean-Robert; Ho, Jim; Déry, Bernard; McFee, John

    2007-09-01

    An efficient standoff biological warfare detection capability could become an important asset for both defence and security communities based on the increasing biological threat and the limits of the presently existing protection systems. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has developed, by the end of the 90s, a standoff bioaerosol sensor prototype based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). This LIDAR system named SINBAHD monitors the spectrally resolved LIF originating from inelastic interactions with bioaerosols present in atmospheric cells customizable in size and in range. SINBAHD has demonstrated the capability of near real-time detection and classification of bioaerosolized threats at multi-kilometre ranges. In spring 2005, DRDC has initiated the BioSense demonstration project, which combines the SINBAHD technology with a geo-referenced Near InfraRed (NIR) LIDAR cloud mapper. SINBAHD is now being used to acquire more signatures to add in the spectral library and also to optimize and test the new BioSense algorithm strategy. In September 2006, SINBAHD has participated in a two-week trial held at DRDC-Suffield where different open-air wet releases of live and killed bioagent simulants, growth media and obscurants were performed. An autoclave killing procedure was performed on two biological materials (Bacillus subtilis var globigii or BG, and Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) before being aerosolized, disseminated and spectrally characterized with SINBAHD. The obtained results showed no significant impact of this killing process on their normalised spectral signature in comparison with their live counterparts. Correlation between the detection signals from SINBAHD, an array of slit samplers and a FLuorescent Aerosol Particle Sensor (C-FLAPS) was obtained and SINBAHD's sensitivity could then be estimated. At the 2006 trial, a detection limit of a few tens of Agent Containing Particles per Liter of Air (ACPLA) was obtained

  10. A simple mercury vapor detector for geochemical prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughn, William W.

    1967-01-01

    The detector utilizes a large-volume atomic-absorption technique for quantitative determinations of mercury vapor thermally released from crushed rock. A quartz-enclosed noble-metal amalgamative stage, which is temperature controlled and is actuated by a radio-frequency induction heater, selectively traps the mercury and eliminates low-level contamination. As little as 1 part per billion of mercury can be detected in a 1-gram sample in a 1-minute analytical period.

  11. Cadmium and mercury nephrotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, J. K.

    1983-08-01

    Despite increasing attempts to control environmental pollution, changes in the distribution and bioavailability of toxic metals like mercury and cadmium are still occurring. Apart from natural processes, other contributory factors include the gradual spread of industrialization, the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and the acidification of Northern Hemisphere ground-water. Animals (including man and domestic varieties) can accumulate harmful concentrations of toxic metals1-5. We therefore looked for damage to the kidneys in seabirds contaminated with mercury and cadmium and made comparisons with kidneys from three other groups of animals: seabirds from an uncontaminated colony, metal-dosed birds and metal-dosed mice. We report here that, comparing all these groups of animals, invididuals with comparatively high levels of metals had nephrotoxic lesions of a similar type and severity. Moreover, the metal concentrations at which damage began and at which biochemical changes could be detected were below those presently considered as relatively safe for humans by the World Health Organization.

  12. BSA-stabilized Pt nanozyme for peroxidase mimetics and its application on colorimetric detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Haixiang; Sun, Yanhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jinli; Fu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is chosen as the nucleation templates to synthesize Pt-based peroxidase nanomimetics with the average diameter of 2.0nm. The efficient Pt nanozymes consist of 57% Pt(0) and 43% Pt(2+), which possess highly peroxidase-like activity with the Km values of 0.119mM and 41.8mM toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively. Interestingly, Hg(2+) is able to down-regulate the enzymatic activity of Pt nanoparticles, mainly through the interactions between Hg(2+) and Pt(0). It is the first report to explore a colorimetric Hg(2+) sensing system on the basis of peroxidase mimicking activities of Pt nanoparticles. One of our most intriguing results is that BSA-stabilized Pt nanozymes demonstrate the ability to sense Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solution without significant interference from other metal ions. The Hg(2+) detection limit of 7.2nM is achieved with a linear response range of 0-120nM, and the developed sensing system is potentially applicable for quantitative determination of Hg(2+) in drinking water.

  13. Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. T-screen and yeast assay for the detection of the thyroid-disrupting activities of cadmium, mercury, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Liu, Yun; Kong, Dongdong; Ren, Shujuan; Li, Na

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, a two-hybrid yeast bioassay and a T-screen were used to screen for the thyroid receptor (TR)-disrupting activity of select metallic compounds (CdCl2, ZnCl2, HgCl2, CuSO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4). The results reveal that none of the tested metallic compounds showed TR-agonistic activity, whereas ZnCl2, HgCl2, and CdCl2 demonstrated TR antagonism. For the yeast assay, the dose-response relationship of these metallic compounds was established, and the concentrations producing 20 % of the maximum effect of ZnCl2, HgCl2, and CdCl2 were 9.1 × 10(-5), 3.2 × 10(-6), and 1.2 × 10(-6) mol/L, respectively. The T-screen also supported the finding that ZnCl2, HgCl2, and CdCl2 decreased the cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4) mol/L. Furthermore, the thyroid-disrupting activity of metallic compounds in environmental water samples collected from the Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China was evaluated. Solid-phase extraction was used to separate the organic extracts, and a modified two-hybrid yeast bioassay revealed that the metallic compounds in the water samples could affect thyroid hormone-induced signaling by decreasing the binding of the thyroid hormone. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 mg/L) could eliminate the effects. Thus, the cause(s) of the thyroid toxicity in the water samples appeared to be partly related to the metallic compounds.

  15. Interference detection in implantable defibrillators induced by therapeutic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uiterwaal, G.J.; Springorum, B.G.F.; Scheepers, E.; de Ruiter, G.S.; Hurkmans, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic fields and ionising radiation during radiotherapy can influence the functioning of ICDs. Guidelines for radiotherapy treatment were published in 1994, but only based on experience with pacemakers. Data on the influence of radiotherapy on ICDs is limited. Objectives We determined the risk to ICDs of interference detection induced by radiotherapy. Methods In our study we irradiated 11 ICDs. The irradiation was performed with a 6 megavolt photon beam. In each individual device test, a total of 20 Gray was delivered in a fractionated fashion. During each irradiation the output stimulation rate was monitored and electrogram storage was activated. In case of interference the test was repeated with the ICD outside and the lead(s) inside and outside the irradiation field. Results With the ICD inside the irradiation field, interference detection was observed in all ICDs. This caused pacing inhibition or rapid ventricular pacing. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection occurred, which would have caused tachycardia-terminating therapy. If the ICD was placed outside the irradiation field, no interference was observed. Conclusion Interference by ionising radiation on the ICDs is demonstrated both on bradycardia and tachycardia therapy. This can have consequences for patients. Recommendations for radiotherapy are presented in this article. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5 PMID:25696559

  16. Measuring mercury and other elemental components in tree rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Lewis, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in measuring heavy metal pollution, such as mercury, using tree ring analysis. Since 1970, this method has provided a historical snapshot of pollutant concentrations near hazardous waste sites. Traditional methods of analysis have long been used with heavy metal pollutants such as mercury. These methods, such as atomic fluorescence and laser ablation, are sometimes time consuming and expensive to implement. In recent years, ion beam techniques, such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), have been used to measure large numbers of elements. Most of the existing research in this area has been completed for low to medium atomic number pollutants, such as titanium, cobalt, nickel, and copper. Due to the reduction of sensitivity, it is often difficult or impossible to use traditional low energy (few MeV) PIXE analysis for pollutants with large atomic numbers. For example, the PIXE detection limit for mercury was recently measured to be about 1 ppm for a spiked Southern Magnolia wood sample [ref. 1]. This presentation will compare PIXE and standard chemical concentration results for a variety of wood samples.

  17. Measuring mercury and other elemental components in tree rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Lewis, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in measuring heavy metal pollution, such as mercury, using tree ring analysis. Since 1970, this method has provided a historical snapshot of pollutant concentrations near hazardous waste sites. Traditional methods of analysis have long been used with heavy metal pollutants such as mercury. These methods, such as atomic fluorescence and laser ablation, are sometimes time consuming and expensive to implement. In recent years, ion beam techniques, such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), have been used to measure large numbers of elements. Most of the existing research in this area has been completed for low to medium atomic number pollutants, such as titanium, cobalt, nickel, and copper. Due to the reduction of sensitivity, it is often difficult or impossible to use traditional low energy (few MeV) PIXE analysis for pollutants with large atomic numbers. For example, the PIXE detection limit for mercury was recently measured to be about 1 ppm for a spiked Southern Magnolia wood sample [ref. 1]. This presentation will compare PIXE and standard chemical concentration results for a variety of wood samples. Copyright 2004 by ISA.

  18. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    PubMed

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-01-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  19. Inhibition by probenecid of 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) induced excretion of mercury from the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK)

    SciTech Connect

    Klotzbach, J.M.; Diamond, G.L.

    1986-03-01

    DMPS is a complexing agent that is being considered for use in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. In rats, DMPS undergoes renal tubular secretion by a probenecid (PRB) sensitive mechanism. The goal of this study was to determine the role of tubular secretion in the DMPS-induced excretion of mercury from the kidneys. Male Long-Evans rats were injected with HgCl/sub 2/ (100 ..mu..g Hg/kg, ip) and 48 hr later were perfused for 30 min at 38/sup 0/C with a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution containing 4.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, a mixture of metabolic substrates, inulin (0.8 mg/ml) and DMPS (23 ..mu..M). The renal excretory clearance of ultrafilterable DMPS (CD) exceeded the simultaneously measured clearance of inulin (CI); DMPS-to-inulin clearance ratio (CD/CI) = 6.06 +/- 1.80 (n = 3), indicating net tubular secretion of DMPS. Under these conditions, 26.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 4) of the Hg burden was removed from the kidneys and excreted exclusively in the urine. In the absence of DMPS, no Hg was removed from the kidney. PRB (230 ..mu..M) completely inhibited net tubular secretion of DMPS (CD/CI = 0.87 +/- 0.07, n = 3) and in the presence of PRB and DMPS, only 3.2 +/- 1.0% (n = 4) of the renal Hg burden was removed and excreted in urine. Thus, tubular secretion of DMPS is important for the DMPS-induced excretion of Hg from the kidney.

  20. Atmospheric Deposition and Fate of Mercury in High-altitude Watersheds of the Rocky Mountains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. H.; Mast, M. A.; Ingersoll, G. P.; Manthorne, D. J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Taylor, H. E.; Aiken, G. R.; Schuster, P. F.; Reddy, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    Despite the potential for cold high-altitude ecosystems to act as sinks in the global mercury cycle, atmospheric deposition and fate of mercury have not been measured extensively at mountain sites in the Western United States. At Buffalo Pass in northwestern Colorado (the highest site in the national Mercury Deposition Network at 3234 m elevation), mercury in wet deposition was 9 μ gm-2 in 2000, comparable to many sites in the upper Midwestern United States where fish consumption advisories are widespread because of elevated levels of mercury from atmospheric deposition. Similar levels of mercury deposition were measured about 90 km east of Buffalo Pass at Loch Vale in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during 2002. Concentrations of total mercury in headwater streams in RMNP averaged 2-4 ngL-1 during spring and summer of 2001-2002. Higher concentrations were observed during snowmelt and rainfall events. Dissolved mercury was generally greater than particulate mercury in these clear mountain streams. Mercury and dissolved organic carbon peaked as soils were flushed during early snowmelt and rainy summer periods. Overall, mercury deposition was greater than mercury export, indicating accumulation in alpine/subalpine ecosystems; however, the mercury exported in streamflow may contribute substantially to mercury loading in downstream lakes and reservoirs where fish consumption advisories have increased. Methyl mercury concentrations measured in the streams in 2002 were generally near or less than detection limits, however, extreme drought conditions limited hydrologic flushing of soils and wetlands that may be sources of methyl mercury. In 2003, surface and ground water from various alpine and subalpine landscapes were sampled to determine sources and transport of total and methyl mercury. The elevated levels of mercury in atmospheric deposition indicate a need for better understanding of mercury cycling and transport in high-altitude ecosystems of Western North

  1. Detection of lead in water using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lui, Siu L; Godwal, Yogesh; Taschuk, Michael T; Tsui, Ying Y; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2008-03-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known technique for fast, stand-off, and nondestructive analysis of the elemental composition of a sample. We have been investigating micro-LIBS for the past few years and demonstrating its application to microanalysis of surfaces. Recently, we have integrated micro-LIBS with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and this combination, laser ablation laser-induced fluorescence (LA-LIF), allows one to achieve much higher sensitivity than traditional LIBS. In this study, we use a 170 microJ laser pulse to ablate a liquid sample in order to measure the lead content. The plasma created was re-excited by a 10 microJ laser pulse tuned to one of the lead resonant lines. Upon optimization, the 3sigma limit of detection was found to be 35 +/- 7 ppb, which is close to the EPA standard for the level of lead allowed in drinking water.

  2. Total and methylated mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Sarah A; Armstrong, Debbie; Chaulk, Amanda; Comte, Jérôme; Gosselin, Michel; Wang, Feiyue

    2014-05-20

    Mercury is one of the primary contaminants of concern in the Arctic marine ecosystem. While considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding mercury cycling in the Arctic, little is known about mercury dynamics within Arctic multiyear sea ice, which is being rapidly replaced with first-year ice. Here we report the first study on the distribution and potential methylation of mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice. Based on three multiyear ice cores taken from the eastern Beaufort Sea and McClure Strait, total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.65 to 60.8 pM in bulk ice, with the highest values occurring in the topmost layer (∼40 cm) which is attributed to the dynamics of particulate matter. Methylated mercury concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (<0.1 pM) to as high as 2.64 pM. The ratio of methylated to total mercury peaked, up to ∼40%, in the mid to bottom sections of the ice, suggesting the potential occurrence of in situ mercury methylation. The annual fluxes of total and methylated mercury into the Arctic Ocean via melt of multiyear ice are estimated to be 420 and 42 kg yr(-1), respectively, representing an important and changing source of mercury and methylmercury into the Arctic Ocean marine ecosystem.

  3. A sensitive and selective sensing platform based on CdTe QDs in the presence of l-cysteine for detection of silver, mercury and copper ions in water and various drinks.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Xinxin; Liu, Jie; Xiang, Jinkun; Wu, Yiwei

    2016-12-15

    Water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared simply by one-pot method using potassium tellurite as stable tellurium source and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as stabilizer. The fluorescence of CdTe QDs can be improved 1.3-fold in the presence of l-cysteine (Cys), however, highly efficiently quenched in the presence of silver or mercury or copper ions. A sensitive and selective sensing platform for analysis of silver, mercury and copper ions has been simply established based on CdTe QDs in the presence of l-cysteine. Under the optimum conditions, excellent linear relationships exist between the quenching degree of the sensing platform and the concentrations of Ag(+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) ranging from 0.5 to 40ngmL(-1). By using masking agents of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) for Ag(+) and Cu(2+), NH4OH for Ag(+) and Hg(2+) and 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) for Hg(2+) and Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+) can be exclusively detected in coexistence with other two ions, and the detection limits (3σ) were 0.65, 0.063 and 0.088ngmL(-1) for Ag(+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. This effective sensing platform has been used to detection of Ag(+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) in water and various drinks with satisfactory results.

  4. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  5. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm2. The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications. PMID:26965055

  6. Detection of earthquake induced radon precursors by Hilbert Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Chiranjib; Ghose, Debasis; Sinha, Bikash; Deb, Argha

    2016-10-01

    Continuous measurement of radon-222 concentration in soil was carried out across duration of one year at a geologically faulted area having high regional heat flow to detect anomalies caused by seismic activities. The data reveals a range of periodicities present in the radon time series. To identify seismic induced radon changes we treat the time series data through various filtering methods to remove inherent periodicities. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is deployed to decompose the signal into its characteristic modes. Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied for the first time on the physically significant modes obtained by EEMD to represent time-energy-frequency of the recorded soil radon time series. After removing the periodic and quasi-periodic constituents from the original time series, the simulated result shows a forceful correlation in recorded radon-222 anomalies with regional and local seismic events.

  7. D-penicillamine-templated copper nanoparticles via ascorbic acid reduction as a mercury ion sensor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu Min; Geng, Shuo; Li, Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-05-01

    Mercury ion is one of the most hazardous metal pollutants that can cause deleterious effects on human health and the environment even at low concentrations. It is necessary to develop new mercury detection methods with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. In this study, a novel and green strategy for synthesizing D-penicillamine-capped copper nanoparticles (DPA-CuNPs) was successfully established by a chemical reduction method, in which D-penicillamine and ascorbic acid were used as stabilizing agent and reducing agent, respectively. The as-prepared DPA-CuNPs showed strong red fluorescence and had a large Stoke's shift (270nm). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry were utilized to elucidate the possible fluorescence mechanism, which could be aggregation-induced emission effect. Based on the phenomenon that trace mercury ion can disperse the aggregated DPA-CuNPs, resulting in great fluorescence quench of the system, a sensitive and selective assay for mercury ion in aqueous solution with the DPA-CuNPs was developed. Under optimum conditions, this assay can be applied to the quantification of Hg(2+) in the 1.0-30μM concentration range and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 32nM. The method was successfully applied to determine Hg(2+) in real water samples.

  8. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF - 781KB] En Español [PDF - 6.6MB] What did ATSDR find? For children, most elemental mercury exposures ... that exposed children to elemental mercury. The report did not include a review of mercury exposures from ...

  9. Adsorption properties and gaseous mercury transformation rate of natural biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Cheng; Liu, Caie; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-01

    Biofilms were developed on glass microscope slides in a natural aquatic environment and their mercury adsorption properties were evaluated. Results demonstrated that the biofilms contained a large number of bacterial cells and associated extracellular polymers. Mercury forms detected in the biofilms were mainly bound to residual matter and organic acids. The adsorption processes could be described by a Langmuir isotherm. The optimum conditions for adsorption of mercury to natural biofilm were an ionic strength of 0.1 mol/L, pH 6 and an optimum adsorption time of 40 min. The transformation rate was 0.79 microg gaseous mercury per gram of biofilm.

  10. Mercury's Complex Exosphere: Results from MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Burger, Matthew H.; Bradley, E. Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal attitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere,

  11. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    PubMed

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  12. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  13. Exercise-induced Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross; Wasserman, Karlman; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan; Chronos, Nicolas; Boden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a well-accepted physiologic evaluation technique in patients diagnosed with heart failure and in individuals presenting with unexplained dyspnea on exertion. Several variables obtained during CPET, including oxygen consumption relative to heart rate (VO2/HR or O2-pulse) and work rate (VO2/Watt) provide consistent, quantitative patterns of abnormal physiologic responses to graded exercise when left ventricular dysfunction is caused by myocardial ischemia. This concept paper describes both the methodology and clinical application of CPET associated with myocardial ischemia. Initial evidence indicates left ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial ischemia may be accurately detected by an abnormal CPET response. CPET testing may complement current non-invasive testing modalities that elicit inducible ischemia. It provides a physiologic quantification of the work rate, heart rate and O2 uptake at which myocardial ischemia develops. In conclusion, the potential value of adding CPET with gas exchange measurements is likely to be of great value in diagnosing and quantifying both overt and occult myocardial ischemia and its reversibility with treatment. PMID:19231322

  14. Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Hua; Ge, Cong-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Our recent work on the detection of explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is reviewed in this paper. We have studied the physical mechanism of laser-induced plasma of an organic explosive, TNT. The LIBS spectra of TNT under single-photon excitation are simulated using MATLAB. The variations of the atomic emission lines intensities of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen versus the plasma temperature are simulated too. We also investigate the time-resolved LIBS spectra of a common inorganic explosive, black powder, in two kinds of surrounding atmospheres, air and argon, and find that the maximum value of the O atomic emission line SBR of black powder occurs at a gate delay of 596 ns. Another focus of our work is on using chemometic methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish the organic explosives from organic materials such as plastics. A PLS-DA model for classification is built. TNT and seven types of plastics are chosen as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that LIBS coupled with the chemometric techniques has the capacity to discriminate organic explosive from plastics.

  15. Ionic liquid-based zinc oxide nanofluid for vortex assisted liquid liquid microextraction of inorganic mercury in environmental waters prior to cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopic detection.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Bekana, Deribachew

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanofluid (ZnO-NF) based vortex assisted liquid liquid microextraction (ZnO-NF VA-LLME) was developed and employed in extraction of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) in environmental water samples, followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). Unlike other dispersive liquid liquid microextraction techniques, ZnO-NF VA-LLME is free of volatile organic solvents and dispersive solvent consumption. Analytical signals were obtained without back-extraction from the ZnO-NF phase prior to CV-AFS determination. Some essential parameters of the ZnO-NF VA-LLME and cold vapor generation such as composition and volume of the nanofluid, vortexing time, pH of the sample solution, amount of the chelating agent, ionic strength and matrix interferences have been studied. Under optimal conditions, efficient extraction of 1ng/mL of Hg(2+) in 10mL of sample solution was achieved using 50μL of ZnO-NF. The enrichment factor before dilution, detection limits and limits of quantification of the method were about 190, 0.019 and 0.064ng/mL, respectively. The intra and inter days relative standard deviations (n=8) were found to be 4.6% and 7.8%, respectively, at 1ng/mL spiking level. The accuracy of the current method was also evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials, and the measured Hg(2+) concentration of GBW08603 (9.6ng/mL) and GBW(E)080392 (8.9ng/mL) agreed well with their certified value (10ng/mL). The method was applied to the analysis of Hg(2+) in effluent, influent, lake and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 79.8-92.8% and 83.6-106.1% at 1ng/mL and 5ng/mL spiking levels, respectively. Overall, ZnO-NF VA-LLME is fast, simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly and it can be employed for efficient enrichment of the analyte from various water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of Mercury Sulfide from Hg(II)-Thiolate Complexes in Natural Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Manceau, Alain; Lemouchi, Cyprien; Enescu, Mironel; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Lanson, Martine; Magnin, Valérie; Glatzel, Pieter; Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R; Gautier-Luneau, Isabelle; Nagy, Kathryn L

    2015-08-18

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury-sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury-sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  17. A methylene blue-mediated enzyme electrode for the determination of trace mercury(II), mercury(I), methylmercury, and mercury-glutathione complex.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Zhu, M; Yuan, Z; Li, X

    2001-01-01

    A methylene blue-mediated enzyme biosensor has been developed for the detection of inhibitors including mercury(II), mercury(I), methylmercury, and mercury-glutathione complex. The inhibition to horseradish peroxidase was apparently reversible and noncompetitive in the presence of HgCl2 in less than 8 s and irreversibly inactivated when incubated with different concentrations of HgCl2 for 1-8 min. The binding site of horseradish peroxidase with HgCl2 probably was a cysteine residue SH. Mercury compounds can be assayed amperometrically with the detection limits 0.1 ng ml(-1) Hg for HgCl2 and methylmercury, 0.2 ng ml(-1) Hg for Hg2(NO3)2 and 1.7 ng ml(-1) Hg for mercury glutathione complex. Inactivation of the immobilized horseradish peroxidase was displayed in the AFM images of the enzyme membranes.

  18. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Nyland, Jennifer F.; Silva, Ines A.; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of autoantibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (anti-nuclear autoantibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (anti-nucleolar autoantibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well-controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socioeconomic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold-miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  19. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pollen embryogenesis to induce, detect, and analyze mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of fully differentiated plants from individual pollen grains through a series of developmental phases that resemble embryogenesis beginning with the zygote was demonstrated during the mid-1960's. This technology opened the door to the use of haploid plants (sporophytes with the gametic number of chromosomes) for plant breeding and genetic studies, biochemical and metabolic studies, and the selection of mutations. Although pollen embryogenesis has been demonstrated successfully in numerous plant genera, the procedure cannot as yet be used routinely to generate large populations of plants for experiments. Practical results from use of the technology in genetic toxicology research to detect mutations have failed to fully realize the theoretical potential; further developments of the technology could overcome the limitations. Pollen embryogenesis could be used to develop plants from mutant pollen grains to verify that genetic changes are involved. Through either spontaneous or induced chromosome doubling, these plants can be made homozygous and used to analyze genetically the mutants involved. The success of this approach will depend on the mutant frequency relative to the fraction of pollen grains that undergo embryogenesis; these two factors will dictate population size needed for success. Research effort is needed to further develop pollen embryogenesis for use in the detection of genotoxins under both laboratory and in situ conditions.

  1. Impact Induced Delamination Detection and Quantification With Guided Wavefield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Yu, Lingyu; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies impact induced delamination detection and quantification by using guided wavefield data and spatial wavenumber imaging. The complex geometry impact-like delamination is created through a quasi-static indentation on a CFRP plate. To detect and quantify the impact delamination in the CFRP plate, PZT-SLDV sensing and spatial wavenumber imaging are performed. In the PZT-SLDV sensing, the guided waves are generated from the PZT, and the high spatial resolution guided wavefields are measured by the SLDV. The guided wavefield data acquired from the PZT-SLDV sensing represent guided wave propagation in the composite laminate and include guided wave interaction with the delamination damage. The measured guided wavefields are analyzed through the spatial wavenumber imaging method, which generates an image containing the dominant local wavenumber at each spatial location. The spatial wavenumber imaging result for the simple single layer Teflon insert delamination provided quantitative information on delamination damage size and location. The location of delamination damage is indicated by the area with larger wavenumbers in the spatial wavenumber image. The impact-like delamination results only partially agreed with the damage size and shape. The results also demonstrated the dependence on excitation frequency. Future work will further investigate the accuracy of the wavenumber imaging method for real composite damage and the dependence on frequency of excitation.

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence in the detection of esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kenneth K.; Gutta, Kumar; Laukka, Mark A.; Densmore, John

    1995-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique which can perform an 'optical biopsy' of gastrointestinal mucosa. LIF was performed in resected specimens using a pulsed N2-laser coupled fiberoptically to a probe. Fluorescence was measured using a 0.2 meter spectroscope with an intensified photodiode array. Measurements were made on fresh (<30 minutes after resection) esophageal specimens containing normal mucosa, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Each tissue section was examined using an optical probe consisting of a central fiber for delivering the excitation energy and a 6 fiber bundle surrounding the central fiber for detection of the fluorescence. An excitation wavelength of 337 nm was used which generated 3-ns pulses while fluorescence intensities were acquired from 300-800 nm. Spectra were obtained from each section in a standardized fashion and background spectra subtracted. Fluorescence readings were taken from 54 normal esophageal sections and 32 sections of adenocarcinoma. A fluorescence index obtained from the tumor sections was 0.68+/- 0.01 compared with 0.51+/- 0.01 for the normal sections (p<0.001). Using a discriminant value of 0.65, this technique had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 100% for detection of malignant tissue. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 90% for an overall accuracy of 93%. LIF is a promising technique which has the capability of distinguishing normal versus malignant tissue in the esophagus with good accuracy.

  3. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  4. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  5. Mercury Methylation and Detoxification by Novel Microorganisms in Mercury Enriched Mesothermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M.; Wick, R. R.; Schultz, M. B.; Holt, K. E.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have looked at the microbial underpinnings of mercury transformations in geothermal settings. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques, such as ultra-high-throughput sequencing, allow us to delve deeply into the functional and phylogenetic make-up of these extreme environments. Here we present results from deep metagenomic sequencing of geothermal microbial communities cycling mercury, focussing on the connections between putative metabolisms and mercury methylation, and the evolution of the mer-operon. Presented are data from two adjacent, acidic (pH<3), mesothermal (33-68 °C) hot springs of the Ngawha geothermal field (New Zealand), extremely enriched in total mercury (>1000 ng L-1), and varying methylmercury concentrations (1-10 ng L-1). Microbial communities of both springs are dominated by mercury resistant acidophilic, sulfur- and iron-cycling microbes: Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Thermoplasma. Mercury methylation genes (hgcAB) were only detected in the cooler spring (∆T~10 °C), with an order of magnitude greater methylmercury (10 ng L-1). The hgcAB genes have no known closest relatives (<90%), but lowest common ancestor analysis matched members of the Firmicutes and Deltaproteobacteria as well as uncultured environmental bacteria. Our findings show that geothermal microbial communities are capable of a net production of methylmercury, alongside active demethylation-reduction by mer-capable microbes, despite selective pressures from low pH and high mercury levels. However, temperature may be the major limiting factor on mercury biomethylation in geothermal settings, as no hgcAB genes were detected in the spring that was nearly identical in all physio-chemical parameters to its neighbour except for temperature (T >40°C), and methylmercury concentration. We conclude that the relative amount of mercury

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B; Franzreb, Kathleen E; Simons, Theodore R

    2014-03-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope δ (15)N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46 ± 0.02 μg g(-1) (range 0.01-3.74 μg g(-1)). Twelve of 32 species had individuals (7 % of all birds sampled) with mercury concentrations higher than 1 μg g(-1). Mercury concentrations were 17 % higher in juveniles compared to adults (n = 454). In adults, invertivores has higher mercury levels compared to omnivores. Mercury was highest at low-elevation sites near water, however mercury was detected in all birds, including those in the high elevations (1,000-2,000 m). Relative trophic position, calculated from δ (15)N, ranged from 2.13 to 4.87 across all birds. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to the data separately for juveniles and year-round resident adults. In adults, mercury concentrations were 2.4 times higher in invertivores compared to omnivores. Trophic position was the main effect explaining mercury levels in juveniles, with an estimated 0.18 ± 0.08 μg g(-1) increase in feather mercury for each one unit rise in trophic position. Our research demonstrates that mercury is biomagnifying in birds within this terrestrial mountainous system, and further research is warranted for animals foraging at higher trophic levels, particularly those associated with aquatic environments downslope from montane areas receiving high mercury deposition.

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.; Franzreb, Kathleen E.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope δ 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46 ± 0.02 μg g−1 (range 0.01–3.74 μg g−1). Twelve of 32 species had individuals (7 % of all birds sampled) with mercury concentrations higher than 1 μg g−1. Mercury concentrations were 17 % higher in juveniles compared to adults (n = 454). In adults, invertivores has higher mercury levels compared to omnivores. Mercury was highest at low-elevation sites near water, however mercury was detected in all birds, including those in the high elevations (1,000–2,000 m). Relative trophic position, calculated from δ 15N, ranged from 2.13 to 4.87 across all birds. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to the data separately for juveniles and year-round resident adults. In adults, mercury concentrations were 2.4 times higher in invertivores compared to omnivores. Trophic position was the main effect explaining mercury levels in juveniles, with an estimated 0.18 ± 0.08 μg g−1 increase in feather mercury for each one unit rise in trophic position. Our research demonstrates that mercury is biomagnifying in birds within this terrestrial mountainous system, and further research is warranted for animals foraging at higher trophic levels, particularly those associated with aquatic environments downslope from montane areas receiving high mercury deposition.

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  9. High Time Resolution Measurements of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury from Ground and Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, S. N.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury fractions (gaseous elemental, gaseous oxidized, and fine particulate-bound mercury) have been measured in many different environmental conditions, primarily with the Tekran 2537/1130/1135 speciation system, and these measurements have greatly enhanced scientific understanding of atmospheric mercury dynamics. However, measurements of gaseous oxidized mercury, the most reactive, soluble, and bioavailable mercury fraction, have low time resolution with the Tekran system and have been mostly unchecked by calibration standards. We have developed an alternative technique for measuring gaseous oxidized mercury that provides higher resolution (2.5 minute) measurements, and have built a permeation tube-based oxidized mercury (HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO) calibrator. The system measures oxidized mercury based on the difference between elemental mercury and total mercury measured with two Tekran 2537 analyzers, and has a 2.5 minute detection limit sufficient to quantify high oxidized mercury events (~80 pg m-3). Additionally, in laboratory tests it outperforms measurements made with KCl-coated denuders in terms of percent recovery and time-averaged detection limit. We have used this system in aircraft and at Mount Bachelor Observatory to observe the origins and dynamics of high oxidized mercury air in the Pacific Northwest, and are preparing it for deployment in the NCAR C-130 for detailed assessment of atmospheric mercury fractions in North America.

  10. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  11. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  12. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of copper (II) and mercury (II) ions by dye-coded silver nanoparticle-based SERS probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Jing; Lai, Yuming; Wu, Chong; Sun, Shuqing; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2013-01-15

    A simple and distinctive method for the ultrasensitive detection of Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using cysteine-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) attached with Raman-labeling molecules was developed. The glycine residue in a silver nanoparticle-bound cysteine can selectively bind with Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and form a stable inner complex. Silver nanoparticles co-functionalized with cysteine and 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-(6'-azobenzotriazolyl)phenol (AgNP conjugates) can be used to detect Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) based on aggregation-induced SERS of the Raman tags. The addition of SCN(-) to the analyte can successfully mask Hg(2+) and allow for the selective detection of Cu(2+). This SERS-based assay showed an unprecedented limit of detection (LOD) of 10pM for Cu(2+) and 1pM for Hg(2+); these LODs are a few orders of magnitude more sensitive than the typical colorimetric approach based on the aggregation of noble nanoparticles. The analysis of real water samples diluted with pure water was performed and verified this conclusion. We envisage that this SERS-based assay may provide a general and simple approach for the detection of other metal ions of interest, which can be adopted from their corresponding colorimetric assays that have already been developed with significantly improved sensitivity and thus have wide-range applications in many areas.

  13. Determination of mercury(II) in aquatic plants using quinoline-thiourea conjugates as a fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Ding, Yuanyuan; Gong, Zhiyong; Dai, Yanna; Fei, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a quinoline-thiourea conjugate (1-phenyl-3-(quinoline-8-yl) thiourea, PQT) was synthesized and used as a fluorescence sensor to detect mercury ion. The observation is coincident with the well-documented phenomenon that a thiocarbonyl-containing group on a fluorochrome quenches the fluorescence due to the heavy atom effect of the S atom. The large fluorescence enhancement of PQT in the buffered MeCN-water mixture (1/1 v/v; HEPES 100 mM; pH 8.0) was caused by the Hg(2+) induced transformation of the thiourea function into a urea group. As such, protic solvents can be ascribed to hydrogen bond formation on the carbonyl oxygen to reduce the internal conversion rate. The fluorescence intensity of PQT was enhanced quantitatively with an increase in the concentration of mercury ion. The limit of detection of Hg(2+) was 7.5 nM. The coexistence of other metal ions with mercury had no obvious influence on the detection of mercury. A quinolone-thiourea conjugate was used as a fluorescent probe to detect Hg(2+) in aquatic plants and the experimental results were satisfactory.

  14. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  15. Substorms on Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Ness, N. F.; Yeates, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative similarities between some of the variations in the Mercury encounter data and variations in the corresponding regions of the earth's magnetosphere during substorms are pointed out. The Mariner 10 data on Mercury show a strong interaction between the solar wind and the plant similar to a scaled down version of that for the earth's magnetosphere. Some of the features observed in the night side Mercury magnetosphere suggest time dependent processes occurring there.

  16. Thallium Mercury Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman FINAL REPORT (PHASE III) (Period between Feb. 1, 1980 and Jan. 31, 1981) 0 Contract No...Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 Approved for public release;IDistribution Unlimited 1/i;THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT * , , IS C. S./Liu tRD. W /eldman...9 ’ t4 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman Westinghouse R&D Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 1

  17. On-Line Measurements of Beryllium, Chromium, and Mercury by Using Aerosol Beam Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectrometer and Time-Integrated Filter Sampling Reference Method

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.D.

    2003-05-15

    A novel real-time monitor for aerosol particles has been developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The instrument is designed to perform in-situ measurement for the elemental composition of aerosol particles in flue gas. We had tested this monitor at the Eastman Chemical Company in July 2001 taking advantage of the emissions from a waste incinerator operated by the company as the background. To investigate the behavior and response of the monitor under simulated/known conditions, stock solutions of prepared metal concentration(s) were nebulized to provide spikes for the instrument testing. Strengths of the solutions were designed such that a reference method (RM) was able to collect sufficient material on filter samples that were subsequently analyzed in a laboratory to produce 30-minute average data points. Parallel aerosol measurements were performed by using the ORNL instrument. Recorded signal of an individual element was processed and the concentration calculated from a calibration curve established prior to the campaign. RM data were able to reflect the loads simulated in the spiked waste stream. However, it missed one beryllium sample. The possibility of bias exists in the RM determination of chromium that could lead to erroneous comparison between the RM and the real-time monitoring data. With the real-time detection capability, the ORNL instrument was able to reveal the emission variation by making seven measurements within a 30-minute cycle. The ability of the instrument also enables the reconstruction of the baseline chromium emission concentration. The measurements for mercury by both methods are in good agreement.

  18. Detection of rainfall-induced landslides on regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Coviello, Velio; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Picozzi, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Seismic techniques are increasingly adopted to detect signals induced by mass movements and to quantitatively evaluate geo-hydrological hazards at different spatial and temporal scales. By analyzing landslide-induced seismicity, it is possible obtaining significant information on the source of the mass wasting, as well as on its dynamics. However, currently only few studies have performed a systematic back analysis on comprehensive catalogues of events to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithms. In this work, we analyze a catalogue of 1058 landslides induced by rainfall in Italy. Among these phenomena, there are 234 rock falls, 55 debris flows, 54 mud flows, and 715 unspecified shallow landslides. This is a subset of a larger catalogue collected by the Italian research institute for geo-hydrological protection (CNR IRPI) during the period 2000-2014 (Brunetti et al., 2015). For each record, the following information are available: the type of landslide; the geographical location of the landslide (coordinates, site, municipality, province, and 3 classes of geographic accuracy); the temporal information on the landslide occurrence (day, month, year, time, date, and 3 classes of temporal accuracy); the rainfall conditions (rainfall duration and cumulated event rainfall) that have resulted in the landslide. We consider here only rainfall-induced landslides for which exact date and time were known from chronicle information. The analysis of coeval seismic data acquired by regional seismic networks show clear signals in at least 3 stations for 64 events (6% of the total dataset). Among them, 20 are associated to local earthquakes and 2 to teleseisms; 10 are anomalous signals characterized by irregular and impulsive waveforms in both time and frequency domains; 33 signals are likely associated to the landslide occurrence, as they have a cigar-shaped waveform characterized by emerging onsets, duration of several tens of seconds, and low frequencies (1-10 Hz). For

  19. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  20. Mercury emission from crematoria.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Settimo, Gaetano; Dell'andrea, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken at a cremator representing an example of current equipment and cremation practices in use in Italy, is to assess the possible mercury emitted during cremation and substantiate the current data available. This paper reports some preliminary results concerning mercury and total particulate matter emissions during three cremation processes. The obtained results gave a mercury concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.300 mg/m3 and a mercury emission factor ranging from 0.036 to 2.140 g/corpse cremated. The total particulate matter concentration range was 1.0 to 2.4 mg/m3.

  1. Economical, green synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and their use as probes for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbo; Qin, Xiaoyun; Liu, Sen; Chang, Guohui; Zhang, Yingwei; Luo, Yonglan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

    2012-06-19

    The present article reports on a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward water-soluble, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CPs) with a quantum yield of approximately 6.9% by hydrothermal process using low cost wastes of pomelo peel as a carbon source for the first time. We further explore the use of such CPs as probes for a fluorescent Hg(2+) detection application, which is based on Hg(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching of CPs. This sensing system exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg(2+), and a detection limit as low as 0.23 nM is achieved. The practical use of this system for Hg(2+) determination in lake water samples is also demonstrated successfully.

  2. Widespread calcium deposits, as detected using the alizarin red S technique, in the nervous system of rats treated with dimethyl mercury.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Tanji, K; Wakabayashi, K

    2000-09-01

    It has been reported that the alizarin red S technique may be used to visualize both intracellular and extracellular calcium deposits. Using this method histologic observations of the nervous system were made in rats that were given dimethyl mercury at 5 mg/kg per day for 12 consecutive days, and killed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, 24, 32, 49, 100 and 140 (day 0 was the day that the final dose was administered). Neuronal degeneration with calcium deposition was found in the nervous system from day 4 onward. In the cerebellum alizarin red S-positive granules became gradually larger with time after dimethyl mercury administration, and large calcospherites were observed from day 32 onward. In contrast, the visualization of calcium deposits in the cerebral cortex was restricted to days 10-12. Calcium deposits were found in the ascending axons of the dorsal root ganglion neurons (dorsal fascicles of the spinal cord), but not in their perikarya. These findings suggest that widespread calcium deposition could occur in the nervous system following dimethyl mercury exposure, and that in the rat the mechanism of calcium deposition differs depending upon the brain region.

  3. Mercury content in marketed cosmetics: analytical survey in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the skin-lightening ingredients in cosmetics as mercury ions are thought to inhibit the synthesis of the skin pigment melanin in melanocyte cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mercury levels of cosmetics currently marketed in Shijiazhuang, a northern city in China. We collected 146 random cosmetic samples and analyzed for mercury concentrations or levels by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the 146 samples, 134 (91.8%) were positive for mercury, and the concentrations of mercury ranged from not detectable to 592 ng/g. Cosmetic samples for children and babies had the highest detection rate (100%), followed by shampoo and hair conditioner (92.3%) and skin-lightening cream (92.0%). All of them were lower than the acceptable limit (1 μg/g) in China. Cosmetics for skin had the highest mean mercury content (45 ng/g), followed by hair products (42.1 ng/g). The concentrations of mercury detected in samples were lower than the current legal limit in China, indicating it may not pose a risk to consumers.

  4. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF FLUORESCEIN AS A GROUNDWATER MIGRATION TRACER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been applied to the determination of the groundwater migration tracer dye fluorescein based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection and compared to determinations obtained with traditional spectrofluorimetry. Detection limits of injected d...

  5. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION TO GROUND WATER MIGRATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been applied to the determination of groundwater migration based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection and traditional spectrofluorimetry. The detection limits of injected dye-fluorescent whitening agent (tinopal) in the low parts per tr...

  6. Riverine source of Arctic Ocean mercury inferred from atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jenny A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Soerensen, Anne L.; Amos, Helen M.; Steffen, Alexandra; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2012-07-01

    Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in aquatic food webs. Human activities, including industry and mining, have increased inorganic mercury inputs to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Methylation of this mercury generates methylmercury, and is thus a public health concern. Marine methylmercury is a particular concern in the Arctic, where indigenous peoples rely heavily on marine-based diets. In the summer, atmospheric inorganic mercury concentrations peak in the Arctic, whereas they reach a minimum in the northern mid-latitudes. Here, we use a global three-dimensional ocean-atmosphere model to examine the cause of this Arctic summertime maximum. According to our simulations, circumpolar rivers deliver large quantities of mercury to the Arctic Ocean during summer; the subsequent evasion of this riverine mercury to the atmosphere can explain the summertime peak in atmospheric mercury levels. We infer that rivers are the dominant source of mercury to the Arctic Ocean on an annual basis. Our simulations suggest that Arctic Ocean mercury concentrations could be highly sensitive to climate-induced changes in river flow, and to increases in the mobility of mercury in soils, for example as a result of permafrost thaw and forest fires.

  7. Detection of sister chromatid exchanges induced by volatile genotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Xu, J.; Stewart, J.; Baciu, P.C.; Ong, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    To test the recently developed method of exposing cells to volatile compounds, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral lymphocyte cultures were exposed to gaseous methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide, as well as diesel exhaust. The cultures were placed in sterile dialysis tubing and inserted into enclosed flasks containing additional culture medium. The test compounds (in gaseous state) were diluted with air and bubbled through the flasks for various lengths of time. The cells were then washed and incubated for a total of 75 h. The harvest was performed according to established procedures, and second-division cells were scored for induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The SCE frequency was more than doubled in the cultures treated with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; methyl bromide also induced SCEs. Cultures treated with diesel exhaust showed an increase in the SCE frequency in cells from two of four donors tested. These results further substantiate the use of this method for detecting the induction of SCEs by airborne genotoxins.

  8. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Wood, J.M.; White, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    We collected 48 blood and 61 feather samples from nestling bald eagles at 42 nests and adult feather samples from 20 nests in north and central Florida during 1991-93. We obtained 32 liver, 10 feather, and 5 blood samples from 33 eagle carcasses recovered in Florida during 1987-93. For nestlings, mercury concentrations in blood (GM = 0.16 ppm wet wt) and feather (GM = 3.23 ppm) samples were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.0001). Although nestlings had lower mercury concentrations in feathers than did adults (GM = 6.03 ppm), the feather mercury levels in nestlings and adults from the same nest were correlated (r = 0.63, P < 0.02). Mercury concentrations in blood of captive adult eagles (GM = 0.23 ppm) was similar to Florida nestlings but some Florida nestlings had blood mercury concentrations up to 0.61 ppm, more than twice as high as captive adults. Feather mercury concentrations in both nestlings and adults exceeded those in captive eagles, but concentrations in all tissues were similar to, or lower than, those in bald eagles from other wild populations. Although mercury concentrations in Florida eagles are below those that cause mortality, they are in the range of concentrations that can cause behavioral changes or reduce reproduction. We recommend periodic monitoring of mercury in Florida bald eagles for early detection of mercury increases before negative effects on reproduction occur. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  11. Contribution of BepiColombo's MORE radio science experiment to the determination of Mercury's interior structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior Mariani, Mirco; Imperi, Luigi; Iess, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) is one of the instruments on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), designed to estimate the Mercury's gravity field and rotational state and to perform a wide set of tests of relativistic gravity. The experiments exploits a highly stable, multi-frequency radio links in X and Ka band. The state-of-the-art microwave equipment enables simultaneous two-way links in X/X (7.2 GHz uplink/8.4 GHz downlink), X/Ka (7.2/32.5 GHz) and Ka/Ka band (34/32.5 GHz), providing range rate accuracies of 3 micron/s (at 1000 s integration time) at nearly all elongation angles. Range observables accurate to 20 cm (two-way) will be attained using a novel, wideband (24 Mcps) ranging system, based upon a pseudo-noise modulation scheme. Non-gravitational acceleration will be provided by a dedicated accelerometer (the Italian Spring Accelerometer, ISA). We present the results of numerical simulations carried out using the latest mission scenario, entailing a launch date in October 2018 with arrival in Mercury in December 2025. We illustrate as the combination of the gravity and rotation measurements expected from BepiColombo can bring a substantial improvement in understanding the interior of the planet. Particularly, we show that MORE can detect planetary-induced librations, allowing to constrain the size of a possible solid inner core inside the outer liquid core.

  12. Two-step laser optogalvanic spectroscopy of the odd-parity Rydberg states of atomic mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, M. A.; Baig, M. A.

    2004-03-01

    We present new experimental data on the highly excited levels in mercury using the two-step laser excitation and optogalvanic detection technique in conjunction with a RF discharge cell. The 6 s7 s 3S1 intermediate level has been accessed from the 6 s6 p 3P2 metastable level that is collisionally populated in the mercury discharge in the presence of a buffer gas at a pressure of about 1 Torr. Two beams fromtwo different dye lasers pumped with a common excimer laser were passed through the discharge cell containing mercury vapors. The first laser was tuned to 6 s7 s 3S1 level whereas the second laser was scanned covering the wavelength region between 544-458 nm. We have observed the 6 snp 3P0 (10le nle 18), 6 snp 3P1(10 le n le 41), 6 snp 3P2 (10 le n le 70) and 6 snp 1P1 (10 le n le 42) Rydberg series. The 6 snp 3P2 Rydberg series to such high n-value has been reported for the first time. The first ionization potential of mercury is determined from the 6 snp 3P2 Rydberg series as 84184.15± 0.05 cm-1. Some collisionally induced parity forbidden transitions have also been located that are identified as 6 sns 1S0 (40 le n le 58) series.

  13. Mapping the Topography of Mercury with MESSENGER Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E..; Zubor, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter onboard MESSENGER involves unique design elements that deal with the challenges of being in orbit around Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. MESSENGER was launched on 3 August 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on 18 March 2011 after a journey through the inner solar system. This involved six planetary flybys, including three of Mercury. MLA is designed to map the topography and landforms of Mercury's surface. It also measures the planet's forced libration (motion about the spin axis), which helps constrain the state of the core. The first science measurements from orbit taken with MLA were made on 29 March 2011 and continue to date. MLA had accumulated about 8.3 million laser ranging measurements to Mercury's surface, as of 31 July 2012, i.e., over six Mercury years (528 Earth days). Although MLA is the third planetary lidar built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MLA must endure a much harsher thermal environment near Mercury than the previous instruments on Mars and Earth satellites. The design of MLA was derived in part from that of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor. However, MLA must range over greater distances and often in off-nadir directions from a highly eccentric orbit. In MLA we use a single-mode diode-pumped Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser that is highly collimated to maintain a small footprint on the planet. The receiver has both a narrow field of view and a narrow spectral bandwidth to minimize the amount of background light detected from the sunlit hemisphere of Mercury. We achieve the highest possible receiver sensitivity by employing the minimum receiver detection threshold.

  14. Characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Brown, Gordon E.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mining of mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in the release of mercury to the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, transport, and potential bioavailability of mercury are controlled by its chemical speciation, which can be directly determined for samples with total mercury concentrations greater than 100 mg kg-1 (ppm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). This technique has the additional benefits of being non-destructive to the sample, element-specific, relatively sensitive at low concentrations, and requiring minimal sample preparation. In this study, Hg L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were collected for several mercury mine tailings (calcines) in the California Coast Range. Total mercury concentrations of samples analyzed ranged from 230 to 1060 ppm. Speciation data (mercury phases present and relative abundances) were obtained by comparing the spectra from heterogeneous, roasted (calcined) mine tailings samples with a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. Speciation analyses were also conducted on known mixtures of pure mercury minerals in order to assess the quantitative accuracy of the technique. While some calcine samples were found to consist exclusively of mercuric sulfide, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. Also, a correlation was observed between samples from hot-spring mercury deposits, in which chloride levels are elevated, and the presence of mercury-chloride species as detected by the speciation analysis. The speciation results demonstrate the ability of XAS to identify multiple mercury phases in a heterogeneous sample, with a quantitative accuracy of ??25% for the mercury-containing phases considered. Use of this technique, in conjunction with standard microanalytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis

  15. Mercury: the forgotten planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1997-11-01

    Mercury is the neglected child of the planetary system. Only one spacecraft has every ventured near it, whereas scores have probed the moon, Venus and Mars. The scant facts available show this strange, blazingly hot planet is full of surprises: its anomalous density and magnetic field suggest that Mercury may be where to seek clues to the origin of the solar system.

  16. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  17. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2016-07-12

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  18. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  19. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  20. Mercury in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2008-08-06

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  1. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  2. Dynamic duo captures mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, C.; Adams, B.

    2006-02-15

    There is strong evidence that the combination of wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can prove a viable and formidable combination for knocking out mercury. This article analyzes the capabilities and limitations of the SCR-FGD combination for mercury compliance, including applicability to different types of coal and issues with scrubber by-products. 3 figs.

  3. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower center of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower third of image, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Project Mercury - Monument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-59963 (9 Nov. 1966) --- Monument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number seven represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini-12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  9. Rapid extraction and reverse phase-liquid chromatographic separation of mercury(II) and methylmercury in fish samples with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection applying oxygen addition into plasma.

    PubMed

    Döker, Serhat; Boşgelmez, İffet İpek

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure was developed for extraction and speciation of mercury in fish. Species separation was accomplished with reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Oxygen addition into plasma allowed use of organic-rich mobile phase, achieving species separation in 4 min. Mercury species extraction was achieved by microwave exposure for 2 min at mild conditions (60°C, pH 2.0), avoiding necessity of neutralizing sample prior to injection in HPLC, and reducing number of sample preparation steps, analytical source of errors and inter conversion of species. Limit of detection for entire procedure was found to be 0.2 and 0.1 ng g(-1) for mercuric ion and methylmercury, respectively. The method was applied to certified reference materials (TORT-2 and DORM-2) and commercialized fish samples (Mullus barbatus, Sparus aurata, Trachurus mediterraneus, Mugil soiuy, Dicentrarchus labrax, and Pomatomus saltatrix) from Black Sea.

  10. Mercury poisoning in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Fairbrother, Anne; Locke, Louis N.; Hoff, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is an intriguing contaminant because it has complex chemical properties, a wide range of harmful effects, and an infinite persistence in the environment. Die-offs of wildlife due to mercury have occurred in many countries, especially before mercury seed dressings were banned. Today, most mercury problems are associated with aquatic environments. Methylmercury, the most toxic chemical form, attacks many organ systems, but damage to the central nervous system is most severe. Harmful wet-weight concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, in the tissues of adult birds and mammals range from about 8-30 ppm in the brain, 20-60 ppm in liver, 20-60 ppm in kidney, and 15-30 ppm in muscle. Young animals may be more sensitive.

  11. Mercury Sodium Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft is stitched together from thousands of observations made over the past 4 years by the MASCS/UVVS instrument, which measures sunlight scattered off of Mercury tenuous atmosphere. Scattered sunlight gives the sodium a bright orange glow. This scattering process also gives sodium atoms a push - this "radiation pressure" is strong enough, during parts of Mercury's year, to strip the atmosphere and give Mercury a long glowing tail. Someone standing on Mercury's nightside at the right time of year would see a faint orange similar to a city sky illuminated by sodium lamps! Instrument: Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS)/Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19418

  12. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  13. A highly sensitive label-free sensor for Mercury ion (Hg²⁺) by inhibiting thioflavin T as DNA G-quadruplexes fluorescent inducer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Li, Xi-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2014-05-01

    DNA sequences with guanine repeats can be induced to form G-quartets that adopt G-quadruplex structures in the presence of thioflavin T (ThT). ThT plays a dual role of inducing DNA sequences to fold into quadruplex structures and of sensing the change by its remarkable fluorescence enhancement. ThT binding to the DNA sequences with guanine repeats showed highly specific fluorescence enhancement compared with single/double-stranded DNA. In this work, we have utilized the conformational switch from G-quadruplex complex induced by fluorogenic dye ThT to Hg(2+) mediated T-Hg-T double-stranded DNA formation, thereby pioneering a facile approach to detect Hg(2+) with fluorescence spectrometry. Through this approach, Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions can be detected at 5 nM with fluorescence spectrometry in a facile way, with high selectivity against other metal ions. These results indicate the introduced label-free method for fluorescence spectrometric Hg(2+) detection is simple, quantitative, sensitive, and highly selective.

  14. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  15. Two-phase flow model for energetic proton beam induced pressure waves in mercury target systems in the planned European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, I. F.; Imre, A. R.; Rosta, L.; Mezei, F.

    2008-12-01

    Two-phase flow calculations are presented to investigate the thermo-hydraulical effects of the interaction between 2 ms long 1.3 GeV proton pulses with a closed mercury loop which can be considered as a model system of the target of the planned European Spallation Source (ESS) facility. The two-fluid model consists of six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional mass, momentum and energy balances for mercury vapor and liquid phases are capable to describe quick transients like cavitation effects or shock waves. The absorption of the proton beam is represented as instantaneous heat source in the energy balance equations. Densities and internal energies of the mercury liquid-vapor system is calculated from the van der Waals equation, but general method how to obtain such properties using arbitrary equation of state is also presented. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme is applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. Our analysis show that even 75 degree temperature heat shocks cannot cause considerable cavitation effects in mercury.

  16. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-11-01

    There are abundant data and advisories for mercury levels in wild fish, but far fewer for commercial fish that compose a large majority of the fish most people eat. Until recently, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury in canned tuna, despite its great importance in human diets. There is substantial media coverage of the benefits and risk from fish consumption, but few peer-reviewed data on canned tuna, the most commonly consumed fish in the United States. In this paper, we examine the levels of total mercury in canned tuna obtained from a New Jersey grocery store from 1998 to 2003, looking for temporal consistency within this data set and particularly for comparison with the Food and Drug Administration's 1991 study. We analyzed 168 cans individually for total mercury. All values are reported as parts per million (= microg/g) on a wet weight basis. In a subset of samples analyzed for total and inorganic mercury, the inorganic mercury was below detection levels; hence at least 89% of the mercury can be considered methylmercury. We found that white-style tuna had significantly more total mercury (mean 0.407 ppm) than light-style tuna (mean 0.118 ppm), presumably reflecting that "white" tuna is albacore, a species relatively larger than the skipjack tuna, which is commonly available as "light" or "chunk light." The maximum mercury in a can was 0.997 ppm, but 25% of white tuna samples exceeded 0.5 ppm. Data suggest a slight increase in levels since 1991, and mercury levels were significantly higher in 2001 than in other years. The mean level of mercury in white tuna (mean 0.407 ppm) was significantly higher than the mean value of 0.17 ppm currently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its risk assessment and public information. There were no significant differences in mercury levels in tuna packed in oil compared to water. Draining contents had no effect on mercury levels, and the fluid, both oil and water, contained

  17. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  18. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  19. Selective and Quantitative Detection of Trace Amounts of Mercury(II) Ion (Hg²⁺) and Copper(II) Ion (Cu²⁺) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenqiong; Chase, D Bruce; Sparks, Donald L; Rabolt, John F

    2015-07-01

    We report the development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based heavy metal ion sensor targeting the detection of mercury(II) ion (Hg(2+)) and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) with high sensitivity and selectivity. To achieve the detection of vibrational-spectroscopically silent heavy metal ions, the SERS substrate composed of gold nanorod (AuNR)-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposite fibers was first functionalized using metal ion-binding ligands. Specifically, 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole dimer (di-DMT) and trimercaptotriazine (TMT) were attached to the SERS substrates serving as bridging molecules to capture Hg(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively, from solution. Upon heavy metal ion coordination, changes in the vibrational spectra of the bridging molecules, including variations in the peak-intensity ratios and peak shifts were observed and taken as indicators of the capture of the target ions. With rigorous spectral analysis, the coordination mechanism between the heavy metal ion and the corresponding bridging molecule was investigated. Mercury(II) ion primarily interacts with di-DMT through the cleavage of the disulfide bond, whereas Cu(2+) preferentially interacts with the heterocyclic N atoms in TMT. The specificity of the coordination chemistry provided both di-DMT and TMT with excellent selectivity for the detection of Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) in the presence of other interfering metal ion species. In addition, quantitative analysis of the concentration of the heavy metal ions was achieved through the construction of internal calibration curves using the peak-intensity ratios of 287/387 cm(-1) for Hg(2+) and 1234/973 cm(-1) for Cu(2+).

  20. PHA-stimulated immune-responsiveness in mercury-dosed zebra finches does not match results from environmentally exposed songbirds.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Mitchell T; Spear, Eliza L; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary mercury exposure is associated with suppressed immune responsiveness in birds. This study examined the immune-responsiveness of domestic zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) experimentally exposed to mercury through their diet. We used the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling test to assay the effect of two modes of mercury exposure. Some finches received exposure to mercury only after reaching sexual maturity, while others were maintained on a mercury-dosed diet throughout life, including development. Each bird received one of five dietary concentrations of methylmercury cysteine (0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 ppm). In contrast to a study on wild songbirds at a mercury-contaminated site, we detected no relationship between mercury level and immunological response to PHA, regardless of mode of exposure. This result represents the first major difference found by our laboratory between wild birds exposed to environmental mercury and captive birds experimentally exposed to mercury.