Science.gov

Sample records for mere clean-up contract

  1. From a Mere Clean-up Contract to Changing Lives - Engaging the Local Stakeholders during the Remediation of Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, J.P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the work undertaken by Safety and Ecology Corporation Ltd (SEC) on Kiritimati, formerly known as Christmas Island. The discussion describes the project growing from merely removing the remains of the nuclear testing, to appreciating the sensitivities of its economic impact on the island and developing a programme of redevelopment and community involvement. The remediation work has had a number of positive effects on the island, notably upgrading the infrastructure and removing more than 23,000 cubic meters of waste material, primarily metal scrap in the form of vehicles, in addition to spent batteries, extensive areas of tar contaminated soils and radioactive luminous vehicle dials. (authors)

  2. Spring is a good time to clean up your vendor contracts.

    PubMed

    Daigrepont, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Whether it's a new purchase or renewal, every year physicians and hospitals obligate themselves financially to vendor contracts without fully understanding the terms and conditions of their commitments. Some of these contracts renew automatically without permission or approval and come with automatic price increases. In some cases, practices may even be paying for services no longer being used or maintenance fees for support services no longer needed. However, discerning what vendor and system to select or renew, based on the unique objectives of the practice or hospital, can be overwhelming. This article provides many helpful strategies for negotiating a rock-solid contract that is a win for the physician practice or hospital and holds the vendor accountable for delivery of promises.

  3. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  4. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-05-27

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  5. Rodent Control: Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!

    MedlinePlus

    ... rodent food sources and nesting sites... Diseases from rodents Diseases directly transmitted by rodents Diseases indirectly transmitted by rodents Cleaning up after rodents Take precautions before and during clean up of ...

  6. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  7. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  8. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  9. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  10. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  11. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  12. Site clean up of coal gasification residues

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

  13. Cockroaches Probably Cleaned Up after Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces. PMID:24324610

  14. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal.

  15. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  16. 36. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING BILL KEYS CLEANING UP AFTER THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING BILL KEYS CLEANING UP AFTER THE MILL RUN (NOTE SCREEN FROM MORTAR SETTING ON TABLE, STAMPS ARE HUNG UP). - Wall Street Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Mt. Dioxin: "Clean Up" Action Threatens Florida Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Addresses citizen action taken by African American communities in Pensacola, Florida located in close proximity to a Superfund site. Discusses how the community is organizing to stop site clean-up efforts that residents claim have unjustly increased their already high exposure to toxins such as dioxin. (LZ)

  18. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

    2010-01-01

    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  19. The Total Costs of Cleaning Up Nonfederal Superfund Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    NONFEDERAL SUPERFUND SITES Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB El Uc;anroun~ced [j Justification ................................ The Congress of the United...Preface T he federal Superfund program to clean up the nation’s worst hazardous waste sites has been controversial since its creation in 1980. As...the Congress begins to consider reauthorizing Superfund , which is due to expire on September 30, 1994, it is giving increased scrutiny to several

  20. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  1. Clean-up of Nuclear Licensed Facility 57

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Bremond, Marie Pierre; Marchand, Carole; Poyau, Cecile; Viallefont, Cecile; Gautier, Laurent; Masure, Frederic

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the early sixties a radiochemistry laboratory dedicated to Research and Development was built at the French Atomic Energy Commission's centre at Fontenay aux Roses (CEA-FAR); it was named Building 18. More buildings were added during the decade: Building 54, storehouses and offices and Building 91, a hall and laboratories for chemical engineering research into natural and depleted uranium. These three buildings together constitute NLF57. Construction work took place between 1959 and 1962 and the buildings entered operation in 1961. The research and development programs performed in NLF57 involved spent fuel reprocessing studies, waste treatment processes and studies and production of transuranic elements with the related analytical methods development. The research and development program ended on 30 June 1995. The NLF57 clean-up program was launched to reduce the nuclear and conventional hazards and minimise HLW and MLW production during the dismantling work. The clean-up work was divided into categories by type to facilitate its organisation: treatment and removal of nuclear material, removal of radioactive sources, treatment and removal of organic and aqueous effluents, treatment and removal of solid waste, pumping out of the PETRUS tank, flushing and decontamination of the tanks and clean-up of buildings. (authors)

  2. CE IGCC repowering project hot gas clean up system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    With sponsorship from the Department of Energy (DOE), and the state of Illinois, Combustion Engineering, Inc. is currently developing a design for a 60 Mw IGCC (Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle) for City Water, Light & Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. In addition, to DOE and the state of Illinois, Combustion Engineering, Inc. and CWL&P are contributing to the project. In order to obtain a high thermal efficiency, a hot gas cleanup system has been incorporated for product gas clean up. The cleanup system currently incorporated in the system design is one that is being developed by General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). This is a moving bed process which includes the regeneration of the sorbent material. Testing of the system is currently underway in GEESI`s pilot plant in Schenectady, New York. The hot gas clean up system will use a moving-bed of zinc titanate as an absorbent material to capture gaseous sulfur species in the gas. The cleanup system will be required to operate in a range of 850--1150{degree}F (454--621{degree}C) and under a pressure of 20 atmospheres. Results of the tests indicate that overall sulfur efficiency exceeds 95%, the zinc titanate can be regenerated, and produces an SO{sub 2}-rich tail gas suitable for conversion to sulfuric acid, elemental sulfur or disposable waste.

  3. Tidd hot gas clean up program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Final Report on the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up Program covers the period from initial Proof-of-Concept testing in August, 1990, through final equipment inspections in May, 1995. The Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) system was installed in the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant, which is the first utility-scale PFBC plant in the United States. Detailed design work on the project began in July, 1990, and site construction began in December, 1991. Initial operation of the system occurred in May, 1992, and the hot gas filter was commissioned in October, 1992. The test program ended in March, 1995, when the Tidd Plant was shut down following its four-year test program. Section 1.0 of this report is an executive summary of the project covering the project background, system description, test results and conclusions. Section 2.0 is an introduction covering the program objectives and schedule. Section 3.0 provides detailed descriptions of the system and its major components. Section 4.0 provides detailed results of all testing including observations and posttest inspection results. Sections 5.0 and 6.0 list the program conclusions and recommendations, respectively. Appendix I is a report prepared by Southern Research Institute on the properties of Tidd PFBC ash sampled during the test program. Appendix II is a report prepared by Westinghouse STC on the performance of candle filter fail-safe regenerator devices.

  4. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  5. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  6. Development of hot gas clean-up system for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Tetsuya

    1999-07-01

    The syngas generated at the gasifier in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is reductive gas, so the sulfur in the fuel is reduced to H{sub 2}S and COS. Many wet types of gas clear up systems using liquid solvents are commercially available. However, the authors have been developing the higher performance and efficient system using oxide metals sorbent, that they call Hot Gas Clean Up system (HGCU system) with fluidized bed reactors. Therefore, the authors have participated, in Yubari and Nakoso pilot plant projects as the national project to develop and establish the HGCU system and it's technology to realize lower environmental emission and high thermal efficiency. The test results of those pilot plants had a very good performance and the authors have confirmed that the HGCU system is applicable to IGCC plant. Those pilot plants have used the iron oxide (crashed iron ore) as the desulfurization sorbent. However, the iron oxide sorbent cannot get high desulfurization performance for the gas containing high moisture (about 10 vol% and over) and cannot reach environmental requirements of the near future. Thus, the authors have developed the HGCU system using zinc oxide sorbent that is expected to have higher desulfurization performance. They have carried out many tests at the Coal Gasification Test facility (CGT test plant). They achieved 20 ppmV total HGCU system has high performance and reliability.

  7. Using Phytoremediation to Clean Up Contamination at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Negri, M.C.; Schneider, J.F.; Gatliff, E.G.

    1997-07-01

    During and following World War II, wastes from the production of munitions and other military materials were disposed of using the best available practices acceptable at that time. However, these disposal methods often contaminated soil and groundwater with organic compounds and metals that require cleanup under current regulations. An emerging technology for cleaning contaminated soils and shallow groundwater is phytoremediation, an environmentally friendly, low- cost, and low-tech process. Phytoremediation encompasses all plant- influenced biological, chemical, and physical processes that aid in the uptake, degradation, and metabolism of contaminants by either plants or free-living organisms in the plant`s rhizosphere. A phytoremediation system can be viewed as a biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the soil and below-ground ecosystem for subsequent productive use. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been conducting basic and applied research in phytoremediation since 1990. Initial greenhouse studies evaluated salt-tolerant wetland plants to clean UP and reduce the volume of salty `produced water` from petroleum wells. Results of these studies were used to design a bioreactor for processing produced water that is being demonstrated at a natural gas well in Oklahoma; this system can reduce produced water volume by about 75% in less than eight days, representing substantial savings in waste disposal cost. During 1994, ANL conducted a TNT plant uptake and in situ remediation study in a ridge-and-furrow area used for the disposal of pink water at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant.

  8. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  9. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  10. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  11. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  12. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Clean-up Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atlanta, GA - Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the

  13. EVALUATION OF PERSONAL COOLING DEVICES FOR A DIOXIN CLEAN-UP OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study investigated the use of personal coolers to increase worker productivity and safety while working at elevated, ambient temperatures cleaning up dioxin contaminated soil.^The study included laboratory tests to measure the thermal characteristics of the chemical protectiv...

  14. EPA Reaches $55 Million Settlement for Soil Clean-up at South-Bay Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These funds are key to advancing our cleanup actions at this site, said Jared Blumenfeld, EPA's Regional Administrator for the Pacific Southwest. EPA looks forward to working with local residents as we clean up and revitalize their neighborhood, which h

  15. Palm Beach County to Receive $300,000 to Clean up and Redevelop Contaminated Brownfields Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that Palm Beach County will receive $300,000 to clean up and redevelop contaminated brownfields sites in Florida. Nationally, approximately $13.2 million in supplemental

  16. Dunbar Asphalt to Clean up 29-Acre Portion of Sharon Steel Superfund Site, Hermitage, Pa.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 14, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a proposed settlement the government has reached with Dunbar Asphalt Products, Inc., to clean up a 29-acre portion of the Sharon Steel Corporation Superfund Site

  17. Cleaning Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Offers strategies to make schools' cleaning operations run more smoothly. Discusses how to estimate the amount of space that needs cleaning and how long it should take, the benefits of team cleaning versus zone cleaning, and the importance of monitoring complaints and overtime to ensure staff is performing efficiently. (EV)

  18. Cleaning up

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, T.S.

    1993-02-01

    This article reports on the electronics manufacturer's response to findings that chemicals used in manufacturing integrated circuits induced miscarriages in plant workers and other environmental problems such as ozone depletion and the use of heavy metals and toxic gases in manufacturing. The topics of the article include the finding that a photoresist is at fault, the phase-out of ethylene glycol ethers, alternatives to ethylene glycol ethers, ozone-eating CFCs, use of citrus derived substitutes for CFCs, alternative manufacturing processes, substitutes for other ozone depleting chemicals, and the use of heavy metals in electronics manufacturing.

  19. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    PubMed

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  20. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  1. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Clean-up Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the U.S

  2. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  3. Clean Up, Rehabilitation, Resettlement of Enewetak Atoll -Marshall Islands. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The documentation is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for a proposed project to clean up the Atoll of Enewetak and...resettle the Enewetak people on the Atoll . The summary has been prepared specifically for translation into the language of the Enewetak people.

  4. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANING UP BROWNFIELDS SITES: GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1741 SAIC. Technical Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning up Brownfields Sites. EPA/625/R/00/009 (NTIS PB2002-105021) , Available: 68-C7-0011. The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the p...

  5. Case Study: Using Microbe Molecular Biology for Gulf Oil Spill Clean Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This case has the student actively investigate the regulation of expression of a novel bacterial gene in the context of attempts to solve a real world problem, clean up of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the case is fictitious, it is based on factual gene regulatory characteristics of oil-degrading…

  6. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... Federal agencies to address all cleanup issues, such as arranging or repackaging of the cargo,...

  7. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Havasu in the Copper Canyon in support of the underwater cleanup of Copper Canyon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  8. EPA Orders CSX to Clean up Areas Impacted by West Virginia Train Derailment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Feb. 27, 2015 ) - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ordered CSX to clean-up and restore the areas affected by the Feb. 16 train derailment in Mt. Carbon, W. Va. Twenty-seven cars derailed from the 109-car CSX train carryin

  9. Chromosome aberrations and rogue cells in lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Lazutka, J R

    1996-03-09

    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 183 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 27 control individuals. Increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were associated with exposure to radiation at Chernobyl, alcohol abuse and a history of recent influenza infection. However, only approximately 20% of Chernobyl clean-up workers had an increased frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes. At the same time, an increased frequency of acentric fragments in lymphocytes of clean-up workers was characteristic. The use of multivitamins as dietary supplement significantly decreased the frequency of chromosome aberrations, especially of chromatid breaks. Rogue cells were found in lymphocytes of 28 clean-up workers and 3 control individuals. The appearance of rogue cells was associated with a recent history of acute respiratory disease (presumably caused by adenoviral infection) and, probably, alcohol abuse. Dicentric chromosomes in rogue cells were distributed according to a negative binomial distribution. Occurrence of rogue cells due to a perturbation of cell cycle control and abnormal apoptosis is suggested.

  10. Determination of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted SPE clean-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new liquid chromatography method to detect fusaric acid in maize is reported based on molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction clean-up (MISPE) using mimic-templated molecularly-imprinted polymers. Picolinic acid was used as a toxin analog for imprinting polymers during a thermolytic s...

  11. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  12. Evaluation of a soil contaminated site and clean-up criteria: A geostatistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leonte, D.; Schofield, N.

    1996-12-31

    A case study of soil contamination assessment and clean-up in a site proposed for residential development is presented in this paper. The contamination consists mainly of heavy metals of which lead is the most important contaminant. The site has been sampled on an approximately 25 x 25 square meter grid to between 1 and 3 meters depth to evaluate the extent of the contamination. Three hotspots were identified based on eyeballing the lead sample values and a crude contouring. A geostatistical approach is proposed to map the lead contamination and provide an alternate evaluation. The results suggest a significantly different evaluation of the area for clean-up based on the probability of the lead concentration exceeding allowable levels.

  13. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD < 8.69). On the other hand, the specific dual-layer column designed for clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD < 4%) for spiked soil, which was comparable to clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD < 3.72%) and sulfoxide modified silica (89.7-103.0%; RSD < 13.0%). However, the polymers were reusable maintaining recoveries of 79.8-111.8% after 30 cycles of regeneration and re-use, thereby availing a cost-effective clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively.

  14. Coupling detergent lysis/clean-up methodology with intact protein fractionation for enhanced proteome characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ritin; Dill, Brian; Chourey, Karuna; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four different detergent clean-up methods (Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Chloroform/Methanol/Water (CMW) extraction, commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation(FASP)) with respect to varying amounts of protein biomass in the samples, and provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications for each method. Our results show that for protein limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three clean-up methods, while at high protein amount all the methods are comparable. This information was used in a dual strategy of comparing molecular weight based fractionated and unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples (Escherichia coli, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), which were all lysed with SDS and cleaned up using FASP. The two approaches complemented each other by enhancing the number of protein identifications by 8%-25% across the three samples and provided broad pathway coverage.

  15. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Nacht

    2000-02-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs.

  16. Monitoring the clean-up operation of agricultural fields flooded with red mud in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Rékási, Márk; Anton, Áron D; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2016-12-01

    In the course of the clean-up operation after the red mud inundation in 2010, red mud was removed from the soil surface in places where the layer was more than 5 cm deep. Before its removal, the red mud seeped into the soil. In 2012, soil samples were taken from depths of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm on some of the affected areas. The parameters investigated were pH, organic matter, salt%, and the total and mobile fractions of various elements. The values recorded in 2012 were compared with those measured immediately after the removal of the red mud in 2010 and with the background and clean-up target concentrations. The pH values remained below the designated limit, while the salt content only exhibited values in the weakly salty range on areas at the greatest distance from the dam. In the central part of the inundated area, total Na contents above the 900 mg/kg target value were observed, but the Na content in the 0-20-cm layer generally exhibited a decrease due to leaching. The pH and As concentration also showed a decline on several areas compared with the values recorded in 2010. Total As and Co contents in excess of the target values were recorded on the lowest-lying part of the flooded area, probably because the finest red mud particles were deposited the furthest from the dam, where they seeped into the soil. Nevertheless, the mobility and plant availability of both elements remained moderate. The total contents of both Co and Mo, however, exhibited a significant rise compared with both the background value and the 2010 data. The monitoring of the cleaned-up areas showed that after a 2-year period element concentrations that exceeded the target values and could be attributed to the red mud pollution were only detectable on the lowest-lying areas.

  17. Next steps in the development of ecological soil clean-up values for metals.

    PubMed

    Wentsel, Randall; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    This special series in Integrated Environmental Assessment Management presents the results from 6 workgroups that were formed at the workshop on Ecological Soil Levels-Next Steps in the Development of Metal Clean-Up Values (17-21 September 2012, Sundance, Utah). This introductory article presents an overview of the issues assessors face when conducting risk assessments for metals in soils, key US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) documents on metals risk assessment, and discusses the importance of leveraging from recent major terrestrial research projects, primarily to address Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) requirements in Europe, that have significantly advanced our understanding of the behavior and toxicity of metals in soils. These projects developed large data sets that are useful for the risk assessment of metals in soil environments. The workshop attendees met to work toward developing a process for establishing ecological soil clean-up values (Eco-SCVs). The goal of the workshop was to progress from ecological soil screening values (Eco-SSLs) to final clean-up values by providing regulators with the methods and processes to incorporate bioavailability, normalize toxicity thresholds, address food-web issues, and incorporate background concentrations. The REACH data sets were used by workshop participants as case studies in the development of the ecological standards for soils. The workshop attendees discussed scientific advancements in bioavailability, soil biota and wildlife case studies, soil processes, and food-chain modeling. In addition, one of the workgroups discussed the processes needed to frame the topics to gain regulatory acceptance as a directive or guidance by Canada, the USEPA, or the United States.

  18. Operating experience from the Tidd PFBC hot gas clean up program

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.; Hoffman, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) test facility, a $22-million project sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), has accumulated over 4700 hours of coal fire operation between October 1992 and October 1994. The HGCU slip stream, which represents a 10 MWt system, utilizes a Westinghouse candle-based system to filter ash from one-seventh of the exhaust gas of the 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This paper presents a description of the system, reviews the results of all test runs conducted during 1994, and discusses the lessons learned from this project which may be applicable in the design of commercial hot gas filtration systems.

  19. Clean-up of a pesticide-lanolin mixture by gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Mesas, M; Crespi, M; Brach, J; Mullender, J P

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of a clean-up method by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the separation of pesticides from lanolin is analyzed. The pesticides analyzed belong to two different families, organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroids. Lanolin, a standard mixture of the pesticides, and a lanolin-pesticides mixture are injected in a GPC column. The recoveries and elution times from the GPC column of lanolin (by a gravimetric method) and pesticides (by gas chromatography-electron capture detector) are determined. From this column, a good separation of the lanolin-pesticides mixture is observed.

  20. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  1. Anticipatory Grief: A Mere Concept?

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Anticipatory grief (AG) has been studied, debated, and written about for several decades. This type of grief is also recognized in hospice and palliative care (HPC). The question, however, is whether the reality of AG is sufficiently upheld by professionals at the point of concrete service delivery. In other words, is AG a mere concept or is everyday practice of HPC duly informed of AG as evidenced by the resulting care delivery?

  2. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Krasnov, V.; Kryukov, V.; Samedova, E.; Emelianova, I.; Ryzhova, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:25692150

  3. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  4. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek.

  5. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    PubMed

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min).

  6. Impact of soil heterogeneity on measuring the attainment of PCB clean-up standards

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, I.M.; Ghirardi, J.K.; Morin, J.O.

    1996-12-31

    The sources of variance in the results of samples collected during a pilot-scale remediation treatability testing for PCBs were evaluated using basic statistical methods. The relative contributions of soil heterogeneity and chemical testing methods were estimated. The sources of variance were estimated using both inter- and intralaboratory testing and the determination of the total variance of each sample set. It was found that 67 to 94 percent of the variance in the results was contributed by the sample heterogeneity which can not be readily controlled. The results of treated samples from the pilot-scale treatability testing showed a mean concentration of PCBs of 13.6 ppm with a standard deviation of 10.1. The range of the distribution of concentrations was 1.3 to 35 ppm. Based on these findings, it is inappropriate to use an absolute clean-up standard to evaluate whether the clean-up has been achieved. The use of the mean is more appropriate as it takes into account the variance in the results caused by sample heterogeneity.

  7. EPA Awards $10.3 Million to Clean Up New England Brownfield Sites, Protect Health in Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has awarded more than $10.3 million in Brownfield grants to municipalities and organizations working to protect people's health by assessing and cleaning up contaminated parcels in New England communities.

  8. Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council to Receives $300,000 to Clean up and Redevelop Contaminated Brownfields Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council will receive $300,000 to clean up and redevelop contaminated brownfields sites in Florida. Nationally, approximat

  9. EPA Announces $300,000 in Supplemental Funds to Clean up Contaminated Brownfields Sites in South Carolina

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $300,000 in supplemental funding to help transform communities in South Carolina by cleaning up contaminated Brownfields properties.

  10. EPA Announces $13.2 Million in Supplemental Funds to Clean up Contaminated Brownfields Sites Across the Country

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced approximately $13.2 million in supplemental funding to help transform communities by cleaning up contaminated Brownfields properties. Supplemental funding of the Revolving L

  11. Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  12. Estimation of the uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps in pesticide residue analysis of plant commodities.

    PubMed

    Omeroglu, P Yolci; Ambrus, A; Boyacioglu, D

    2013-01-01

    Extraction and clean-up constitute important steps in pesticide residue analysis. For the correct interpretation of analytical results, uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps should be taken into account when the combined uncertainty of the analytical result is estimated. In the scope of this study, uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps were investigated by spiking (14)C-labelled chlorpyrifos to analytical portions of tomato, orange, apple, green bean, cucumber, jackfruit, papaya and starfruit. After each step, replicate measurements were carried out with a liquid scintillation counter. Uncertainties in extraction and clean-up steps were estimated separately for every matrix and method combination by using within-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation and were characterised with the CV of recoveries. It was observed that the uncertainty of the ethyl acetate extraction step varied between 0.8% and 5.9%. The relative standard uncertainty of the clean-up step with dispersive SPE used in the method known as QuEChERS was estimated to be around 1.5% for tomato, apple and green beans. The highest variation of 4.8% was observed in cucumber. The uncertainty of the clean-up step with gel permeation chromatography ranged between 5.3% and 13.1%, and it was relatively higher than that obtained with the dispersive SPE method.

  13. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  14. Case study: Using microbe molecular biology for Gulf oil spill clean up.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    This case has the student actively investigate the regulation of expression of a novel bacterial gene in the context of attempts to solve a real world problem, clean up of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the case is fictitious, it is based on factual gene regulatory characteristics of oil-degrading microbes. The case is written for a sophomore Cell Biology lecture course at Indiana Wesleyan University that is taught to Biology/Pre-Med majors. This study is also appropriate for use in undergraduate microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics courses. The case is intended to enhance coverage of transcription, translation, control of gene expression, and selected molecular biology techniques. Opportunities to practice critical thinking skills and to a lesser extent an introduction to the paradigm of life science research at the industry level are provided.

  15. CE-ECL detection of gatifloxacin in biological fluid after clean-up using SPE.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lin; Li, Cuifang; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Xueting; Wei, Wei

    2009-11-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive CE method has been proposed for the determination of gatifloxacin in biological fluid. This method is based on the ECL reaction of gatifloxacin and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) occurred in the end-column detection cell. Under the optimal conditions, gatifloxacin can be assayed within 10 min over the concentration range of 5.0x10(-8)-5.0x10(-6) g/mL with the theoretical plate numbers of 18,000. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the signal intensity and the migration time shows acceptable reproducibility for the analysis of gatifloxacin. The presented method has been successfully applied to determine the concentrations of gatifloxacin in urine and blood samples after clean-up using C(18) SPE column.

  16. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and clean-up criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-02-18

    Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of the Karl sub-scale laser for Raman beam clean-up experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudas, Alan J.; Burris, Harris R.

    1987-03-01

    The two X-ray preionized discharge pumped front end lasers for the Raman Beam Clean-up Experiment (LARBC) have been examined both optically and electrically in an effort to increase the optical and temporal quality of the injection locked beam produced. The KARL subscale has been successfully injection locked by the front end lasers and preliminary studies of the stability of the injection locking begun. An isolator system has been designed and constructed to prevent damage to system optics from energy moving the wrong way in the system. A gas processing system was tested to remove contaminants in the laser gas. Additional units have been purchased for use on all lasers in the system. Diagnostics for the experiment will be coordinated through the WP3202 digitizing system.

  18. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Akbari, Majid; Akbari, Javad; Dabiri, Ghahraman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz) were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively), an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3) or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz) (group 4), and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed. Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05). Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01). In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:23724206

  19. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana Gomes; Amaya Chávez, Araceli; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Colín Cruz, Arturo; García Fabila, María Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can cause environmental damage and human health risks since they are lipophilic compounds with high resistance to degradation and long half-lives in humans. As most persistent OCPs have been banned years ago, it is expected to find these compounds at trace levels in environment. Therefore, increasingly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques are required to ensure effective monitoring of these compounds. The aim of this review is to discuss extraction and clean-up methods used to monitor OCP residues in milk, reported in the last 20 years. To carry out this review, an exhaustive bibliographic review was conducted. Despite the disadvantages of conventional extraction and clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid, solid-phase or Soxhlet extractions, these procedures are still used due to their reliability. New extraction methods, like solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion or QuEChERS, have not been thoroughly evaluated for OCP determination in milk. Almost all the methodologies analyzed in this review presented good performance characteristics according to the performance acceptability criteria set in SANCO's procedure. Comparison between limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD), for the reported methodologies, is not always possible due to the heterogeneity of the units. Thus, researchers should take into account an homogenization of LOD and LOQ units, according to the international regulations and MRLs established. Finally, more research is necessary to obtain the ideal methodology for OCPs determination in milk, which comprises the environmentally friendly characteristics of the new techniques and the reliability of the traditional methodologies.

  20. Studies of leukemia and thyroid disease among Chernobyl clean-up workers from the Baltics

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.

    1997-03-01

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl in late April of 1986, hundreds of thousands of men from throughout the former Soviet Union were sent to Chernobyl to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris, and help decontaminate the local environment. They remained for an average of three months and were allowed to accumulate up to 25 cGy of radiation before being sent home. Doses for some workers may have exceeded the allowable limit. The experience of Chernobyl clean-up workers is potentially informative about cancer risk associated with protracted exposure to low levels of radiation. Cohorts of clean-up workers from the Baltic Republics were assembled for study, based on military records and other lists. The study population includes 4,833 men from Estonia 5,709 from Latvia and at least 5,446 from Lithuania, where a pilot study is underway. They are being monitored for cancer incidence through linkages with the corresponding national cancer registries. Biodosimetric assays, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome translocation analysis and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic cell mutation assay, are being used to supplement information about radiation doses from worker records and questionnaires. Thyroid screening examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed on nearly 2,000 workers in the Estonian cohort (mean age, 40 y) during the spring of 1995, nine years after the reactor accident. The study is still in progress. Work began first in Estonia, and results presented here pertain to this subgroup except as otherwise noted. The average age at the time of arrival at Chernobyl was 31 years. 62% were sent in 1986. Possible reasons for the apparent absence or rarity of radiation-induced thyroid nodules include low and protracted doses, low susceptibility among men exposed as adults, and insufficient passage of time since the accident.

  1. [Determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oils by double clean-up-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Cai, Chunping; Wang, Danhong

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the residues of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetable oils, a method was established for the determination of trace PCBs in vegetable oils by double clean-up coupled with gas chromatography (GC). After extracted with acetonitrile, the sample extract was concentrated to dryness followed by re-dissolving with hexane. And the solution was pretreated by adding concentrated sulfuric acid followed cleaned-up with silica gel in dispersive solid-phase extraction protocol, then analyzed by GC with external standard meth- od. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the analysis was carried out with a capillary column (HP-5, 30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 μm) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the sample volume was 1.00 μL. Monitoring with an electron-capture detector, all the target analytes were separated by temperature-programming of the column. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 10-500 μg/L for the seven indicator PCBs with the correlation coefficients greater than 0. 999. For different matrices, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were in the range of 1.8-8.9 pg/kg and 5.9-29.8 μg/kg, respectively. At three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 μg/kg of the seven indicator PCBs in olive oil, palm oil and peanut oil blank samples, the average recoveries ranged from 71.0% to 105.5% with the RSDs of 4.0%-11.3%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used for the routine analysis of the indicator PCBs in vegetable oils.

  2. Quantifying the clean-up of LNAPL lens and LNAPL entrapped in an aquifer composed of fractured permeable formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, H.; Koengeter, J.

    2006-12-01

    This study has originated and motivated by a case history of a comparatively wide scale of kerosene (LNAPL) contamination in an aquifer composed of a fractured permeable formation. Presently, parts of the LNAPL are entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, and other parts are incorporated with LNAPL lens on top of the flowing groundwater. The study develops conceptual, mathematical and numerical models for simulating the aquifer and LNAPL lens clean-up by a pump-and-treat procedure. The numerical simulations identify the importance of mechanisms of dissolution of the entrapped LNAPL ganglia and the LNAPL lens by films of contact. Clean-up of the LNAPL lens is also affected by mixing in fracture intersections located at the interface LNAPL-groundwater. Dimensionless parameters governing all involved processes are identified and their effects in different ranges are quantified. The clean-up of the LNAPL lens is mainly affected by the mobility number and the fracture segment orientation. These parameters also determine the depth of penetration of the organic solutes into the aquifer. Clean-up of the entrapped LNAPL is mainly affected by the dimensionless interphase mass transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that at low mobility numbers rates of LNAPL lens clean-up may be faster or slower than clean-up of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, depending on the value of the interphase mass transfer coefficient. At high mobility numbers the clean- up rates of the LNAPL lens are always slower than those of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer.

  3. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  4. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    PubMed

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-22

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  5. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink.

    PubMed

    Salice, Christopher J; Sample, Bradley E; Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A; Sable, Shaye

    2011-12-01

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies.

  6. Comparison of solid-phase extraction sorbents for sample clean-up in the analysis of organic explosives.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Romain; Pichon, Valérie; Barbe Le Borgne, Martine; Minet, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-21

    A solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the clean-up of forensic samples collected at bombing scenes. Recoveries of common organic explosives from methanolic extracts diluted with water were studied on different hydrophobic sorbents. Polymeric sorbents retained explosive compounds better than octadecyl-bonded silica-based materials. Clean-up efficiency was evaluated with simulated samples prepared from commercial motor oil. Polymeric sorbent with the smallest specific surface area was found to limit the coextraction of matrix components. Performance of the method was confirmed by a reduction of ion suppression in LC/MS analysis.

  7. Detection of THCCOOH in hair by MSD-NCI after HPLC clean-up.

    PubMed

    Sachs, H; Dressler, U

    2000-01-10

    Regular consumption of cannabis can easily be detected by examination of hair for tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol. Although several studies have demonstrated that after contamination with smoke or treatment with THC containing shampoos THC is not detectable, or only in small traces, the detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) should be offered to prove the consumption and metabolisation of THC. Up to now this confirmation was only available using tandem MS techniques combined with negative chemical ionisation. A new method using a normal quadrupole GC/MS is described. The lack of expensive instruments has to be paid for by a costly and time consuming extraction and clean-up. After the sample has been digested by 2 M NaOH at 95 degrees C and the neutralised liquid has been extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl acetate the dried residue is reconstituted in acetonitrile-methanol-0.01 M sulfuric acid (49:21:30, v/v/v) and the cannabinoids separated by HPLC. Each fraction is collected over 1 min. Another extraction with n-hexane-ethyl acetate is followed by evaporation, derivatisation, and GC/MS determination. The calibration with THCCOOH spiked hair led to a LOD of 0.3 pg/mg and a LOQ of 1.1 pg/mg.

  8. Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer for prometryne clean-up in the environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li Juan; Qu, Jin Rong; Miao, Shan Shan; Geng, Hao Ran; Yang, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are prepared on the surface of modified silica gel using prometryne as a template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The structure of the MIPs was characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The selectivity of the MIPs for the template molecule prometryne was proven by adsorption experiments. Highly selective SPE cartridges of MIP particles were developed and an optimized prometryne procedure was developed for the enrichment and clean-up of prometryne residues in water, soil, and wheat samples. The concentrations of prometryne in the samples were analyzed by HPLC. The average recoveries of prometryne spiked for water at 0.05∼0.8 mg/L were 101.47-106.65% and the RSD was 2.63-4.71%. The average recoveries of prometryne spiked for soil at 0.05∼0.8 mg/L were 87.34-94.91% with the RSD being 2.77-8.41%. The average recoveries of prometryne spiked for wheat plant at 0.2∼2.0 mg/kg were 91.04-97.76% with the RSD being 6.53-10.69%. The method developed here can be regenerated and repeatedly used more than two dozen times.

  9. Salt clean-up procedure for the determination of domoic acid by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, C L; Wekell, J C; Gauglitz, E J; Barnett, H J

    1994-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) was first reported in mussels from Prince Edward Island, Canada, in 1987. It reappeared in anchovies and pelicans from Monterey Bay, California, in 1991. Later that year, domoic acid was found in razor clams and Dungeness crabs along the Washington and Oregon coasts. Since the initial outbreak, a variety of analytical methods for the detection of this neurotoxin have been developed. Here, we describe a modification to the solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up step in Quilliam's HPLC-UV method (1991: NRCC No. 33001). The standard 10% acetonitrile (MeCN) wash and 0.5M ammonium citrate buffer (ACB) in 10% MeCN (pH = 4.5) eluting solution have been replaced with a 0.1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in 10% MeCN wash and a 0.5M NaCl in 10% MeCN eluting solution. This modification allows the analysis to work equally well on both clam and crab viscera and meat. Chromatograms of visceral samples no longer contain interfering or late eluting peaks; and all chromatograms are free of the large solvent peak tailing associated with the ACB eluent. The newly modified method allows for an improved and more versatile domoic acid analysis.

  10. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

  11. Design of a second generation secondary enclosure clean-up system

    SciTech Connect

    Heics, A.G.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1995-10-01

    An upgraded version of a metal hydride based clean-up system for tritium gloveboxes has been recently designed. An earlier version of a prototypical, recirculating system has been under evaluation in tritium service at OHT for nearly 2 years. A metal getter alloy, Zr{sub 2}Fe, is used to remove tritium and trace impurities from inert and nitrogen glovebox cover gas. The second generation SEC system features several notable improvements over its predecessor in areas of gas conductance, process instrumentation for tritium and moisture detection, and operator interface. A second bed has been added to enhance the removal of tritium and impurities. The system is controlled by computer programmed to automatically maintain the glovebox pressure, temperature and the impurity level of the glovebox cover gas, and to respond effectively to upset conditions by corrective action and to alarm the off-normal condition. The lifetime of the metal alloy getter is affected by the presence of impurities, notably moisture, which dictates the need to ensure system leak tightness. For example, the tritium concentration at the bed outlet will rise by approximately one order of magnitude as a result of introducing a continuous moisture load of 5 ppmv for 6 months while maintaining a flow rate of 2 L/s. The second generation system will be commissioned with tritium during 1995. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Young Children's Views Concerning Distribution of Clean-Up Duties in the Classroom: Responsibility and Self-Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penderi, Efthymia; Rekalidou, Galini

    2016-01-01

    The preschool setting offers many opportunities to promote development of responsibility in young children. Clean-up routines may support children's distributional judgments, and reveal their sense of responsibility about classroom duties. Although there is a large number of studies regarding children's views about resource distribution,…

  13. CSX Agrees to EPA Order for Clean-up of Areas Impacted by West Virginia Train Derailment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 6, 2015 ) - CSX Transportation Inc. (CSX) has agreed with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to clean up and restore the areas affected by the Feb. 16 train derailment in Mount Carbon, W. Va. Twenty-seven cars derailed from

  14. Matrix solid phase dispersion-Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Gao, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2005-11-01

    A novel method combining matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up (SSEC) was developed. Being a single-step extraction and clean-up procedure, it could be used instead of multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up. It not only reduces sample contamination during the procedure, but it also decreases the amount of organic solvent needed. The retention times of standards were used to qualitatively assess the method, and the external standard method was used to quantitatively assess it. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in tobaccos were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and their identities were confirmed by the standard addition method (SAM). The performance of the method was evaluated and validated: the detection limit was 0.01-0.02 microg g(-1), relative standard deviations were 5-26%, and recoveries were 72-99% at fortification levels of 0.10, 1.00 and 10.0 microg g(-1). The analytical characteristics of MSPD-SSEC compared very favorably with the results from the classical multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up method.

  15. EPA provides $200K to Kiowa County to clean up and revitalize abandoned property in downtown Eads, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Denver, Colo. - May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has awarded Kiowa County $200K in Brownfields grant funding to clean up, demolish and redevelop a blighted former motel and residence at 1209 Maine Street in downtown Eads,

  16. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  17. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-06

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  18. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  19. Oak Ridge Cleanup Vision: Moving to the Future by Cleaning Up the Past - 13291

    SciTech Connect

    Cange, Susan M.; Wieland, Christopher C.; DePaoli, Susan M.

    2013-07-01

    received buy-in from the leadership in Headquarters, the regulators, and the community. Issues EM was facing in 2009 are presented. Resulting lessons learned and subsequent changes that the Office has gone through in the past several years in order to improve performance in the safe execution of work, relationships with external stakeholders, and communications both internally and externally are discussed. Results of these efforts are provided as a summary of Program accomplishments, including a strong focus on the future. EM's motto, Moving to the Future by Cleaning up the Past, will be demonstrated through the Program's mission, which includes protecting the region's health and environment; ensuring the continuation of ongoing vital missions being conducted by DOE on the Oak Ridge Reservation; and making clean land available for future use at all three sites, with a near-term focus on Re-industrialization of ETTP. (authors)

  20. From conceptual model to remediation: bioavailability, a key to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Pedron, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    Processes of metal bioavailability in the soil To know the bioavailability processes at site specific levels is essential to understand in detail the risks associated with pollution, and to support the decision-making process, i.e. description of the conceptual model and choice of clean up technologies. It is particularly important to assess how chemical, physical and biological processes in the soil affect the reactions leading to adsorption, precipitation or release of contaminants. The measurement of bioavailability One of the main difficulties in the practical application of the bioavailability concept in soil remediation is the lack of consensus on the method to be used to measure bioavailability. The best strategy is to apply a series of tests to assess bioavailability, since no applicable method is universally valid under all conditions. As an example, bioavailability tests for phytotechnology application should consider two distinct aspects: a physico-chemical driven solubilization process and a physiologically driven uptake process. Soil and plant characteristics strongly influence bioavailability. Bioavailability as a tool in remediation strategies Bioavailability can be used at all stages in remediation strategies: development of the conceptual model, evaluation of risk assessment, and selection of the best technology, considering different scenarios and including different environmental objectives. Two different strategies can be followed: the reduction and the increase of bioavailability. Procedures that reduce bioavailability aim to prevent the movement of pollutants from the soil to the living organisms, essentially by: i) removal of the labile phase of the contaminant, i.e. the fraction which is intrinsic to the processes of bioavailability (phytostabilization); ii) conversion of the labile fraction into a stable fraction (precipitation or adsorption); iii) increase of the resistance to mass transfer of the contaminants (inertization). Procedures

  1. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  2. Ultrasonic extraction followed by a novel filtration and clean-up device for screening of some polyphenols in tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde

    2005-02-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC method using a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyphenols in tobaccos. Ultrasonic extraction was employed at 25 degrees C to extract the polyphenols present in tobaccos into anhydrous methanol. A novel filtration device linked to a clean-up cartridge was designed for simultaneous extract filtration and clean-up. Optimized HPLC-DAD analysis, with multi-wavelength detection, was used for determination of the polyphenols. Because the content of some of the polyphenols is too low to be quantified directly, a concentration step was necessary. Anhydrous methanol was employed for extraction of the polyphenols because of its high extraction efficiency and its low boiling point in the concentration step. Using the proposed method, six polyphenols were quantified in tobaccos (Nicotina tobaccum L.).

  3. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  4. Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Stability code development and clean-up glove data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was to establish an improved swept wing transition criterion. The development of the Unified Stability System gave a way of quickly examining disturbance growth for a wide variety of laminar boundary layers. The disturbance growth traces shown are too scattered to define a transition criteria to replace the F-111 data band, which has been used successfully to design NLF gloves. Still, a careful review of the clean-up glove data may yield cases for which the transition location is known more accurately. Liquid crystal photographs of the clean-up glove show much spanwise variation in the transition front for some conditions, and this further complicates the analyses. Several high quality cases are needed in which the transition front is well defined and at a relatively constant chordwise station.

  5. Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge enables fast clean-up of viscous crude-oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Wang, Yong-Chao; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-04-03

    The clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills is a global challenge. Hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents have been demonstrated as promising candidates for oil-spill remediation. However, the sorption speeds of these oil sorbents for viscous crude oil are rather limited. Herein we report a Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge (GWS) to clean-up viscous crude oil at a high sorption speed. The Joule heat of the GWS reduced in situ the viscosity of the crude oil, which prominently increased the oil-diffusion coefficient in the pores of the GWS and thus speeded up the oil-sorption rate. The oil-sorption time was reduced by 94.6% compared with that of non-heated GWS. Besides, the oil-recovery speed was increased because of the viscosity decrease of crude oil. This in situ Joule self-heated sorbent design will promote the practical application of hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents in the clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills.

  6. Novel fracture technology proves marginal Viking prospect economic, part II: Well clean-up, flowback and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, S.; Rylance, M.; Tybero, G.

    1996-12-31

    Having completed both fracture treatments as discussed in a companion paper, this paper continues on to describe the post fracture shut-in, clean-up and well testing operations that took place on the Viking Wx exploration well 49/17-12. These operations involved the removal of Resin Coated Proppant (RCP) from the wellbore, via Coiled Tubing (CT), through the use of a specially designed jetting nozzle. The RCP pack stability at a concentration of 3.0 lb/ft{sup 2} (as per planned design) had already been tested in a flowback cell. The use of a Surface Read-Out (SRO) gauge, combined with gas, water and proppant flow rates as well as the viscosity of fracturing fluids returns, enabled real time calculation of the drag forces, on the proppant pack, during clean-up. The flow rate, in the field, was controlled such that the calculated drag forces remained below those observed in the laboratory. Following the clean-up a flow and build-up test was conducted, to evaluate the fracture half length and fracture conductivity, from which a Pseudo-radial skin was calculated. The Non-Darcy effects in the fracture were also evaluated, and finally the short term and long term well deliverabilities were assessed.

  7. Analysis of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up and ion-pair LC with diode array UV detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a phytotoxin and mycotoxin occasionally found in maize contaminated with Fusarium fungi. A selective sample clean-up procedure was developed to detect fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up coupled with ion-pair liquid chromatography...

  8. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  9. Absorbent Pads for Containment, neutralization, and clean-up of environmental spills containing chemically-reactive agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  10. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  11. CUTBA (Cleaning Up the Tower of Babel of Acronyms) in IBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, G.

    1996-09-01

    The various techniques used in ion beam analysis (IBA) are referred to by names that are often abbreviated into acronyms. While some contractions like RBS, NRA or PIXE are well established, one observes in recent literature an increasing trend to introduce new ad hoc acronyms for specific applications or techniques, although names already exist that may be adapted to correspond rather accurately to the concept. In the present situation even people well informed of this field have more and more difficulties to understand what is meant by, for example, ESS, PES, HIRBS, CERDA, CCM or CSTIM. This is especially true when the acronyms are used in titles or abstracts, without definition. To deal with this situation a list of acronyms encountered in recent literature was submitted by electronic mail consultation to a large panel of physicists active in the IBA field. The outcome of this electronic forum was discussed at a workshop held at the IBA-12 conference. Useful recommendations have been worked out to facilitate understanding of IBA-related acronyms, a consensus having been reached to lay down some not overly rigid guidelines.

  12. Individual and workplace monitoring measurements made after a 240Pu incident and during the clean-up operations.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, R; Eisenwagner, H; Benesch, T; Hunt, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Bulyha, S; Schmitzer, C

    2011-03-01

    On 3 August 2008, five glass vials containing around 7 GBq of (240)Pu in nitric acid solution burst in a laboratory operated by the IAEA in Seibersdorf, Austria. The vials were located in a fire-proof safe in the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, and the release of the (240)Pu caused an air contamination in the room and in adjoining rooms. Immediate emergency work was carried out, which was then followed by a long period of clean-up operations. A large number of conventional individual and workplace monitoring measurements were carried out immediately after the incident and during the clean-up work. In addition, due to the fact that (240)Pu has a very low background presence in the environment, and that the IAEA laboratories operate an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system capable of very low levels of detection of this radionuclide, a number of non-conventional measurements were made to detect (240)Pu on, for example, the photographic camera used to document the incident, on nasal swabs from the first responders, etc. Plastic beakers were left in the corridor of the controlled area to accumulate (240)Pu from precipitation to see whether it was possible to detect traces of the radionuclide. This paper presents the measurements obtained, and discusses their relevance to occupational radiation protection.

  13. OPERATION OF A TRITIUM GLOVEBOX CLEAN-UP SYSTEM USING ZIRCONIUM MANGANESE IRON AND ZIRCONIUM TWO IRON METAL GETTERS

    SciTech Connect

    E. LARSON; K. COOK

    2000-08-01

    A metal hydride-based tritium clean-up system has been successfully operated for more than four years on an 11 m{sup 3} helium/nitrogen glovebox which was used for handling metal tritide powders. The clean-up system consists of two beds: (1) a Zr-Mn-Fe (in a 10% by weight Al binder, SAES ST909) bed operating at 675 C followed by (2) a Zr{sub 2}Fe (SAES ST198) bed operating at 250 C. The Zr-Mn-Fe bed serves to condition the gas stream by cracking hydrogenous impurities (such as H{sub 2}O and hydrocarbons) and absorbing oxygen and carbon. The Zr{sub 2}Fe bed absorbs the hydrogen isotopes from the flowing stream by forming a solid hydride compound. These beds contain 3 kilograms of Zr{sub 2}Fe and have been loaded routinely with 230-250 STP liters of hydrogen isotopes in earlier trials. The Zr-Mn-Fe alloy exhibits an anomaly during activation, namely an exotherm upon initial exposure to nitrogen. The purpose of this work is to better understand this reaction. Nitrogen absorption studies were done in order to quantify the nitrogen taken up by the getter and to characterize the reaction kinetics. In addition, ST909 phases before and after the reaction were studied with x-ray diffraction.

  14. Application of single immunoaffinity clean-up for simultaneous determination of regulated mycotoxins in cereals and nuts.

    PubMed

    Vaclavikova, Marta; MacMahon, Shaun; Zhang, Kai; Begley, Timothy H

    2013-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive analytical strategy for the simultaneous determination of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenon, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 toxins) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The method was validated for peanuts, barley and maize-breakfast cereals; selected as they represent the matrices most often contaminated by mycotoxins. The method is designed for fast and reliable analyses of mycotoxins in regulatory, industrial and private laboratories. Multi-target immunoaffinity columns containing antibodies for all mycotoxins studied herein were used for sample clean-up. Method optimization was predominantly focused on the simplification of extraction and clean-up procedure recommended by column producers. This newly developed and simplified procedure decreased both the sample preparation time and the solvent volumes used for their processing. The analysis of all regulated mycotoxins was conducted by a newly developed UHPLC-MS/MS method with a sample run time of only ten minutes. The method trueness was tested with analytical spikes and certified reference materials, with recoveries ranging from 71% to 112% for all of the examined mycotoxins.

  15. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  16. Recovery of salt marsh vegetation after removal of storm-deposited anthropogenic debris: Lessons from volunteer clean-up efforts in Long Beach, NY.

    PubMed

    Ehl, Kaitlin M; Raciti, Steve M; Williams, Jason D

    2017-02-14

    Recovery of vegetation on a Long Island, NY salt marsh was investigated after the removal of hurricane-deposited large wooden debris through managed clean-ups involving volunteers. Two years after the removal of the debris, vegetation cover and species composition were not significantly different from controls. There was no significant difference in vegetation recovery among fall and spring debris removal treatments. Initial vegetation cover of the experimental and control plots was 95.8% and 1.2%, respectively; after two growing seasons cover was 78.7% and 71.2%, respectively. The effects of trampling by volunteers during debris removal were monitored and after one growing season, trails used during a single clean-up effort had a mean vegetation cover of 67% whereas those that were used during multiple clean-up efforts had only 30% cover. We use the results of this study to offer guidance for organizing effective salt marsh clean-up efforts.

  17. Cleaning up of a nuclear facility: Destocking of Pu radioactive waste and nuclear Non-Destructive Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P.-G.; Bernard, Ph.; Loridon, J.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.

    2012-07-01

    In view to clean up a nuclear facility located at the CEA, Cadarache, France, three Non Destructive Assay (NDA) methods have been combined to characterize 2714 old, 100 L radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. The results of X-ray radiography, passive neutron measurement and gamma-ray spectrometry are used together to extract both the βγ and α activities, and the Pu mass contained in each drum. Those drums will then be re-conditioned and cemented in 870 L containers, in order to be sent to the adequate disposal or interim storage. This paper presents the principle of the three NDA methods, the dedicated measurement setups, and it gives details about the setups, which have been especially designed and developed for that application. Uncertainties are dealt with in the last part of the paper.

  18. Effective clean-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for isoflavone determination in legumes.

    PubMed

    Vila-Donat, Pilar; Caprioli, Giovanni; Maggi, Filippo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Torregiani, Elisabetta; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    Legumes are an excellent source of macronutrients and phytochemicals as isoflavones. The aim of this work was to develop a new analytical method for determining five isoflavone compounds, three of which are aglycons, namely daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, and two of which, daidzin and genistin, are glycosilated, in lentils and other pulses, using an effective clean-up system and UHPLC-MS/MS (triple quadrupole) method. The recoveries obtained by spiking the lentil samples with a standard mixture of isoflavones at three levels of fortification (5, 25 and 100 μg kg(-1)) were in the range of 54.4-111.1%, 68.6-91.1%, and 84.4-114%, respectively. The method was applied to analyse 48 lentil samples from central Italy and pulses for determining the isoflavone content, which was found to range from 1.1 to 95.6 μg kg(-1).

  19. On-line detection of metal pollutant spikes in MSW incinerator flue gases prior to clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, D. Sharifi, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Argent, B.; Ardelt, D.

    2007-07-01

    SUWIC's unique mobile metals emissions monitoring laboratory has been used to measure metal pollutant spikes in the flue gas from a municipal solid waste incinerator, prior to gas clean-up. The laboratory has a heated sampling probe that extends into the plant, allowing the simultaneous on-line measurement of the concentrations of more than 30 metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). As little is known about temporal variation in metal concentrations, this capability is seen as a major advance. The graphs of continuous measurements show that the elemental loading is far from uniform, and that concentrations fluctuate far more than may have been conventionally expected. There are occasional significant spikes in the emission profiles for cadmium and mercury, which are believed to be due to specific items in the waste feed material. Continuous monitoring measurements are of significant value for those seeking to model metal behaviour in combustion and in pollution control devices.

  20. [Comparative analysis of the combined treatment efficacy of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Habulavichene, Zh M

    2012-12-01

    It was shown the results of comparative evaluation of combined treatment in 111 clean-up workers of Chernobyl accident with essential hypertension (EH). This treatment consist of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers in combination with calcium channel blockers and diuretics. The follow-up period lasted 12 months. It was found that combined therapy provides comparable and reliable blood pressure (BP) control during 24-hour, significant reduction of average daily BP, daytime and nighttime BP, an index of time of the BP, BP variability. Despite on achieved target blood pressure level, 4 weeks treatment is not enough for regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Significant regress of LVH was found if treatment lasted during a year under the condition that BP remained at the target level. It was revealed the advantage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers intake combined with a diuretic on regress of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction.

  1. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-03-17

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU[center dot]Spec[trademark] column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable.

  2. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  3. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Emma; Souto-Alonso, Ana; Espinosa, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Fuster, Carme; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Antó, Josep Maria; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2 years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6 years after clean-up work. In 2008/2009 a follow-up study was done in 230 never-smoking fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work in 2002/2003 and 87 non-exposed fishermen. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness testing and the determination of respiratory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate were done identically as in the baseline survey in 2004/2005. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory health parameters were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex and age. Information from 158 exposed (69%) and 57 non-exposed (66%) fishermen was obtained. Loss to follow-up in the non-exposed was characterised by less respiratory symptoms at baseline. During the 4-year follow-up period lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the levels of respiratory biomarkers of oxidative stress and growth factors had deteriorated notably more among non-exposed than among exposed. At follow-up, respiratory health indices were similar or better in clean-up workers than in non-exposed. No clear differences between highly exposed and moderately exposed clean-up workers were found. In conclusion, we could not detect long-term respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill. Methodological issues that need to be considered in this type of studies include the choice of a non-exposed control group and limitation of follow-up to subgroups such as never smokers.

  4. Cleaning Up Your Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses how inadequate ventilation, poor air quality, mold and other conditions can have a detrimental impact on the health of students and school staff. She states that, these unsafe environmental conditions can cause a negative effect on students' health as well as their achievement. Furthermore, she discusses…

  5. CLEAN-UP Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Mikulski, Barbara A. [D-MD

    2011-05-12

    05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Cleaning up Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A development program that started in 1975 between Union Carbide and JPL, led to Advanced Silicon Materials LLC's, formerly ASiMI, commercial process for producing silane in viable quantities. The process was expanded to include the production of high-purity polysilicon for electronic devices. The technology came out of JPL's Low Cost Silicon Array Project.

  7. Cleaning up the House

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, C.

    2007-12-15

    Under the new 'Green the Capital' initiative, measures are making the House of Representatives a more energy efficient workplace. The Capital power plant, which burns mostly coal and natural gas to heat seven boilers, must operate in a carbon-neutral fashion by the end of 2008, by increasing energy efficiency and fuel switching. Roughly 103,000 MW hours of electricity will be bought each year from solar and wind-powered sources. Other measures being implemented are use of fluorescent light bulbs and recycled paper, and a boost in recycling of materials. 4 photos.

  8. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  9. Cleaning Up the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Don; Pruett, Lindsay

    2005-01-01

    Environmental community service projects provide many opportunities for students to help the environment and connect with their communities. In Washington State, students are allowed to obtain a high school varsity letter in community service if they complete over 150 community service hours in a calendar year. To help students toward this goal,…

  10. CLEAN-UP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sarbanes, John P. [D-MD-3

    2009-06-04

    06/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Minimal mimicry: mere effector matching induces preference.

    PubMed

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually performed. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants moved either their arms or legs, and watched avatars that moved either their arms or legs, respectively, without any instructions to mimic. The executed movements themselves and their pace were completely different between participants (fast circular movements) and targets (slow linear movements). Participants preferred avatars that moved the same body part as they did over avatars that moved a different body part. In Experiment 3, using human targets and differently paced movements, movement similarity was manipulated in addition to effector overlap (moving forward-backward or sideways with arms or legs, respectively). Only effector matching, but not movement matching, influenced preference ratings. These findings suggest that mere effector overlap is sufficient to trigger preference by mimicry.

  12. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices.

  13. Improved sample extraction and clean-up for the GC-MS determination of BADGE and BFDGE in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Brede, C; Skjevrak, I; Herikstad, H; Anensen, E; Austvoll, R; Hemmingsen, T

    2002-05-01

    A straightforward method was established for the determination of migration contaminants in olive oil with a special focus on the two can-coating migration compounds bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE). The preferred sample preparation was a single liquid-liquid extraction of compounds from the oil into 20% (v/v) methanol in acetonitrile, followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl bonded to silica. This purification procedure selectively removed all free fatty acids from the extracts without removing phenolic compounds of interest. The solid-phase extraction columns were used many times by implementing a procedure of washing out the strongly retained fatty acids with 2% acetic acid in methanol. Gas chromatography coupled with full scan (m/z 33-700) electron ionization mass spectrometry was used for the determination of several model compounds in olive oil samples. BADGE and BFDGE could be determined in the 0.05-2 mg kg(-1) range in oil samples with a relative SD of <6% (six replicates). The method was used in an enforcement campaign for the Norwegian Food Control Authority to analyse vegetable oil samples from canned fish-in-oil.

  14. Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.

    1991-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently to the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Using integrated geospatial mapping and conceptual site models to guide risk-based environmental clean-up decisions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Henry J; Greenberg, Michael R; Burger, Joanna; Gochfield, Michael; Powers, Charles; Kosson, David; Keren, Roger; Danis, Christine; Vyas, Vikram

    2005-04-01

    Government and private sector organizations are increasingly turning to the use of maps and other visual models to provide a depiction of environmental hazards and the potential risks they represent to humans and ecosystems. Frequently, the graphic presentation is tailored to address a specific contaminant, its location and possible exposure pathways, and potential receptors. Its format is usually driven by the data available, choice of graphics technology, and the audience being served. A format that is effective for displaying one contaminant at one scale at one site, however, may be ineffective in accurately portraying the circumstances surrounding a different contaminant at the same site, or the same contaminant at a different site, because of limitations in available data or the graphics technology being used. This is the daunting challenge facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which is responsible for the nation's legacy wastes from nuclear weapons research, testing, and production at over 100 sites in the United States. In this article, we discuss the development and use of integrated geospatial mapping and conceptual site models to identify hazards and evaluate alternative long-term environmental clean-up strategies at DOE sites located across the United States. While the DOE probably has the greatest need for such information, the Department of Defense and other public and private responsible parties for many large and controversial National Priority List or Superfund sites would benefit from a similar approach.

  16. Tackling the challenge of selective analytical clean-up of complex natural extracts: the curious case of chlorophyll removal.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-11-15

    Alkaline saponification is often used to remove interfering chlorophylls and lipids during carotenoids analysis. However, saponification also hydrolyses esterified carotenoids and is known to induce artifacts. To avoid carotenoid artifact formation during saponification, Larsen and Christensen (2005) developed a gentler and simpler analytical clean-up procedure involving the use of a strong basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). They hypothesised a saponification mechanism based on their Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array (LC-PDA) data. In the present study, we show with LC-PDA-accurate mass-Mass Spectrometry that the main chlorophyll removal mechanism is not based on saponification, apolar adsorption or anion exchange, but most probably an adsorption mechanism caused by H-bonds and dipole-dipole interactions. We showed experimentally that esterified carotenoids and glycerolipids were not removed, indicating a much more selective mechanism than initially hypothesised. This opens new research opportunities towards a much wider scope of applications (e.g. the refinement of oils rich in phytochemical content).

  17. Physicochemical regeneration of high silica zeolite Y used to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Braschi, I; Blasioli, S; Buscaroli, E; Montecchio, D; Martucci, A

    2016-05-01

    High silica zeolite Y has been positively evaluated to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamides, an antibiotic family which is known to be involved in the antibiotic resistance evolution. To define possible strategies for the exhausted zeolite regeneration, the efficacy of some chemico-physical treatments on the zeolite loaded with four different sulfonamides was evaluated. The evolution of photolysis, Fenton-like reaction, thermal treatments, and solvent extractions and the occurrence in the zeolite pores of organic residues eventually entrapped was elucidated by a combined thermogravimetric (TGA-DTA), diffractometric (XRPD), and spectroscopic (FT-IR) approach. The chemical processes were not able to remove the organic guest from zeolite pores and a limited transformation on embedded molecules was observed. On the contrary, both thermal treatment and solvent extraction succeeded in the regeneration of the zeolite loaded from deionized and natural fresh water. The recyclability of regenerated zeolite was evaluated over several adsorption/regeneration cycles, due to the treatment efficacy and its stability as well as the ability to regain the structural features of the unloaded material.

  18. A probabilistic model estimating oil spill clean-up costs--a case study for the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Montewka, Jakub; Weckström, Mia; Kujala, Pentti

    2013-11-15

    Existing models estimating oil spill costs at sea are based on data from the past, and they usually lack a systematic approach. This make them passive, and limits their ability to forecast the effect of the changes in the oil combating fleet or location of a spill on the oil spill costs. In this paper we make an attempt towards the development of a probabilistic and systematic model estimating the costs of clean-up operations for the Gulf of Finland. For this purpose we utilize expert knowledge along with the available data and information from literature. Then, the obtained information is combined into a framework with the use of a Bayesian Belief Networks. Due to lack of data, we validate the model by comparing its results with existing models, with which we found good agreement. We anticipate that the presented model can contribute to the cost-effective oil-combating fleet optimization for the Gulf of Finland. It can also facilitate the accident consequences estimation in the framework of formal safety assessment (FSA).

  19. A LC/UV/Vis method for determination of cyanocobalamin in multivitamin dietary supplements with on-line sample clean-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HPLC-UV method using a two-column strategy with a switching valve for on-line sample clean-up was developed for the determination of cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL-vitamin B12, in dietary supplements. The method uses two columns, an Agilent Zorbax C8 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 um particle) reversed-phase column...

  20. City of Atlanta and the Development Authority of DeKalb County to each Receive $300,000 to Clean up and Redevelop Contaminated Brownfields Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that the city of Atlanta and the Development Authority of DeKalb County will each receive $300,000 to clean up and redevelop contaminated brownfields sites in Georgia. Na

  1. EPA to Hold a Public Meeting About Proposed Plan to Clean Up Soil Contamination at Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Waynesville, N.C.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Tuesday, Jan. 13, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will hold a public meeting about plans to clean up residual soil contamination at the Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Waynesville, N.C. The meeting will be hel

  2. Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density func...

  3. Multiplug filtration clean-up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the analysis of pesticide residues using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengyue; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Chuanshan; Zhang, Junyan; Pan, Canping

    2013-10-01

    A novel design for a rapid clean-up method was developed for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The acetonitrile-based sample extraction technique was used to obtain the extracts, and further clean-up was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure on a multiplug filtration clean-up column coupled with a syringe. The sorbent used for clean-up in this research is multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which was mixed with anhydrous magnesium sulfate to remove water from the extracts. This method was validated on 40 representative pesticides and apple, cabbage, and potato sample matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. It exhibited recoveries between 71 and 117% for most pesticides with RSDs < 15%. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.995 for most studied pesticides between concentration levels of 10-500 μg/L. The LOQs for 40 pesticides ranged from 2 to 50 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market fruit and vegetable samples.

  4. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.

  5. Validation data for HPLC/FLD determinations of ochratoxin A in red paprika and black pepper adopting a one-step clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Bononi, M; Gallone, F; Tateo, F

    2010-02-01

    Validation data for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in two spice matrices, red paprika and black pepper, were obtained for samples prepared with a simplified single-step clean-up column. Extracts of finely ground samples of red paprika and black pepper were prepared and applied to a Mycosep 229 Ochra clean-up column. The purified extract was then subjected to HPLC/FLD analysis. The relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) of the method was 11.8% for red paprika and 9.9% for black pepper. The limit of detection (LOD) value (three times the noise) was estimated as corresponding to the response of an extract derived from a blank matrix (previously washed) and spiked at 1.0 microg kg(-1). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) (three times LOD) was 3.0 microg kg(-1). The performance of the one-step column clean-up procedure appears to be a suitable alternative to commonly used clean-up techniques and allows the precise determination of OTA in two complex matrices.

  6. An effective clean-up technique for GC/EI-HRMS determination of developmental neurotoxicants in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Čechová, Eliška; Seifertová, Marta; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; van de Bor, Margot; Kočan, Anton

    2017-02-01

    The increasing number of children suffering from developmental disorders has raised questions regarding their association with the presence of environmental contaminants in mothers and children. We therefore developed a new method for the determination of 78 proven and potential developmental neurotoxicants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, legacy pesticides, pyrethroids, and old and new halogenated flame retardants in breast milk. The essential part of sample preparation was dialysis as a non-destructive clean-up step which was newly used at 10 °C and showed more efficient lipid removal (up to 96%) than the conventional methods such as gel permeation chromatography or freezing-lipid filtration and thus ensured low limits of detection (LOD) by reducing the sample volume prior to injection. Next advantages were significant solvent reduction and no risk of sample cross-contamination. Gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was subsequently used for the separation and compound quantification. The method was validated using breast milk samples fortified with the analyzed compounds. Recoveries for most of the compounds ranged from 63 to 121% with a relative standard deviation of 2-25%, and LODs ranged between 0.001 and 0.87 ng g(-1) lipid weight. The method was applied to breast milk samples from a Dutch birth cohort where 35 out of the 78 compounds were quantified in more than 60% of the samples. For novel flame retardants, the method provides unique results regarding their occurrence in human matrices in Europe. Overall, the analysis of a complex mixture of developmental neurotoxicants could be useful for the assessment of the influence of the studied compounds to child health and development. Graphical abstract Flow diagram of the method and levels of the developmental neurotoxicants in Dutch human milk samples.

  7. A Strategy for Skills to meet the demands of Nuclear Decommissioning and Clean-up in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.; Ensor, B.

    2008-07-01

    The NDA remit as set out within the Energy Act includes - 'to ensure the availability of skills required to deliver the overall decommissioning and nuclear clean-up mission'. The NDA approach to meeting their statutory obligation is by: - finding the best ways of re-training, re-skilling or re-deploying people in a way that encourages a more flexible workforce; - identifying and communicating the skills and workforce requirements to deliver the mission; and - developing the infrastructure and capability initiatives in line with long term needs, for example, a National Skills Academy for Nuclear, Nuclear Institute, National Graduate Scheme, and - developing locally specific provision. Firstly, NDA has set the requirement for nuclear sites to write down within the Life Time Plans (LTP), at a high level, their Site Skills Strategies; furthermore, a National Skills Working Group has been established to develop tactical cross sector solutions to support the NDA's Skills Strategy. In support of the short, medium and long term needs to meet demands of the NDA sites and the nuclear decommissioning sector, as well as being aware of the broader nuclear sector, investments have been made in infrastructure and skills programmes such as: - A National Skills Academy for Nuclear - including UK wide representation of the whole nuclear sector; - A Nuclear Institute in partnership with the University of Manchester focussing on world class research and skills in Radiation Sciences and Decommissioning Engineering; - Post Graduate sponsorship for decommissioning related projects; - A National Graduate Scheme partnership with nuclear related employers; - Vocational qualifications and Apprenticeship Schemes - Engaging 14-19 year old students to encourage the take up of Science related subjects; and - A sector wide 'Skills Passport'. In conclusion: The skills challenge has many dimensions but requires addressing due to the clear link to improved business performance and the availability

  8. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES) for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Cannon, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES) is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1) from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5) as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V), moderate duration (30 min), and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles from food

  9. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  10. Development of sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plants by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction combined with molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Li, Yuanwen; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2011-04-01

    A novel sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plant samples was developed by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) followed by molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure. The method was based on two steps. In the first one, conventional solvent extraction was replaced by VMAE for extraction of auxins from plant tissues. This step provided efficient extraction of 3-indole acetic acid (IAA) from plant with dramatically decreased extraction time, furthermore prevented auxins from degradation by creating a reduced oxygen environment under vacuum condition. In the second step, the raw extract of VMAE was further subjected to a clean-up procedure by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads. Owing to the high molecular recognition ability of the magnetic MIP beads for IAA and 3-indole-butyric acid (IBA), the two target auxins in plants can be selectively enriched and the interfering substance can be eliminated by dealing with a magnetic separation procedure. Both the VMAE and the molecularly imprinted clean-up conditions were investigated. The proposed sample preparation method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatogram and fluorescence detection for determination of IAA and IBA in peas and rice. The detection limits obtained for IAA and IBA were 0.47 and 1.6 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation were 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The IAA contents in pea seeds, pea embryo, pea roots and rice seeds were determined. The recoveries were ranged from 70.0% to 85.6%. The proposed method was also applied to investigate the developmental profiles of IAA concentration in pea seeds and rice seeds during seed germination.

  11. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  12. Role of radiation and non-radiation factors on the development of coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers: epidemiological study results.

    PubMed

    Krasnikova, L I; Buzunov, V O

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the risks for coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers with regard to a whole-body external radiation dose and non-radiation (biological, social-and-hygienic and behavioral) factors. Materials and methods. Risk-analysis was based on the cohort of the Chornobyl male clean-up workers 1986-1987 (8,625 men, including 3,623 with available whole-body external doses). Data of clinical-and-epidemiological registry, National Research Centre for Radiation Medicine were used for 1992-2013 monitoring period. We used the internal control group with radiation doses less than 0.05 Gy. Results. Statistically significant radiation risks in the Chornobyl clean-up workers were established for the coronary heart disease at doses 0.15-0.249 Gy, 0.25-0.99 Gy, 1 Gy and more (dose group 0.15-0.249 Gy RRY=1.9 (1.2; 3.1), ERR=4.6 (1.5; 14.9) Gy-1, EAR=64.2 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy); among exposed people aged 40 years and older - at doses 0.5-0.99 Gy (RRY=1.4 (1.05; 1.81), ERR=0.5 (0.03; 1.1) Gy-1, EAR=30.5 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy). Statistically significant risks for the disease under consideration were also identified with regard to non-radiation factors (smoking, improper physical training, adverse working conditions, diseases etc; age and psychoemotional overstrain were of a particular impact). Non-radiation factors are at most responsible for development of coronary heart disease. For this reason the control of potential confounding factors is required to assess the effect of the radiation factor both at a stage of comparison groups selection and analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method.

  13. Comparison of two clean-up methodologies for the gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of low nanogram/gram levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood.

    PubMed

    Nyman, P J; Perfetti, G A; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1993-01-01

    The March 1989 oil spill in Alaska prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a thorough investigation of clean-up methodologies aimed at determining low ng/g (ppb) levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood. The clean-ups from a modified FDA method and a National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) method were evaluated on the basis of the determination of 18 PAHs at levels ranging from 1 to 5 ppb by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the modified FDA method, seafood extracts were purified by a liquid-liquid partition followed by a three-step elution through silica, alumina, and C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. In the NMFS method, seafood extracts were purified by column chromatography through a deactivated silica gel/alumina column and a gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography column. Both methods quantitated 18 PAHs at levels ranging from 1 to 5 ppb. With the exception of naphthalene, average recoveries based on internal deuterated standards ranged from 73 to 144% for the modified FDA method and 63 to 106% for the NMFS method.

  14. Determination of carbendazim, thiabendazole, and o-phenylphenol residues in lemons by HPLC following sample clean-up by ion-pairing.

    PubMed

    Prousalis, Konstantinos P; Polygenis, Dimitris A; Syrokou, Alexandra; Lamari, Fotini N; Tsegenidis, Theodore

    2004-06-01

    An efficient analytical method is presented involving effective sample clean-up with solid-phase extraction and HPLC-UV analysis for the simultaneous determination of carbendazim, thiabendazole, and o-phenylphenol residues in lemons. Sample preparation involves extraction with acetonitrile acidified with trifluoroacetic acid and an ethyl acetate/petroleum ether mixture. Purification of the crude extract was carried out with liquid-liquid partitioning after addition of an aqueous ammonia solution. Final clean-up was performed on polymeric reversed-phase cartridges pretreated with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase HPLC column isocratically eluted with an acetonitrile/water/ammonia mixture and UV detection at 254 nm. The chromatographic method is repeatable, reproducible, and sensitive. Fungicide recoveries from lemon samples fortified at levels of 5 and 1 mg kg(-1) were 81-85% for carbendazim, 96-98% for thiabendazole, and 81-106% for o-phenylphenol with coefficients of variation of 2.5-7.4%. Detection limits for carbendazim, thiabendazole, and o-phenylphenol in lemons were 0.21, 0.27, and 0.51 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  15. Multicriteria optimisation of a simultaneous supercritical fluid extraction and clean-up procedure for the determination of persistent organohalogenated pollutants in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Rodil, R; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Cela, R

    2007-04-01

    A useful tool based on a single-step extraction and clean-up procedure for the determination of 15 organohalogenated pollutants (including brominated flame retardants) in aquaculture samples, using aluminium oxide basic and acidic silica gel in the supercritical extraction cell followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry has been developed. This effective clean-up step ensures a minimum of chromatographic difficulties related to complex matrix components such as aquaculture feed. The extraction procedure has been screened by a fractional factorial design for the preliminary statistically significant parameters. The factors selected were extraction temperature, pressure, static extraction time, dynamic extraction time and carbon dioxide flow rate. The Doehlert design, followed by a multicriteria decision-making strategy, was then performed in order to determine the optimum conditions for the two most significant factors: pressure (165 bar) and dynamic extraction time (27 min). Under optimal conditions, the procedure developed with GC-MS/MS provides an excellent linearity, detection (0.01-0.2 ng g(-1)) and quantification limits (0.05-0.8 ng g(-1)) for most of the analytes investigated. The feasibility of the proposed supercritical fluid extraction method was validated by analysing two reference materials and fish feed and shellfish samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Clean-up of triazines in vegetable extracts by molecularly-imprinted solid-phase extraction using a propazine-imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Cacho, C; Turiel, E; Martín-Esteban, A; Pérez-Conde, C; Cámara, C

    2003-06-01

    An analytical methodology based on a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure was developed for the determination of several triazines (atrazine, simazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), and propazine) in vegetable samples. A methacrylic acid-based imprinted polymer was prepared by precipitation polymerisation using propazine as template and toluene as porogen. After removal of the template by Soxhlet extraction, the optimum loading, washing, and elution conditions for MISPE of the selected triazines were established. The optimised MISPE procedure was applied to the extraction of the selected triazines in pea, potato, and corn sample extracts and a high degree of clean-up was obtained. However, some remaining interferences, non-specifically and strongly bound to the polymeric matrix, appeared in the chromatogram, preventing quantification of DIA in potatoes and DIA, DEA, and propazine in corn samples. Thus, a new clean-up protocol based on the use of a non-imprinted polymer for removal of these interferences prior to the MISPE step was developed. By following the new two-step MISPE procedure, the matrix compounds were almost completely removed, allowing the determination of all the triazines selected at concentration levels below the established maximum residue limits, making the developed procedure suitable for monitoring these analytes in vegetable samples.

  17. Determination of triazine herbicides in seaweeds: development of a sample preparation method based on Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion and Solid Phase Extraction Clean-up.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, N; González-Castro, M J; Beceiro-González, E; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2014-04-01

    A method using dual process columns of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) has been developed for extracting and cleaning-up of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine and terbutryn) in seaweed samples. Under optimized conditions, samples were blended with 2g of octasilyl-derivatized silica (C8) and transferred into an SPE cartridge containing ENVI-Carb II/PSA (0.5/0.5 g) as a clean up co-sorbent. Then the dispersed sample was washed with 10 mL of n-hexane and triazines were eluted with 20 mL ethyl acetate and 5 mL acetonitrile. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, re-constituted with 1 mL methanol:water (1:1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The linearity of the calibration curves was excellent in matrix matched standards, and yielded the coefficients of determination>0.995 for all the target analytes. The recoveries ranged from 75% to 100% with relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The achieved LOQs (<10 µg kg(-1)) for all triazines under study permits to ensure proper determination at the maximum allowed residue levels set in the European Union Legislation. Samples of three seaweeds were subjected to the procedure proving the suitability of MSPD method for the analysis of triazines in different seaweeds samples.

  18. Comparison of solid phase extraction, saponification and gel permeation chromatography for the clean-up of microwave-assisted biological extracts in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Navarro, P; Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Deusto, M; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Arana, G; Etxebarria, N

    2006-09-22

    The feasibility of different clean-up procedures was studied for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biota samples such as oysters, mussels and fish liver. In this sense, once the samples were extracted--essentially with acetone and in a microwave system--and before they could be analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), three different approaches were studied for the clean-up step: solid phase extraction (SPE), microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The main aim of this work was to maximise the recoveries of PAHs and to minimise the presence of interfering compounds in the last extract. In the case of SPE, Florisil cartridges of 1, 2 and 5 g, and silica cartridges of 5 g were studied. In that case, and with oysters and mussels, microwave-assisted extraction and 5 g Florisil cartridges provided good results. In addition, the concentrations obtained for Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were in good agreement with the certified values. In the case of microwave-assisted saponification, the extracts were not as clean as those obtained with 5 g Florisil and this fact lead to overestimate the concentration of the heaviest PAHs. Finally, the cleanest extracts were obtained by GPC. The method was successfully applied to mussels, oysters and hake liver, and the results obtained for NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were within the confidence interval of the certified reference material for most of the certified analytes.

  19. Innovative integration of decommissioning and deactivation program with soil-groundwater clean up program has positive results on budget and schedule: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, Bruce G.; Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide 'end states' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources. (authors)

  20. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  1. Determination of fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, maize and animal feed using on-line clean-up with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ates, E; Mittendorf, K; Stroka, J; Senyuva, H

    2013-01-01

    An automated method involving on-line clean-up and analytical separation in a single run using TurboFlow™ reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, zearalenone and fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize, wheat and animal feed. Detection was performed in full scan mode at a resolution of R = 100,000 full width at half maximum with high energy collision cell dissociation for the determination of fragment ions with a mass accuracy below 5 ppm. The extract from homogenised samples, after blending with a 0.1% aqueous mixture of 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (43:57) for 45 min, was injected directly onto the TurboFlow™ (TLX) column for automated on-line clean-up followed by analytical separation and accurate mass detection. The TurboFlow™ column enabled specific binding of target mycotoxins, whereas higher molecular weight compounds, like fats, proteins and other interferences with different chemical properties, were removed to waste. Single laboratory method validation was performed by spiking blank materials with mycotoxin standards. The recovery and repeatability was determined by spiking at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 200% of legislative limits) with six replicates. Average recovery, relative standard deviation and intermediate precision values were 71 to 120%, 1 to 19% and 4 to 19%, respectively. The method accuracy was confirmed with certified reference materials and participation in proficiency testing.

  2. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up and microliter-flow injection analysis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for multi-residue screening of pesticides in food.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-07-18

    For multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food, a sufficient clean-up is essential for avoiding matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In the last two years, high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was established as a new clean-up concept for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011) and tea (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2012). HTpSPE results in matrix-free extracts almost free of interferences and matrix effects. In this study, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was applied to directly analyze HTpSPE extracts for pesticide residues. This HTpSPE-microliter-flow injection analysis (μL-FIA)-TOFMS approach detects all pesticides at once in a single mass spectrum, without a liquid chromatographic separation step. Complete sample information was obtained after the injection of the cleaned extract within a single peak. Recovery studies for seven representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, red grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes) provided mean recoveries of 86-116% with relative standard deviations of 1.3-10% (n=5) using the mass signal intensities under the entire sample peak. Comparing the mass spectra of sample peaks from spiked extracts and solvent standards indicated the efficiency of HTpSPE clean-up. A pesticide database search detected all spiked pesticides with a low incidence of false-positives. HTpSPE of one sample required a few minutes, and numerous samples could be cleaned in parallel at minimal cost with low sample and solvent consumption. The μL-FIA-TOFMS screening then needed an additional 6min per sample. The novel screening approach was successfully applied to QuEChERS extracts of several real samples, and the pesticides identified by HTpSPE-μL-FIA-TOFMS were identical to the pesticides detected by common target LC-MS/MS analyses. The high degree of concordantly identified pesticides by the new developed HTp

  3. Radiation and non-radiation factors and their impact on the natural history of coronary heart disease in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Bilyi, D O; Nastina, O M; Gabulavichene, Zh M; Sydorenko, G V; Bazyka, O D; Bilaya, V V; Kovalyov, O S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of a range of risk factors and ionizing radiation on the severity of clinical presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers (ACW). Materials and methods. A total of 376 ACW and 123 Kiev city residents with no exposure to radiation participated in the study. Study scope included the case history recording, clinical check-up, electrocardiography (ECG), daily ECG-monitoring, daily arterial blood pressure monitoring, exercise ECG, Doppler ultrasound (Doppler echocardiography), and serum lipid profile assay. The severity of CHD was scored as a sum of functional class (FC) of angina pectoris and stage of heart failure (HF) to estimate the combined impact of several risk factors. Participation in the clean-up work, age, gender, body mass excess, hypercholesterolemia, CHD, diabetes mellitus (DM), survived myocardial infarction (MI) and acute cerebral stroke, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block were accounted as risk factors. Both separate and combined impact of those factors was assayed. The combined effect was scored as a sum where value zero corresponded to no sign and value one corresponded to its presence, whereas values from 1 to 4 explained the expression of a sign according to severity or stage of a disease according to contemporary classifications. Results and conclusions. Despite the fact that clinical characterization, functional state of cardiovascular system, and comorbidities in ACW were almost similar to that in control group the onset of CHD in ACW was significantly earlier (55.9 vs. 59.8 years old). According to Spearman's rank-order correlation data there was a reliable link of FC grades and HF severity values sum to the sum of indices scoring the age group of patients, their gender, presence of arterial hypertension, MI in a history, DM type 2, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block. Cluster of risk factors

  4. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined.

  5. Semi-covalent imprinted polymer using propazine methacrylate as template molecule for the clean-up of triazines in soil and vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Cacho, C; Turiel, E; Martín-Esteban, A; Ayala, D; Pérez-Conde, C

    2006-05-12

    A semi-covalent imprinted polymer was prepared by precipitation polymerisation using propazine methacrylate as template molecule, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and toluene as porogen. After removal of propazine by basic hydrolysis of the covalent bond, the optimum loading, washing and elution conditions for the solid-phase extraction of the selected triazines were established. The binding sites present in the polymeric matrix were characterised by fitting the experimental results of several rebinding studies to the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. Subsequently, an analytical methodology based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of several triazinic herbicides in soil and vegetable samples. Following this procedure, a good degree of clean-up of the sample extracts was easily achieved, allowing the HPLC-UV determination of selected triazines in complex samples at low concentration levels.

  6. Use of gel permeation chromatography for clean-up in the analysis of coccidiostats in eggs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2013-05-01

    An analytical method for determination and confirmation of nine coccidiostatics in eggs is reported. Ethyl acetate is used as extraction solvent, with satisfactory results, and simple automated clean-up is based on gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) . The target compounds are then analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in-house in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Trueness and precision were determined at four concentrations, and the mean errors obtained were <10 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3 to 18 %. For three non-authorized coccidiostatics (clopidol, ethopabate, and ronizadole), decision limit and detection capability were in the ranges 0.12-0.16 and 0.18-0.23 μg kg(-1), respectively. The results obtained prove the suitability of this new analytical method for routine monitoring of these substances in eggs.

  7. Enrichment of perfluorinated alkyl substances on polyethersulfone using 1-methylpyperidine as ion-pair reagent for the clean-up of carrot and amended soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Zabaleta, Itsaso; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Aguirre, Josu; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Berger, Urs; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2015-10-01

    The development of a simple, cheap and environment friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in carrot and amended soil was carried out in the present work. The method was based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction followed by extract clean-up through enrichment of the target compounds on a polymeric material using an ion-pair reagent and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables affecting the clean-up step were evaluated: the nature of the polymeric material (polyethersulfone, PES, versus silicone rod), the amount of the polymeric material (from 1 to 9 mg), the ion-pair reagent (1-methylpyperidine, 1-MP, versus tetrabutylammonium salts), the concentration of the ion-pair reagent (from 5 to 50 mM) and the extraction time (from 15 min to 24 h). Optimum clean-up conditions were obtained using preconcentration on 9 mg of PES polymeric material combined with 5 mM 1-MP as ion-pair reagent for 3h. The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries in the range of 77-140% and 95-137% at the low concentration (50 ng g(-1)) and in the range of 70-136% and 79-132% at the high concentration (290 ng g(-1)) for amended soil and carrot, respectively, after correction with the corresponding labeled standards. Precision, as relative standard deviation, was within 2-23%, while method detection limits were 0.31-2.85 ng g(-1) for amended soil and 0.11-1.83 ng g(-1) for carrot. In the absence of a certified reference material for the target analytes in the matrices studied, inter-method comparison was carried out and the same samples were processed using two independent clean-up procedures, the one developed in the present work and a classical based on solid-phase extraction. Statistically comparable results were obtained according to the one

  8. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices.

  9. Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

    PubMed

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Kato, Masaru; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-07-18

    Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market.

  10. Rapid determination of 88 veterinary drug residues in milk using automated TurborFlow online clean-up mode coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-xia; Yang, Ji-zhou; Wang, Zhao-xing; Wang, Cai-juan; Liu, Ya-feng; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel method based on TurborFlow online solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established for simultaneous screening and confirmation of 88 wide-range veterinary drugs belonging to eight families (20 sulfonamides, 7 macrolides, 15 quinolones, 8 penicillins, 13 benzimidazoles, 4 tetracyclines, 2 sedatives, and 19 hormones) in milk. The preparation method consists of sample dilution and ultrasonic extraction, followed by an automated turbulent flow cyclone chromatography sample clean-up system. The detection was achieved in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). The total run time was within 39 min, including automated extraction, analytical chromatography and re-equilibration of the turboflow system. The optimization of different experimental parameters including extraction, purification, separation, and detection were evaluated separately in this study. The developed method was validated and good performing characteristics were obtained. The linear regression coefficients (R(2)) of matrix-match calibration standard curves established for quantification were higher than 0.9930. The limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.2-2.0 μg/kg given by signal-noise ratio ≥3 (S/N) and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N≥10) ranged between 0.5 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg. Average recoveries of spiked target compounds with different levels were between 63.1% and 117.4%, with percentage relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 3.3-17.6%. The results indicated that the developed method has great potential for the routine laboratory analysis of large numbers of samples on measuring different classes of compounds. In comparison to traditional procedures, the automated sample clean-up ensures rapid, effective, sensitive analyses of veterinary drugs in milk.

  11. One-step selective electrokinetic removal of inorganic anions from small volumes and its application as sample clean-up for mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Tubaon, Ria Marni; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2017-03-10

    The presence of inorganic anions in a sample interferes with mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. Here, a simple method to remove these ions from a liquid sample in one-step is described. The inorganic anions present in a 50μL sample were extracted into a low pH solution inside a 200μm i.d.×33cm long capillary by the use of an electric field. The selective removal of unwanted anions and retention of target analytes was accomplished by control of the apparent electrophoretic velocities of anions and analytes at a boundary that separated the sample and extraction solution. No physical barrier (e.g., membrane) was required and with the boundary situated at the tip of the capillary, efficient removal of inorganic anions (e.g., >80% removal) and good recovery of target analytes (e.g., >80% recovery) were achieved. The time required for removal of the inorganic anions was found to depend on their initial concentrations. The removal process was investigated using different concentrations of bromide and nitrate (as potassium salts) and negatively chargeable drugs as target analytes. This micro-sample clean-up technique used no organic solvents and little consumables and was studied to the determination of 0.6μg/L arsenic and 8.3μg/L vanadium in 500mg/L sodium chloride using inductively coupled plasma MS and 50μM angiotensin I in 1000mg/L sodium chloride using electrospray ionisation MS. Micro-sample clean-up was performed for 45min at 3kV in both demonstrations. The calculated recoveries for the metals at trace levels were 110-130%, and for the peptide was 103.8%.

  12. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  13. "The Joy of Mere Words": Poetry and Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelden, Michael

    As a man who took great delight in "the joy of mere words," George Orwell would understandably be appalled by the growing insensitivity to language in today's world. Poetry in composition classes can keep students aware of the music of the English language. There is no guarantee that students will respond to poetry with the same…

  14. Cleaning Up in New England

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A page that links to information about cleanups (Superfund, Brownfields, RCRA Corrective Action and Emergency Responses) in EPA's Region 1, covering Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont and Rhode Island.

  15. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  16. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  17. Coal cleans up its act

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Mahesh Lyer

    2006-10-15

    The paper gives an overview of current clean coal conversion processes. Gasification of coal is seen as preferable to combustion, along with CO{sub 2} separation technologies. One scheme which minimises the parasitic energy requirement for CO{sub 2} separation is based on the calcium-based carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) process which utilises limestone at 600-700{sup o}C. The key to success lies in process integration by combining various modules in one step of operation. Current stages of development vary from conceptualisation to pilot demonstration and commercial process construction. Projects mentioned include the FutureGen project and the HyPr-ring chemical looping process. 2 figs.

  18. Development of a simple extraction and clean-up procedure for determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rashid, A; Nawaz, S; Barker, H; Ahmad, I; Ashraf, M

    2010-04-23

    A procedure based on QuEChERS extraction and a simultaneous liquid-liquid partition clean-up was developed. The procedure involved extraction of hydrated soil samples using acetonitrile and clean-up by liquid-liquid partition into n-hexane. The hexane extracts produced were clean and suitable for determination using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated by analysis of soil samples, spiked at five levels between 1 and 200 microg kg(-1). The recovery values were generally between 70 and 100% and the relative standard deviation values (%RSDs) were at or below 20%. The procedure was validated for determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides. These were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (trans), aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane (trans), chlordane (cis), oxychlordane, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE. The method achieved low limits of detection (LOD; typically 0.3 microg kg(-1)) and low limits of quantification (LOQ; typically 1.0 microg kg(-1)). The method performance was also assessed using five fortified soil samples with different physico-chemical properties and the method performance was consistent for the different types of soil samples. The proposed method was compared with an established procedure based on Soxtec extraction. This comparison was carried out using six soil samples collected from regions of Pakistan with a history of intensive pesticide use. The results of this comparison showed that the two procedures produced results with good agreement. The proposed method produced cleaner extracts and therefore led to lower limits of quantification. The proposed method was less time consuming and safer to use. The six samples tested during this comparison showed that soils from cotton growing regions contained a number of persistent OC residues at relatively low levels (<10 microg kg(-1)). These

  19. Application of Risk Assessment Techniques to Evaluate Public Risk and Establish Priorities for Clean-up of Ordnance at Formerly Used Defense Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    VX, HD, BZ, etc.). Within these 5 categories values were assigned from 0 to 25 based upon the expected hazard associated with public exposure to...were independently evaluated using theRAC . Upon completion of this initial assessment, adjustments and refinements were made to better reflect the...items that have been found. This is merely an example of what was found between 1 January 1984 to 26 April 1984 and 15 July 1985 to 25 September 1985 by

  20. Trivalent copper chelate-luminol chemiluminescence system for highly sensitive CE detection of dopamine in biological sample after clean-up using SPE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Ying; Xie, Haoyue; Fu, Zhifeng

    2012-06-01

    A transition metal chelate unstable at a high oxidation state, diperiodatocuprate (III) (K₅[Cu(HIO₆)₂], DPC), was synthesized and applied in the luminol-based chemiluminescence (CL) system for highly sensitive CE end-column detection of dopamine (DA). This method was based on the fact that DA enhanced the CL emission resulting from the reaction between luminol and DPC in alkaline medium. The DPC-luminol-DA CL system showed very intensive emission and very fast kinetic characteristics, thus resulting in a high sensitivity in flow-through detection mode for CE. Under optimal conditions, the linear range was 1.0 × 10⁻⁸-5.0 × 10⁻⁵ g/mL (R² = 0.9984) with a limit of detection of 6.0 × 10⁻⁹ g/mL (S/N = 3). The RSDs of the peak height and the migration time were about 4.2 and 2.4% for a standard sample at 3.0 × 10⁻⁶ g/mL (n = 5), respectively. The presented method has been successfully used for the determination of DA in commercial preparation and human urine samples after clean-up using SPE.

  1. Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC-VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Guo-Min; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Qi; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Dan; Deng, Jian

    2013-01-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with visible detection (HPLC-VIS) for the determination of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), leucomalachite green (LMG), and leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish has been developed after clean-up through an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Residues were simultaneously extracted from fish muscle with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The leuco-forms, LMG and LCV, were oxidized quantitatively to the chromic CV and MG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. Extracts were then purified on an IAC which prepared by immobilizing the anti-MG-CV antibodies by the sol-gel method. Finally, the eluents were analyzed by HPLC-VIS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.1, 0.18 and 0.14ng/g for MG, CV, LMG and LCV, respectively. The average recoveries in samples fortified with MG, CV, LMG and LCV over the range 0.5-10ng/g were from 71.6% to 96.8% with RSDs of 5.1-12.3% (n=6). This novel method was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring.

  2. Development of a bi-functional silica monolith for electro-osmotic pumping and DNA clean-up/extraction using gel-supported reagents in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Jennifer A; Shaw, Kirsty J; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-06-07

    A silica monolith used to support both electro-osmotic pumping (EOP) and the extraction/elution of DNA coupled with gel-supported reagents is described. The benefits of the combined EOP extraction/elution system were illustrated by combining DNA extraction and gene amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. All the reagents necessary for both processes were supported within pre-loaded gels that allow the reagents to be stored at 4 degrees C for up to four weeks in the microfluidic device. When carrying out an analysis the crude sample only needed to be hydrodynamically introduced into the device which was connected to an external computer controlled power supply via platinum wire electrodes. DNA was extracted with 65% efficiency after loading lysed cells onto a silica monolith. Ethanol contained within an agarose gel matrix was then used to wash unwanted debris away from the sample by EOP (100 V cm(-1) for 5 min). The retained DNA was subsequently eluted from the monolith by water contained in a second agarose gel, again by EOP using an electric field of 100 V cm(-1) for 5 min, and transferred into the PCR reagent containing gel. The eluted DNA in solution was successfully amplified by PCR, confirming that the concept of a complete self-contained microfluidic device could be realised for DNA sample clean up and amplification, using a simple pumping and on-chip reagent storage methodology.

  3. Accelerated solvent extraction by using an 'in-line' clean-up approach for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in organic honey.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Labella, Giuseppe Federico; Panseri, Sara; Britti, Domenico; Galbiati, Fabrizio; Villa, Roberto; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-02-22

    The worldwide loss of honeybee colonies may be due to their exposure to several contaminants (i.e., pesticides); such contamination may also have impacts on consumers' health. Therefore, it is essential to develop quick and new methods to detect several pesticide residues in honey samples. In this study, the effectiveness of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was compared with QuEChERS methods for the analysis of 53 pesticides in organic honey by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two simple and rapid ASE methods with 'in-line' clean-up were optimised and then compared with QuEChERS. Hexane-ethyl acetate (Hex:EtAc) and Florisil were chosen as extraction solvent and retainer for the first ASE method respectively; acetonitrile and a primary-secondary amine phase (ACN-PSA) were selected for the second ASE method. The methods were validated according to the European Union SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. The validation parameters showed that QuEChERS and ASE with PSA as retainer had better repeatability than ASE with Hex:EtAc and Florisil. In particular, QuEChERS and ASE (ACN-PSA) showed good recovery, according to the SANTE criteria, for the majority of investigated pesticides. Conversely, when ASE with Hex:EtAc and Florisil was used as the retainer, several compounds showed recoveries lower than the acceptable value of 70%. The ASE in-line method was finally applied to evaluate pesticide concentration in organic honey samples.

  4. In-house validation of an improved sample extraction and clean-up method for GC determination of isomers of nervonic acid in meat products.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Marie-Elisabeth; Bau, Andrea; Barcarolo, Robertino; Luecker, Ernst; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Anklam, Elke

    2003-06-01

    An improved extraction and clean-up method for determination of brain-specific fatty acids, in particular lignoceric acid (C24:0) and the cis/ trans isomers of nervonic acid (15 c-t C24:1), in meat products has been developed. The method is based on isolation of the polar lipids of interest from the bulk lipids by solid-phase extraction. The fatty acids, derivatised to their fatty acid methyl esters, are quantified by GC in a DB5 column. Fresh meat samples were extracted by using a mixture of n-butanol:hexane (1:9) as solvent. The extract was loaded in a silica gel cartridge column previously equilibrated with hexane. The first fraction containing the major part of the fat was eluted with hexane while acetone and methanol allowed the elution of fatty acids bound to polar moieties such as nervonic and lignoceric acids. This second fraction containing the analyte was methylated and injected into the GC for quantification after addition octacosane (C(28)) as internal standard.

  5. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  6. A food web model of mercury transfer from stream sediment to predators of fish for ecological risk based clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.P.; Hadden, C.T.; Cornaby, B.W.; Mitz, S.V.

    1997-09-01

    A linear steady-state model of the food web linking sediment to piscivorous predators was used to derive ecological risk based clean-up concentrations for mercury in sediment of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge, TN. The model partitions aquatic invertebrates into two classes based on the primary source of exposure to mercury in sediment, and the prey-fish community into three classes based on differences in their diets and feeding habits. Biotransfer factors for the links between sediment and sediment-dwelling invertebrates, water and aquatic biota and fish, and prey and predators are published values. The model uses site specific data on the fraction of methylmercury in sediment, the relative abundance of prey fish, and the predicted flux of mercury from sediment. Monte Carlo analysis quantifies the uncertainty in the risk to top predators of fish. At 96 mg/kg mercury in sediment, less than 20% of the exposures exceed dietary limits for endpoint receptors. The fraction of methylmercury in sediment, the three biotransfer factors for methylmercury, and diet are sensitive parameters.

  7. Concurrent extraction, clean-up, and analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromocyclododecane isomers, and tetrabromobisphenol A in human milk and serum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhixiong; Wang, Yifei; Niu, Piye; Wang, Jiandi; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shuhua; Wu, Yongning

    2013-10-01

    A method has been developed and validated for the concurrent extraction, clean-up, and analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in human milk and serum. Milk and serum samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with acetone/hexane 1:1, v/v and liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether/hexane 1:1, v/v, respectively. The removal of co-extracted biogenic materials was achieved by gel permeation chromatography followed by sulfuric acid treatment. The fractionation of the PBDEs and HBCD/TBBPA was performed using a Supelco LC-Si SPE cartridge. The detection of the PBDEs was then performed by GC-MS and that of the HBCDs and the TBBPA was performed using UPLC-MS/MS. The pretreatment procedure was optimized, and the characteristic ions and fragmentation of the analytes were studied by MS or MS/MS. A recovery test was performed using a matrix spiking test at concentrations of 0.05-10 ng/g. The recoveries ranged from 78.6-108.8% with RSDs equal to or lower than 14.04%. The LODs were 1.8-60 pg/g. The usefulness of the developed method was tested by the analysis of real human samples, and several brominated flame retardants in different samples were detected and analyzed.

  8. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of <20%. The measurement uncertainties of the method for each pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil.

  9. Determination of isopropyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one in packaged beverages by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuilian; Chan, Sheot Harn; Lu, Dan; Lee, Hui Min Wendy; Bloodworth, Bosco Chen

    2007-03-02

    A simple method was developed and validated for the trace determination of 2-isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) in packaged drinks. Samples were extracted from the food matrix using acetonitrile:water (60:40, v/v), and further subjected to clean-up and preconcentration using solid-phase extraction prior to analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The use of 2-isopropyl-[(2)H7]thioxanthen-9-one was incorporated into the method as an internal standard. Excellent 3-day interday precision data (RSD 0.72%, n=10), and intraday precision data (RSD 0.52%, n=10) were obtained on a 0.10 microg/L standard solution. Spiked samples (n=8) were used to gauge the accuracy of the method at the concentration levels of 2.5, 100, and 500 microg/kg in food; recoveries ranged from 97.0 to 103.0%. These excellent validation data suggest the exciting possibility of using this method for the determination of low levels of ITX migrating from printed food packaging materials into beverages with a method quantitation limit of 0.50 microg/kg. For the first time, analysis on a range of milk, juice, tea and yoghurt drinks, as well as their respective food packaging materials were performed for comparative studies on their ITX content.

  10. In-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hydrophobic persistent and emerging organic pollutants in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively.

  11. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  12. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success.

  13. HPLC-based method using sample pre-column clean-up for the determination of methanethiol and ethanethiol in parenteral amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; Rohlfes, A L; de Carvalho, L M; Ramirez, A

    2001-05-01

    A method has been developed for the chromatographic determination of methanethiol (MT) and ethanethiol (ET) as contaminants in amino acid parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. The clean-up of the samples before chromatographic analysis was investigated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on pre-columns filled with polyethylene powder (PE), aluminium oxide (AlOx), silica (SiOx), or polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbents. The thiols were more efficiently separated from the matrices by SPE on PUF pre-columns. Simultaneous derivatization and elution with DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) enabled further discrimination between MT and ET by reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric detection. The retention times for the derivatized MT and ET species were 12.5 and 23.0 min, respectively. Recoveries from spiked PN samples were calculated to be approximately 90%, and the MT and ET content of commercial PN solutions was determined using the methodology described. Detection limits of 15 and 10 microg L(-1) were calculated for MT and ET, respectively.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in beer, red wine, and grape juice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiliang; Kong, Weijun; Zhou, Shujun; Yin, Lihui; Wan, Li; Yang, Meihua

    2013-04-01

    A simple, reliable, and low-cost method based on molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent of SPE was proposed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer, red wine, and grape juice by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Samples were diluted with water and cleaned up with an AFFINIMIP® SPE OTA column. After washing and eluting, the analyte was analyzed by HPLC-FLD. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ for OTA were 0.025 and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of OTA from beer, red wine, and grape spiked at 0.1, 2, and 5 ng/mL ranged from 91.6 to 101.7%. Furthermore, after a simple regenerated procedure, the molecularly imprinted polymer based SPE column could be reused at least 14 times to achieve more than 80% recoveries of OTA in real samples. The developed method was applied to the detection of 30 beer, red wine, and grape juice samples and only four samples were contaminated by OTA with levels below the legal limits.

  15. Determination of pesticides in fatty matrices using gel permeation clean-up followed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis: A comparison of low- and high-pressure gel permeation columns.

    PubMed

    David, Frank; Devos, Christophe; Dumont, Emmie; Yang, Zhen; Sandra, Pat; Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Two low-pressure columns (Bio-Beads SX-3) and three high-pressure GPC columns were compared for clean-up of a wide range of pesticides in fatty matrices of vegetable or animal origin. The GPC fractions were analyzed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS without additional clean-up. The performance of the GPC clean-up on the five column types was compared in terms of solvent consumption, lipid removal, pesticide recovery and repeatability. It was found that for fatty matrices, mainly consisting of high molecular weight triglycerides i.e. most vegetable oils and animal fats, good fractionation is obtained for the majority of the pesticides. On the other hand, for fats and oils containing relatively high amounts of low molecular weight triglycerides, i.e. butter fat and palm kernel oil, none of the columns provided sufficient clean-up and cause interferences and system contamination, especially in the case of GC-MS/MS analysis. For the latter case, best results in terms of lipid removal and pesticide recovery were obtained on a set (2×300mmlength) of narrow bore (7.5mm ID) columns packed with 5µm PL Gel material. Column loadability is, however, much lower on that set of columns compared the other evaluated GPC columns, impairing overall method sensitivity.

  16. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  17. Olivibacter oleidegradans sp. nov., a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from a biofilter clean-up facility on a hydrocarbon-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Szabó, István; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs; Háhn, Judit; Harkai, Péter; Baka, Erzsébet; Táncsics, András; Kaszab, Edit; Privler, Zoltán; Kukolya, József

    2011-12-01

    A novel hydrocarbon-degrading, Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TBF2/20.2(T), was isolated from a biofilter clean-up facility set up on a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in Hungary. It was characterized by using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate is affiliated with the genus Olivibacter in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. It was found to be related most closely to Olivibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 060(T) (93.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Strain TBF2/20.2(T) grew at pH 6-9 (optimally at pH 6.5-7.0) and at 15-42 °C (optimally at 30-37 °C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (39.4%), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c; 26.0%), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (14.5%) and C(16:0) (4.5%). The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain TBF2/20.2(T) was 41.2 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the distinctiveness of strain TBF2/20.2(T) from recognized members of the genus Olivibacter. Thus, strain TBF2/20.2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Olivibacter, for which the name Olivibacter oleidegradans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TBF2/20.2(T) (=NCAIM B 02393(T) =CCM 7765(T)).

  18. Selective extraction of antimycotic drugs from sludge samples using matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by on-line clean-up.

    PubMed

    Casado, Jorge; Castro, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Isaac; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    An effective and selective, modular sample preparation method for the extraction of eight antimycotic drugs, belonging to three different chemical classes, from digested sludge samples is proposed. To this end, matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was on-line connected with a cationic exchanger solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Analytes were extracted from the MSPD syringe, which contained the freeze-dried sludge sample dispersed with C18 plus a clean-up layer of primary and secondary amine (PSA) sorbent, with 10 mL of methanol. This extract flowed also through the SPE cartridge, where target compounds remained trapped while neutral interferences are released. After discarding the MSPD syringe, analytes were recovered with 10 mL of methanol (0.5% in NH3) before LC-MS/MS determination using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer furnished with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. In comparison with previously published sample preparation methodologies, the developed approach greatly simplifies sample handling and reduces attenuation of ESI ionization for sample extracts when compared to standard solutions. The obtained absolute recoveries ranged between 70 and 118%, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method varied between 5 and 8 ng g(-1). Four antimycotic drugs were ubiquitous in urban sludge samples, with maximum average concentrations (above 400 ng g(-1)) corresponding to clotrimazole (CTZ). The screening capabilities of the LC-QTOF-MS system demonstrated that the developed modular extraction and purification methodology might be useful for the selective extraction of other basic drugs (e.g., sertraline, amitryptiline, and amiodarone) from sludge.

  19. Joint IDF-IUPAC-IAEA(FAO) interlaboratory validation for determining aflatoxin M1 in milk by using immunoaffinity clean-up before thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Grosso, F; Fremy, J M; Bevis, S; Dragacci, S

    2004-04-01

    A collaborative study was conducted under the auspices of the International Dairy Federation (IDF), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a collaborative Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) body fully to validate a method combining immunoaffinity clean-up to thin-layer chromatography for the determination of aflatoxin M(1) in milk. Work was done in order to afford those laboratories not equipped with high-performance liquid chromatography, mainly from developing countries, with a simplified but fully validated method as an alternative to the European validated immunoaffinity-high performance liquid chromatography method published as an EN ISO Standard 14501, February 1999. The validation study was carried out on samples of aflatoxin M(1)-contaminated milk and milk powder at levels close to the tolerable level of 0.5 microg l(-1) as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius and to the regulatory level of 0.05 microg l(-1) as laid down by the European Commission. Fourteen laboratories representing 11 countries participated in the trial. The relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility based on raw data were in the range 27-48 and 35-54%, respectively. The recovery rate varied from 32 to 120%. The mishandling of two crucial steps of the protocol such as matrix sample reconstitution and extract evaporation could explain the wide variation of the recovery rate. For this reason, data were then corrected for recovery. Consequently, the relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility were recalculated after correction for recovery and were in the range 26-54 and 34-53%, respectively. The method will be published as a standard ISO/DIS 14674--IDF 190.

  20. Coupling of acetonitrile deproteinization and salting-out extraction with acetonitrile stacking for biological sample clean-up and the enrichment of hydrophobic compounds (porphyrins) in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huie, Carmen W

    2006-11-01

    A new sample pretreatment approach in CE was developed for concurrent biological sample clean-up and the concentration of hydrophobic compounds based on the combination of ACN deproteinization with salting-out extraction. Further enhancement in concentration detection sensitivity was achieved by coupling (offline) salting-out extraction with an online CE sample enrichment technique known as "ACN stacking". By optimizing the pH of salting-out extraction, a number of model compounds (hydrophobic porphyrins with clinical significances), i.e. zinc-protoporphyrin, protoporphyrin, and coproporphyrin (CP) III and I, can be efficiently extracted from the aqueous sample into a smaller volume organic solvent (ACN) phase and an enrichment factor of ca. 100 can be obtained. The pressure injection of the enriched ACN phase (containing ca.1% NaCl) into the CE capillary at 10% capillary volume resulted in additional concentration of the various hydrophobic porphyrins, allowing for a combined enrichment factor of ca.1000 to be obtained. Calibration curves obtained for the determination of a pair of positional isomers with significant diagnostic value, urinary CPIII and CPI, were found to be linear between 10-300 ng/mL (with R2 = 0.999), and LODs (absorbance detection at 400 nm) were ca. 0.8 ng/mL (1.1 nmol/L of CPIII or CPI). Based on a single salting-out extraction, intraday precisions (nine consecutive injections) for both CPIII and CPI (at spiked concentrations of 10-300 ng/mL into urine) in terms of migration time and peak area were found to be within the range of 0.2-0.5 and 0.8-2.9%, respectively.

  1. Pesticides in seaweed: optimization of pressurized liquid extraction and in-cell clean-up and analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, R A; Pais, S; Racamonde, I; García-Rodríguez, D; Carro, A M

    2012-07-01

    Chemical residues, such as insecticides and anthelmintics, are frequently redistributed from the aquatic environment to marine species. This work reports on a fast validated protocol for the analysis of azamethiphos, three avermectins, two carbamates and two benzoylurea pesticides and chemotherapeutic agents in seaweeds based on pressurized liquid extraction and separation of analytes by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The variables affecting the efficiency of pressurized liquid extraction, including temperature, number of extraction cycles, static extraction time and percent acetonitrile flush volume, were studied using a Doehlert design. The optimum parameters were 100 °C and one cycle of 3 min with 70 % acetonitrile. Adequate in-cell clean-up of the seaweeds was achieved using 0.8 g of Florisil over 0.1 g of graphitized carbon black on the bottom of the cell. The optimized method was validated using an analyte-free seaweed sample fortified at different concentrations. The limits of quantification ranged from 3.6 μg kg(-1) (azamethiphos) to 31.5 μg kg(-1) (abamectin). The recovery was from 87 to 120 % in most cases at different spiking levels. Finally, the reproducibility of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation and evaluated at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg kg(-1) was in the range 9-14.3 % and 6.1-12.3 %, respectively. The applicability of the method was evaluated with five commercial and 12 wild edible seaweeds, and four target compounds were detected in two wild seaweeds at a concentration below the quantification limit.

  2. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  3. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H.

    2015-07-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  4. Development of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk prior to analysis by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Clausen, D N; Visentainer, J V; Tarley, C R T

    2014-10-07

    In the present paper the assessment of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer, poly(methacrylic acid)/silica, for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk samples is described. The relative selectivity coefficient (k) values for cholesterol/5-α-cholestane and cholesterol/7-dehydrocholesterol systems were found to be 5.08 and 6.08, respectively, thus attesting the selectivity of the MIP for cholesterol under competitive adsorption with structurally analogous steroid compounds. The milk analysis was initially based on saponification followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. Then, the protocol of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was carried out by loading the milk hexanic extract through 200 mg of MIP or NIP (non-imprinted polymer) packed into SPE cartridges at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). The washing step was performed by using n-hexane followed by further elution with ethanol and HPLC-UV analysis at 208 nm. From the breakthrough curve the maximum adsorption capacity of the MIP towards cholesterol was found to be 29.51 mg g(-1). The precision of the MISPE protocol was assessed as intra- and inter-days yielding RSD (relative standard deviations) lower than 4.10%. Cleaner HPLC chromatograms were obtained for milk samples submitted to the MISPE protocol in comparison to the solid phase extraction using the NIP or modified octadecyl silica (C18). Recoveries varying from 96.6 up to 102.2% for milk samples spiked with cholesterol were achieved, thus ensuring the accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: Rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  6. Determination of pesticide residues in fish tissues by modified QuEChERS method and dual-d-SPE clean-up coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cieslik, Ewa; Cieslik, Iwona; Walkowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to modify the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in fatty animal matrices such as fish muscle tissues of carp and sturgeon collected from Carp Valley, Lesser Poland. Pesticides extraction effectiveness was evaluated at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level and efficiency of the dispersive-solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step was evaluated by comparison testing two different d-SPE clean-up stages, first the addition of the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), and secondly the addition of C18 after extracts enrichment with the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), introducing a novel concept of clean-up named dual-d-SPE clean-up. Analysis of pesticide residues was performed by Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS) working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Linear relation was observed from 0 to 200 ng mL(-1) and determination coefficient R(2) > 0.997 in all instances for all target analytes. Better recoveries and cleanliness of extracts in both samples, carp and sturgeon tissues, were obtained after C18 addition during the dual-d-SPE clean-up step. Recoveries were in the range 70-120%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10% at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level for most pesticides. LODs ranged 0.001-0.003 mg kg(-1), while LOQs ranged 0.004-0.009 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied analyzing pesticide residues in real carp and sturgeon muscle samples; detectable pesticide residues were observed, but in all of the cases contamination level was lower than the default maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU), Regulation (EC) N 396/2005.

  7. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Lin, Youjian; Lu, Jian; Wilson, Chris

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 °C for 2h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 °C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most <6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 °C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg⁻¹), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg⁻¹), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg⁻¹). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg⁻¹ to 3.72 μg kg⁻¹. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33±41.71 μg kg⁻¹, lowest concentration 5.68±0.38 μg kg⁻¹, and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73±0.53 to 7.53±0.01 μg kg⁻¹.

  8. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  9. Determination of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat and barley using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: on-line clean-up versus conventional sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Sarikaya, Ebru; Jestoi, Marika; Godula, Michal; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance.

  10. The use of immunoaffinity columns connected in tandem for selective and cost-effective mycotoxin clean-up prior to multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis in food matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Joyce; Donnelly, Carol; Leeman, David; Marley, Elaine

    2015-06-26

    This paper describes the use of two immunoaffinity columns (IACs) coupled in tandem, providing selective clean-up, based on targeted mycotoxins known to co-occur in specific matrices. An IAC for aflatoxins+ochratoxin A+fumonisins (AOF) was combined with an IAC for deoxynivalenol+zearalenone+T-2/HT-2 toxins (DZT); an IAC for ochratoxin A (O) was combined with a DZT column; and an aflatoxin+ochratoxin (AO) column was combined with a DZT column. By combining pairs of columns it was demonstrated that specific clean-up can be achieved as required for different matrices. Samples of rye flour, maize, breakfast cereal and wholemeal bread were analysed for mycotoxins regulated in the EU, by spiking at levels close to EU limits for adult and infant foods. After IAC clean-up extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS with quantification using multiple reaction monitoring. Recoveries were found to be in range from 60 to 108%, RSDs below 10% depending on the matrix and mycotoxin combination and LOQs ranged from 0.1n g/g for aflatoxin B1 to 13.0 ng/g for deoxynivalenol. Surplus cereal proficiency test materials (FAPAS(®)) were also analysed with found levels of mycotoxins falling within the satisfactory range of concentrations (Z score ≤ ± 2), demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed multi-mycotoxin IAC methods.

  11. Affect From Mere Perception: Illusory Contour Perception Feels Good.

    PubMed

    Erle, Thorsten M; Reber, Rolf; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-02-16

    Can affect be evoked by mere perception? Earlier work on processing fluency, which manipulated the dynamics of a running perceptual process, has shown that efficient processing can indeed trigger positive affect. The present work introduces a novel route by not manipulating the dynamics of an ongoing perceptual process, but by blocking or allowing the whole process in the first place. We used illusory contour perception as one very basic such process. In 5 experiments (total N = 422), participants briefly (≤100 ms) viewed stimuli that either allowed illusory contour perception, so-called Kanizsa shapes, or proximally identical control shapes that did not allow for this process to occur. Self-reported preference ratings (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and facial muscle activity (Experiment 3) showed that participants consistently preferred Kanizsa over these control shapes. Moreover, even within Kanizsa shapes, those that most likely instigated illusory contour perception (i.e., those with the highest support ratio) were liked the most (Experiment 5). At the same time, Kanizsa stimuli with high support ratios were objectively and subjectively the most complex, rendering a processing fluency explanation of this preference unlikely. These findings inform theorizing in perception about affective properties of early perceptual processes that are independent from perceptual fluency and research on affect about the importance of basic perception as a source of affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Statistical learning: a powerful mechanism that operates by mere exposure.

    PubMed

    Aslin, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills. Instead, at least in some domains, infants soak up the information around them by mere exposure. Learning and development in these domains thus appear to occur automatically and with little active involvement by an instructor (parent or teacher). The details of this statistical learning mechanism are discussed, including how exposure to specific types of information can, under some circumstances, generalize to never-before-observed information, thereby enabling transfer of learning. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1373. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Humor in advertisements enhances product liking by mere association.

    PubMed

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B; Holland, Rob W; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-03-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect persuasion through implicit attitude change. Participants viewed humorous and nonhumorous cartoons in a mock-up magazine. One of two products was consistently presented in the vicinity of the humorous cartoons, whereas the other product was consistently presented in the vicinity of the nonhumorous cartoons. The results of an evaluative priming task showed enhanced evaluations of products paired with humor (Experiment 1, 2, and 3). Furthermore, these enhanced evaluations mediated the relation between association with humor and product choice (Experiment 2 and 3). Paradoxically, products paired with humor were also less recognized than the control products (Experiments 2 and 3). In summary, the present research demonstrates that mere association with humor enhances product evaluations and product choice in a way that is dissociated from the accessibility of the product in memory.

  14. New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive and accurate analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben and bisphenol A in human milk samples has been developed and validated. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a simplified and rapid clean-up technique that uses sorbent materials has been successfully applied for the preparation of samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were extracted from freeze-dried human milk samples using acetonitrile and ultrasonic radiation (three 15-min cycles at 70% amplitude), and further cleaned-up with C18 sorbents. The most influential parameters affecting the UAE method and the clean-up steps were optimized using design of experiments. Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for MS detection. The use of two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. The analytes were separated in less than 10min. Deuterium-labeled ethylparaben-d5 (EPB-d5) and deuterium-labeled bisphenol A-d16 (BPA-d16) were used as surrogates. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 0.7ngmL(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 11.1% in all cases. In the absence of certified reference materials, recovery assays with spiked samples using matrix-matched calibration were used to validate the method. Recovery rates ranged from 93.8% to 112.2%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of four selected parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples obtained from nursing mothers living in the province of Granada (Spain).

  15. Combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and clean-up by immunoaffinity column for the analysis of 15 mycotoxins by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Tessiot, Sabine; Bessaire, Thomas; Racault, Lucie; Fiorese, Elisa; Urbani, Alessandro; Chan, Wai-Chinn; Cheng, Pearly; Mottier, Pascal

    2014-04-11

    Optimization and validation of a multi-mycotoxin method by LC-MS/MS is presented. The method covers the EU-regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2), as well as nivalenol and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol for analysis of cereals, cocoa, oil, spices, infant formula, coffee and nuts. The proposed procedure combines two clean-up strategies: First, a generic preparation suitable for all mycotoxins based on the QuEChERS (for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) protocol. Second, a specific clean-up devoted to aflatoxins and ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up. Positive identification of mycotoxins in matrix was conducted according to the confirmation criteria defined in EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC while quantification was performed by isotopic dilution using (13)C-labeled mycotoxins as internal standards. Limits of quantification were at or below the maximum levels set in the EC/1886/2006 document for all mycotoxin/matrix combinations under regulation. In particular, the inclusion of an IAC step allowed achieving LOQs as low as 0.05 and 0.25μg/kg in cereals for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Other performance parameters like linearity [(r)(2)>0.99], recovery [71-118%], precision [(RSDr and RSDiR)<33%], and trueness [78-117%] were all compliant with the analytical requirements stipulated in the CEN/TR/16059 document. Method ruggedness was proved by a verification process conducted by another laboratory.

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction and clean-up protocol for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuewei; Yan, Guofang; Li, Xianguo; Guo, Xinyun; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Yan

    2012-09-01

    The procedures of ultrasonic extraction and clean-up were optimized for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediments. Samples were ultrasonically extracted, and the extracts were purified with a miniaturized silica gel chromatographic column and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Ultrasonication with methanol-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) mixture gave higher extraction efficiency than that with dichloromethane. Among the three elution solvents used in clean-up step, dichloromethane-hexane (2:3, v/v) mixture was the most satisfactory. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries in the range of 54.82% to 94.70% with RSDs of 3.02% to 23.22% for a spiked blank, and in the range of 61.20% to 127.08% with RSDs of 7.61% to 26.93% for a spiked matrix, were obtained for the 15 PAHs studied, while the recoveries for a NIST standard reference SRM 1941b were in the range of 50.79% to 83.78% with RSDs of 5.24% to 21.38%. The detection limits were between 0.75 ng L-1 and 10.99 ng L-1for different PAHs. A sample from the Jiaozhou Bay area was examined to test the established methods.

  17. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 36 pesticide residues in spinach and cauliflower by LC-MS/MS using multi-walled carbon nanotubes-based dispersive solid-phase clean-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Zhao, Pengyue; Yu, Chuanshan; Pan, Canping; Li, Xuesheng

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method based on a modified QuEChERS sample preparation with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction (r-DSPE) material and LC-MS/MS determination by MRM mode was validated for 36 representative pesticides in spinach and cauliflower. It was demonstrated that MWCNTs can be used as effective r-DSPE materials with the QuEChERS method for the clean-up of extract from different matrices. However, MWCNTs could absorb pyrimethanil, diflubenzuron, and chlorbenzuron in both spinach and cauliflower, which leads to the low recoveries compared with PSA. The LODs and LOQs for 36 pesticides ranged from 0.1 to 5 μg kg(-1) and from 2 to 30 μg kg(-1), respectively. Good linearity was found for all pesticides with coefficients better than 0.995 in a range of 0.02-0.5 mg l(-1). The developed method with MWCNTs clean-up was successfully used to determine the 36 pesticides in real samples.

  19. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  20. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-07

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  1. An improved dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up method for the gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric determination of multiclass pesticide residues in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Deme, Pragney; Azmeera, Tirupathi; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Jonnalagadda, Padmaja R; Prasad, R B N; Vijaya Sarathi, U V R

    2014-01-01

    An improved sample preparation using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up was proposed for the trace level determination of 35 multiclass pesticide residues (organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroids) in edible oils. Quantification of the analytes was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of residues were in the range of 0.01-1ng/g and 0.05-2ng/g, respectively. The analytes showed recoveries between 62% and 110%, and the matrix effect was observed to be less than 25% for most of the pesticides. Crude edible oil samples showed endosulfan isomers, p,p'-DDD, α-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon residues in the range of 0.56-2.14ng/g. However, no pesticide residues in the detection range of the method were observed in refined oils.

  2. Automated clean-up, separation and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter extracts from urban dust and diesel standard reference materials using a 2D-LC/2D-GC system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Trifa M; Lim, Hwanmi; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2013-10-01

    A multidimensional, on-line coupled liquid chromatographic/gas chromatographic system was developed for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system (2D-liquid chromatography (LC)), with three columns having different selectivities, was connected on-line to a two-dimensional gas chromatographic system (2D-gas chromatography (GC)). Samples were cleaned up by combining normal elution and column back-flush of the LC columns to selectively remove matrix constituents and isolate well-defined, PAH enriched fractions. Using this system, the sequential removal of polar, mono/diaromatic, olefinic and alkane compounds from crude extracts was achieved. The LC/GC coupling was performed using a fused silica transfer line into a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) GC injector. Using the PTV in the solvent vent mode, excess solvent was removed and the enriched PAH sample extract was injected into the GC. The 2D-GC setup consisted of two capillary columns with different stationary phase selectivities. Heart-cutting of selected PAH compounds in the first GC column (first dimension) and transfer of these to the second GC column (second dimension) increased the baseline resolutions of closely eluting PAHs. The on-line system was validated using the standard reference materials SRM 1649a (urban dust) and SRM 1975 (diesel particulate extract). The PAH concentrations measured were comparable to the certified values and the fully automated LC/GC system performed the clean-up, separation and detection of PAHs in 16 extracts in less than 24 h. The multidimensional, on-line 2D-LC/2D-GC system eliminated manual handling of the sample extracts and minimised the risk of sample loss and contamination, while increasing accuracy and precision.

  3. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  4. Cleaning Up Contaminated Wood-Treating Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very...hazardous waste cleanup at wood- pany Superfund site, in Texarkana, Texas. The treating sites throughout the country. OTA has 25-acre site, a former...could be applied to mental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site other sites in the future. OTA has not recom- in 1986 (27). Wood products had been

  5. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-07-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  6. Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the progress of EPA's cleanup of abandoned uranium mines on Navajo and Hopi lands and in other areas of Arizona and New Mexico, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  7. Cleaning up: Battling Germs in School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerba, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Every school year, parents, teachers, and administrators must deal with an overwhelming number of sick children. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average child catches at least eight colds a year, and kids in the United States miss as many as 189 million school days annually due to colds. Good hygiene…

  8. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  9. "Z" Facility Dielectric Oil Clean-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandri, Daniel; Bloomquist, Doug; Donovan, Guy; Feltz, Greg; Grelle, Nibby; Guthrie, Doug; Harris, Mark; Horry, Mike; Lockas, Mike; Potter, Jimmy; Pritchard, Chuck; Steedly, Jim

    1999-06-30

    In August of 1998 the Z facility leaked approximately 150 gallons of deionized water into the dielectric oil of the Energy Storage Section (ESS). After processing the oil to remove existing particulate and free water the dielectric breakdown strength increased from the mid 20kV range to values in excess of 40 kV. 40 kV is above historical operating levels of about 35 kV. This, however, was not enough to allow 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. Further analysis of the oil showed dissolved water at a saturated level (70 - 80 ppm) and some residual particulate contamination smaller than 3 microns. The dissolved water and particulate combination was preventing the 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. After consulting with the oil industry it was determined that nitrogen sparging could be used to remove the dissolved water. Further particulate filtering was also conducted. After approximately 20 hours of sparging the water content in the ESS was reduced to 42 ppm which enabled Marx charging to 90 kV.

  10. Clean Up Your School Custodial Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Arthur W.; Pell, Carroll

    1986-01-01

    Administrators can improve their school's custodial program by following steps that increase productivity, reduce costs, and provide long-term benefits of higher cleanliness standards. Administrators should work toward improved building cleanliness by insisting on a school board policy that establishes objectives for the custodial department.…

  11. Tanker industry progressing in cleaning up operations

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-10-18

    The international tanker industry has made significant strides in improving the safety and environmental awareness of its operations in recent years. With a string of mishaps following the Exxon Valdez spill, public scrutiny focused on the tanker industry and found it lacking. The U.S. government reacted strongly with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. OPA 90 set narrow requirements for tanker construction, forced the creation of a national spill response program, and made tanker operators solely liable for spill damage. The Aegean Sea and Braer accidents around the end of last year forced the pace of European legislation. Since then global initiatives have been announced to improve design and maintenance of tankers and take steps toward eliminating substandard ships and operators. The paper discusses priorities, tanker design, the tanker fleet, OPA status, spill response, the Tampa Bay spill, spill liability, European spills, EC legislation, and the Department of Transportation inquiry.

  12. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  13. Lymphatic vessels clean up your arteries.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the pathway by which cholesterol accumulated in peripheral tissues, including the artery wall, is transported to the liver for excretion. There is strong evidence suggesting that interventions that increase macrophage cholesterol efflux and RCT would be antiatherogenic. In this issue of the JCI, Martel et al. investigate the contribution of lymphatic vasculature to RCT. Their results support the concept that the lymphatic vessel route is critical for RCT from atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, strategies to improve lymphatic transport might be useful for treating atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  14. Upton bill offers clean-up incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.

    1994-07-01

    Like castor oil, the Superfund law can be difficult medicine to swallow, and no one wants to volunteer for a dose. Indeed, the law`s harsh and unbending liability scheme sometimes hinders the cleanup of contaminated property. Confronted with the choice of redeveloping an old {open_quotes}brownfield{close_quotes} urban industrial site or building at a pristine new {open_quotes}greenfield{close_quotes} location, most companies opt for the latter. The brownfield problem is especially troubling because the law often prevents voluntary cleanups at relatively low priority sites that usually don`t get caught up in the Superfund program. This paper describes the Upton Bill which would require the US EPA to establish cleanup standards for hazrdous substances, allow for public comment on a proposed response plan, and require a voluntary party to submit detailed annual reports and maintain records.

  15. Slow clean-up for fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-05-01

    The year 2300 is so distant that one may be forgiven for thinking of it only in terms of science fiction. But this is the year that workers at the Dounreay power station in Northern Scotland - the UK's only centre for research into "fast" nuclear reactors - term as the "end point" by which time the site will be completely clear of radioactive material. More than 180 facilities - including the iconic dome that housed the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - were built at at the site since it opened in 1959, with almost 50 having been used to handle radioactive material.

  16. Stimulus Threat and Exposure Context Modulate the Effect of Mere Exposure on Approach Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Young, Steven G.; Jones, Isaiah F.; Claypool, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure (ME) research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli), ME potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli), mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that ME effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the ME literature are discussed. PMID:27965614

  17. Simultaneous determination of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds in carrot, lettuce and amended soil by means of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction as simplified clean-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Mijangos, L; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-04-10

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method based on focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) optimised for the simultaneous analysis of certain endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS) and several hormones and sterols in vegetables (lettuce and carrot) and amended soil samples. Different variables affecting the chromatographic separation, the electrospray ionisation and mass spectrometric detection were optimised in order to improve the sensitivity of the separation and detection steps. Under the optimised extraction conditions (sonication of 5min at 33% of power with pulse times on of 0.8s and pulse times off of 0.2s in 10mL of n-hexane:acetone (30:70, v:v) mixture using an ice bath), different dSPE clean-up sorbents, such as Florisil, Envi-Carb, primary-secondary amine bonded silica (PSA) and C18, or combinations of them were evaluated for FUSLE extracts before LC-MS/MS. Apparent recoveries and precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSDs %) of the method were determined at two different fortification levels (according to the matrix and the analyte) and values in the 70-130% and 2-27% ranges, respectively, were obtained for most of the target analytes and matrices. Matrix-matched calibration approach and the use of labelled standards as surrogates were needed for the properly quantification of most analytes and matrices. Method detection limits (MDLs), estimated with fortified samples, in the ranges of 0.1-100ng/g for carrot, 0.2-152ng/g for lettuce and 0.9-31ng/g for amended soil were obtained. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of 11 EDCs in both real vegetable bought in a local market and in compost (from a local wastewater treatment plant, WWTP) amended soil samples.

  18. Detection of multiple steroidal compounds in synthetic urine using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) combined with a molecularly imprinted polymer clean-up protocol.

    PubMed

    Zulfiqar, Adnan; Morgan, Geraint; Turner, Nicholas W

    2014-10-07

    A method capable of screening for multiple steroids in urine has been developed, using a series of twelve structurally similar, and commercially relevant compounds as target analytes. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up step was used to make the sample suitable for injection onto a GC×GC-MS setup. Significant improvements compared to a commercially available C-18 material were observed. Each individual steroid was able to be separated and identified, using both the retention profile and diagnostic fragmentation ion monitoring abilities of the comprehensive chromatographic-mass spectrometry method. Effective LODs of between 11.7 and 27.0 pg were calculated for individual steroids, effectively equivalent to concentration levels of between 0.234 and 0.540 ng mL(-1) in urine, while the application of multiple screen was demonstrated using a 10 ng mL(-1) mixed sample. The nature of this study also removes the need for sample derivitisation which speeds up the screening process.

  19. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices.

  20. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with immunoaffinity clean-up for the determination of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-08-28

    A reliable oxidative stress biomarker, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), was for the first time quantitatively analysed in wastewater using an analytical method consisting of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry coupled to immunoaffinity clean-up (IAC-LC-HRMS). Factors influencing the method's robustness were investigated, including analyte stability in sewage and enzymatic deconjugation with β-glucuronidase. The IAC-LC-HRMS method was linear over the range of 0.1-100ng/mL with correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.999. The quantification limits were sufficiently low to detect 8-iso-PGF2α in sewage (method quantification limit of 0.3ng/L) and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation was less than 7% and the accuracy expressed as relative recovery was in the 103-113% range. As a result, the application of the method to 24-h composite wastewater samples from Oslo showed 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations of 18.9-23.3ng/L for 8 days in March 2015. This study demonstrates a standard method to analyse 8-iso-PGF2α in sewage that will contribute to the further investigation of the potential use of 8-iso-PGF2α as a sewage biomarker for assessing the status of community health.

  1. Determination of vitamins D2, D3, K1 and K3 and some hydroxy metabolites of vitamin D3 in plasma using a continuous clean-up-preconcentration procedure coupled on-line with liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Boyer, F; Fernández Romero, J M; Luque de Castro, M D; Quesada, J M

    1999-03-01

    A semi-automatic procedure for the continuous clean-up and concentration of several fat-soluble vitamins prior to their separation by HPLC and UV detection is reported. The procedure is based on the use of a minicolumn packed with aminopropylsilica as sorbent located prior to the chromatographic detection system. The overall process was developed and applied to the main liposoluble vitamins (A, D2, D3, E, K1, K3) and several hydroxy metabolites of vitamin D3 [25-(OH)-D3,24,25-(OH)2-D3 and 1,25-(OH)2-D3]. All the analytes were monitored at a compromise wavelength of 270 nm. Calibration graphs were constructed between 0.01 and 100 ng ml-1 for vitamin D2 and D3 and their hydroxy metabolites, between 0.1 and 100 ng ml-1 for vitamin A, K1 and K3 and between 1 and 100 ng ml-1 for vitamin E, with excellent regression coefficients (> or = 0.9901) in all cases. The precision was established at two concentration levels with acceptable RSDs in all instances (between 3.6 and 8.7%). The method was appropriate for the determination of vitamin D2, D3, K1 and K3 and the 24,25-dihydroxy and 25-hydroxy metabolites of vitamin D3 in human plasma. The method was applied to plasma samples spiked with the target analytes and the recoveries ranged between 78 and 109%.

  2. Determination of carbamates in edible vegetable oils by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new clean-up based on zirconia for QuEChERS methodology.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In this study a fast, selective and sensitive multiresidue method based on QuEChERS methodology has been evaluated and validated for the determination of carbamate pesticides, in edible vegetable oils by UHPLC-MS/MS. A new clean-up sorbent, Supel(TM) QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in vegetable oil extracts. Z-Sep(+) was compared with other sorbents (i.e. mixture of C18 and PSA) previously used for dispersive solid phase extraction of these matrices, reducing more effectively matrix effects without a significant decrease of analyte recoveries. Matrix effect was studied in different matrices (extra-virgin olive, sunflower, maize, linseed and sesame oil) being ≤│30│% for most of the studied pesticides. Under optimum conditions, recoveries ranged from 74% to 101%, with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.09 to 2.0 µg kg(-1), allowing their determination at the low concentration levels demanding by current legislation.

  3. Seeing Green: Mere Exposure to Money Triggers a Business Decision Frame and Unethical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P.; Sousa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Can mere exposure to money corrupt? In four studies, we examined the likelihood of unethical outcomes when the construct of money was activated through the use of priming techniques. The results of Study 1 demonstrated that individuals primed with money were more likely to demonstrate unethical intentions than those in the control group. In Study…

  4. Existence: who needs it? The non-identity problem and merely possible people.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Rivka

    2013-11-01

    In formulating procreative principles, it makes sense to begin by thinking about whose interests ought to matter to us. Obviously, we care about those who exist. Less obviously, but still uncontroversially, we care about those who will exist. Ought we to care about those who might possibly, but will not actually, exist? Recently, unusual positions have been taken regarding merely possible people and the non-identity problem. David Velleman argues that what might have happened to you - an existent person - often doesn't merit moral consideration since the alternative person one would have been had what might have happened actually happened is a merely possible person about whom one has no reason to care. He argues that his way of thinking can eliminate the non-identity problem. Caspar Hare argues that merely possible people have interests and are morally relevant. He argues that we can solve the non-identity problem by rejecting the view that merely possible people are morally irrelevant. Both Hare and Velleman argue that focusing on one's de dicto rather than on one's de re children can help us avoid the non-identity problem. I analyze the role that merely possible, nonexistent hypothetical entities ought to play in our moral reasoning, especially with regard to procreation. I refute both Velleman's and Hare's views and demonstrate the difficulties we encounter when we try to apply their views to common non-identity cases. I conclude with the common-sense view regarding who matters, morally: only those who do, did, or will exist.

  5. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway

    PubMed Central

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346–357. PMID:24470189

  6. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs.

  7. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  8. Optimization of an online heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography clean-up step for isotopic ratio mass spectrometry and simultaneous quadrupole mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous anabolic steroid in urine.

    PubMed

    Casilli, Alessandro; Piper, Thomas; de Oliveira, Fábio Azamor; Padilha, Monica Costa; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo; Thevis, Mario; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2016-11-01

    Measuring carbon isotope ratios (CIRs) of urinary analytes represents a cornerstone of doping control analysis and has been particularly optimized for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of appropriate quality, however, necessitates adequate purities of the investigated steroids, which requires extensive pre-analytical sample clean-up steps due to both the natural presence of the target analytes and the high complexity of the matrix. In order to accelerate the sample preparation and increase the automation of the process, the use of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) prior to IRMS experiments, was investigated. A well-established instrumental configuration based on two independent GC ovens and one heart-cutting device was optimized. The first dimension (1D) separation was obtained by a non-polar column which assured high efficiency and good loading capacity, while the second dimension (2D), based on a mid-polar stationary phase, provided good selectivity. A flame ionization detector monitored the 1D, and the 2D was simultaneously recorded by isotope ratio and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The assembled MDGC set-up was applied for measuring testosterone, 5α- and 5β-androstanediol, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as target compounds and pregnanediol as endogenous reference compound. The urine sample were pretreated by conventional sample preparation steps comprising solid-phase extraction, hydrolysis, and liquid-liquid extraction. The extract obtained was acetylated and different aliquots were injected into the MDGC system. Two high performance liquid chromatography steps, conventionally adopted prior to CIR measurements, were replaced by the MDGC approach. The obtained values were consistent with the conventional ones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Rapid estimation of readily leachable triazine residues in soils using automatic kinetic bioaccessibility assays followed by on-line sorptive clean-up as a front-end to liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vida, Ana C F; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Zagatto, Elias A G; Miró, Manuel

    2016-08-15

    An automatic batchwise bioaccessibility test was proposed for on-line monitoring of readily mobile pools of ametryn and atrazine residues in agricultural soils with different physicochemical properties. A 0.01molL(-1) CaCl2 solution mimicking rainwater percolation through the soil profiles was used for the herbicide extractions. The extract aliquots were successively sampled at regular time intervals in order to investigate the extraction kinetics. For extract clean-up and retention of freely dissolved target species, 30mg of restricted-access like copolymer were used as in-line sorptive material followed by elution with methanol and on-line heart-cut injection towards a C18 silica reversed-phase monolithic column (100×4.6mm) in a liquid chromatographic system. A mathematical model emphasized that the readily available pools vs time can be in most instances described by a first-order exponential equation, thus an asymptotical value is approached. Consequently, the leaching assays can be performed without attaining chemical equilibrium. Enhancement factors and detection limits were 10.2 and 18.8, and 0.40 and 0.37mgkg(-1) for ametryn and atrazine, respectively. The automatic method features good repeatability for leaching tests (r.s.d.: 11.8-10.2% for sandy and 3.7-6.2% for clayey soil). Reliable data, demonstrated with relative recoveries in the soil leachates ranging from 86 to 104%, were achieved in less than 35min, thus avoiding the need for up to 24h as recommended by standard leaching methods.

  10. Validated quantitation of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) in human plasma by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using minimum sample clean-up and investigation of ion suppression.

    PubMed

    Ferreirós, Nerea; Dresen, Sebastian; Alonso, Rosa María; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    For the quantitation of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) in human plasma, a method using liquid-chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed with respect to simple sample clean-up and investigation of ion suppression effects. For sample preparation, protein precipitation using zinc sulphate and methanol showed advantages in speed, recovery, and reproducibility over solid-phase extraction. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Sciex API 365) with turbo ionspray source was used for detection of compounds with multireaction monitoring (MRM) of two transitions per compound. Suppression effects caused by endogenous matrix compounds were investigated by post-column infusion of analytes and LC analysis of precipitates of blank plasma samples and could be excluded. A validation was performed for the ARA-II drugs (valsartan, irbesartan, losartan and its active metabolite EXP 3174, eprosartan, candesartan, and telmisartan). The developed method showed good intra- and interday precision (<12% relative standard deviation) and accuracy (<11.5% bias) at different concentrations for all the studied compounds. The calculated lower limits of quantitation were between 7 and 13 ng/mL, and the compounds were stable during the analytical process. These rather expensive drugs against hypertension are prescribed with increasing numbers in Europe and the industrialized nations. Complications might arise from overdosage or metabolic disorders. However, drug monitoring is not usually performed. Because the therapeutic concentrations range from a few nanograms to hundreds of nanograms per milliliter for the different drugs, and they are not amenable to gas chromatography/MS analysis because of their high molecular weight and polarity, the LC-MS/MS method is the golden standard for therapeutic drug monitoring and for clinical and forensic toxicology of ARA-II drugs.

  11. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. 778.411... § 778.411 Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. The amount of weekly pay guaranteed may not... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in...

  12. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. 778.411... § 778.411 Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. The amount of weekly pay guaranteed may not... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in...

  13. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. 778.411... § 778.411 Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. The amount of weekly pay guaranteed may not... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in...

  14. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. 778.411... § 778.411 Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. The amount of weekly pay guaranteed may not... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in...

  15. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. 778.411... § 778.411 Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract. The amount of weekly pay guaranteed may not... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in...

  16. Listen, Learn, Like! Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Involved in the Mere Exposure Effect in Music

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders C.; Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen. PMID:22548168

  17. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  18. Effects of a Mere-Presence Conspecific on Extinction of an Operant.

    PubMed

    Huang, I N; Wood, G A

    1984-01-01

    In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 32 hunger-motivated albino rats were trained to press a bar for food in a Skinner box. Animals practiced this operant, with or without a mere-presence conspecific, on a VR reinforcement schedule for 10 days and were extinguished with or without a conspecific in a nearby compartment. The results showed that the presence of a conspecific did not enhance this operant during practice sessions nor its resistance to extinction. During extinction the animals that experienced the presence or absence of a conspecific for the first time showed a reduced rate of responding. The findings cast doubt on a drive theory of social facilitation and support a generalization-decrement hypothesis.

  19. Turning art into mere illustration: concretizing art renders its influence context dependent.

    PubMed

    Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M

    2011-12-01

    Broadly speaking, artworks are accorded a special significance and are recognized as powerful communication tools. In the current research, the authors posit that the "specialness" of artworks may be diminished simply by emphasizing that which is depicted in them. This emphasis results in the artwork being viewed as a mere illustration rather than a work of art. Specifically, the influence of an "artwork as art" is context independent, but the influence of an "artwork as illustration" is context dependent. The authors demonstrate this phenomenon in two experiments, in the context of products associated with artworks. In a third experiment, they further demonstrate that an abstract (concrete) mind-set aligns with the influence of an artwork as art (illustration).

  20. Mere exposure to money increases endorsement of free-market systems and social inequality.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baxter, Brittani; Waytz, Adam

    2013-05-01

    The present research tested whether incidental exposure to money affects people's endorsement of social systems that legitimize social inequality. We found that subtle reminders of the concept of money, relative to nonmoney concepts, led participants to endorse more strongly the existing social system in the United States in general (Experiment 1) and free-market capitalism in particular (Experiment 4), to assert more strongly that victims deserve their fate (Experiment 2), and to believe more strongly that socially advantaged groups should dominate socially disadvantaged groups (Experiment 3). We further found that reminders of money increased preference for a free-market system of organ transplants that benefited the wealthy at the expense of the poor even though this was not the prevailing system (Experiment 5) and that this effect was moderated by participants' nationality. These results demonstrate how merely thinking about money can influence beliefs about the social order and the extent to which people deserve their station in life.

  1. Merely opting out of a public good is moralized: an error management approach to cooperation.

    PubMed

    Delton, Andrew W; Nemirow, Jason; Robertson, Theresa E; Cimino, Aldo; Cosmides, Leda

    2013-10-01

    People regularly free ride on collective benefits, consuming them without contributing to their creation. In response, free riders are often moralized, becoming targets of negative moral judgments, anger, ostracism, or punishment. Moralization can change free riders' behavior (e.g., encouraging them to contribute or discouraging them from taking future benefits) or it can motivate others, including moralizers, to avoid or exclude free riders; these effects of moralization are critical to sustaining human cooperation. Based on theories of error management and fundamental social domains from evolutionary psychology, we propose that the decision to moralize is a cue-driven process. One cue investigated in past work is observing a person illicitly consume collective benefits. Here, we test whether the mind uses a 2nd cue: merely opting out of contributing. Use of this cue creates a phenomenon of preventive moralization: moralization of people who have not yet exploited collective benefits but who might-or might not--in the future. We tested for preventive moralization across 9 studies using implicit and explicit measures of moralization, a behavioral measure of costly punishment, mediation analyses of the underlying processes, and a nationally representative sample of almost 1,000 U.S. adults. Results revealed that merely opting out of contributing to the creation of exploitable collective benefits--despite not actually exploiting collective benefits-elicited moralization. Results further showed that preventive moralization is not due to the moralization of selfishness or deviance but instead follows from the uncertainty inherent in moralization decisions. These results imply that even people who will never exploit collective benefits can nonetheless be targets of moralization. We discuss implications for social and political dynamics.

  2. Different approaches to contracting in health systems.

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is one of the tools increasingly being used to enhance the performance of health systems in both developed and developing countries; it takes different forms and cannot be limited to the mere purchase of services. Actors adopt contracting to formalize all kinds of relations established between them. A typology for this approach will demonstrate its diversity and provide a better understanding of the various issues raised by contracting. In recent years the way health systems are organized has changed significantly. To remedy the under-performance of their health systems, most countries have undertaken reforms that have resulted in major institutional overhaul, including decentralization of health and administrative services, autonomy for public service providers, separation of funding bodies and service providers, expansion of health financing options and the development of the profit or nonprofit private sector. These institutional reshuffles lead not only to multiplication and diversification of the actors involved, but also to greater separation of the service provision and administrative functions. Health systems are becoming more complex and can no longer operate in isolation. Actors are gradually realizing that they need to forge relations. The simplest way to do that is through dialogue, although some prefer a more formal commitment. Interaction between actors may take various forms and be on different scales. There are several types of contractual relations: some are based on the nature of the contract (public or private), others on the parties involved and yet others on the scope of the contract. Here they are classified into three categories according to the object of the contract: delegation of responsibility, act of purchase of services, or cooperation. PMID:17143459

  3. A Re-Examination of the Mere Exposure Effect: The Influence of Repeated Exposure on Recognition, Familiarity, and Liking.

    PubMed

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S; Vevea, Jack L; Citkowicz, Martyna; Lauber, Elissa A

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate the veracity of models of the mere exposure effect and to understand the processes that moderate the effect, we conducted a meta-analysis of the influence of repeated exposure on liking, familiarity, recognition, among other evaluations. We estimated parameters from 268 curve estimates drawn from 81 articles and revealed that the mere exposure effect was characterized by a positive slope and negative quadratic effect consistent with an inverted-U shaped curve. In fact, such curves were associated with (a) all visual, but not auditory stimuli; (b) exposure durations shorter than 10 s and longer than 1 min; (c) both homogeneous and heterogeneous presentation types; and (d) ratings that were taken after all stimuli were presented. We conclude that existing models for the mere exposure effect do not adequately account for the findings, and we provide a framework to help guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  5. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  6. Words Are Not Merely Features: Only Consistently Applied Nouns Guide 4-Year-Olds' Inferences about Object Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that nouns highlight category-based commonalities, including both those that are perceptually available and those that reflect underlying conceptual similarity, some have claimed that words function merely as features of objects. Here, we directly test these alternative accounts. Four-year-olds (n = 140)…

  7. Resits in Higher Education: Merely a Bar to Jump Over, or Do They Give a Pedagogical "Leg Up"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proud, Steven

    2015-01-01

    When students fail an examination at the end of their first year, they are offered a resit examination, which they merely need to pass to progress into the second year. These resits anecdotally provide a dual purpose of testing that students have achieved the required level of attainment to progress, and incentivising additional effort. This paper…

  8. Issues in physician contracting.

    PubMed

    Fanburg, John D; Leone, Alyson M

    2005-09-01

    Dermatologists will enter into a number of different contracts during their professional careers. It is important that in each agreement they enter, dermatologists reap the benefits that they aspire for and understand the consequences of each provision. This article addresses just a few of the different issues that arise in physician contracting, such as choosing the appropriate form of business entity; the importance of a writing; term and termination of the contract; compensation models; benefits, vacation and other time off included in the contract; malpractice insurance; and restrictive covenants. Each provision should be carefully analyzed to ensure that it will protect the best interests of the dermatologist in that situation.

  9. Tying the Contract Knot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    An informal survey of state superintendent associations and lawyers representing superintendents reveals little change in top executives' contracts over the past decade. Mandatory evaluations and renewable (non-"evergreen") contracts are becoming common; pay-for-performance measures are emerging, yet limited. Contractual and job-leaving…

  10. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  11. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been…

  12. Weighing the Contract Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Contracting for noneducational services is standard operating procedure in many school districts. Private contractors are involved in transportation, food service, maintenance, and even, in rare cases, instruction. Before deciding to contract out, school boards should examine improvement to school-run operations before making a final decision.…

  13. Managing the Contract Closeout Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    also fulfilled its obligations (Ref. l:p. 267]. The closeout process completes all the individual actions started during earlier segments of the...taught as a segment in the Management of Defense Acquisition Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. There is no separate course for... segment ir the Management of Defense Acquisiticn Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. The National Contract Management Association

  14. It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronen

    2007-11-01

    "It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The

  15. Cleaning up: Colleges Do Their Part to Revitalize the Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    When the deepwater horizon offshore oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, 11 crewmen were killed; the accident led to the largest oil spill in U.S. history. Forty workers on the rig managed to escape the catastrophe, thanks largely to a safety-training program they had taken at community colleges in the Louisiana Community…

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall at all times keep the work area, including storage areas, free from accumulations of waste materials. Before completing the work, the Contractor shall remove from the work and premises any rubbish... completing the work, the Contractor shall leave the work area in a clean, neat, and orderly...

  17. 75 FR 62923 - WRC-07 Table Clean-up Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... prelude to a rulemaking proceeding that the Commission anticipates initiating in the near future to... Federal use of certain mobile-satellite service (MSS) allocations to earth stations operating with non... changes that, in order to become effective in the United States, would need to be adopted in a...

  18. Cleaning up Trumpet Sound: Some Paths to Better Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingara, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the factors used to assess trumpet players, the one that distinguishes the established professional from the student is sound quality. While a good sound may be called "full," "rich," or "dark," poor sound is often described as "constricted," "tight," "thin," or "fuzzy." Although students' concept of good sound is important, many times…

  19. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the lower organic carbon content of the blank soil. Our results showed that boscalid and pyrimethanil are highly sorbed to the mixture of digestate and biochar. SUVA254 values justified the aromatic character of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) mixture which showed highest Koc values among all mixtures for all pesticides. This mixture was found to be the most promising substrate amongst the tested ones for a biobed setup and can be used as an effective and alternative adsorbent for removing pesticides, because of its higher adsorption capacity.

  20. Training Workers for Environmental Clean-Up Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Describes the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) Hazmat Training Program (Beckley, WV). It is the largest program in the nation for training skilled workers to safely handle toxic and hazardous wastes. This program has produced more than 450 certified instructors, who, in turn, have trained more than 18,000 workers. (LP)

  1. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    produced from digesters ─ Animal manure (dairy cows, swine) ─ Waste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills > RNG produced from...AGR used in process • Two stage + trim methanation reactor • Dehydration to achieve gas pipeline specifications ~ 70% conversion efficiency 21... digestion of agricultural waste for on-site electricity generation ─Altamont Landfill—Landfill gas (LFG) cleanup for production of liquefied natural gas

  2. Working with Communities on Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information about the EPA's work to inform and include communities in the cleanup of abandoned mines, including health impacts, major enforcement and removal milestones, and community actions.

  3. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  4. Colorado court involvement in chemical spill clean-up activities.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D

    1981-01-01

    Judicial involvement was utilized to force the owners of a pesticide formulation plant to decontaminate property that had been covered with toxic pesticides having the potential to contaminate both surface and groundwater supplies in the East Denver metropolitan area. This case represented the first use of the Colorado state court system in dealing with a hazardous waste "spill." In this case, judicial intervention was unsatisfactory because of the delays involved. Other courses of action will be considered in future cases of a similar nature. PMID:7270771

  5. Cleaning up contaminated wood-treating sites. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report identifies technologies available for organic hazardous waste cleanup at woodtreating sites throughout the country. OTA has identified a range of such technologies that have been selected in the past and could be applied to other sites in the future. The applicability of a technology to a particular Superfund site has to be based on many site-specific factors. Nevertheless, it is clear that a number of the approaches identified by OTA may be appropriate and could prove useful if more detailed site-specific studies and tests were done. Although this study focused on the Texarkana site, decisionmakers and the public could benefit from this analysis in selecting future cleanup strategies for other sites.

  6. News from Online: Cleaning Up--Soap, Detergent, and More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Carolyn Sweeney

    2002-01-01

    Provides a guide to web resources on cleaning and hygiene. Answers the questions, What do you want to clean--your hair? your carpet? your rusty lawn furniture? Develops special products for different tasks. Focuses on products to use and the environmental impact of our choices. (MM)

  7. With Awards and Recognition, Our Custodians Really Clean Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holayter, Marlene C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a motivational program in the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools that caused a dramatic improvement in custodial staff professionalism and school building cleanliness. The plan emphasized the importance of clean schools, teamwork, and accepting responsibility for one's work. (MLH)

  8. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  9. Colorado court involvement in chemical spill clean-up activities.

    PubMed

    Rice, D

    1981-09-01

    Judicial involvement was utilized to force the owners of a pesticide formulation plant to decontaminate property that had been covered with toxic pesticides having the potential to contaminate both surface and groundwater supplies in the East Denver metropolitan area. This case represented the first use of the Colorado state court system in dealing with a hazardous waste "spill." In this case, judicial intervention was unsatisfactory because of the delays involved. Other courses of action will be considered in future cases of a similar nature.

  10. Technical Support Project for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites - Expertise Directory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This directory is searchable and provides a snapshot of the various types of expertise possessed by the current members of the three Technical Support Project forums. It is based on input provided by the members themselves.

  11. Cleaning Up the Seas. UNEP Environment Brief No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    While the open oceans remain relatively unpolluted, many coastal areas are suffering from oil, sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural run-off. This document presents some of the key facts related to these kinds of water pollution. It focuses on the major sources of contamination in the world's seas, and provides an overview of how these…

  12. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  13. Let's Stop Talking Medicine and Clean Up the Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, William

    1987-01-01

    Although California ranked sixth in 1983 per capita income, the state ranks 23rd in 1984-85 public school expenditures per pupil and 50th in student-teacher ratios. To address underfunding and class size problems, a Trust Fund for School Improvement is needed to coordinate fragmented funding sources for well-planned local projects. Included are 10…

  14. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  15. The 7% Solution - Cleaning Up After Fred Vine's Outstanding Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fred Vine was the first & greatest of the wiggle pickers, founding the marine magnetic anomaly field with his 1963 Vine & Matthews paper. Two of his classic study areas were Juan de Fuca & the Reykjanes Ridge. In Juan de Fuca, he recognized the axial symmetry in the Raff & Mason data that had shown the existence of magnetic stripes on the seafloor, demonstrating the seafloor spreading there that Tuzo Wilson had predicted. Fred's iconic color figure of these anomalies perfectly correlated with the magnetic reversal time scale (after the discovery of the Jaramillo event) became the striking cover illustration of 'The History of the Earth's Crust', the symposium volume of the influential 1966 Goddard meeting that confirmed the reality of seafloor spreading & continental drift. Everything Fred did in Juan de Fuca was correct, but fortunately for me he didn't do everything. Some of the linear magnetic anomaly offsets there became a major puzzle in 1967 when Jason Morgan & Dan McKenzie discovered plate tectonics, because those offsets were oblique to the ridges & transforms & thus were incompatible with simple plate tectonics. Although the oblique anomaly offsets look like faults, they instead turned out to be propagating rift pseudofault wakes with no relative motion along them, an interpretation resulting from my analysis of Galapagos magnetic anomalies. Fred's other iconic color figure was his correlation of the Heirtzler et al. Reykjanes Ridge aeromagnetic data with the reversal timescale. This figure, showing the symmetry predicted by seafloor spreading & field reversals, was another key step in the scientific revolution. At the Goddard Symposium Fred was asked if he'd tested the symmetry statistically & he replied "I never touch statistics. I just deal with the facts'. Fred was trying to have a scientific revolution, & of course on that scale pretty symmetric seafloor spreading is a reality. However, fine-scale asymmetric spreading can be seen in his figure (the asymmetry increases towards Iceland where we had the great advantage of working), & contrary to conventional wisdom the V-shaped ridges, scarps & troughs (VSRs) discovered by Peter Vogt are not symmetric about the Reykjanes Ridge axis. Analysis of magnetic anomaly data from our 2007 expedition by Benediktsdóttir et al. shows these asymmetries were created by rift propagation both away from & towards Iceland, suggesting a tectonic alternative to the magmatic pulsing plume explanation for the VSRs. These results further suggest that the massive transform-eliminating North Atlantic plate boundary reorganization that created the linear obliquely-spreading Reykjanes Ridge might also be a propagating rift phenomenon instead of a thermal phenomenon as generally assumed, & we hope to present results from a new Reykjanes Ridge expedition later this summer designed to determine exactly how this reorganization is occurring. That so much research for several decades has resulted from the small (the 7% number in the title is made up - inspired by Fred I never did learn statistics) modification of Fred's results is a tribute to the overwhelming success of seafloor spreading & plate tectonics. Unfortunately for Vine, Morgan & McKenzie, this scientific revolution appears to have been too profound for Nobel Prizes.

  16. Making Use of Manure for a Clean-Up Job

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastes should no longer be wasted. This article describes how animal manure can be utilized by converting it into activated carbons. These activated carbons are then utilized to adsorb unwanted pollutants because of their high porosity. The animal manure will eventually help to remove odors from dr...

  17. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gökhan O.; Jayataman, Ambalavanan; Schaefer, Matthew; Ware, Michael; Hunt, Jennifer; Dobek, Frank

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  18. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  19. 48 CFR 3042.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contracting Officer's Technical Representative 3042.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.242-72, Contracting Officer's Technical Representative,...

  20. Marine Corps Contingency Contracting MCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    unfamiliar, such as, foreign business practices, cultures, and language barriers . The importance of having a trained contingency contracting officer...practices, cultures, and language barriers . D. WHO PERFORMS CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING The individuals who perform contingency contracting within the

  1. Drafting the Superintendent's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James F.

    1983-01-01

    A superintendent's contract should be individually designed and negotiated; however, necessary characteristics are suggested in the areas of duration, certification and responsibilities, compensation, vacation and fringe benefits, liability and indemnification, medical examination, evaluation, renewal and nonrenewal, termination, and a…

  2. Negotiating managed care contracts.

    PubMed

    Beckman, P A; Fischer, T J

    1997-08-01

    Physicians currently have a major opportunity to help guide the rapid evolution of managed care in the United States. General principles on how physicians can successfully negotiate a managed care contract are discussed.

  3. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  4. Mechanics of Vorticella Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin. PMID:20550905

  5. Mechanics of Vorticella contraction.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-06-16

    Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin.

  6. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that may be caused by caffeine, tobacco, exercise or anxiety Injury to the heart ... may increase your risk of premature ventricular contractions: Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol Exercise High blood pressure (hypertension) ...

  7. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  8. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  9. Joint Contingency Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Cdr (Head of Contracting Activity - HCA)FISC - Sigonella 5th Fleet AOR NAVSUP FISC Site - Dubai FISC Det-Bahrain Bahrain Seychelles CJOA Afghanistan...Services’ individual approaches for the accession of COs (and contracting specialists) is inconsistent and creates disparities between the breadth...and temperatures ranging from 130 degrees to below freezing. J42 AAdmin Clerk (Navy E-5) J4221 Fuels Ops Officer Navy

  10. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  11. Energetics of contraction.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J

    2015-04-01

    Muscles convert energy from ATP into useful work, which can be used to move limbs and to transport ions across membranes. The energy not converted into work appears as heat. At the start of contraction heat is also produced when Ca(2+) binds to troponin-C and to parvalbumin. Muscles use ATP throughout an isometric contraction at a rate that depends on duration of stimulation, muscle type, temperature and muscle length. Between 30% and 40% of the ATP used during isometric contraction fuels the pumping Ca(2+) and Na(+) out of the myoplasm. When shortening, muscles produce less force than in an isometric contraction but use ATP at a higher rate and when lengthening force output is higher than the isometric force but rate of ATP splitting is lower. Efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy provided by ATP that is converted into external work. Each ATP molecule provides 100 zJ of energy that can potentially be converted into work. The mechanics of the myosin cross-bridge are such that at most 50 zJ of work can be done in one ATP consuming cycle; that is, the maximum efficiency of a cross-bridge is ∼50%. Cross-bridges in tortoise muscle approach this limit, producing over 90% of the possible work per cycle. Other muscles are less efficient but contract more rapidly and produce more power.

  12. Future Contracting for Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz, Vice President and Managing ...Alpert, Analyst, Systecon North America Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz, Vice President and Managing Director, Logistics...êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 18 - Future Contracting for Availability Lou Kratz—is the Vice President and Managing Director, Logistics

  13. 48 CFR 3416.701 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Agreements 3416.701 Contract clause. The contracting... organizations that have fixed indirect cost rates with carryforward adjustments approved by the Government agency responsible for negotiating the organization's indirect cost rates....

  14. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contracts. 3017.204 Section... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  16. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  17. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  18. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204 Contracts....

  19. Contracting with Teacher Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaten, Jessica; Kolderie, Ted

    This monograph describes the concept of school district contracts with teacher partnerships for educational services; taking the view of education as an industry, the document analyzes advantages, obstacles, and strategies of such a change. Section 1, "The Challenge," suggests that societal changes make an education industry outside the…

  20. Acting Out Muscle Contraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes a science activity that can be implemented into anatomy and physiology courses that demonstrates the interactions between action and myosin, the roles of sodium and calcium ions in the regulation of contraction, and the functions of the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (YDS)

  1. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  2. Beyond Mere Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    DTIC ELECTER IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEg’ WORDS (Continue an rev.ee side if necosa and Identify by. block fleobo) 0 AOSTRACT (Continue an rover ...this cycle is driven by the economy, not by scientific altruism or curiosity . That is why the sophistication in the computer-based office equipment and

  3. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  4. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    authority is the legal authority to enter into binding contracts and obligate funds on behalf of the U.S. Government (USG), while command authority includes...include authority to make binding contracts or modify existing contracts for the USG. It is also important to note that Geographical Combatant...Appointment, which provides the legal authorization to enter into binding contracts and obligate appropriated funds on behalf of the U.S. government

  5. Contract Audit Followup: Its Impact on Defense Contracting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    UNIT NUERS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE WANE AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Postgraduate School...of control " Although many procurement managers and contracting offi- 4 cers have privately expressed their opinions of the contract audit followup...Management/ACO: Pesi qnes a manager of Adainistrative Contract- ing Officers. Managesent /PCO: Manager of Procuring Contracting Officers. Mangement/PA

  6. Both Perelmans Thrown Down Gauntlets Versus Would-Be ``Science'' But Alas Sadly Mere ``SEANCES'' Put Jargonial-Obfuscation Sociological-Dysfunctionality(S-D) Ridden/Dominated Would-Be ``Sciences'' But Alas Sadly Mere SEANCES in ``Peril, Man''!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.; Young, F.; Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig (Physical-Mathematicist/Mathsicist)

    2011-03-01

    Both Perelman (Grigory[Poincare-conjecture: partial(with Richard Hamilton!!!)-"sole"-prover: by turning down first the Fields Medal at International Congress of [S-D right there: not mathematICS, but mathematicIANS!!!] Mathematicians (2007: Madrid); then the million-dollar Clay-Institute of Mathemat"ICS" (but really mathematicIANS POLITICIANS: Carlson, Yau,...et. al.) millennium-problem prize, revealing that it and its INSIDER POLITICS/POLITICIANS has/have "Feet of Clay"!!!], as sumarized by Naser-Gruber[Manfold-Destiny, The New Yorker, (August, 2007)] and separately Carlos Castro[with Corredoira: Against the Tid (2008)] put, by revealing the Jargonial-Obfuscation(J.-O.) (Bradshaw[Healing the SHAME that BINDS You, Hazelden(1980s)]-Martin[Brian, Wollongong University]-...ad INFINITUM (i.e. most if not all scientists), ad NAUSEUM!!! (disgusted with "games people play!!!)) S-D ridden/ dominated "games people play" would-be "sciences" (maths, physics,...: ad infinitum; ad NAUSEUM!!!) but alas sadly only mere Bradshaw-Martin S-D DOMINATED "SEANCES"!!!, in "peril, man"!!!

  7. 48 CFR 3443.107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clause. 3443.107... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS General 3443.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer must... cost-reimbursement contracts in which it will be essential for the contracting officer to be...

  8. 48 CFR 3416.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3416.307... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 3416.307 Contract clauses. (a) If the clause at FAR 52.216-7 (Allowable Cost and Payment) is used in a contract with...

  9. 48 CFR 3016.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3016.406... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 3016.406 Contract clauses. (e)(1)(i) The contracting officer shall insert a clause substantially the...

  10. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  11. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  12. Dupuytren's Contracture: Fibroblast Contraction?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbiani, Giulio; Majno, Guido

    1972-01-01

    In 6 cases of Dupuytren's disease and 1 of Ledderhose's disease, the nodules of the palmar and plantar aponeurosis were examined by light and electron microscopy. The cells composing these nodules, presumably fibroblasts, showed three significant ultrastructural features: (1) a fibrillar system similar to that of smooth muscle cells; (2) nuclear deformations such as are found in contracted cells, the severest being recognizable by light microscopy (cross-banded nuclei); (3) cell-to-cell and cell-to-stroma attachments. Based on these data and on recent information about the biology of the fibroblasts, it is suggested that these cells are fibroblasts that have modulated into contractile cells (myofibroblasts), and that their contraction plays a role in the pathogenesis of the contracture observed clinically. ImagesFig 10Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6 and 7Fig 8Fig 1Fig 2Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5009249

  13. Contracts for dispatchable power

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Research & Engineering) BBP Better Buying Power BOA basic ordering agreement BPA basic purchase agreement CAE Component Acquisition Executive CDSA...Basic Ordering Agreement ( BOA ) c. Government wide acquisition contracts and IDIQ contracts d. BPAs and BPA calls under Federal Supply Schedules...contract actions ( BOAs , BPAs, FSS, and GWAC) contracts that are not required to report the number of competitive offers. The fiscal year 2011 DOD

  15. The Psychological Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    employee commitment • Freedom to sign new contracts • Little learning • Low integration/identification Transitional • Ambiguity/uncertainty • High...turnover • Instability T im ef ra m e Lo ng T er m Balanced • High employee commitment • High integration/identification • Mutual employee...organization support • Dynamic Relational • High employee commitment • High affective commitment • High integration/identification • Stability 14

  16. Army Contigency Contracting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    r I I ;. - L U C A ,. . • - J 01 .1 .1 C.. - 0 . c s U- 101 1. L.J 1 L I.C w - L.. . 4-.- 22...and transportation services as well. The noble intentions of an occupying power would mean r little to a civilian population suffering from basic...PROPOSAL EVALUAT ION NEGOTIATION AWARD CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION * PERFORMANCE A r P C []"O’ PCD GOVERNMENT ACO CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE COR EXPER I

  17. Construction Contract Provisions Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    bidding and contract docuents. These documents appear together in the bid package. After the bid, the IFB (or RFTP, RFP ) is extracted and the remainder...Corps personnel suggest that the original reason for the clause -- to prevent brokering - is anachronistic in the current construction market. However...amount of premiums paid for performance and payment * bonds (including coinsurance and reinsurance agreements, when applicable) after furnishing

  18. The Unwritten Contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Hosted by former STS-1 Astronaut Bob Crippen, this video highlights the Space Shuttle program team's commitment to quality assurance as being the unwritten contract all workers in the shuttle program have with the flight crews: To keep them and the whole Space Transportation System safe. The video is presented by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Safety, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance Office (SRM&QA).

  19. Contracting As A Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer ( PCO )–program manager (PM) relationship in...feedback to unsuccessful offerors reduces or eliminates feelings of inequity, a negotiated agreement is considered inequitable, company perception of...outcomes will be judged (Helson, 1964). Some of the areas to which researchers have applied adaptation- level theory include price perception and the

  20. Contracting as a Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer ( PCO )–program manager (PM) relationship in...feedback to unsuccessful offerors reduces or eliminates feelings of inequity, a negotiated agreement is considered inequitable, company perception of...outcomes will be judged (Helson, 1964). Some of the areas to which researchers have applied adaptation- level theory include price perception and the

  1. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  2. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  3. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    PubMed

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL.

  4. MANAGING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES FOR THE PLATEAU REMEDIATION CONTRACT - HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    KRONVALL CM

    2011-01-14

    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.

  5. How Learning Contracts Motivate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Scott C.; McCabe, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how learning contracts can motivate students. "A learning contract is simply a written agreement between teacher and learner in which the learner undertakes to complete mutually agreed upon tasks in a specified amount of time on his or her own initiative" (Greenwood, 2003, p.1). Contracts are designed to…

  6. Health Contract in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2007-01-01

    A health contract is a technique used by health professionals to help clients achieve a health goal. This article describes a course, "Changing Health Behaviors," in which a health contract strategy is taught and practiced with older adults. The health contract can also be included as a smaller educational component within a gerontology course…

  7. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  8. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  9. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting officer... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest....

  10. 42 CFR 434.6 - General requirements for all contracts and subcontracts. P>(a) Contracts. All contracts under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for all contracts and subcontracts. P>(a) Contracts. All contracts under this part must include all of the following: 434.6 Section... contracts and subcontracts.P>(a) Contracts. All contracts under this part must include all of the...

  11. 48 CFR 2415.204 - Contract format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 2415.204 Contract format. (e) The cognizant HCA shall be responsible for making...

  12. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information... information technology services or support services....

  13. 48 CFR 2442.1107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information technology services. ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 2442... clause at 2452.242-71, Contract Management System, in solicitations and contracts when all of...

  14. 48 CFR 3035.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING Information Dissemination by Educational Institutions 3035.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer may use the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.235-70, Dissemination of...

  15. 48 CFR 15.204-1 - Uniform contract format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 15.204-1 Uniform contract format. (a) Contracting officers shall prepare solicitations...

  16. TraceContract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  17. Which managed care contract(s) should you sign?

    PubMed

    Biddinger, D

    2001-01-01

    Contracts are a basic responsibility in running a medical practice--so much so that it's inappropriate to pass those responsibilities to someone else. Managers must at least understand the basic terms and conditions of the contract and the reimbursement their practices will receive. This article is written from the perspective of a privately owned medical practice and addresses only discounted, fee-for-service managed care contracts.

  18. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and...

  19. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a...

  20. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.237-70 entitled “Collective bargaining...

  1. 48 CFR 1517.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts. 1517.204 Section 1517.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1517.204 Contracts. The SCM may approve a contract...

  2. 48 CFR 1846.470 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 1846.470 Contract clause. The contracting officer may insert a clause substantially as stated at 1852.246-71, Government Contract Quality Assurance Functions, in solicitations and contracts to specify the location(s) of quality...

  3. 48 CFR 316.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 316.307 Section 316.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-reimbursement Contracts 316.307 Contract clauses. (a) If a...

  4. 48 CFR 2442.1107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... value of $500,000 or less. (d) The clause shall not be used in contracts for information technology... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Production Surveillance and Reporting 2442.1107 Contract clause..., Contract Management System, in solicitations and contracts when all of the following conditions apply:...

  5. 48 CFR 2442.1107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... value of $500,000 or less. (d) The clause shall not be used in contracts for information technology... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Production Surveillance and Reporting 2442.1107 Contract clause..., Contract Management System, in solicitations and contracts when all of the following conditions apply:...

  6. 48 CFR 3416.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 3416.307 Contract... solicitations of and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts with nonprofit organizations other than educational institutional, hospitals, or organizations listed in Attachment C to Office of Management and Budget Circular...

  7. 48 CFR 3417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3417.204 Contracts. (e) Except as otherwise provided by law, contract periods that exceed the five-year limitation specified in FAR...

  8. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 2417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 2417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2417.204 Contracts. (e) The Senior Procurement Executive shall approve any solicitation or contract which exceeds the five (5)...

  10. 48 CFR 4.103 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 4.103... MATTERS Contract Execution 4.103 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.204-1, Approval of Contract, in solicitations and contracts if required by agency procedures....

  11. 48 CFR 3417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 3417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3417.204 Contracts. (e) Except as otherwise provided by law, contract periods that exceed the five-year limitation specified in FAR...

  12. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts....

  13. 48 CFR 2017.204 - Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts 2017.204 Section 2017.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2017.204 Contracts (a) The contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 1817.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5-year limitation (basic plus option periods) applies to all NASA contracts regardless of type and...

  15. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert...

  16. 48 CFR 817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 817.204 Section 817.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 817.204 Contracts. (a) The contracting officer...

  17. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 1817.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5-year limitation (basic plus option periods) applies to all NASA contracts regardless of type and...

  18. 48 CFR 817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 817.204 Section 817.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 817.204 Contracts. (a) The contracting officer...

  19. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 1817.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5-year limitation (basic plus option periods) applies to all NASA contracts regardless of type and...

  20. 24 CFR 883.602 - The contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The contract. 883.602 Section 883... Contract § 883.602 The contract. (a) Contract. The Housing Assistance Payments Contract sets forth rights... payments. (b) Housing Assistance Payments to Owners under the Contract. The Housing Assistance...

  1. 48 CFR 2017.204 - Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts 2017.204 Section 2017.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2017.204 Contracts (a) The contracting officer...

  2. 48 CFR 817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 817.204 Section 817.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 817.204 Contracts. (a) The contracting officer...

  3. 48 CFR 2017.204 - Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts 2017.204 Section 2017.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2017.204 Contracts (a) The contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 2417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 2417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2417.204 Contracts. (e) The Senior Procurement Executive shall approve any solicitation or contract which exceeds the five (5)...

  5. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 1817.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5-year limitation (basic plus option periods) applies to all NASA contracts regardless of type and...

  6. 48 CFR 2417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 2417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2417.204 Contracts. (e)(1) The Senior Procurement Executive (SPE) is authorized to approve contract periods for other than...

  7. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts....

  8. 24 CFR 880.501 - The contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The contract. 880.501 Section 880... Contract § 880.501 The contract. (a) Contract. The Housing Assistance Payments Contract sets forth rights and duties of the owner and the contract administrator with respect to the project and the...

  9. 48 CFR 16.302 - Cost contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost contracts. 16.302 Section 16.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.302 Cost contracts....

  10. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 17.204 Section 17.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.204 Contracts. (a) The contract shall specify...

  11. 48 CFR 817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 817.204 Section 817.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 817.204 Contracts. (a) The contracting officer...

  12. 48 CFR 417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 417.204 Section 417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 417.204 Contracts. The head of the contracting...

  13. 48 CFR 3042.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clause. 3042.7000... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contracting Officer's Technical Representative 3042.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall...

  14. 48 CFR 3417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contracts. 3417.204 Section... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3417.204 Contracts. (e) Except as otherwise provided by law, contract periods that exceed the five-year limitation specified in FAR...

  15. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 16.307 Section 16.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307 Contract clauses. (a)(1)...

  16. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 17.204 Section 17.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.204 Contracts. (a) The contract shall specify...

  17. 48 CFR 817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 817.204 Section 817.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 817.204 Contracts. (a) The contracting officer...

  18. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses....

  19. 48 CFR 3417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 3417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3417.204 Contracts. (e) Except as otherwise provided by law, contract periods that exceed the five-year limitation specified in FAR...

  20. 48 CFR 417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 417.204 Section 417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 417.204 Contracts. The head of the contracting...

  1. 48 CFR 1416.405 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1416.405 Section 1416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1416.405 Contract clauses. The BPC, without the...

  2. 48 CFR 2417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 2417.204... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2417.204 Contracts. (e)(1) The Senior Procurement Executive (SPE) is authorized to approve contract periods for other than...

  3. 48 CFR 2017.204 - Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts 2017.204 Section 2017.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2017.204 Contracts (a) The contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 417.204 Section 417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 417.204 Contracts. The head of the contracting...

  5. 48 CFR 417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 417.204 Section 417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 417.204 Contracts. The head of the contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 16.406 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 16.406 Section 16.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.406 Contract clauses. (a) Insert...

  7. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) (b) USAID may obtain short... indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using the...

  8. 48 CFR 1817.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts. 1817.204 Section... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1817.204 Contracts. (e)(i) The 5-year limitation (basic plus option periods) applies to all NASA contracts regardless of type and...

  9. 48 CFR 3417.70 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Modular contracting. 3417... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Modular Contracting 3417.70 Modular contracting. (a) FSA—May incrementally conduct successive procurements of modules of...

  10. 48 CFR 417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 417.204 Section 417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 417.204 Contracts. The head of the contracting...

  11. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 17.204 Section 17.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.204 Contracts. (a) The contract shall specify...

  12. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 17.204 Section 17.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.204 Contracts. (a) The contract shall specify...

  13. 48 CFR 2017.204 - Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts 2017.204 Section 2017.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2017.204 Contracts (a) The contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 17.204 Section 17.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.204 Contracts. (a) The contract shall specify...

  15. 24 CFR 881.501 - The contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The contract. 881.501 Section 881... Payments Contract § 881.501 The contract. (a) Contract. The Housing Assistance Payments Contract sets forth rights and duties of the owner and the contract administrator with respect to the project and the...

  16. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) (b) USAID may obtain short... indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using the...

  17. 48 CFR 17.109 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 17.109 Section 17.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Multiyear Contracting 17.109 Contract clauses. (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 3437.670 - Contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract type. 3437.670... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 3437.670 Contract type. Award-term contracting may be used for performance-based contracts and task orders that...

  19. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 2442.1107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Contract Management System, in solicitations and contracts when all of the following conditions apply: (1... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 2442.1107... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Production Surveillance and Reporting 2442.1107 Contract...

  4. 48 CFR 4.802 - Contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 4.802... MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.802 Contract files. (a) A contract file should generally consist of— (1) The contracting office contract file, that documents the basis for the acquisition and the...

  5. The challenge of contracting for technological information

    PubMed Central

    Zeckhauser, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Contracting to provide technological information (TI) is a significant challenge. TI is an unusual commodity in five ways. (i) TI is difficult to count and value; conventional indicators, such as patents and citations, hardly indicate value. TI is often sold at different prices to different parties. (ii) To value TI, it may be necessary to “give away the secret.” This danger, despite nondisclosure agreements, inhibits efforts to market TI. (iii) To prove its value, TI is often bundled into complete products, such as a computer chip or pharmaceutical product. Efficient exchange, by contrast, would involve merely the raw information. (iv) Sellers’ superior knowledge about TI’s value make buyers wary of overpaying. (v) Inefficient contracts are often designed to secure rents from TI. For example, licensing agreements charge more than marginal cost. These contracting difficulties affect the way TI is produced, encouraging self-reliance. This should be an advantage to large firms. However, small research and development firms spend more per employee than large firms, and nonprofit universities are major producers. Networks of organizational relationships, particularly between universities and industry, are critical in transmitting TI. Implicit barter—money for guidance—is common. Property rights for TI are hard to establish. Patents, quite suitable for better mousetraps, are inadequate for an era when we design better mice. Much TI is not patented, and what is patented sets fuzzy demarcations. New organizational forms are a promising approach to contracting difficulties for TI. Webs of relationships, formal and informal, involving universities, start-up firms, corporate giants, and venture capitalists play a major role in facilitating the production and spread of TI. PMID:8917488

  6. Health contract in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2007-01-01

    A health contract is a technique used by health professionals to help clients achieve a health goal. This article describes a course, "Changing Health Behaviors," in which a health contract strategy is taught and practiced with older adults. The health contract can also be included as a smaller educational component within a gerontology course that covers risk factors such as sedentary behavior or nutritional deficiency, counseling or health education techniques, or program development. Gerontology students who complete a degree or certificate program may enter a variety of venues in which a health contract can be a useful tool with older clients.

  7. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Performance Problems in Service Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    technical manual for the U.S. Army. Contract types have run the gamut from firm fixed price to various forms of cost plus arrangements, and award has been...in a National Forest to producing a technical manual for the U.S. Army. Contract types have run the gamut from firm fixed price to various forms of

  9. Profitability Implications of Sustainable Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    PROFITABILITY IFUCATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE CONTRACTING BY Dude L Underwood LT, CEC, USN DISTRIBUTION STATEMEMT A Approved for Public Release...Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2051 PROFITABILITY IMPLICATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE CONTRACTING An Independent Research Study Submitted to the Faculty of Purdue...27 iv 4.2. Business Ratio Com parison ................................................................. 27 4.3. Net Profit M argin Com parison

  10. Policing Mechanisms in Agricultural Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven; Hueth, Brent; Ligon, Ethan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on mechanisms of coordination in agricultural contracts. Our approach is intended to advance understanding of social relations of production and distribution of power in agrofood systems. Through an analysis of contracts between farmers and intermediaries (e.g., processors, shippers, consignment agents) for California fruits…

  11. Two Views on Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Sylvia; Smith, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    North Chicago, Illinois, District 187, received a districtwide overhaul of lighting, heating, ventilation, and security systems through a 10-year performance contract with the Honeywell Corporation. The Briarcliff Manor Union-Free School District, New York, has a contract with Johnson Controls that guarantees a portion of the energy savings…

  12. Contract Education: A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    Today contract education is generally thought of as a program or course for which an employer is paying the full cost of instruction for customized training. Contract education can help faculty remain current, encourage industry to make equipment available to the college that might otherwise be too expensive, and provide employment opportunities…

  13. Neural control of lengthening contractions.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies over the last few decades have established that the control strategy employed by the nervous system during lengthening (eccentric) differs from those used during shortening (concentric) and isometric contractions. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on the neural control of lengthening contractions. After a brief discussion of methodological issues that can confound the comparison between lengthening and shortening actions, the review provides evidence that untrained individuals are usually unable to fully activate their muscles during a maximal lengthening contraction and that motor unit activity during submaximal lengthening actions differs from that during shortening actions. Contrary to common knowledge, however, more recent studies have found that the recruitment order of motor units is similar during submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, but that discharge rate is systematically lower during lengthening actions. Subsequently, the review examines the mechanisms responsible for the specific control of maximal and submaximal lengthening contractions as reported by recent studies on the modulation of cortical and spinal excitability. As similar modulation has been observed regardless of contraction intensity, it appears that spinal and corticospinal excitability are reduced during lengthening compared with shortening and isometric contractions. Nonetheless, the modulation observed during lengthening contractions is mainly attributable to inhibition at the spinal level.

  14. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  15. Mechanobiology of lymphatic contractions.

    PubMed

    Munn, Lance L

    2015-02-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for controlling tissue fluid pressure by facilitating flow of lymph (i.e. the plasma and cells that enter the lymphatic system). Because lymph contains cells of the immune system, its transport is not only important for fluid homeostasis, but also immune function. Lymph drainage can occur via passive flow or active pumping, and much research has identified the key biochemical and mechanical factors that affect output. Although many studies and reviews have addressed how tissue properties and fluid mechanics (i.e. pressure gradients) affect lymph transport [1-3] there is less known about lymphatic mechanobiology. As opposed to passive mechanical properties, mechanobiology describes the active coupling of mechanical signals and biochemical pathways. Lymphatic vasomotion is the result of a fascinating system affected by mechanical forces exerted by the flowing lymph, including pressure-induced vessel stretch and flow-induced shear stresses. These forces can trigger or modulate biochemical pathways important for controlling the lymphatic contractions. Here, I review the current understanding of lymphatic vessel function, focusing on vessel mechanobiology, and summarize the prospects for a comprehensive understanding that integrates the mechanical and biomechanical control mechanisms in the lymphatic system.

  16. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  17. 48 CFR 1204.103 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1204.103... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Execution 1204.103 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.204-1, Approval of Contract, filled in as appropriate, in solicitations...

  18. 48 CFR 1242.7000 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1242... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Clauses 1242.7000 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer may use the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.242-70, Dissemination...

  19. 48 CFR 1316.307 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.307... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1316.307 Contract clauses. (a) Insert a clause that is substantially the same as 1352.216-70, Estimated and Allowable Costs, in all...

  20. 48 CFR 2035.70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clauses. 2035.70 Section 2035.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.70 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer...

  1. 48 CFR 2035.70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract clauses. 2035.70 Section 2035.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.70 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer...

  2. 48 CFR 2035.70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 2035.70 Section 2035.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.70 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer...

  3. 48 CFR 2035.70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract clauses. 2035.70 Section 2035.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.70 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 2035.70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2035.70 Section 2035.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.70 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer...

  5. 48 CFR 316.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 316.603 Section 316.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 316.603...

  6. 25 CFR 502.15 - Management contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management contract. 502.15 Section 502.15 Indians... CHAPTER § 502.15 Management contract. Management contract means any contract, subcontract, or collateral... contract or agreement provides for the management of all or part of a gaming operation....

  7. 25 CFR 502.15 - Management contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management contract. 502.15 Section 502.15 Indians... CHAPTER § 502.15 Management contract. Management contract means any contract, subcontract, or collateral... contract or agreement provides for the management of all or part of a gaming operation....

  8. 25 CFR 502.15 - Management contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management contract. 502.15 Section 502.15 Indians... CHAPTER § 502.15 Management contract. Management contract means any contract, subcontract, or collateral... contract or agreement provides for the management of all or part of a gaming operation....

  9. 48 CFR 43.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 43.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 43.205 Contract clauses. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.243-1, Changes—Fixed-Price, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  10. 48 CFR 43.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 43.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 43.205 Contract clauses. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.243-1, Changes—Fixed-Price, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  11. 48 CFR 543.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 543.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 543.205 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert 552.243-71, Equitable Adjustments, in solicitations and contracts containing FAR 52.243-4, Changes....

  12. 48 CFR 543.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 543.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 543.205 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert 552.243-71, Equitable Adjustments, in solicitations and contracts containing FAR 52.243-4, Changes....

  13. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  14. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  15. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  16. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  17. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  18. 48 CFR 846.312 - Construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction contracts. 846.312 Section 846.312 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.312 Construction contracts. The contracting officer...

  19. 48 CFR 16.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 16.603 Section 16.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  20. 48 CFR 1517.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 1517.204 Section 1517.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1517.204 Contracts. The SCM may approve...

  1. 48 CFR 317.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 317.204 Section 317.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.204 Contracts. (e) The total of the basic and...

  2. 7 CFR 631.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contracts. 631.10 Section 631.10 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.10 Contracts. (a) To participate in the program, an applicant must enter into a contract agreeing to implement a conservation...

  3. 24 CFR 232.605 - Contract requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contract requirements. 232.605... Fire Safety Equipment Form of Contract § 232.605 Contract requirements. (a) The contract between the mortgagor and the general contractor may be in the form of either a lump sum contract or a cost...

  4. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance,...

  5. 48 CFR 217.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 217.204 Section... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 217.204 Contracts. (e)(i) Notwithstanding FAR 17.204(e), the ordering period of a task order or delivery order...

  6. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract....

  7. 48 CFR 617.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 617.204 Section 617.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 617.204 Contracts. (e) The Procurement Executive shall...

  8. 48 CFR 217.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts. 217.204 Section... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 217.204 Contracts. (e)(i) Notwithstanding FAR 17.204(e), the ordering period of a task order or delivery order...

  9. 48 CFR 317.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 317.204 Section 317.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.204 Contracts. (e) The total of the basic and...

  10. 48 CFR 846.312 - Construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction contracts. 846.312 Section 846.312 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.312 Construction contracts. The contracting officer...

  11. 7 CFR 632.22 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contracts. 632.22 Section 632.22 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Participation § 632.22 Contracts. (a) Cost-sharing contracts. A land user who has an approved reclamation plan may enter into a contract with NRCS...

  12. 43 CFR 2.228 - Government contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government contracts. 2.228 Section 2.228... TESTIMONY Privacy Act § 2.228 Government contracts. (a) Required contract provisions. When a contract... Department function, the contract shall, consistent with the Department's authority, cause the...

  13. 48 CFR 217.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 217.204 Section... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 217.204 Contracts. (e)(i) Notwithstanding FAR 17.204(e), the ordering period of a task order or delivery order...

  14. 48 CFR 16.503 - Requirements contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements contracts. 16.503 Section 16.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.503 Requirements...

  15. 48 CFR 1517.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 1517.204 Section 1517.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1517.204 Contracts. The SCM may approve...

  16. 7 CFR 634.25 - Contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracting. 634.25 Section 634.25 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.25 Contracting. (a) To participate in RCWP, a landowner or operator must enter into a contract in which he or...

  17. 48 CFR 617.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts. 617.204 Section 617.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 617.204 Contracts. (e) The Procurement Executive shall...

  18. 7 CFR 800.198 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contracts. 800.198 Section 800.198 Agriculture..., Designations, Approvals, Contracts, and Conflicts of Interest § 800.198 Contracts. (a) Services contracted and who may apply. The Service may enter into a contract with any person, State, or governmental agency...

  19. 48 CFR 3432.705 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3432.705 Section 3432.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.705 Contract clauses....

  20. 7 CFR 634.25 - Contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contracting. 634.25 Section 634.25 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.25 Contracting. (a) To participate in RCWP, a landowner or operator must enter into a contract in which he or...

  1. 48 CFR 317.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 317.204 Section 317.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.204 Contracts. (e) The total of the basic and...

  2. 7 CFR 631.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contracts. 631.10 Section 631.10 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.10 Contracts. (a) To participate in the program, an applicant must enter into a contract agreeing to implement a conservation...

  3. 48 CFR 617.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 617.204 Section 617.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 617.204 Contracts. (e) The Procurement Executive shall...

  4. 48 CFR 617.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts. 617.204 Section 617.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 617.204 Contracts. (e) The Procurement Executive shall...

  5. 7 CFR 634.25 - Contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contracting. 634.25 Section 634.25 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.25 Contracting. (a) To participate in RCWP, a landowner or operator must enter into a contract in which he or...

  6. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance,...

  7. 48 CFR 846.312 - Construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction contracts. 846.312 Section 846.312 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.312 Construction contracts. The contracting officer...

  8. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance,...

  9. 7 CFR 631.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts. 631.10 Section 631.10 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.10 Contracts. (a) To participate in the program, an applicant must enter into a contract agreeing to implement a conservation...

  10. 48 CFR 19.812 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract administration... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 19.812 Contract administration. (a) The contracting officer shall assign contract...

  11. 48 CFR 4.1303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 4.1303... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Personal Identity Verification 4.1303 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall... and contracts when contract performance requires contractors to have routine physical access to...

  12. 48 CFR 1517.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts. 1517.204 Section 1517.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1517.204 Contracts. The SCM may approve...

  13. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract...

  14. 7 CFR 800.198 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contracts. 800.198 Section 800.198 Agriculture..., Designations, Approvals, Contracts, and Conflicts of Interest § 800.198 Contracts. (a) Services contracted and who may apply. The Service may enter into a contract with any person, State, or governmental agency...

  15. 48 CFR 217.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 217.204 Section... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 217.204 Contracts. (e)(i) Notwithstanding FAR 17.204(e), the ordering period of a task order or delivery order...

  16. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract...

  17. 48 CFR 2417.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts. 2417.204 Section 2417.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2417.204 Contracts. (e) The...

  18. 43 CFR 2.53 - Government contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Government contracts. 2.53 Section 2.53... INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.53 Government contracts. (a) Required contract provisions. When a contract... Department function, the contract shall, consistent with the Department's authority, cause the...

  19. 7 CFR 631.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contracts. 631.10 Section 631.10 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.10 Contracts. (a) To participate in the program, an applicant must enter into a contract agreeing to implement a conservation...

  20. 48 CFR 317.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 317.204 Section 317.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.204 Contracts. (e) The total of the basic and...