Science.gov

Sample records for merle saaliste eha

  1. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  2. The Leadership of Merle Ohlsen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the contributions of Merle Ohlsen to the development of the counseling profession and to the American Association for Counseling and Development. Interviews Ohlsen about his early work history; professional organizations; professional issues including training, mentoring, and individual and group counseling; and the enrichment between…

  3. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud – Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned. PMID:25360436

  4. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud - Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned.

  5. Porting aircraft technology to launchers: the EHA case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, François

    2001-09-01

    SABCA is active in actuation systems for years, both in aeronautics and space domain. We develop direct drive valves, hydraulic actuators and also electrical actuators. These latest years, the trend is to replace hydraulic actuators by electrical actuators (see Ariane 2010 initiative or Vega launcher). This paper first presents the advantages of the electrical actuators in comparison to hydraulic actuators. Then, it compares aeronautics applications to space applications to highlight the differences. The results of that comparative analysis are applied to a particular case, the electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA). The paper presents the design, tests and lessons learnt from an EHA for aeronautic application, and develops the test plan required to upgrade this EHA for use in space applications.

  6. [Merle D'Aubigne's oblique proximal femoral osteotomy. Surgical technique].

    PubMed

    López Sosa, Francisco H; Valentín-Guerrero, Santiago; Miranda-López, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Proximal femoral osteotomy with the technique described by Merle D'AubignC and Valliant was used in the treatment of adult patients with osteoarthritis or idiopathic avascular necrosis. Dr. Antonio Flores applied this technique to children with subluxation and acetabular dysplasia, identified with exaggerated anteversion and valgus of the proximal femur. He reported correction of the deformity in 75% of patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technique, its indications and complications.

  7. Glomerular Polycystic Kidney Disease in a Dog (Blue Merle Collie)

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, A.; Phaneuf, J. -B.; Olivieri, M.; Gosselin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Glomerular polycystic kidney disease was diagnosed in an 11 month old, female, Blue Merle Collie. Clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, vomiting, diarrhea, partial anorexia) and laboratory work (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum phosphorus, specific gravity, proteinuria, nonregenerative anemia) indicated chronic renal failure. However, after the study of a biopsy specimen, a definitive diagnosis was reached and the prognosis was determined. Necropsy findings and histopathological studies revealed: presence of glomerular cysts, atrophy of glomerular tufts and sclerosis of the interstitial tissue. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422209

  8. Essential anaplerotic role for the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Thomas J.; Costa, Kyle C.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Korpole, Suresh; Whitman, William B.; Leigh, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of study, electron flow and energy conservation in methanogenic Archaea are still not thoroughly understood. For methanogens without cytochromes, flavin-based electron bifurcation has been proposed as an essential energy-conserving mechanism that couples exergonic and endergonic reactions of methanogenesis. However, an alternative hypothesis posits that the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha provides a chemiosmosis-driven electron input to the endergonic reaction. In vivo evidence for both hypotheses is incomplete. By genetically eliminating all nonessential pathways of H2 metabolism in the model methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis and using formate as an additional electron donor, we isolate electron flow for methanogenesis from flux through Eha. We find that Eha does not function stoichiometrically for methanogenesis, implying that electron bifurcation must operate in vivo. We show that Eha is nevertheless essential, and a substoichiometric requirement for H2 suggests that its role is anaplerotic. Indeed, H2 via Eha stimulates methanogenesis from formate when intermediates are not otherwise replenished. These results fit the model for electron bifurcation, which renders the methanogenic pathway cyclic, and as such requires the replenishment of intermediates. Defining a role for Eha and verifying electron bifurcation provide a complete model of methanogenesis where all necessary electron inputs are accounted for. PMID:22872868

  9. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a HIP MERL 76 disk installed in an experimental engine and exposed to realistic operating conditions in a 150 hour, 1500 cycle endurance test is examined. Post test analysis, based on visual, fluorescence penetrant and dimensional inspection, indicates that the disk performs satisfactorily.

  10. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  11. The Present-Minded Professor: Merle Curti's Work as an Intellectual Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Merle Curti's work in intellectual history, focusing on such issues as the synthesis of social and intellectual history into the historical analysis of social thought, Curti's "presentism," the influence of John Dewey on his scholarship, and his civic-minded scholarship during World War II. (CMK)

  12. Generation of New M2e-HA2 Fusion Chimeric Peptide to Development of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ameghi, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Moghadampour, Masood; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to design a new construction containing influenza virus (H1N1) M2e gene and HA2 gene by bioinformatics approach, cloning the construct in to Escherichia coli and produce M2e-HA2 peptide. Methods: The procedure was done by virus cultivation in SPF eggs, hemagglutination assay (HA), RNA isolation, RT-PCR, primers designed (DNAMAN 4 and Oligo7), virtual fusion construction translation (ExPASy), N-Glycosylated sites prediction (Ensemblegly-Iowa), complete open reading frame (ORF), stop codon studied (NCBI ORF Finder), rare codon determination (GenScript), Solvent accessibility of epitopes (Swiss-PdbViewer), antigenic sites prediction (Protean), fusion PCR of M2e-HA2 gene, sequence analysis, nested PCR, gel electrophoresis, double digestion of pET22b(+) plasmid and the fusion construct, ligation of them, transformation of the ligated vector (pET22b-M2e-HA2) to E.coli (BL21), mass culture the cloned bacterium ,induction the expression by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), purification the fusion peptide by Ni-NTA column, western blot to verify the purification. Results: In this study we developed a new approach for fusion of Influenza virus M2e (96 nucleotides) and HA2 (663 nucleotides) genes based on fusion PCR strategy and produced a fused fragment with 793 nucleotides. The construct was successfully cloned and expressed. Conclusion: This construct is a 261 amino acid chimeric fusion peptide with about 30 KD molecular weight. According on the latest information; this is the first case of expression and purification M2e-HA2 fusion chimeric peptide, which could be used for development of a recombinant M2e-HA2 fusion protein vaccine. PMID:26793615

  13. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  14. An economic analysis of the EHAS telemedicine system in Alto Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Andrés; Villarroel, Valentín; Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Seoane, Joaquín; del Pozo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine systems providing voice communication and email by radio were installed at seven health centres (HCs) and 32 health posts (HPs) in the Alto Amazonas province of Peru during 2001. A cost analysis was performed to estimate the net effect on direct resource consumption from the perspective of society. Prior to the availability of the EHAS telemedicine system, there was a mean of 11.1 urgent patient referrals per year from the HPs and 14.0 referrals per year from the HCs. After the implementation of telemedicine, patient referrals fell to 2.5 per year from the HPs (P = 0.03) and to 8.4 per year from the HCs (P = 0.17). The net economic effect of the telemedicine programme over a four-year period was clearly positive, amounting to annual net savings of US$320,126 (using a 5% discounting rate). A one-way sensitivity analysis using a range of values for the discounting rate, and the number of urgent referrals, confirms that the programme was efficient (i.e. it made net financial savings) in all cases. From the restricted budgetary perspective of the health network, the results also demonstrate that the additional operational costs (telephone and maintenance) introduced by the telemedicine system were lower than the direct cost-savings produced for the health-care network.

  15. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  16. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a--- Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators--- The Four Star Families)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the complete modern Hawaiian navigational full-sky. Over eight years of field notes, observations, and interviews with cultural leaders, historians, and ho`okele wa`a (navigators) were used to construct and validate Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators. In contrast to the various historical sky maps designed by different practitioners and local groups in pre-colonial times, this sky-map depicts the four whole-sky constellations used by present day wayfinders. Designed by a loosely bound group of cultural leaders and navigators as a tool to use in modern non-instrumental navigation, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a is a pragmatic fusion of ancient Hawaiian tradition, traditions of greater Polynesia, and modern-day Indigenous cultural forces. Like a very small number of cultures who use the sky for non-instrumental navigation, the ho`okele wa`a conceive of each season's visible sky as a whole image, using a single constellation that stretches from the northern to the southern horizon as a tool that facilitates direction finding in skies that are often very cloudy, and that chunks the sky into sections that decrease the cognitive load placed on the navigator. Moving through the seasons, beginning in Winter, Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Four Star Families) are Kekaomakali`I (The Bailer), Kaiwikuamo`o (The Backbone), Manaiakalani (The Fishhook), and Kalupekawelo (The Kite). The whole-sky character of each of the four "star families," combines with that star family's mo`olelo (purposeful story) to further facilitate navigation, employing the emotional component of moral and familial associations to enhance memorization and to provide wayfinders with encouragement on their long journeys.

  17. States' Eleventh Amendment Immunity Is Not Abrogated by the EHA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Controversy developed among the federal circuits concerning whether or not Congress, when it passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, intended to abrogate the states' 11th Amendment immunity from a lawsuit in the federal courts. Discusses decisions favoring and against abrogation, and the Supreme Court's reasoning in ruling against…

  18. Shoemaker, Eugene [`Gene'] Merle (1928-97) and Shoemaker, Carolyn [née Spellman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrogeologist Gene Shoemaker was born in Los Angeles, California and became chief scientist at the USGS Center of Astrogeology (Flagstaff) and professor of geology at CalTech. He worked with his wife Carolyn on cratering, both on the Moon and the Earth, by volcanoes and by meteor and cometary impact. He discovered, with Edward Chao, coesite, a type of silica produced in a violent impact and a si...

  19. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion on Streamflow, Recharge, Physical Habitat, and Temperature, Na Wai `Eha, Maui, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    The perennial flow provided by Waihe‘e River, Waiehu Stream, ‘Īao Stream, and Waikapū Stream, collectively known as Nā Wai ‘Ehā (“The Four Streams”), made it possible for widespread agricultural activities to flourish in the eastern part of West Maui, Hawai‘i. The streams of the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area flow in their upper reaches even during extended dry-weather conditions because of persistent groundwater discharge to the streams. Overall, the lower reaches of these streams lose water, which may contribute to groundwater recharge. During climate years 1984–2007 (when complete streamflow records were available for Waihe‘e River and ‘Īao Stream), Waihe‘e River had the greatest median flow of the four streams upstream of the uppermost diversion on each stream. The median flows, in million gallons per day, during climate years 1984–2007 were: 34 for Waihe‘e River near an altitude of 605 feet; 25 for ‘Īao Stream near an altitude of 780 feet; and estimated to be 4.3 for Waikapū Stream near an altitude of 1,160 feet; 3.2 for North Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 880 feet; and 3.2 for South Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 870 feet. Existing stream diversions in the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area have a combined capacity exceeding at least 75 million gallons per day and are capable of diverting all or nearly all of the dry-weather flows of these streams, leaving some downstream reaches dry. Hourly photographs collected during 2006–2008 indicate that some stream reaches downstream of diversions are dry more than 50 percent of the time. Many of these reaches would be perennial or nearly perennial in the absence of diversions.

  20. An Alternative Image of "School and Society" and the Dewey Tradition (1950-1980): A Reply to Merle Borrowman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the educational theories of John Dewey in the context of contemporary society. Suggests that although Dewey's approach has merit for an age of turbulent change, it is unlikely that it will receive support. One reason is that society is presently dominated by the values and techniques of Frederick Taylor's scientific efficiency.…

  1. Obvious and Subtle Contributions of Merlin C. Wittrock to Programmatic R&D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; O'Neil, Harry

    2010-01-01

    We describe some of Merl's more subtle contributions that extended beyond his own prodigious scholarly record, his high-quality teaching, and his mentoring of students. The context of our remarks on Programmatic R&D focuses on his contribution to the University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Education. Merl was the first director of the…

  2. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-01

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings. PMID:27494208

  4. Education of Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1989. Calendar No. 379.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This report recommends reauthorization of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) via Senate bill 1824, the Education of Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1989. The bill's primary focus is reauthorization of the discretionary programs of parts C through G of the EHA and creation of a new discretionary program addressing the special education…

  5. Comparison of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay with conventional viral culture and immunofluorescence techniques for the detection of seven viral respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Liolios, L; Jenney, A; Spelman, D; Kotsimbos, T; Catton, M; Wesselingh, S

    2001-08-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay (RT-PCR-EHA; Hexaplex; Prodesse Inc., Waukesha, Wis.) was used for the simultaneous detection of human parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, influenza virus types A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus types A and B. One hundred forty-three respiratory specimens from 126 patients were analyzed by RT-PCR-EHA, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional viral culture and immunofluorescence (IF) methods. RT-PCR-EHA proved to be positive for 17 of 143 (11.9%) specimens, whereas 8 of 143 (5.6%) samples were positive by viral culture and/or IF. Eight samples were positive by both RT-PCR-EHA and conventional methods, while nine samples were RT-PCR-EHA positive and viral culture and IF negative. Eight of the nine samples with discordant results were then independently tested by a different multiplex RT-PCR assay for influenza virus types A and B, and all eight proved to be positive. In comparison to viral culture and IF methods, RT-PCR-EHA gave a sensitivity and a specificity of 100 and 93%, respectively. Since RT-PCR-EHA was able to detect more positive samples, which would otherwise have been missed by routine methods, we suggest that this multiplex RT-PCR-EHA provides a highly sensitive and specific means of diagnostic detection of major respiratory viruses.

  6. Collaborative case-based reasoning for knowledge discovery of elders health assessment system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-Xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy.

  7. Collaborative Case-Based Reasoning for Knowledge Discovery of Elders Health Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy. PMID:25337150

  8. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Ko, Jin H.; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2014-01-01

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis’ 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial. PMID:24254496

  9. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Ko, Jin H; Wahed, Abdus S

    2014-04-30

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis' 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial. PMID:24254496

  10. Gated Auditory Speech Perception in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. PMID:25085610

  11. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. PMID:25085610

  12. Metabolic annotation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-25

    Increased levels of the organic acid, 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA) occur in urine of subjects with impaired L(+)-isoleucine metabolism. Chiral intermediates formed during isoleucine degradation are (S) enantiomers. Blockage of (S) pathway flux drives racemization of (2S, 3S) L(+)-isoleucine and its (2S, 3R) stereoisomer, L(+)-alloisoleucine. This non-protein amino acid is metabolized to (R)-2-methylbutyryl CoA via enzymes common to branched chain amino acid degradation. Subsequently, (R) intermediates serve as alternate substrates for three valine metabolic enzymes, generating 2-EHA. Once formed, 2-EHA accumulates because it is poorly recognized by distal valine pathway enzymes. Thus, urinary 2-EHA represents a biomarker of isoleucine pathway defects. 2-EHA levels are also increased in rats exposed to the industrial solvent, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or the neurotoxin precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In these cases, a block in (S) pathway isoleucine catabolism occurs at the level of (S)-2-methylbutyryl CoA conversion to tiglyl CoA via inhibition of electron transferring flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase dependent reactions. Elevated urinary 2-EHA in propionyl CoA carboxylase deficiency and methylmalonic aciduria results from a buildup of distal intermediates in the (S) pathway of isoleucine degradation. In Barth syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome, 2-EHA is a byproduct of impeded propionyl CoA entry into the Krebs cycle.

  13. Metabolic annotation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Increased levels of the organic acid, 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA) occur in urine of subjects with impaired L(+)-isoleucine metabolism. Chiral intermediates formed during isoleucine degradation are (S) enantiomers. Blockage of (S) pathway flux drives racemization of (2S, 3S) L(+)-isoleucine and its (2S, 3R) stereoisomer, L(+)-alloisoleucine. This non-protein amino acid is metabolized to (R)-2-methylbutyryl CoA via enzymes common to branched chain amino acid degradation. Subsequently, (R) intermediates serve as alternate substrates for three valine metabolic enzymes, generating 2-EHA. Once formed, 2-EHA accumulates because it is poorly recognized by distal valine pathway enzymes. Thus, urinary 2-EHA represents a biomarker of isoleucine pathway defects. 2-EHA levels are also increased in rats exposed to the industrial solvent, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or the neurotoxin precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In these cases, a block in (S) pathway isoleucine catabolism occurs at the level of (S)-2-methylbutyryl CoA conversion to tiglyl CoA via inhibition of electron transferring flavoprotein / ubiquinone oxidoreductase dependent reactions. Elevated urinary 2-EHA in propionyl CoA carboxylase deficiency and methylmalonic aciduria results from a buildup of distal intermediates in the (S) pathway of isoleucine degradation. In Barth syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome, 2-EHA is a byproduct of impeded propionyl CoA entry into the Krebs cycle. PMID:26115894

  14. National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; O'Connor, Patrick

    2016-09-30

    The 2016 National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1, includes geospatial point-level locations and key characteristics of online existing hydropower plants in the United States that are currently licensed, exempt, or awaiting relicensing. These data are a subset extracted from NHAAP’s Existing Hydropower Assets (EHA) internal database, which is a cornerstone of NHAAP’s EHA effort that has supported multiple U.S. hydropower R&D research initiatives related to market acceleration, environmental impact reduction, technology-to-market activities, and climate change impact assessment. For more information on NHAAP’s EHA effort, please visit the project web page at: http://nhaap.ornl.gov/existing-hydropower.

  15. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  16. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  17. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  18. Eggshell Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Graft Substitute in the Healing of Maxillary Cystic Bone Defects: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kanumuru, Narasimha Reddy; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Sidharthan, A; Kumar, T S Sampath; Prasad, L Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, use of graft materials to promote healing of defects of bone is wellknown. Traditionally, missing bone is replaced with material from either patient or donor. Multiple sources of bone grafts have been used to graft bone defects to stimulate bone healing. Hydroxyapatite is naturally occurring mineral component of bone, which is osteoconductive. This versatile biomaterial is derived from many sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) in the bone regeneration of human maxillary cystic bone defects secondary to cystic removal/apicoectomy and compare the material properties of EHA in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of eight maxillary bone defects were grafted after cystic enucleation and/or apicoectomy in the year 2008 and completed the study at 1 year. The patients were followed-up 2 weeks after surgery for signs and symptoms of infection or any other complications that may have been related to surgical procedure. Follow-up radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery followed by 1, 2, and 3 months to assess the efficacy of EHA in bone healing. Physicochemical characterization of the EHA was carried out in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), also compared the biocompatibility of EHA using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Results: By the end of the 8th week, the defects grafted with EHA showed complete bone formation. However, bone formation in non-grafted sites was insignificant. The values of density measurements were equal or more than that of surrounding normal bone. These results indicate that the osseous regeneration of the bone defect filled with EHA is significant. EHA showed the superior material properties in comparison with SHA. Conclusion: EHA is a versatile novel bone graft substitute that yielded promising results. Because of its biocompatibility, lack of disease transfer risks, ease of use and unlimited availability, EHA remains a viable choice

  19. The European Hematology Association: strengthening hematology in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Foà, Robin

    2011-04-01

    European hematology is increasingly recognized as a medical speciality that contributes to public health through the development of new therapies for the management of malignant and nonmalignant blood diseases. The European Hematology Association (EHA) is a nonprofit scientific association that represents European medical professionals with an active interest in hematology. Our aim is to promote excellence in clinical practice, research and education in European hematology. An executive board and councillors elected by the members form the governmental body of EHA and are responsible for the strategy and organization of the association. Various EHA committees and units are assigned to the activities and programs of the EHA. The EHA has an important role to play by making education and training easily accessible in Europe and further afield. In order to best serve the European hematologist, the association has developed scientific programs and activities in a variety of areas. Besides focusing on European hematology, the EHA has also dedicated itself to outreach programs; an initiative to complement the needs of hematology education and to emphasize important topics of benefit to hematologists, not only in Europe, but also in other regions.

  20. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  1. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  2. Improvement of physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties of PCL/gelatin biocomposites: Effect of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Haydar U.; Beg, M. D. H.

    2015-04-01

    This research was to study the effects of gelatin content variation and gamma radiation after the 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) pre-treatment on the foundamental properties of gelatin film laminated polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposites. PCL/gelatin film (PCL/GF) composites were fabricated by compression molding and their properties were studied by physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties. The results from mechanical properties such as tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased with increasing of gelatin content up to 10 wt% and then decreased while the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. EHA monomer (2-8 wt%) was added to the gelatin solution and films were prepared by casting and found to increase the mechanical properties of the PCL/EHA blended gelatin film (PCL/EGF) composites. Treatment of the gelatin film with gamma radiation after the EHA pre-treatment showed the best mechanical properties of the resulting composites. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that the storage modulus of the PCL/EGF and PCL/EHA blended gelatin film with gamma radiation (PCL/GEGF) composites was increased significantly. The degradation properties in water and soil were determined for the non-irradiated and irradiated composites. It was observed that the non-irradiated composite degrades more than that of the irradiated composites.

  3. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  4. An assessment of the dietary uptake of di-2-(ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) in a limited population study.

    PubMed

    Loftus, N J; Woollen, B H; Steel, G T; Wilks, M F; Castle, L

    1994-01-01

    The plasticizer di-2-(ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), which may be present in food-contact films, can migrate into certain foodstuffs. Results from plasticizer migration studies into food have enabled an indirect estimate of the maximum daily dietary intake of DEHA. A previous study of the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of DEHA in humans identified the urinary metabolite 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) as a useful marker metabolite for assessing DEHA intake. The present study was designed to investigate urinary EHA concentrations following a controlled dose of DEHA presented with food, and to assess the average daily intake of DEHA in a limited population survey. The urinary elimination profile of EHA, following a dose of DEHA in food, showed that in order to extrapolate DEHA intake from EHA measurements, a 24-hr urine sample was required. In the survey the elimination of EHA was determined in 24-hr urine samples in 112 individuals from five different geographical locations in the UK. No restrictions were placed on age or gender. Estimates of daily intake of DEHA show a skewed distribution with a median value of 2.7 mg. This is similar to an estimated maximum daily intake of 8.2 mg/day, derived using an indirect method by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

  5. Forecasting the arrival of fast coronal mass ejecta at Earth by the detection of 2-20 keV neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Shih, K. L.; Mccomas, D. J.; Wu, S. T.; Wu, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that Earth passages of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) trigger geomagnetic storms. Early identification of fast earth-directed CME can help provide storm warnings, but detection of such by coronagraphs is extremely difficult. We suggest that energetic hydrogen atoms (EHA) between 2 and 10 keV produced during the transit phase of an Earth-directed CME by recombination between protons and electrons in the CME can travel ahead of the CME and act as harbingers of a magnetic storm. This forecasting scheme should work if enough EHA are produced, because while CMEs decelerate continuously after their ejection, the EHA fluxes produced in the initial phase of fast CMEs propagate at their initial high speeds. Model simulations support this proposed mechanism.

  6. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  7. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  8. Accountability and Institutional Research: Measuring Results. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (24th, Hartford, Connecticut, November 1-4, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This proceedings document is comprised of the 12 papers, panel presentations, and work shares presented at a 1997 conference on institutional research. The papers are: (1) "What Does Accountability in Higher Education Mean to You?" (William R. Dyson, Andrew G. De Rocco, John R. Doyle, and Merle W. Harris); (2) "The University of Delaware…

  9. 76 FR 56277 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011 (76 FR... Merle Mattson requested that we revise paragraph (g) of the NPRM (76 FR 21820, April 19, 2011), to... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  10. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Environmental Influences in the Early Education of Migrant and Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Conference papers on early childhood education cover the following topics: individual variation among preschoolers in a cognitive intervention program in low income families presented by Phyllis Levenstein, programmatic research on disadvantaged youth and an ameliorative intervention program by Merle B. Karnes and others, special education and…

  11. Wittrock's Influence on Mathematics Education: Some Personal Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Merlin C. Wittrock was a friend and colleague who influenced me and many other contemporary mathematics educators on how students learn. In this article I summarize my interactions with Merl beginning in 1965, and how over the following half-century he influenced my thinking on student learning for understanding and, in turn, on how to design…

  12. Issues in Minimum Competency Testing and Competency Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    A variety of viewpoints were represented in this symposium for chief state school officials and senior staff of state departments of education. Russell Vlaanderen, Education Commission of the States, opened with a national overview: "The Policy Implications of Minimum Competency Testing: The Case of the Standardized Student." Attorney Merle Steven…

  13. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered. PMID:23522163

  14. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered.

  15. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  16. Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambron-McCabe, Nelda H.

    This chapter reviews legislation and court litigation during 1986 that addressed the rights of handicapped students and employees. The most far-reaching legal activity occurred in the legislative arena, with the passage in 1986 of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) mandating that services must be available for handicapped children between…

  17. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro.

  18. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations. PMID:25563161

  19. Effect of Agrobacterium culture and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of a citrange (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

  20. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats. PMID:26445479

  1. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats. PMID:26445479

  2. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  3. Phylogenetic Evidence for H2 based Electron Bifurcation In Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. W.; Boyd, E. S.; Schut, G.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    Energy conservation is a fundamental underpinning of all life and is accomplished by electron transport phosphorylation and/or substrate level phosphorylation. A third mechanism, known as flavin-based electron bifurcation, has recently been established as a mechanism by which life can conserve energy. In this mechanism, a flavin-containing multienzyme complex catalyzes the thermodynamically unfavorable reduction of low potential ferredoxin using electron donors with higher potentials, such as NAD(P)H or H2. Such endergonic reactions are driven forward through the simultaneous oxidation of the electron donor with higher potential acceptors such as NAD+ or heterodisulfide. Membrane associated energy converting [NiFe]hydrogenases (Ech, Eha) link the oxidation of ferredoxin with the production of H2 and in the process conserve energy in the form of an ion (Na+/H+) gradient. Ech/Eha exhibit a modular composition represented by a Na+/H+ antiporter domain and a [NiFe] hydrogenase domain. In addition, Ech/Eha can be accompanied by a formate dehyrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, or an FAD/NAD(P)H module that enables coupling with these substrates. Representatives of Ech/Eha have been identified among anaerobic Archaea and Bacteria, including deeply rooted methanogens, sulfur-reducing Crenarcheota/Euryarchaeota as well as Thermotogae. Ech exhibit extensive homology to a number of subunits within the NADH quinone oxidoreductase or complex I family (Nuo, Fpo). Metabolically, Ech generally couple the oxidation of carbon monooxide, formate or ferredoxin to the production of H2. In contrast, the Eha complex couples the translocation of Na+ and the oxidation of H2 to the reduction of ferredoxin, which is then available for the reduction of CO2 in methanogens. In the case of Eha, the gradient of Na+/H+ produced through translocation coupled to ferredoxin oxidation can in be used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP via an ATP synthase complex, thereby representing one of the

  4. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  5. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  6. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  7. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  8. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of several nickel-base superalloys at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.; Maier, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the bulk deformation characteristics of seven nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C. The alloys were Waspalloy, HIP Astroloy, H plus F Astroloy, H plus F Rene 95, IN 100, MERL 76, and NASA IIB-7. The amount of bulk deformation observed in all the alloys was low. In tests with inelastic strain amplitudes less than about 0.003, only some grains exhibited yielding and the majority of those had the 110 line near the tensile axis. Deformation occurred on octahedral systems for all of the alloys except MERL 76 which also showed abundant primary cube slip. Creep-fatigue cycling occasionally produced extended faults between partial dislocations, but otherwise deformation was much the same as for fatigue cycling.

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius; Doray, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The increase in available student placements at colleges and universities, the implementation of provincial and federal postsecondary education policies, and the rise of the educational aspirations of families and individuals have all led to the massification of Canadian higher education. Based on Merle's typology of the forms of democratization, this article attempts to revisit the theory of equality of opportunities by critically analyzing the link between massification of higher education and social equity. The results of an analysis of longitudinal data from the (YIT) Youth in Transition Survey show that at the age of 24 in 2008, approximately 77% of young Canadians have pursued studies in a college or university. If access to postsecondary education is now higher, to what extent has it improved social equity? The article shows, in light of the Merle's typology, that mass university education is achieved in part under the seal of a segregative democratization, while college education tends to be egalitarian. PMID:25737464

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius; Doray, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The increase in available student placements at colleges and universities, the implementation of provincial and federal postsecondary education policies, and the rise of the educational aspirations of families and individuals have all led to the massification of Canadian higher education. Based on Merle's typology of the forms of democratization, this article attempts to revisit the theory of equality of opportunities by critically analyzing the link between massification of higher education and social equity. The results of an analysis of longitudinal data from the (YIT) Youth in Transition Survey show that at the age of 24 in 2008, approximately 77% of young Canadians have pursued studies in a college or university. If access to postsecondary education is now higher, to what extent has it improved social equity? The article shows, in light of the Merle's typology, that mass university education is achieved in part under the seal of a segregative democratization, while college education tends to be egalitarian.

  11. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  12. Advancement of physical process by mental activation: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lehrl, S; Gusinde, J; Schulz-Drost, S; Rein, A; Schlechtweg, P M; Jacob, H; Krinner, S; Gelse, K; Pauser, J; Brem, Matthias H

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, patients who are significantly impaired by physical mobility limitations can be rehabilitated if the patient's working memory is used to capacity. The conclusion that periodic mental activity improves physical rehabilitation should be evaluated. This is a prospective, controlled, and randomized open study of patients who underwent a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Sixteen patients who played the video game Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? were compared in terms of rehabilitation progress to 16 individuals who did not play. Harris Hip and Merle d'Aubigné scores were evaluated 1 d preoperation and again 12 +/- 1 d postoperation. Preoperation, no significant differences in hip scores between the gaming and control groups were found (median Harris Hip score: 39 vs 33, respectively, p = 0.304; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 12 vs 9, respectively, p = 0.254). Postoperation, there were significant differences between the gaming and control groups (median Harris Hip score: 76.0 vs 56.5, respectively, p = 0.001; median Merle D'Aubigné score: 16.0 vs 13.5, respectively, p = 0.014). Within both groups, the posttest scores significantly improved; however, the increase for the gaming group was greater for both measures. Because the influence of age, sex, and level of education can be excluded, it can be assumed that mental activities can improve physical rehabilitation after THA.

  13. Properties and microstructures for dual alloy combinations of three superalloys with alloy 901

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual alloy combinations have potential for use in aircraft engine components such as turbine disks where a wide range of stress and temperature regimes exists during operation. Such alloy combinations may directly result in the conservation of elements which are costly or not available domestically. Preferably, a uniform heat treatment yielding good properties for both alloys should be used. Dual alloy combinations of iron rich Alloy 901 with nickel base superalloys Rene 95, Astroloy, or MERL 76 were not isostatically pressed from prealloyed powders. Individual alloys, alloy mixtures, and layered alloy combinations were given the heat treatments specified for their use in turbine disks or appropriate for Alloy 901. Selected specimens were overaged for 1500 hr at 650 C. Metallographic examinations revealed the absence of phases not originally present in either alloy of a combination. Mechanical tests showed adequate properties in combinations of Rene 95 or Astroloy with Alloy 901 when given the Alloy 901 heat treatment. Combinations with MERL 76 had better properties when given the MERL 76 heat treatment. The results indicate that these combinations are promising candidates for use in turbine disks.

  14. Creep-rupture in powder metallurgical nickel-base superalloys at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, C. C.; Blackburn, M. J.

    1980-03-01

    To gain insight into the factors which control the creep-rupture properties of powder metallurgical nickel-base superalloys at intermediate temperatures (650 to 775°C), a comparative study was conducted on the alloys AF115, modified MAR-M432 (B6) and modified IN100 (MERL76). Creep-rupture properties in these alloys were characterized in terms of the stress and temperature dependence of the secondary creep rate, ɛS, andrupture time, t R . Within the limited stress ranges used, the stress dependence of both ɛS and t R at 704°C can be represented by power laws ɛS and C n and t R = Mσ -p ; where C, M, n, and p are constants. The stress exponents n and p are approximately equal for both AF115 and B6 with values of 16 and 7, respectively. In the case of MERL76, n and p are different, with values of 15 and 5, respectively. The apparent activation energies, Q, are 700, 370 and 520 KJ mol-1 for AF115, B6 and MERL76, respectively. For these alloys, long creep-rupture lives are associated with large values of n and Q. The sig-nificant differences in n and Q values between AF115 and B6 were related to creep re-covery processes for which the lattice misfit between the gamma and the gamma prime was identified to be an important parameter. However, the unequal n and p values in MERL76 compared with those in AF115 and B6, were traced to differences in fracture mode. Failures in AF115 and B6 were initiated at carbide particles at grain boundaries. In contrast, fracture in MERL76 was initiated at grain boundary triple junctions. The rupture lives of AF115 and B6 can be modeled reasonably well by the growth of cavities during secondary creep and propagation of a surface-nucleated crack during the tertiary creep.

  15. Preparation of an adhesive in emulsion for maxillofacial prosthetic.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Judith A; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-10-13

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives.

  16. Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

  17. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koiry, Bishnu; Singha, Nikhil

    2014-10-01

    Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr) as catalyst in combination with N,N,N’,N”,N”- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr) as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights versus conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using 1H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2) were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR), inverted Finemann-Ross (FR) and Kelen-Tudos (KT) methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis.

  18. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Koiry, Bishnu P; Singha, Nikhil K

    2014-01-01

    Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr) as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr) as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights vs. conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using (1)H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2) were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR), inverted Finemann-Ross (IFR), and Kelen-Tudos (KT) methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis. PMID:25368866

  19. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  20. Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1986-12-01

    A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

  1. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Robust Position Controller for an Electrohydrostatic Actuator Using Adaptive Antiwindup Sliding Mode Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640

  2. Studies of toxic aerosols via elastic and inelastic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, W.; Li, W.; Allen, T.M.; Blair, D.S.; Davis, E.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Evaporation rates and chemical characteristics of potentially toxic aerosols have been determined by elastic and inelastic light-scattering measurements. The aerosol systems examined were a commercial catalyst consisting of a mixture of stannous octanoate (SNO) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and droplets emitted from open tanks of chromic acid solutions used for anodizing aluminum. The heavy metals contained in these aerosols represent a danger to the workplace if such materials are inhaled. Nanogram amounts of the solutions were studied by suspending single microdroplets in electrodynamic balances in a flow of air to measure evaporation rates and to obtain Raman spectra. Elastic scattering data include phase functions and morphological resonance spectra from which droplet sizes are determined. The inelastic light-scattering data or Raman spectra provide molecular vibrational bond information. It was found that EHA spectra agree with bulk data in the literature, and that SNO Raman spectra, which are not available in the literature, are consistent with infrared spectra for bulk SNO. At room temperature the vapor pressure of SNO is on the order of 0.01 Pa while that of EHA is on the order of 0.1 Pa. Raman data for the residue of evaporated chromic acid solutions show the presence of chromium oxides (Cr[sup 6+] compounds), surfactants, and bound (nonvolatile) water. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  3. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  4. High-pressure magnetostrictive pump development: a comparison of prototype and modeled performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Keith; Sewell, John M.; Cooke, Arthur V.; Lutian, Joseph L.; Kohlhafer, Dennis; Small, George E.; Kuhn, Philip M.

    2004-07-01

    Current efforts to extend the mission profile of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have highlighted the need for scalable linear actuators. Typically, electrical power and control are specified for their high specific performance and ease of maintenance and replacement. Electro-Hydraulic Actuators (EHAs) provide the advantages of electrical power and control along with the proven reliability, robustness and graceful failure modes of hydraulic actuation. Current EHA technology, however, is not scalable to the degree required for projected UAVs and extension to other markets and applications. This paper will describe the measured and theoretical performance of a magnetostrictive hydraulic pump developed for one such EHA as part of the DARPA Compact Hybrid Actuator Program (CHAP). This work will focus on prototype pump designs utilizing a resonant magnetostrictive piston driver. The numerous design and operational parameters that have been tested and studied in an effort to produce an optimized pump design will be discussed. In particular, the measured and predicted performance of the resonant structure and fluidics will be compared and contrasted for several pump designs. The paper will also examine the interdependence of pump parameters and the balance required to produce a viable design with the required performance characteristics.

  5. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

    2011-03-01

    A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana.

  6. Design and experimental evaluation of a robust position controller for an electrohydrostatic actuator using adaptive antiwindup sliding mode scheme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities.

  7. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Lathan, C. E.; Peterka, R. J.; Reschke, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  8. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by the PI in the open literature.

  9. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by themore » PI in the open literature.« less

  10. Vortex collapse for the L2-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G.; Zwiers, I.

    2011-08-01

    The focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions admits vortex solitons, standing wave solutions with spatial structure, Q(m)(r, θ) = eimθR(m)(r). In the case of spin m = 1, we prove there exists a class of data that collapse with the vortex soliton profile at the log-log rate. This extends the work of Merle and Raphaël (the case m = 0) and suggests that the L2 mass that may be concentrated at a point during generic collapse may be unbounded. Difficulties with m ⩾ 2, or when the spin symmetry is broken, are also discussed.

  11. Canine deafness.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2012-11-01

    Conductive deafness, caused by outer or middle ear obstruction, may be corrected, whereas sensorineural deafness cannot. Most deafness in dogs is congenital sensorineural hereditary deafness, associated with the genes for white pigment: piebald or merle. The genetic cause has not yet been identified. Dogs with blue eyes have a greater likelihood of hereditary deafness than brown-eyed dogs. Other common forms of sensorineural deafness include presbycusis, ototoxicity, noise-induced hearing loss, otitis interna, and anesthesia. Definitive diagnosis of deafness requires brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

  12. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  13. High Pressure Gas Permeation and Liquid Diffusion Studies of Coflon and Tefzel Thermoplastics. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The life of fluid-carrying flexible or umbilical pipes during service at elevated temperatures and pressures depends inter alia on their resistance to attack by the fluids present and the rate at which these fluids are absorbed by the pipe lining materials. The consequences of fluid ingress into the thermoplastic lining could mean a) a reduction in its mechanical strength, to increase chances of crack formation and growth and thus a loss of integrity, b) the occurrence of permeation right through the lining material, with pressure build- up in the outer pipe wall construction (of flexible pipes) or chemical attack (from a hostile permeant) on outer layers of reinforcements. Therefore it is important within this project to have relevant permeation data for Coflon and Tefzel thermoplastics: the former is plasticised, the latter is not. A previous report (CAPP/M.2) described experimental equipment and techniques used by MERL when measuring high pressure (up to 5000 psi) gas permeation and liquid diffusion through thermoplastic samples cut from extruded bar or pipe, and provided the basic theory involved. Norsk Hydro are also performing gas permeation tests on pipe sections, at up to 100 bars (1450 psi) pressure or so, and reporting separately. Some comparisons between data from Norsk Hydro and MERL have been made herein. The tests should be considered as complementary, as the Norsk Hydro test has the obvious benefit of using complete pipe sections, whilst MERL can test at much higher pressures, up to 1000 bar if necessary. The sophisticated analytical measuring equipment of Norsk Hydro can distinguish the individual components of mixed gases and hence the various permeation-linked coefficients whereas MERL, in using pressure increase at constant volume to determine permeation rate, is limited to obtaining single gas data, or apparent (or representative) coefficients for a mixed gas as a whole. Except for the initial fluid diffusion data for Tefzel described in CAPP

  14. The fracture morphology of nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Miner, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of compact tension specimens from seven nickel-base superalloys fatigue tested at 650 C were studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography to determine the nature and morphology of the crack surface in the region of stable growth. Crack propagation testing was performed as part of an earlier study at 650 C in air using a 0.33 Hz fatigue cycle and a creep-fatigue cycle incorporating a 900 second dwell at maximum load. In fatigue, alloys with a grain size greater than 20 micrometers, HIP Astroloy, Waspaloy, and MERL 76, exhibited transgranular fracture. MERL 76 also displayed numerous fracture sites which were associated with boundaries of prior powder particles. The two high strength, fine grain alloys, IN 100 and NASA IIB-7, exhibited intergranular fracture. Rene 95 and HIP plus forged Astroloy displayed a mixed failure mode that was transgranular in the coarse grains and intergranular in the fine grains. Under creep-fatigue conditions, fracture was found to be predominantly intergranular in all seven alloys.

  15. Free vascularized fibular grafting benefits severely collapsed femoral head in concomitant with osteoarthritis in very young adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Gao, You-Shui; Chen, Sheng-Bao; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2013-07-01

    Although free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) has been successfully employed for precollapsed osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), there are few reports concerning its radiographic and functional results for ONFH concomitant with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In the current study, 12 patients with OA induced by traumatic ONFH were enrolled, with FVFG employed as the treatment protocol. The collapsed step of the cartilage surface was measured and compared with the postoperative value, and the Merle d'Aubigné scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative status of the hip joint. The collapsed step disappeared, and sphericity of the femoral head could be restored at an average duration of 56 months postoperatively in seven patients. With regard to the severity of hip OA, six were improved to Grade 1 and one to Grade 2. In terms of functionality, all patients with a restored femoral head experienced postoperative improvement in pain relief, mobility, and functional capacity. The average Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 6.0 to 16.9 postoperatively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, for traumatic ONFH concomitant with OA, FVFG can confer benefits in the form of restoration of the contour of the femoral head and improvement in joint function. PMID:23588546

  16. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-11-15

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings "The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle," depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ~25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as "leopard" in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.

  17. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ∼25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

  18. Proof of a Spectral Property related to the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Merle, Frank; Raphaël, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    We give a proof of a Spectral Property related to the description of the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation iut+Δu+u|=0 in dimensions N=2,3,4. Assuming this property, the rigorous mathematical analysis developed in a recent series of papers by Merle and Raphaël provides a complete description of the collapse dynamics for a suitable class of initial data. In particular, this implies in dimension N=2 the existence of a large class of solutions blowing up with the log-log speed |∼√{{log|log(T-t)}/{T-t}} where T>0 is the blow up time. This Spectral Property is equivalent to the coercivity of some Schrödinger type operators. An analytic proof is given in [F. Merle, P. Raphaël, Blow up dynamic and upper bound on the blow up rate for critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Ann. of Math. 161 (1) (2005) 157-222] in dimension N=1 and in this paper, we give a computer assisted proof in dimensions N=2,3,4. We propose in particular a rigorous mathematical frame to reduce the check of this type of coercivity property to accessible and robust numerical results.

  19. Numerical study of blow-up and dispersive shocks in solutions to generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, C.; Peter, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of solutions to general Korteweg-de Vries equations with critical and supercritical nonlinearity, both in the context of dispersive shocks and blow-up. We study the stability of solitons and show that they are unstable against being radiated away and blow-up. In the L2 critical case, the blow-up mechanism by Martel, Merle and Raphaël can be numerically identified. In the limit of small dispersion, it is shown that a dispersive shock always appears before an eventual blow-up. In the latter case, always the first soliton to appear will blow up. It is shown that the same type of blow-up as for the perturbations of the soliton can be observed which indicates that the theory by Martel, Merle and Raphaël is also applicable to initial data with a mass much larger than the soliton mass. We study the scaling of the blow-up time t∗ in dependence of the small dispersion parameter ɛ and find an exponential dependence t∗(ɛ) and that there is a minimal blow-up time t0∗ greater than the critical time of the corresponding Hopf solution for ɛ → 0. To study the cases with blow-up in detail, we apply the first dynamic rescaling for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations. This allows to identify the type of the singularity.

  20. The Burch-Schneider antiprotrusio cage: medium follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Lamo-Espinosa, J; Duart Clemente, J; Díaz-Rada, P; Pons-Villanueva, J; Valentí-Nín, J R

    2013-04-01

    With the development of hip prosthesis, younger patients may need more than one revision surgery, with less bone stock available in each subsequent surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the hip revision surgeries in which a Burch-Schneider device has been used. Patients were classified according to the Paprosky score. Functional and clinical evaluation was assessed by the Merlé-Daubigné score. Radiolucencies were assessed by Gill's criteria. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 66.1 years were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 60.7 months. According to Paprosky classification, 18.7% were grade IIb, 56.3% grade IIIa and 25% grade IIIb. The mean Merlé-Daubigné score improved from 10 to 15 points. Radiologically, 12 patients had no radiolucencies, two had grade I radiolucencies and two had grade III radiolucencies. In greater than 50% of acetabular defects, the Burch-Schneider seems to be useful providing clinical and functional improvement. Immediately, non-progressive radiolucencies are not associated with implant loosening at the end of follow-up. The ischial flap should be inserted inside the ischial portion of the acetabulum.

  1. Theoretical study of the external heavy atom effect on phosphorescence of free-base porphin molecule.

    PubMed

    Minaev, Boris

    2004-11-01

    The radiative lifetime of phosphorescence of free-base porphin (H2P) molecule and its complexes with noble-gas atoms are calculated by time-dependent density functions theory (TD DFT) with quadratic response functions for account of spin-orbit coupling and electric dipole activity. The complexes with Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are used to simulate the external heavy atom (EHA) effect on phosphorescence of the H2P molecule in the corresponding noble gas matrices. The B3LYP functional and small basis set (3-21G) are used throughout the study and comparison of all complexes but other basis sets are also utilized to support the chosen approach. A slow radiative rate constant of free-base porphin phosphorescence (about 10(-3) s(-1)) is obtained with all basis sets being in the order of magnitude agreement with experimental estimations. A strong enhancement of the H2P phosphorescence rate (by 360 times) is calculated for Xe complex; while for Ne, Ar, and Kr complexes, the enhancement is equal to 1.1, 1.3, and 10.3 times, respectively. In these complexes, the noble gas atom is disposed at 3.6 A above the center of the porphin ring. In spite of shortcomings of the chosen simple model, the TD DFT calculations explain the most important features of the EHA effect on phosphorescence of free-base porphin. Calculations of the hyperfine coupling tensors for all magnetic nuclei in the lowest triplet state of H2P molecule and its complexes with noble-gas atoms indicate an appreciable penetration of the spin density to the EHA region. This can be connected with the enhancement of spin-orbit coupling in the H2P molecule.

  2. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  3. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections. PMID:26323263

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) embryo axes and the development of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McKently, A H; Moore, G A; Doostdar, H; Niedz, R P

    1995-08-01

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants have been produced using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Zygotic embryo axes from mature seed were cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harboring a binary vector that contained the genes for the scorable marker B-glucuronidase (GUS) and the selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II. Nine percent of the germinated seedlings were GUS+. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that GUS+ shoots and T1 progeny contained T-DNA. Molecular characterization of one primary transformant and its T1 and T2 progeny plants established that T-DNA was integrated into the host genome. PMID:24186625

  5. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces]. Technical progress report, August 1, 1985--July 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  6. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  7. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (P<0.0001) were observed for the methanolic extract of leaf against larval development (57.6% +/-7.6), with a dose dependent effect. These results suggest that Cassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf.

  8. Development of the egg hatch assay for detection of anthelminthic resistance in human hookworms.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Wright, Victoria; Ramsan, Mahdi; Haji, Hamadi J; Taylor, Martin; Savioli, Lorenzo; Bickle, Quentin

    2005-06-01

    Evidence of development and rapid spread of anthelminthic resistance in veterinary nematodes raises concern that the increasingly frequent treatments used in chemotherapy-based programmes to control human soil-transmitted helminths may select resistant worms. The aim of this study was to adapt, refine, and evaluate the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) test, which has been used for veterinary nematodes, for field testing of benzimidazole (BZ) susceptibility/resistance in human hookworms. A second objective was to use this EHA to assess whether a population of worms resistant to mebendazole (MBZ) has built up in a sub-population of frequently treated children in Pemba Island. Stools from 470 school children enrolled in the first (Standard 1) and in the fifth (Standard 5) class were examined at baseline and at 21 days after treatment with 500 mg MBZ or placebo tablets. Standard 1 children had never received any MBZ treatment whilst Standard 5 children had received a total of 13 rounds of treatment. The EHA, involving culture of purified eggs with increasing drug concentrations showed that, for thiabendazole (TBZ), the mean ED(50)s (concentrations required to prevent 50% of the viable eggs from hatching) for all children at baseline were 0.079 microg/ml at 48h and 0.120 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For MBZ, the mean ED(50)s for all children at baseline were 0.895 microg/ml at 48h and 1.50 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For TBZ and for MBZ the ED(50) from Standard 1 were similar to those from Standard 5 children both at 48 and at 72h. At the follow-up for TBZ and for MBZ, there was no significant difference between the ED(50) from children who had received MBZ and children treated with placebo. In Pemba, TBZ ED(50) values of children non-exposed (Standard 1) and of children exposed (Standard 5) to MBZ treatment, and data from children treated with MBZ and placebo indicate that a drug-resistant worm population has not built up within treated individuals, and that periodic treatment has

  9. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  10. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (P<0.0001) were observed for the methanolic extract of leaf against larval development (57.6% +/-7.6), with a dose dependent effect. These results suggest that Cassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf. PMID:20638799

  11. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  13. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC. PMID:27439967

  14. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  15. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Screening Test of Ethyl Hydrogen Adipate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chunja; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Han, Kyoung-Goo; Jo, Eunhye; Yoo, Sun-kyoung; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity and safety of ethyl hydrogen adipate (EHA) by determining its effect on the reproductive function and development of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (control), 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day. One male and five females of the 800 mg/kg/day died. Body weight loss was observed in the males of the 800 mg/kg/day and in females of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. In addition, mating indices decreased and pre-implantation loss rates increased in parental animals of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The gestation index decreased in the male and female rats of the 800 mg/kg/day. Moreover, the body weight of the pups from the 800 mg/kg/day group decreased on post-parturition day 4. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of EHA for parental males and females was 400 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, and that for pups was 400 mg/kg/day.

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  17. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukalianan

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer. PMID:27351975

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  20. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development. PMID:23146415

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  2. A Likely Explanation of the New Cold Heliosheath Discovered by Voyager 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The 'hot heliosheath' that the Voyagers have been exploring since they crossed the termination shock ended suddenly at the 'heliocliff ' when Voyager 1 (V1) was at a radial distance of ~122 AU. V1 then entered the 'cold heliosheath', an entirely different region of the heliosheath. Termination shock particles with energies >40 keV and ACRs (observed with LECP, CRS instruments on V1), which are found to be accelerated most efficiently in the magnetically turbulent 'hot heliosheath' near the 'heliocliff ', suddenly disappeared. In the 'cold heliosheath' the magnetic field (measured with MAG) is remarkably nonturbulent and its magnitude increased suddenly by a factor of about two immediately after crossing the 'heliocliff '. Yet, no change in the field direction was detected, implying that the 'heliocliff ' was not the tangential discontinuity of the heliopause. We will present our model that accounts for, and indeed requires the existence of a cold heliosheath. We will also report on our most recent analysis of Energetic Hydrogen Atoms (EHAs) measured with IBEX and Cassini. We conclude that these EHA observations are consistent with the existence of a global 'cold heliosheath' and predict that V1 will cross the heliopause at about 140 AU.

  3. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Wall, C; Furman, J M

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction (VVI) using 60 degrees/s constant velocity earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation was measured in 7 human subjects. This so-called 'barbecue spit' rotation stimulated both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD), while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). The resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed. During EOD, subjects showed an exponentially decaying SCV response with a time constant of between 10 and 15 s that decayed to a non-zero baseline value (bias). Superimposed was a cyclic activity, modulation, whose period equalled the time for a complete revolution of the subject. During FIX, the average value of SCV was nearly zero indicating almost complete abolition of the exponential decay and bias components. The modulation component was reduced by half. During VVR, an exponential decay was observed in most subjects and the average value of the bias component nearly equalled that of the velocity of rotation. Modulation during VVR varied on a cycle-by-cycle basis. On average, the modulation component was nearly twice that for the EOD condition. We conclude that visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a non-linear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  4. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, P; Sekar, C

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 3 × 10(-5)M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples.

  5. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  6. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  7. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukalianan

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer.

  8. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Sanita; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Wei Wen; Gu, Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHAE) is a malignant vascular tumor derived from endothelial cell often misdiagnosed as Hepatic carcinoma on the basis of radiological features. Till now etiology of this rare curiosity is unknown but it is related with use of oral contraceptives pills (OCP), liver trauma, exposure to vinyl chloride and hepatitis. We herein report on a case which failed to be diagnosed by cytopathology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient was a 46 yr old man presented with abdominal distension for a month. Initial liver function test (LFT) was increased whereas renal function test (RFT) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. His abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules and multiple liver calcifications. Subsequently laparoscopic omental biopsy and Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was done showing the neoplastic cells scattered in fibrous stroma. The immunohistochemistry for endothelial tumor cells stained positive for Vimentin (+++), CD10 (+++), CD34 (++), CD31 (+), Factor VIII antigen (focal) (+) and low proliferative activity for ki-67. Our case is very interesting in which patient admitted with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and diagnosed to be a Malignant Hepatic EHAE metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery. The patient was on thalidomide 50 mg/day and increased to 100 mg/day. 5-Flurouracil (FU) intraperitoneal chemotherapy and other symptomatic and supportive treatment was given to the patient. Our case highlights on the importance of immunohistopathological diagnosis, compare the radiological findings of this disease and discuss the treatment strategy with review of available literature. PMID:26191313

  9. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer. PMID:27351975

  10. In vitro effects of Tabernaemontana citrifolia extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Mahieu, M; D'Alexis, S; Philibert, L; Archimede, H

    2010-08-01

    Tabernaemontana citrifolia (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used as an anthelmintic preparation for ruminants in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of this plant against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of T. citrifolia fruit, leaf and root were tested on four developmental stages of the parasite, using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI), and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects were observed for the different parts of T. citrifolia but with differences depending on the parasitic stage; efficacies on the larval development of H. contortus from 88.9% to 99.8% for fruit, from 72.1% to 83.8% for root and from 33.5% to 85% for leaf with dose-dependent effect for the methanolic extract. The root gave the best result on EHA (22.7% efficacy for dichloromethane extract) and AWM (56% efficacy, with dose-dependent effect for dichloromethane extract) and the leaf on LMI (49.4% efficacy). These results suggest that T. citrifolia possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active ingredients responsible for the activity could be the alkaloid compounds present in the plant parts of the plant. PMID:20117808

  11. Cup-cage construct for acute fractures of the acetabulum, re-defining indications.

    PubMed

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Rojo-Manaute, Jose; Sanz-Ruíz, Pablo; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Acetabular fractures in the elderly are challenging injuries. The use of a trabecular metal acetabular cage was investigated as the treatment option in a series of elderly patients with acetabular fractures. At a 2-year follow up, 6 elderly patients were found to have mimimum pain, increased function, and increased scores using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel system modified by Charnley. Radiographically, the areas of morsellised autograft that surrounded the cups were seen to have incorporated uniformly well, and the acetabular fractures were healed within six months after surgery. No mechanical failure, screw breakage, loosening, or migration was noticed. This novel indication of the cup-cage construction that uses revision techniques, for selected patients and fractures, to achieve an acute stable reconstruction, should be considered as an alternative reconstruction option in elderly patients presenting with acetabular fractures.

  12. Peasant and state in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Dinerman, A

    2001-01-01

    Merle Bowen's study focuses on the evolution of the 'middle peasantry' in both colonial and postcolonial Mozambique. In doing so, she successfully challenges long-standing, if highly problematic, notions that the Mozambican economy consists of a 'traditional', subsistence-oriented peasant sector with only nominal links to 'modern' forms of agriculture, the urban areas, and regional and international markets. At the same time, she usefully illuminates continuities in colonial and post-independence agrarian policies and shows the ways in which the experience of smallholder agricultural co-operatives under the Portuguese shaped the peasantry's perceptions of, and responses to, collective agriculture under Frelimo. However, the evidence in Bowen's case study does not necessarily sustain her central thesis that the post-independence state, like its colonial predecessor, was 'anti-peasant'. This is one of several criticisms made of Bowen's text.

  13. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  14. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  15. Stability and Instability of the KDV Solitary Wave Under the KP-I Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Frederic; Tzvetkov, Nikolay

    2012-07-01

    We consider the KP-I and gKP-I equations in {{{R}} × ({{R}}/2π{{Z}})}. We prove that the KdV soliton with subcritical speed 0 < c < c* is orbitally stable under the global KP-I flow constructed by Ionescu and Kenig (Ann Math Stud 163:181-211, 2007). For supercritical speeds c > c*, in the spirit of the work by Duyckaerts and Merle (GAFA 18:1787-1840, 2009), we sharpen our previous instability result and construct a global solution which is different from the solitary wave and its translates and which converges to the solitary wave as time goes to infinity. This last result also holds for the gKP-I equation.

  16. Clinical results of cementless total hip arthroplasty with shortening osteotomy for high dislocation with developmental dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Desteli, Engin Eren; Imren, Yunus; Tan, Erkan; Erdoğan, Murat; Özcan, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip is a technically challenging procedure. Subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy enables reducing the femoral head and restoring abductor muscle strength without compromising proximal femoral bone stock in advanced dysplasia.We aimed to retrospectively evaluate Crowe type III or IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent reconstruction with cementless total hip arthroplasty combined with a transverse subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy. Sixty hips of 52 patients (11 male, 49 female) with Crowe type III (n: 37) or IV (n: 23) developmental dysplasia of the hip were included. The average age was 51.4 years. Surgery was performed in lateral decubitis position with posterolateral approach. Subtrochanteric transverse femoral osteotomy were used with cementless components. 40 of the femoral components were Secur-Fit type, and 20 of them were secur-fit plus max type. Ceramic-ceramic coupling was used in 24 cases and metal-polyethylene coupling was used in 36 cases. Merle D'Aubigne and Harris Hip score were used to rate the clinical outcome at the final follow up. All femoral shortening osteotomies were united at a mean of 5.7 months. Mean Merle D'Aubigne pain score was increased from 3.1 to 5.4, and mean Harris Hip score improved from 39 to 92.8, postoperatively (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems. 4 femoral stems had asymptomatic radiolucent lines. There was no significant difference in time to union between different types of stems. PMID:26280851

  17. Volatilization and efflux of mercury from biologically productive ocean regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Mercury volatilization and oceanic evasion to the atmosphere were investigated in the tropical Pacific Ocean with emphasis on the biologically productive equatorial region. Further studies were conducted at two stations in the oligiotrophic North Pacific gyre, and in the estuarine mesocosms at the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL), University of Rhode Island. Dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) in the tropical Pacific along 150/degree/ W at 4 stations ranged from 35-85 femtomoles per liter (fM) in surface waters and from 105-185 fM in deeper waters. Speciation experiments indicated that Hg/degree/was the dominant form in surface waters, while evidence for (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/Hg was found at depth. In equatorial Pacific surface waters, DGM varied between 60 and 225 fM. Elemental Hg appears to comprise the major fraction of DGM. Elevated DGM concentrations corresponded with increased chlorophyll a levels and cooler, nutrient-rich waters. Surface waters of the equatorial Pacific were supersaturated with respect to Hg/degree/. Local Hg effluxes, estimated with a thin-film gas exchange model, were between 225 and 1050 pmoles/m/sup 2/ day. The annual Hg efflux from the equatorial Pacific, 1.6 /+-/ 1.3 /times/ 10/sup +6/ moles, was estimated at 4-5% of the total global Hg flux to the atmosphere. Dissolved gaseous Hg in the MERL mesocosms ranged from less than or equal to30 to 185 fM. In general, Hg/degree/ was the principal species, although (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/minus// Hg was detected twice. Supersaturated levels of Hg/degrees/ corresponded with phytoplankton blooms of Cerataulina pelagica, Leptocylindrus danicus, Leptocylindrus mimimus, and Phaeocystis poucheti, suggesting that these phytoplankton could volatilize Hg in estuarine waters.

  18. Lesion of the hip abductor mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caviglia, Horacio; Cambiaggi, Guillermo; Vattani, Nosrat; Landro, María Eulalia; Galatro, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The disruption of the abductor muscles of the hip after hip revision surgery often causes limping, pain, and instability of the implant. The purpose of our paper is to describe a mesh technique to repair hip abductor mechanism injuries after hip revision. Patients and methods: Forty-six patients with hip abductor damage after prosthetic revision were treated. Inclusion criteria were: patients presenting with prosthetic loosening, complaint of pain, and with a positive Trendelenburg sign due to deficient abductor muscle mechanisms. Thirty-one were women (67.39%) with an average age of 64 years (34–82 years). The number of previous revision surgeries was three (two to seven). The Merle d’Aubigné score and variants before and after treatment were also reported. Results: In the postoperative follow-up after hip revision with the mesh technique, the Merle d’Aubigné score improved and the Trendelenburg sign was negative in 78.3% of the patients (p < 0.001). Also, the Trendelenburg test with the knee flexed was negative in 60.9% (p < 0.001) and the stair-climbing test was negative in 60.9% of cases (p < 0.001). The gluteus medius test in the lateral position was negative in 52.2% of patients, and in the lateral position with the knee flexed it was negative in 47.8% of patients (p < 0.001). Discussion: Repair of the abductor mechanism with the mesh technique has proven effective for both partial and total lesions. PMID:27382925

  19. [Acetabular fractures in the elderly. Outcome of open reduction and internal fixation].

    PubMed

    Tosounidis, G; Culemann, U; Bauer, M; Holstein, J H; Garcia, P; Kurowski, R; Pizanis, A; Aghayev, E; Pohlemann, T

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome and incidence of hip arthritis in elderly patients with acetabular fractures. Because of poor bone quality in the elderly, even a low-energy trauma may lead to an acetabular fracture. An anatomical reconstruction of the acetabulum is necessary to achieve sufficient stability also for a potential hip arthroplasty. So far, there is very limited information on the outcome of acetabular fractures in the elderly. During a period of 6 years (2001-2006), 48 patients older than 60 years were admitted to our department with an acetabular fracture. Thirty-nine patients were treated operatively and nine patients non-operatively. Twenty-nine operatively treated patients were followed up. Nineteen of them were assessed using EQ-5D, SF-12 and Merle d'Aubigné questionnaires in addition to their clinical examination. Ten other surgical patients were only examined using the questionnaires. Of the 29 patients that were followed up, 5 underwent total hip arthroplasty due to secondary post-traumatic hip arthritis after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The range of motion of the operated hip was comparable to that of the non-operated contralateral side. However, the internal rotation was found to be slightly decreased at the operated side when compared to the non-operated contralateral side. Merle d'Aubigné score and physical and mental SF-12 score components as well as quality of life were better in patients treated with ORIF compared to those patients that were treated by secondary hip arthroplasty. Regarding the different treatment strategies (ORIF vs primary hip arthroplasty vs non-operative treatment) of acetabular fractures in the elderly, data from the literature are conflicting. Our results indicate that ORIF represents a good treatment option for acetabular fractures in the elderly. In patients that did not develop secondary hip arthritis, a good clinical outcome and quality of life was documented. PMID

  20. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Kim, Hee-soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Conclusion Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less. PMID:27536648

  1. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P < 0.0001), however, praziquantel did not record any reduction of Fasciola egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P < 0.01). In albendazole, the hatching varied according to the drug concentration. At the highest two concentrations; 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, the hatching percentages were 7.4 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 1.5 (P < 0.01) respectively. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect.

  2. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  3. Transformation and regeneration of Brassica rapa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Radke, S E; Turner, J C; Facciotti, D

    1992-09-01

    Transformation and regeneration procedures for obtaining transgenic Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera plants are described. Regeneration frequencies were increasedby using silver nitrate and by adjusting the duration of exposure to 2,4-D. For transformation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 containing a binary plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) and the b-glucuronidase gene (GUS) was cocultivated with hypocotyl explants from the oilseed B. rapa cvs. Tobin and Emma. Transformed plants were obtained within three months of cocultivation. Transformation frequencies for the cultivars Tobin and Emma were 1-9%. Evidence for transformation was shown by NPT II dot blot assay, the GUS fluorometric assay, Southern analysis, and segregation of the kanamycin-resistance trait in the progeny. The transformation and regeneration procedure described here has been used routinely to transform two cultivars of B. rapa and 18 cultivars of B. napus.

  4. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%. PMID:25416268

  5. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. PMID:20980034

  6. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  7. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse.

  8. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  9. Transformation and regeneration of Brassica rapa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Radke, S E; Turner, J C; Facciotti, D

    1992-09-01

    Transformation and regeneration procedures for obtaining transgenic Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera plants are described. Regeneration frequencies were increasedby using silver nitrate and by adjusting the duration of exposure to 2,4-D. For transformation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 containing a binary plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPT II) and the b-glucuronidase gene (GUS) was cocultivated with hypocotyl explants from the oilseed B. rapa cvs. Tobin and Emma. Transformed plants were obtained within three months of cocultivation. Transformation frequencies for the cultivars Tobin and Emma were 1-9%. Evidence for transformation was shown by NPT II dot blot assay, the GUS fluorometric assay, Southern analysis, and segregation of the kanamycin-resistance trait in the progeny. The transformation and regeneration procedure described here has been used routinely to transform two cultivars of B. rapa and 18 cultivars of B. napus. PMID:24213157

  10. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines. PMID:25416248

  11. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Lewi, Dalia M; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is considered one of the recalcitrant species in terms of transformation and regeneration. A routine transformation system of this crop requires competent cell cultures for efficient plant regeneration as well as an effective method for gene delivery. A transformation system was developed by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method using split mature embryonic axis explants from the Ha89 genotype. Mean transformation efficiency obtained (measured as PCR+ plants/treated explants) varied from 1 to 5.2% depending on the use of the EHA105 or the C58 strain containing a plasmid with a gene of agronomic interest. The system developed has applicability to several Agrobacterium strains and plasmids with both reporter genes or genes of agronomic interest. Plants obtained with this protocol were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until generation T4 in several independent lines. PMID:16988353

  12. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant.

  13. The use of the PMI/mannose selection system to recover transgenic sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Boscariol, R L; Almeida, W A B; Derbyshire, M T V C; Mourão Filho, F A A; Mendes, B M J

    2003-09-01

    A new method for obtaining transgenic sweet orange plants was developed in which positive selection (Positech) based on the Escherichia coli phosphomannose-isomerase (PMI) gene as the selectable marker gene and mannose as the selective agent was used. Epicotyl segments from in vitro-germinated plants of Valencia, Hamlin, Natal and Pera sweet oranges were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101-pNOV2116 and subsequently selected on medium supplemented with different concentrations of mannose or with a combination of mannose and sucrose as a carbon source. Genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. The transgene expression was evaluated using a chlorophenol red assay and isoenzymes. The transformation efficiency rate ranged from 3% to 23.8%, depending on cultivar. This system provides an efficient manner for selecting transgenic sweet orange plants without using antibiotics or herbicides.

  14. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse. PMID:25300846

  15. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent, mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% +/- 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1 to 55.3%.

  16. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  17. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. PMID:24382490

  18. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  19. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  20. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    PubMed

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  1. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Julia; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts.

  3. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid. PMID:26477279

  4. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  5. Root and shoot parts of strawberry: factories for production of functional human pro-insulin.

    PubMed

    Tavizi, Ashkan; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Mohebodini, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, a disease caused by excessive blood sugar, is caused by the lack of insulin. For commercial production, insulin is made in bacteria or yeast by protein recombinant technology. The focus of this research is evaluating another resource and producing of recombinant insulin protein in as strawberry as this plant has high potential in production of pharmaceutical proteins. Strawberry is a suitable bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins especially edible vaccines. In this research, human pro-insulin gene was cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector under CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, EHA101, C58, C58 (pGV2260) and C58 (pGV3101) strains were used for transformation of pro-insulin gene into strawberry cv. Camarosa, Selva, Sarian Hybrid, Pajaro, Paros, Gaviota, Alpine. Additionally, Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, R1000, A4 and MSU440 strains were utilized for gene transformation into hairy roots. PCR analysis indicated the presence of transformed human pro-insulin gene in the strawberry and hairy roots. Also, its transcription was confirmed using RT-PCR. Furthermore, the analysis of plants, fruits and hairy roots at the level of proteins using dot blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and ECL tests re-confirmed the expression of this protein in the transgenic plants as well as hairy roots. Protein purification of human pro-insulin from transgenic tissues was performed using affinity chromatography. Finally, the bioassay of recombinant pro-insulin was performed. The analysis of second generations of transgenic plants (T1) at DNA and protein levels was also performed as a complementary experiment. This study opens a new avenue in molecular farming of human pro-insulin through its mass production in roots and shoots of strawberry.

  6. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  7. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds.

  8. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid.

  9. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-08-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  10. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04 MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01 MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. PMID:26458114

  11. Uncemented custom femoral components in hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose We have developed an individually designed, uncemented femoral component for achievement of improved strain distribution and fixation to the bone, to make uncemented stems more applicable in femurs of abnormal size and shape, and to improve the joint mechanics. Here we describe the design of the implant and present the results of a prospective clinical study with at least 7 years of follow-up. Patients and methods The prostheses are produced by CAD-CAM technique. The design of the stem is based on CT information, and the neck design is based on the surgeon's planning of the center of rotation, femoral head offset, and leg length correction. The first-generation stem produced before 2001 had a proximal HA coating and a sand-blasted distal part that was down-scaled to avoid contact with compact bone. The second-generation stem had a porous coating beneath the HA layer and the distal part of the stem was polished. The implant was used in 762 hips (614 patients) from 1995 until 2009. 191 of these hips were followed for 7 years and 83 others were followed for 10 years, and these hips are included in the present study. Mean age at surgery was 48 (20–65) years. Congenital dysplasia of the hip was the reason for osteoarthritis in 46% and 57% of the hips in respective groups. Merle d'Aubigné score was recorded in 152 and 75 hips in the two groups. Prostheses followed for 10 years, and almost all in the 7-year group, were first-generation stems. Results The 7- and 10-year cumulative revision rates were 1.1% and 2.4%, respectively, with stem revision for any reason as endpoint. The clinical results were similar at 7 and 10 years, with Merle d'Aubigné scores of 17. Intraoperative trochanteric fissures occurred in 2 of the 191 operations (1.0%); both healed after wiring. In hips followed for 7 years, 2 periprosthetic fractures occurred; exchange of the stem was necessary in both. One additional fracture occurred between 7 and 10 years, and it was

  12. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  13. Outreach geology with the "balades géologiques" project based on smartphone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoroff, Grégoire; de Wever, Patrick; Cornee, Annie

    2014-05-01

    ., Bonnefoy B., Houssaye A., De Wever P. & Merle D. (2008) - Promenade géologique à Etampes. Coll. balades géologiques, SGF-MNHN-BRGM, 30 pages. Egoroff G., De Wever P., Merle D. & Métivier B. (2011) - Promenade géologique à Dourdan. Biotope, Mèze - MNHN, Paris - BRGM, Orléans (Collection Balades géologiques), 38 pages. Nouvellet S., Egoroff G. & De Wever P. (2013) - Virtual Milly-la-Forêt Geological stroll, online. Android app Wikitude, « ID Bio-Balades géologiques » project "Milly-la-Forêt".

  14. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  15. Volatilization and Efflux of Mercury from Biologically Productive Ocean Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonathan Philip

    Mercury volatilization and oceanic evasion to the atmosphere were investigated in the tropical Pacific Ocean with emphasis on the biologically productive equatorial region. Further studies were conducted at two stations in the oligiotrophic North Pacific gyre, and in the estuarine mesocosms at the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL), University of Rhode Island. Dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) in the tropical Pacific along 150^circ W at 4 stations (10^circ N, 0^ circ, 5^circ S, 12^circ S) ranged from 35-85 femtomoles per liter (fM) in surface waters and from 105-185 fM in deeper waters (350-400 meters). Speciation experiments indicated that Hg^circ was the dominant form in surface waters, while evidence for (CH_3)_2Hg was found at depth. The increases of DGM with depth are consistent with a volatile Hg source in deeper waters. A significant correlation between DGM and apparent oxygen utilization (n = 23, r = 0.694) suggested bacterial methylation of Hg in the oxygen minimum zone. In equatorial Pacific surface waters (155-95 ^circ W), DGM varied between 60 and 225 fM. Elemental Hg appears to comprise the major fraction of DGM. Elevated DGM concentrations corresponded with increased chlorophyll a levels and cooler, nutrient-rich waters. These results suggest that phytoplankton might volatilize Hg in surface seawater or bacteria could produce Hg^circ in deeper waters which upwell to the sea surface. Surface waters of the equatorial Pacific were supersaturated with respect to Hg^circ (179-1769%). Local Hg effluxes, estimated with a thin-film gas exchange model, were between 225 and 1050 pmoles/m^2day. The anual Hg efflux from the equatorial Pacific, 1.6 +/- 1.3 times 10^{+6 } moles (megamoles), was estimated at 4-5% of the total global Hg flux to the atmosphere. When normalized to primary production, a yearly Hg efflux of 14 +/- 9 megamoles was predicted for the oceans. This is about 35% of the annual atmospheric Hg flux and is comparable to human-derived Hg

  16. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  17. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  18. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  19. Asymptotic Stability of High-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, Raphaël; Muñoz, Claudio; Pilod, Didier; Simpson, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    We prove that solitons (or solitary waves) of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, a physically relevant high dimensional generalization of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation appearing in Plasma Physics, and having mixed KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) dynamics, are strongly asymptotically stable in the energy space. We also prove that the sum of well-arranged solitons is stable in the same space. Orbital stability of ZK solitons is well-known since the work of de Bouard [Proc R Soc Edinburgh 126:89-112, 1996]. Our proofs follow the ideas of Martel [SIAM J Math Anal 157:759-781, 2006] and Martel and Merle [Math Ann 341:391-427, 2008], applied for generalized KdV equations in one dimension. In particular, we extend to the high dimensional case several monotonicity properties for suitable half-portions of mass and energy; we also prove a new Liouville type property that characterizes ZK solitons, and a key Virial identity for the linear and nonlinear part of the ZK dynamics, obtained independently of the mixed KdV-NLS dynamics. This last Virial identity relies on a simple sign condition which is numerically tested for the two and three dimensional cases with no additional spectral assumptions required. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and different nonlinearities could be obtained after a suitable local well-posedness theory in the energy space, and the verification of a corresponding sign condition.

  20. Technique to treat iliopsoas irritation after total hip replacement: Thickening of articular hip capsule through an abridged direct anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Benad, K; Delay, C; Putman, S; Girard, J; Pasquier, G; Migaud, H

    2015-12-01

    Iliopsoas irritation due to acetabular cup component impingement following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is usually treated by infiltration or by distal iliopsoas tenotomy in case of recurrence; however, this can result in an active flexion deficit of the thigh. To prevent this complication, we developed an original technique that we performed between 2012 and 2014 in patients with recurrent impingement following extraarticular corticosteroid injections. This included 5 patients (mean age: 64 [53-75] years old) in whom we performed an ambulatory bursectomy by the Hueter approach and placed a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl™) mesh plate on the entire anterior hip capsule. After a mean follow-up of 12months (9-29months), anterior pain had decreased in all patients with improvement and an increase in the Oxford-12 (mean: 15 points [10-19]), Merle d'Aubigné (mean: 2.5 points [1-5]) and Harris (mean: 18 points [10-29]) scores. No flexion deficits were observed. An infected postoperative hematoma had to be drained but was cured at follow-up. This simple procedure provides satisfactory results and preserves THA function. It does not jeopardize future procedures and is an alternative option in case of unsuccessful conservative treatment. PMID:26548515

  1. Survival analysis of cementless grit-blasted titanium total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, C; Kapandji, A I

    2001-04-01

    Although about 200000 cementless Zweymüller-Alloclassic total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were carried out worldwide in the last decade, the survival analysis of these prostheses was not available in the 2000 report of the Swedish national hip arthroplasty registry. We report a prospective survivorship analysis of 200 consecutive grit-blasted cementless Alloclassic primary THAs carried out since 1988. Using surgical, clinical and radiological endpoints for the stem and the threaded cup the ten-year survivorship was 91.5% for reoperation for any cause, 96.4% for hip pain (Merle d'Aubigné score < 5 points, clinical failure), 99.4% for definite aseptic loosening (radiological failure) and 99.3% for revision for aseptic loosening. Using the Swedish registry criteria of primary osteoarthritis and revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate of 99.1% at ten years for the subgroup of 157 Alloclassic THAs in osteoarthritis compares favourably with that of the best modern cemented hip replacements reported in the Swedish arthroplasty registry. PMID:11341429

  2. Custom Cementless Stem Improves Hip Function in Young Patients at 15-year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Flecher, Xavier; Pearce, Oliver; Parratte, Sebastien; Aubaniac, Jean-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    THA in young patients is challenging regarding restoration and survival because patients are young, active, and tend to have disturbed anatomy. We asked whether a three-dimensional custom cementless stem could restore hip function, decrease osteolysis and wear, and enhance stem survival in young patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients (233 hips) younger than 50 years (mean, 40 years) at a followup of 5 to 16 years (mean, 10 years). The Merle D’Aubigné-Postel and Harris hip scores improved at last followup. No thigh pain was recorded for any of the patients; 187 of the 212 patients (88%) had full activity recovery, 206 had full range of motion, and 151 had a score greater than 80 points for all five categories of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome score. Five patients had femoral osteolysis not associated with pain. With revision for any reason as an end point, the survivorship was 87% (range, 77%–97%) at 15 years, and considering stem revision only, the survivorship was 93% (confidence interval, 90%–97%) at 15 years. Our data compare favorably with those from series using standard cementless stems at the same followup with a high percentage of patients achieving functional restoration and a low rate of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19690930

  3. Long-term results of the Wagner cone prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Annemarie; Hohenberger, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    The Wagner cone prosthesis is indicated in uncemented total hip replacement of cases with cylinder-shaped femurs, deformed femurs, femurs with increased antetorsion, and in conditions of intramedullary bony scar tissue after previous osteotomies. The objective of this study is to present long-term results. From January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995, 132 implantations were made with the Wagner cone prosthesis. We report the clinical and radiographic results of 94 cone prostheses with a mean observation period of 11.5 years. The Merle d’Aubigné score improved from a preoperative mean value of 8.8 to a postoperative mean of 16.3. The radiographic evaluation revealed 32 cases with cortical hypertrophy, 73 cases with atrophy of the proximal femur, and 18 cases with complete pedestal formation. Radiolucencies over Gruen zones 1 and 7 occurred in 42 cases; only zone 1 was affected in 24 cases. Complications included three deep infections, three acetabular revisions, five total joint revisions, one recurrent luxation, and three heterotopic ossifications. In spite of the fact that the examined cohort often included patients who had undergone multiple previous operations (a maximum of six) of the proximal femur or the acetabulum, the long-term results of the Wagner cone prostheses were very promising. PMID:17932669

  4. Changes in the radiological measurements of the tibiofibular syndesmal area in patients with Weber C ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction, internal fixation, and transyndesmal screw.

    PubMed

    Jasqui-Remba, S; Torres-Gómez, A; Salas-Morales, G A; Hernández-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    The tibiofibular syndesmosis provides stability to the ankle mortise. The ankle syndesmosis is compromised in all Weber C type injuries. The radiographic method described by Merle DAubigné considers the bony relationships as a measure of syndesmotic widening. We sought to investigate whether the patients with a C type ankle fracture treated with ORIF and placement of a transyndesmal screw have an increment of the tibiofibular space and decrease of the tibiofibular overlap after the transyndesmal screw is removed. Our sample included 52 patients with Weber C ankle fractures treated by ORIF and transyndesmal screw at a level II trauma center. We measured the tibiofibular clear space and tibiofibular overlap in each phase of the treatment. The transyndesmal screw was removed at day 55.56 (± 21.83). We found an increase of the tibiofibular overlap of 0.20 mm (± 2.29, p = 0.532); and 0.21 mm (± 0.97, p = 0.146) in the tibiofibular clear space. The changes of 2.38% in the tibiofibular overlap and 5.29% in the tibiofibular clear space between the postoperative and post-removal periods were not statistically significant. After removal of the syndesmal screw, there is a slight radiographic broadening of the syndesmosis; however, it is small and statistically not significant. PMID:27403518

  5. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  6. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  7. A Novel Approach for Treatment of Acetabular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zichao; Qin, Hui; Ding, Haoliang; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. Material/Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented. Results Mean operative time was 222±78 minutes. Average blood loss was 993±361 mL. Anatomical reduction was achieved in all patients. Minimum follow-up period was 31 months. Postoperative hypoesthesia in the area of innervation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was reported in one patient, with spontaneous recovery at one month after surgery. No complications were reported during the follow-up period. At the most recent follow up, clinical outcomes were graded as “excellent” in six patients, “good” in eight patients and “fair” in one patient based on the modified Merle d’Aubigné-Postel score. Conclusions PSA appears to be a timesaving and safe approach for treatment of acetabular fractures that affords good visual access and allows for excellent fracture reduction. Our preliminary results revealed a much lower incidence of complications than traditional approaches, suggesting PSA is an alternative for treatment of acetabular fractures. PMID:27734825

  8. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports. Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, some crack growth resistance measurements, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and 1-propanol (Fluid I) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  9. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports (plus latest data which will be included in final reports for Phase 1). Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and I-propanol (Fluid 1) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  10. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Institute of Technology . Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  11. Nature, not books: scientists and the origins of the nature-study movement in the 1890s.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Scientists played a key role in the first systematic introduction of nature study into North American public schools in the late nineteenth century. The initiatives of Wilbur Jackman and John Merle Coulter, affiliated with the young University of Chicago, and Liberty Hyde Bailey and Anna Botsford Comstock, at Cornell University, coincided with the "new education" reform movement that found object lessons and experience-based education superior to textbook teaching. Educational psychologists and philosophers of the 1890s, including G. Stanley Hall, related curriculum methods to perceived developmental stages in children, with a focus on immediate experience. Putting these pedagogical ideas--gained in summer institutes, normal schools, and programs at Chicago and Cornell--into practice were administrators and classroom teachers in both urban and rural classrooms. By 1900, a consensus about the value of nature study among scientists, community leaders, and teachers established it as the recognized general method of studying the natural world in public schools across much of the United States.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE SEGMENTAL IMPACTION OF FEMORAL HEAD FOLLOWING AN ACETABULAR FRACTURE SURGICALLY MANAGED

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Carina; Daniachi, Daniel; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Riccioli, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Correlate the postoperative radiographic evaluation with variables accompanying acetabular fractures in order to determine the predictive factors for segmental impaction of femoral head. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medial files of patients submitted to open reduction surgery with internal acetabular fixation. Within approximately 35 years, 596 patients were treated for acetabular fractures; 267 were followed up for at least two years. The others were excluded either because their follow up was shorter than the minimum time, or as a result of the lack of sufficient data reported on files, or because they had been submitted to non-surgical treatment. The patients were followed up by one of three surgeons of the group using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel clinical scales as well as radiological studies. Results: Only tow studied variables-age and amount of postoperative reductionshowed statistically significant correlation with femoral head impaction. Conclusions: The quality of reduction-anatomical or with up to 2mm residual deviation-presents a good radiographic evolution, reducing the potential for segmental impaction of the femoral head, a statistically significant finding. PMID:27004191

  13. Mathematical modelling of the citric acid cycle for the analysis of glutamine isotopomers from cerebellar astrocytes incubated with [1(-13)C]glucose.

    PubMed

    Merle, M; Martin, M; Villégier, A; Canioni, P

    1996-08-01

    A mathematical model of the citric acid cycle devoted to the analysis of 13C-NMR data was developed for determining the relative flux of molecules through the anaplerotic versus oxidative pathways and the relative pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase activities. Different variants of the model were considered depending on the reversibility of the conversion of fumarate into malate and oxaloacetate. The model also included the possibility of orientation-conserved transfer of the four-carbon citric acid cycle intermediates, leading to conversion of succinyl-CoA C1 into either malate C1 or C4. It was used to analyse NMR data from glutamine isotopomers produced by cerebellar astrocytes incubated with [1-13C]glucose. Partial cycling (39%) between oxaloacetate and fumarate was evident from the analysis. Application of the model to glutamate isotopomers from granule cells incubated with [1-13C]glucose [Martin, M.. Portais, J.C.. Labouesse. J., Canioni. P, & Merle, M. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 617-625] indicated that total cycling of oxaloacetate into fumarate was, in this case, required to get the best fit. The results emphasized some important differences in carbon metabolism between cerebellar astrocytes and granule cells concerning the sources of carbon fuelling the citric acid cycle and the carbon fluxes on different pathways.

  14. [Total hip replacement as a result of coxalgia: about 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    Coxalgia causes osteocartilaginous destructions of the hip joint; these lesions are responsible for severe pain leading to functional discomfort and limitations in everyday life. Their surgical treatment is still not well established. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the interest of total hip arthroplasty associated with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy to improve patients' quality of life. We report a retrospective study of 10 cases of total hip replacement following coxalgia at the Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma of Rabat University Hospital from 2002 to 2011. The average age of our patients was 38 years. The discovery of coxalgia was made under different circumstances according to the patients. The surgical approach we used was exclusively posterolateral (Moore). All prostheses were cemented. Four patients required acetabulum reconstruction. Intraoperative biopsy was positive in a patient, negative in the remaining nine. All patients underwent anti-tuberculous treatment. No recurrence was noted after a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Results according to Merle d'Aubigné score were considered good. In case of advanced bone destruction with badly tolerated functional impact in mature subject, total hip arthroplasty always associated with effective anti-tuberculous chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for sequelae of coxalgia. PMID:27642444

  15. Changes in the radiological measurements of the tibiofibular syndesmal area in patients with Weber C ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction, internal fixation, and transyndesmal screw.

    PubMed

    Jasqui-Remba, S; Torres-Gómez, A; Salas-Morales, G A; Hernández-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    The tibiofibular syndesmosis provides stability to the ankle mortise. The ankle syndesmosis is compromised in all Weber C type injuries. The radiographic method described by Merle DAubigné considers the bony relationships as a measure of syndesmotic widening. We sought to investigate whether the patients with a C type ankle fracture treated with ORIF and placement of a transyndesmal screw have an increment of the tibiofibular space and decrease of the tibiofibular overlap after the transyndesmal screw is removed. Our sample included 52 patients with Weber C ankle fractures treated by ORIF and transyndesmal screw at a level II trauma center. We measured the tibiofibular clear space and tibiofibular overlap in each phase of the treatment. The transyndesmal screw was removed at day 55.56 (± 21.83). We found an increase of the tibiofibular overlap of 0.20 mm (± 2.29, p = 0.532); and 0.21 mm (± 0.97, p = 0.146) in the tibiofibular clear space. The changes of 2.38% in the tibiofibular overlap and 5.29% in the tibiofibular clear space between the postoperative and post-removal periods were not statistically significant. After removal of the syndesmal screw, there is a slight radiographic broadening of the syndesmosis; however, it is small and statistically not significant.

  16. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction. PMID:20496778

  17. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  18. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  20. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  2. Effects of Zoledronate on Mortality and Morbidity after Surgical Treatment of Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Ömer; Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Tunç, Oytun Derya; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, İbrahim; Şen, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of intertrochanteric femoral fractures on mortality, morbidity, and cost of zoledronate treatment in elderly patients treated by osteosynthesis. Based on Evans classification, 114 patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures were treated with osteosynthesis. After the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures, the treatment group (M/F, 24/32; mean age, 76.7 ± SD years) received zoledronate infusion, and the control group (M/F, 20/38; mean age, 80.2 ± SD years) received placebo. Postoperative control visits were performed at 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month time points. Functional level of patients was evaluated by the modified Harris hip score and Merle d'Aubigné hip score. By 12 months, the mean HHS in treatment and control groups was 81.93 and 72.9, respectively. For time of death of the patients, mortality was found to be 57.1% (16/28) on the first 3 months and 92.9% (26/28) on the first six months. The mortality rate in the treatment and control groups was 14.3% (8/56) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. The use of zoledronic acid after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients is a safe treatment modality which helps to reduce mortality, improves functional outcomes, and has less side effects with single dose use per year. PMID:27092280

  3. Good short-term outcome of primary total hip arthroplasty with cementless bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs. Results The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation. Conclusions The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. PMID:23043270

  4. Groin pain after open FAI surgery: the role of intraarticular adhesions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is an established cause of osteoarthrosis of the hip. Surgery is intended to remove the cause of impingement with hip dislocation and resection of osseous prominences of the acetabular rim and of the femoral head-neck junction. Using the Merle d'Aubigné score and qualitative categories, recent studies suggest good to excellent outcomes in 75% to 80% of patients after open surgery with dislocation of the femoral head. Unsatisfactory outcome is mainly related to pain, located either in the area of the greater trochanter or in the groin. There are several reasons for persisting groin pain. Joint degeneration with joint space narrowing and/or osteophyte formation, insufficient correction of the acetabula, and femoral pathology are known factors for unsatisfactory outcome. Recently, intraarticular adhesions between the femoral neck and joint capsule have been identified as an additional cause of postoperative groin pain. The adhesions form between the joint capsule and the resected area on the femoral neck and may lead to soft tissue impingement. MR-arthrography is used for diagnosis and the adhesions can be treated successfully by arthroscopy. While arthroscopic resection improves outcome it is technically demanding. Avoiding the formation of adhesions is important and is perhaps best accomplished by passive motion exercises after the initial surgery. PMID:19082679

  5. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  6. Phosphocalcium ceramics are efficient in the management of severe acetabular loss in revision hip arthroplasties. A 22 cases long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C; Vautrin, M

    2015-02-01

    Management of bone loss in revision total hip replacement remains a challenge. To eliminate any immunological or infectious problem and so to try to improve the long-term results obtained with allografts, the authors used synthetic ceramics as bone substitutes since 1995. We reviewed 13 of the patients of our study, we previously reported in 2005 (Schwartz and Bordei in Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 15: 191 2005), which was a prospective cohort of thirty-two cases of acetabular revision reconstruction, with a mean follow-up of 14.4 years yet (from 9 to 16 years). Clinical results were assessed according to Oxford scale and Postel and Merle d'Aubigne (PMA) scale. Since 2005, no specific complications were noted. The average PMA functional hip score was 14.9 (vs. 9.2 before revision) at follow-up over 9 years. Nine patients still alive in 2013 were seen again by a surgeon, which was not the operator, with a mean follow-up of 15.3 years: Their Oxford average score was 40.3. Radiological assessment affirmed a good integration of the substitutes in bone without any edging in all cases. A progressive invasion of the ceramics by bone can be seen on the X-ray. We conclude that about 15 years of average delay, which is a significant follow-up in orthopedic surgery, the outcomes without specific complications are satisfactory and allow one to go with these materials in total hip revision surgery.

  7. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  8. Acetabular Reconstruction with Human and Bovine Freeze- Dried Bone Grafts and a Reinforcement Device

    PubMed Central

    Rosito, Ricardo; Galia, Carlos Roberto; Macedo, Carlos Alberto Souza; Moreira, Luis Fernando; Quaresma, Lourdes Maria Araújo C.; Palma, Humberto Moreira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND This is a cohort trial (1997–2005) of 49 patients submitted to an acetabular component revision of a total hip arthroplasty, using impacted human and bovine freeze-dried cancellous bone grafts (H&FDBG) and a reinforcement device. OBJECTIVE To compare clinical/radiographic graft incorporation capability between cancellous bone grafts. PATIENTS/METHODS There were two groups: I (n=26) receiving human grafts and II (n=25) receiving bovine grafts. The average follow-up times were 55 and 49 months, respectively. Clinical analysis was based on the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, and the radiographic analysis involved an established score based on Conn’s et al. criteria for radiographic bone incorporation. RESULTS No clinical/radiographic differences were found between the groups and both showed an overall rate of 88.5% and 76% of graft incorporation (p=0.424). CONCLUSION The results presented here are comparable to those in the literature with the use of deep-FG. Therefore, cancellous bone grafts can be safely and adequately used in acetabular component revision in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:18719763

  9. Coronal Acetabular Fractures: The Anterior Approach in Computed Tomography-Navigated Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Suhm, Norbert; Kaim, Achim; Regazzoni, Pietro; Steinbrich, Wolfgang; Messmer, Peter

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the anterior approach to the coronal roof component of carefully selected acetabular fractures in computed tomography (CT)-navigated closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF).Methods: Four patients with nondisplaced or slightly displaced coronal fractures of the acetabular roof were treated with percutaneous screw fixation. Screws were implanted over guidepins placed under CT navigation. Mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 16 months.Results: All screws could be placed as intended. There were no peri- or postoperative complications. Radiological follow-up showed primary osseous union. Clinical results were excellent according to a median Merle-d'Aubigne score of 18.Conclusion: Nondisplaced or slightly displaced coronally oriented fractures of the acetabular roof can be treated by minimally invasive percutaneous CT-navigated fixation through an anterior approach that does not endanger the sciatic nerve. Early clinical results are encouraging. Close cooperation between trauma surgeons and radiologists and careful selection of cases is mandatory.

  10. Code Validation Utilizing Spectral Data Analysis of ICF Implosion Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Haynes, Donald, Jr.; Delamater, Norman; Regan, Sean

    2003-10-01

    Time-resolved spectral data from recent ICF implosion experiments of plastic microballoons containing deuterium fuel doped with argon is proving quite useful in checking the corresponding 1D and 2D simulation results from the multi-dimensional hydrocode RAGE [1]. Comparisons with experimental density and temperature determined by fitting theoretical argon line shapes generated by MERL [2] to experimental data show that the simulated density and temperature in the fuel are too large unless some seed for mixing is incorporated. We use a nonuniform drive as a seed for mix. The need for mix is further supported through simulations using the 1D Lagrangian code HYADES (no mix) that give neutron yields an order of magnitude larger than that seen in experiment. This work was performed under NLUF grant DE-FG03-01SF22224 and DOE contract No. W-7405-ENG-36. [1] Gittings, M.L., SAIC's adaptive grid Eulerian hydrocode, DNA Numerical Methods Symposium, Apr 1992. [2] Mancini, R.C., Kilcrease, D.P., Woltz, L.A., and Hooper Jr., C.F., Comput. Phy. Commun. 63, 314-322 (1991).

  11. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations.

  12. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  13. Interactions of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) recovered from bovine hide and carcass with human cells and abiotic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Matheus-Guimarães, Cecilia; Gonçalves, Evanilde Maria; Cabilio Guth, Beatriz E

    2014-03-01

    Different structures related to biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), particularly O157 strains, have been described, but there are few data regarding their involvement in non-O157 strains. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of 14 O157 and 8 non-O157 strains isolated from bovine hide and carcass to interact with biotic and abiotic surfaces and also to evaluate the role of different adhesins. Biofilm formation assays showed that four O157 and two non-O157 strains were able to adhere to glass, and that only one O157 strain adhered to polystyrene. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was carried out using biofilm-forming strains to determine the expression of antigen 43 (Ag43), curli, type 1 fimbriae, STEC autotransporter contributing to biofilm formation (Sab), calcium-binding antigen 43 homologue (Cah), and autotransporter protein of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EhaA). Most of these structures were expressed under biofilm conditions. However, the lack of Ag43 in one non-O157 strain, as well as Cah and EhaA in two O157 strains, suggests that other adhesins are involved in biofilm formation in these strains. Despite the fact that adherence to HeLa cells was detected in 20 strains (91%), it was not possible to correlate biofilm formation with adherence patterns. Invasiveness in T84 and Caco-2 cells was observed in four and three O157 strains, respectively. Altogether, we showed that there are different sets of genes involved in the interactions of STEC with biotic and abiotic surfaces. Interestingly, one O157 strain that was able to form biofilm on both glass and polystyrene also adhered to and invaded human cells, indicating an important route for its persistence in the environment and interaction with the host. Additionally, the ability of non-O157 strains not carrying the LEE pathogenicity island to form biofilm highlights an industrial and health problem that cannot be neglected.

  14. Scenario-based assessment of buildings' damage and population exposure due to earthquake-induced tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt with regards to population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has very important tourist activity. Historical records indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the worst-case credible tsunami scenario analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out in two sea level conditions (mean sea level and maximum high-tide sea level) by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the framework of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila, over 12 000 (13 400 in the case of maximum high tide) buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could sustain damaging consequences, ranging from critical damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2, resulting in more than 150 000 (165 000 in the case of maximum high

  15. Relevant in times of turmoil: WHO and public health in unstable situations.

    PubMed

    Loretti, A; Leus, X; Van Holsteijn, B

    2001-01-01

    For millions of people world-wide, surviving the pressure of extreme events is the predominant objective in daily existence. The distinction between natural and human-induced disasters is becoming more and more blurred. Some countries have known only armed conflict for the last 25 years, and their number is increasing. Recently, humanitarian sources reported 24 ongoing emergencies, each of them involving at least 300,000 people "requiring international assistance to avoid malnutrition or death". All together, including the countries still only at risk and those emerging from armed conflicts, 73 countries, i.e., almost 1.8 trillion people, were undergoing differing degrees of instability. Instability must be envisioned as a spectrum extending between "Utopia" and "Chaos". As emergencies bring forward extreme challenges to human life, medical and public health ethics make it imperative for the World Health Organisation (WHO) to be involved. As such, WHO must enhance its presence and effectiveness in its capacity as a universally accepted advocate for public health. Furthermore, as crises become more enmeshed with the legitimacy of the State, and armed conflicts become more directed against countries' social capital, they impinge more on WHO's work, and WHO must reconcile its unique responsibility in the health sector, the humanitarian imperative and the mandate to assist its primary constituents. Health can be viewed as a bridge to peace. The Organization specifically has recognised that disasters can and do affect the achievement of health and health system objectives. Within WHO, the Department of Emergency and Humanitarian Action (EHA) is the instrument for intervention in such situations. The scope of EHA is defined in terms of humanitarian action, emergency preparedness, national capacity building, and advocacy for humanitarian principles. The WHO's role is changing from ensuring a two-way flow of information on new scientific developments in public health in

  16. Adaptive plasticity in the otolith-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2003-02-01

    This review focuses on the plasticity in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), especially in the otolith-ocular reflex (OOR). The VOR is a mechanism for the production of rapid compensatory eye movements during head movements. The VOR is under adaptive control which corrects VOR performance when visual-vestibular mismatch arises during head movements. It has been demonstrated that chronic exposure to certain visual environments, those generated by magnifying lenses and reversing prisms, alter the gain and phase of VOR in the dark in numerous species. Most experiments concerning such modification of the VOR have used semicircular canal stimulation. The VOR consists of the semicircular-ocular reflex (ScOR) and the OOR. There are few results regarding the relationship between the gain of the ScOR and the OOR. This review summarizes the studies on plasticity in the OOR. In addition, the difficulty in evaluating the OOR using current conventional methods including earth horizontal axis (EHA) rotation, off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) and linear sled, is discussed. We believe that the ScOR and the OOR share common neural pathways in such a way that a change in the synaptic efficacy of one pathway is accompanied by a change in the other.

  17. The preparation of RVNRL using Malaysian - produced latices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Manshol bin W.; Mohid, Norjanah bte; Hasan, Jusoh bin; Noor, Wan Khairul Amalina bte Wan Md.; Jaafar, Zulkifli

    1993-07-01

    The research project is carried out using the latices supplied by three of the suppliers in Malaysia. From the results of the studies carried out in search for the best sensitiser for RVNRL preparation, the use of n-butyl acrylate ( n-BA ) as a sensitiser seemed to give the most promising results. However, its use as a sensitiser is not universal to all latices available in the country. The problem was overcome by the use of different formulations for different latices. For the latex supplied by Golden Hope ( Hytex ), a combination of sensitisers i.e. n-BA plus 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate ( 2-EHA ) with a 10 % potassium hydroxide solution as the stabiliser, was the requirement. Latex supplied by MARDEC ( Matex ), seemed to need only n-BA as the sensitiser. Nevertheless, a stabiliser was still required and the use of a 10 % KOH solution was found to be suitable. A large range of stabilisers and sensitisers were applicable to Guthrie latex. The use of n-BA as the sensitiser and potassium laurylic acid as the stabiliser seemed the most favourable formulation. All the results are discussed in the form of correlation between dose and the tensile properties of RVNRL vulcanizates, equilibrium swelling ratio and standing time of the latex formulation.

  18. Effect of various acaricides on hatchability of eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Haque, M; Jyoti; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks.

  19. Effect of Various Acaricides on Hatchability of Eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Haque, M.; Jyoti; Singh, N. K.; Rath, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25057486

  20. Acrylic AB and ABA block copolymers based on poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Dhruba J; Ata, Souvik; Singha, Nikhil K; Jehnichen, Dieter; Voit, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Acrylic block copolymers have several advantages over conventional styrenic block copolymers, because of the presence of a saturated backbone and polar pendant groups. This investigation reports the preparation and characterization of di- and triblock copolymers (AB and ABA types) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A series of block copolymers, PEHA-block-PMMA(AB diblock) and PMMA-block-PEHA-block-PMMA(ABA triblock) were prepared via ATRP at 90 °C using CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyl diethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and acetone as additive. The chemical structure of the macroinitiators and molar composition of block copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR analysis, and molecular weights of the polymers were analyzed by GPC analysis. DSC analysis showed two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), indicating formation of two domains, which was corroborated by AFM analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of AB and ABA block copolymers showed scattering behavior inside the measuring limits indicating nanophase separation. However, SAXS pattern of AB diblock copolymers indicated general phase separation only, whereas for ABA triblock copolymer an ordered or mixed morphology could be deduced, which is assumed to be the reason for the better mechanical properties achieved with ABA block copolymers than with the AB analogues.

  1. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  2. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  3. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    PubMed

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable. PMID:26551411

  4. Protective Immunity Against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Lethal Challenge by Immunization with New Recombinant Chimeric HA2-M2e Fusion Protein in BALB/C Mice.

    PubMed

    Ameghi, Ali; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Baradaran, Behzad; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Aghaiypour, Khosrow

    2016-05-01

    Influenza is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease. The error prone RNA polymerase and segmented nature of the influenza A virus genome allow antigenic drift and shift, respectively. Therefore, most influenza vaccines are inefficient along time and against different viral subtypes. In this study, for the first time, protection properties of a new recombinant fusion of HA2 and M2e peptides originated from influenza virus A/Brisbane/59/2007-like (H1N1) in BALB/c mice model were investigated. After immunization of the BALB/c mice, the protection property of fusion peptide was determined by a neutralizing assay test. For further study, mice were lethal challenged by the (mouse adapted, A/PR8/34 [H1N1]) and heterologous (mouse adapted, A/Brisbane/10/2007 [H3N2]) influenza virus subtypes. Then, the lung viral titers, body weight, and survival rate of the immunized mice were monitored. The results showed that immunization by the M2e-HA2 recombinant fusion peptide provides strong protection against homologous challenge and an infirm protection against heterologous. These protections against homologous and heterologous influenza A virus challenges meant the universal nature of these recombinant peptides in an immunity manner against influenza A virus. However, more studies are needed to optimize this recombinant construction, and this experiment recommends HA2-M2e fusion peptide as a universal influenza A vaccine candidate. PMID:27058011

  5. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    PubMed

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable.

  6. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots.

  7. Genetic transformation of Indian isolate of Lemna minor mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and recovery of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Gulshan; Chaudhary, Darshna; Sainger, Manish; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of an Indian isolate of Lemna minor have been developed for the first time using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and hard nodular cell masses 'nodular calli' developed on the BAP - pretreated daughter frond explants in B5 medium containing sucrose (1.0 %) with 2,4-D (5.0 μM) and 2-iP (50.0 μM) or 2,4-D (50.0 μM) and TDZ (5.0 μM) under light conditions. These calli were co-cultured with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector that contained genes for β-glucuronidase with intron and neomycin phosphortransferase. Transformed cells selected on kanamycin selection medium were regenerated into fronds whose transgenic nature was confirmed by histochemical assay for GUS activity, PCR analysis and Southern hybridization. The frequency of transformation obtained was 3.8 % and a period of 11-13 weeks was required from initiation of cultures from explants to fully grown transgenic fronds. The pretreatment of daughter fronds with BAP, use of non-ionic surfactant, presence of acetosyringone in co-cultivation medium, co-culture duration of 3 d and 16 h photoperiod during culture were found crucial for callus induction, frond regeneration and transformation of L. minor. This transformation system can be used for the production of pharmaceutically important protein and in bioremediation.

  8. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  9. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  10. Disruption of the Operon Encoding Ehb Hydrogenase Limits AnabolicCO2 Assimilation in the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    SciTech Connect

    Porat, Iris; Kim, Wonduck; Hendrickson, Erik L.; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tiansong; Taub, Fred; Moore, Brian C.; Anderson, IainJ.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.; Whitman, William B.

    2006-02-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic archaeon thatreduces CO2 to methane with H2 or formate as an energy source. Itcontains two membrane-bound energy-conserving hydrogenases, Eha and Ehb.To determine therole of Ehb, a deletion in the ehb operon wasconstructed to yield the mutant, strain S40. Growth of S40 was severelyimpaired in minimal medium. Both acetate and yeast extract were necessaryto restore growth to nearly wild-type levels, suggesting that Ehb wasinvolved in multiple steps in carbon assimilation. However, nodifferences in the total hydrogenase specific activities were foundbetween the wild type and mutant in either cell extracts ormembrane-purified fractions. Methanogenesis by resting cells withpyruvate as the electron donor was also reduced by 30 percent in S40,suggesting a defect in pyruvate oxidation. CO dehydrogenase/acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) synthase and pyruvate oxidoreductase had higher specificactivities in the mutant, and genes encoding these enzymes, as well asAMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase, were expressed at increased levels.These observations support a role for Ehb in anabolic CO2 assimilation inmethanococci.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion.

  12. Successful recovery of transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using the 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Saha, Bedabrata; Roy, Nand Kishor; Mishra, Sagarika; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-06-01

    A new method for obtaining transgenic cowpea was developed using positive selection based on the Escherichia coli 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker and mannose as the selective agent. Only transformed cells were capable of utilizing mannose as a carbon source. Cotyledonary node explants from 4-day-old in vitro-germinated seedlings of cultivar Pusa Komal were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the vector pNOV2819. Regenerating transformed shoots were selected on medium supplemented with a combination of 20 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as carbon source. The transformed shoots were rooted on medium devoid of mannose. Transformation efficiency based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots was 3.6%. Southern blot analysis on five randomly chosen PCR-positive plants confirmed the integration of the pmi transgene. Qualitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of pmi in T₀ transgenic plants. Chlorophenol red (CPR) assays confirmed the activity of PMI in transgenic plants, and the gene was transmitted to progeny in a Mendelian fashion. The transformation method presented here for cowpea using mannose selection is efficient and reproducible, and could be used to introduce a desirable gene(s) into cowpea for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

  13. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  14. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care. PMID:26265236

  15. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  17. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented. PMID:16149891

  18. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  19. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  20. Efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, Rubus ideaus L.

    PubMed

    Mathews, H; Wagoner, W; Cohen, C; Kellogg, J; Bestwick, R

    1995-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase), in raspberry cultivars Meeker (MK), Chilliwack (CH) and Canby (CY). Leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pAG1452 or pAG1552, encoding gene sequences for SAMase under the control of the wound and fruit specific tomato E4 promoter. Primary shoot regenerants on selection medium were chimeral containing both transformed and non-transformed cells. Non-chimeral transgenic clones were developed by iterative culture of petiole, node and leaf explants, on selection medium, from successive generations of shoots derived from the primary regenerants. Percent recovery of transformants was higher with the selection marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), than with neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Transformation frequencies of 49.6%, 0.9% and 8.1% were obtained in cultivars Meeker, Chilliwack and Canby respectively from petiole expiants using hygromycin selection. Genomic integration of transgenes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants from a total of 218 independent transformation events (161 MK, 4 CH, 53 CY) have been successfully established in soil.

  1. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  2. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Phalaenopsis by targeting protocorms at an early stage after germination.

    PubMed

    Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Chin, Dong Poh; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-07-01

    A transformation procedure for phalaenopsis orchid established by using immature protocorms for Agrobacterium infection was aimed at the introduction of target genes into individuals with divergent genetic backgrounds. Protocorms obtained after 21 days of culture on liquid New Dogashima medium were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA101(pIG121Hm) harboring both beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance genes. Subculture of the protocorms on acetosyringone-containing medium 2 days before Agrobacterium inoculation gave the highest transformation efficiencies (1.3-1.9%) based on the frequency of hygromycin-resistant plants produced. Surviving protocorms obtained 2 months after Agrobacterium infection on selection medium containing 20 mg l(-1) hygromycin were cut transversely into two pieces before transferring to recovery medium without hygromycin. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) proliferated from pieces of protocorms during a 1-month culture on recovery medium followed by transfer to selection medium. Hygromycin-resistant phalaenopsis plants that regenerated after the re-selection culture of PLBs showed histochemical blue staining due to GUS. Transgene integration of the hygromycin-resistant plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. A total of 88 transgenic plants, each derived from an independent protocorm, was obtained from ca. 12,500 mature seeds 6 months after infection with Agrobacterium. Due to the convenient protocol for Agrobacterium infection and rapid production of transgenic plants, the present procedure could be utilized to assess expression of transgenes under different genetic backgrounds, and for the molecular breeding of phalaenopsis.

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju

    2014-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling.

  5. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots. PMID:25482978

  6. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jawahar, N.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Sivakumar, K.; Thangadurai, V.

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  7. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  8. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method.

  9. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shri, Manju; Rai, Arti; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Dubey, Sonali; Kumar, Smita; Verma, Sikha; Gautam, Neelam; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-04-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice varieties has been quite difficult as these are recalcitrant to in vitro responses. In the present study, we established a high-efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cv. IR-64, Lalat, and IET-4786. Agrobacterium strain EHA-101 harboring binary vector pIG121-Hm, containing a gene encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance, was used in the transformation experiments. Manipulation of different concentrations of acetosyringone, days of co-culture period, bacterial suspension of different optical densities (ODs), and the concentrations of L-cysteine in liquid followed by solid co-culture medium was done for establishing the protocol. Among the different co-culture periods, 5 days of co-culture with bacterial cells (OD600 nm = 0.5-0.8) promoted the highest frequency of transformation (83.04 %) in medium containing L-cysteine (400 mg l(-1)). Putative transformed plants were analyzed for the presence of a transgene through genomic PCR and GUS histochemical analyses. Our results also suggest that different cultural conditions and the addition of L-cysteine in the co-culture medium improve the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequencies from an average of 12.82 % to 33.33 % in different indica rice cultivars.

  10. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the apomictic species Eulaliopsis binata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Chun Gen; Xu, Bing; Yao, Jia Ling

    2013-09-01

    Protocols for regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the apomictic species Eulaliopsis binata were developed. Initially, seeds of four genotypes of E. binata were incubated on a callus induction Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with three concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). It was found that 36.2 % of explants developed highly friable callus on medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Based on frequency of callus induction, the genotype Neixiang was selected for regeneration and transformation. Callus incubated on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid and 6.0 mg l(-1) 6-furfuryl-aminopurine developed shoots. Subsequently, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105-harboring a plasmid pCAMBIA1381 carrying a hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) resistance gene and a synthetic green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, both driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-was used for transformation system. Putative transgenic callus was obtained following two cycles of hygromycin selection. Expression of the transgene(s) in putative transgenic callus was analyzed using the GFP detection. Molecular identification of putative transformed shoots was performed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis to confirm presence and integration of the hpt gene.

  11. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2011-12-01

    An improved method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea was developed employing both sonication and vacuum infiltration treatments. 4 day-old cotyledonary nodes were used as explants for co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pSouv-cry1Ac. Among the different injury treatments, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, sonication for 20 s followed by vacuum infiltration for 5 min with A. tumefaciens resulted in highest transient GUS expression efficiency (93% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were cultured in 150 mg/l kanamycin-containing selection medium and putative transformed plants were recovered. The presence, integration and expression of nptII and cry1Ac genes in T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genomic Southern and qualitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. Western blot hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected and demonstrated the accumulation of Cry1Ac protein in transgenic plants. The cry1Ac gene transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. The stable transformation efficiency increased by 88.4% using both sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) and vacuum infiltration than simple Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cowpea.

  12. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf base derived callus tissues of popular indica rice (Oryza sativa L. sub sp. indica cv. ADT 43).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2011-09-01

    A simple and efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an agronomically useful abiotic sensitive popular indica rice cv. ADT 43 has been developed. Initiation of calli were best achieved from the leaf bases of 4 days old rice seedlings on LS medium supplemented with 2.5mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0mg/L thiamine-HCl. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (strain EHA 105, OD(600)=0.8) were co-cultured on LS30-AsPC medium for 2 days at 25±2°C in the dark. Based on GUS expression analysis, 10min co-cultivation time with 100μM acetosyringone was found optimum for the delivery of gus gene. Calli were proved to be very sensitive to Agrobacterium infection and we found that the level of necrotic response can be minimized after co-cultivation with 30% LS, 10g/L PVP, 10% coconut water and 250mg/L timentin which improved the final transformation efficiency to 9.33%. Molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants reveals the integration, expression and inheritance of transgene in the progeny (T(1)) of these plants. The copy number of transgenes has been found to vary from 1 to 2 in transgenic plants (T(0) and T(1)).

  14. Establishment of a high efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2009-04-01

    Technologies for transformation of rice have been developed to meet the requirements of functional genomics in order to enable the production of transgenic rice plants with useful agricultural characters. However, many rice varieties are not efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium. We have succeeded in establishing a highly efficient transformation system in rice by co-cultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on three filter papers moistened with enriched N6 or DKN media instead of using solid media. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (EHA101, Agrobacterium concentration of OD600=0.04) were co-cultured on three pieces of filter paper (9cm in diameter) moistened with 5.5mL of N6 or DKN liquid co-cultivation medium supplemented with 2,4-d (2mg/L), proline (10mM), casein hydrolysate (300mg/L), sucrose (30g/L), glucose (5g/L), l-cysteine (100mg/L) and acetosyringone (15mg/L) at 25°C for 3 days in the dark. Compared with the transformation efficiency of calli co-cultivated on solid media, transformation efficiency was increased by about fivefold by using the filter paper method for many varieties of rice, including those that previously yielded much poor transformation rates.

  15. EHEC Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Brian D.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbriae) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this chapter have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25635238

  16. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  17. Transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, Vigna mungo L. Hepper, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apical meristem cultures.

    PubMed

    Saini, Raman; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of Vigna mungo L. Hepper transformation was significantly increased from an average of 1% to 6.5% by using shoot apices excised from embryonic axes precultured on 10 microM benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP) for 3 days and wounded prior to inoculation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA) interrupted by an intron. The transformed green shoots that were selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, and which tested positive for nptII gene by polymerase chain reaction, were established in soil to collect seeds. GUS activity was detected in whole T(0) shoots and T(1) seedlings. All T(0) plants were morphologically normal, fertile and the majority of them transmitted transgenes in a 3:1 ratio to their progenies. Southern analysis of T(1) plants showed integration of nptII into the plant genome.

  18. Heuristics for multiobjective optimization of two-sided assembly line systems.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, N; Ponnambalam, S G; Sivakumar, K; Thangadurai, V

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  19. Modular stems in DDH.

    PubMed

    Benazzo, F; Cuzzocrea, F; Stroppa, S; Ravasi, F; Dalla Pria, P

    2007-01-01

    The Modulus (Lima-Lto) system has been created on the association of a conical stem and a modular neck in order to address the so called "difficult hip". Modularity can maximize the options for a correct reconstruction in a total hip replacement of the coxofemoral anatomy as well as biomechanics. Modulus should be used in CDH, primary hip arthritis, the sequelae of osteotomies and in each case in which we face a congenital or acquired hip deformity. The Modulus stem has been commonly utilised in association with the Delta cup (Lima-Lto) with the chance to use big diameter heads (32-36 mm) and ceramic on ceramic coupling. Modulus has been used in association with Delta cup since November 2002. 51 patients affected by CDH have been treated. Clinical and radiographic results can be considered very good. The average evaluation based on Merle D'Aubigné schedule is equal to 17.5 with a significant increase in the results with respect to the preoperatory score (with an average score equal to 10). In the light of the above, Modulus should be considered a valuable system to optimize the results of total hip replacement also in those more complex situations with a modified femoral morphology, allowing the restoration of a normal biomechanics in terms of off-set and anteversion with benefit in terms of stability and length of the implant as well as in terms of satisfaction of the patient as far as limb length and ROM are concerned. The association of Modulus with big diameter heads gives a higher guarantee in terms of duration of the implant and restoration of the functionality in young patients with a serious deformity and increased functional demands.

  20. The use of femoral struts and impacted cancellous bone allograft in patients with severe femoral bone loss who undergo revision total hip replacement: a three- to nine-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buttaro, M A; Costantini, J; Comba, F; Piccaluga, F

    2012-02-01

    We determined the midterm survival, incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and the enhancement of the width of the femur when combining struts and impacted bone allografts in 24 patients (25 hips) with severe femoral bone loss who underwent revision hip surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was aseptic loosening in 16 hips, second-stage reconstruction in seven, peri-prosthetic fracture in one and stem fracture in one hip. A total of 14 hips presented with an Endoklinik grade 4 defect and 11 hips a grade 3 defect. The mean pre-operative Merle D'Aubigné and Postel score was 5.5 points (1 to 8). The survivorship was 96% (95% confidence interval 72 to 98) at a mean of 54.5 months (36 to 109). The mean functional score was 17.3 points (16 to 18). One patient in which the strut did not completely bypass the femoral defect was further revised using a long cemented stem due to peri-prosthetic fracture at six months post-operatively. The mean subsidence of the stem was 1.6 mm (1 to 3). There was no evidence of osteolysis, resorption or radiolucencies during follow-up in any hip. Femoral width was enhanced by a mean of 41% (19% to 82%). A total of 24 hips had partial or complete bridging of the strut allografts. This combined biological method was associated with a favourable survivorship, a low incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and enhancement of the width of the femur in revision total hip replacement in patients with severe proximal femoral bone loss.

  1. The way it was: radiology administrators remember.

    PubMed

    Craig, S

    1997-01-01

    Radiology Management wanted to understand what it was like to be a radiology administrator 24 years ago. What events were taking place in healthcare that inspired a small group of people to come together to form an organization for their mutual benefit? What role have changes in technology and the industry in general played over the years? Two roundtable discussions were held earlier this year as forums for AHRA members to come together and reminisce about the organization and the profession. One such discussion was held in Sudbury, Mass. where participants included Louise P. Broadley, FAHRA; Monte G. Clinton, FAHRA; Cecilie Godderidge, FAHRA; Chuck Mitchell, FAHRA; and Tammy Waldhauser. In addition, William W. Wheeler, FAHRA; David A. Stone, FAHRA; and Billy Wesson joined the conversation by telephone. The other roundtable was held during the Western Region's 25th anniversary meeting in San Diego in April, and included Lois A. Haas, FAHRA; Stephen J. Hage, FAHRA; Jack Healy; Merlin C. Heinselman, FAHRA; Martin T.J. Hilger, FAHRA; Brenda S. Holden, FAHRA; Sharon K. Johnson, FAHRA; Merle D. Meland, FAHRA; James Mom; Bobbie O'Boyle, FAHRA; Paula Osborn, representing Royce Osborn, FAHRA; Roland W. Rhynus, FAHRA; Mark Rutherford and Richard Steuve. As old friends will do when they get together after many years, these two groups on opposite sides of the country shared their stories with both humor and pathos. They reminisced about people they had known and hospitals where they had worked. They recalled some good times and some not so good, as they looked back at the beginning of an organization first called American Hospital Radiology Administrators. Mostly they talked of the many changes that have taken place over the years in healthcare and for the profession of radiology administration. Radiology Management is pleased to share some of those conversations here. PMID:10175646

  2. The way it was: radiology administrators remember.

    PubMed

    Craig, S

    1997-01-01

    Radiology Management wanted to understand what it was like to be a radiology administrator 24 years ago. What events were taking place in healthcare that inspired a small group of people to come together to form an organization for their mutual benefit? What role have changes in technology and the industry in general played over the years? Two roundtable discussions were held earlier this year as forums for AHRA members to come together and reminisce about the organization and the profession. One such discussion was held in Sudbury, Mass. where participants included Louise P. Broadley, FAHRA; Monte G. Clinton, FAHRA; Cecilie Godderidge, FAHRA; Chuck Mitchell, FAHRA; and Tammy Waldhauser. In addition, William W. Wheeler, FAHRA; David A. Stone, FAHRA; and Billy Wesson joined the conversation by telephone. The other roundtable was held during the Western Region's 25th anniversary meeting in San Diego in April, and included Lois A. Haas, FAHRA; Stephen J. Hage, FAHRA; Jack Healy; Merlin C. Heinselman, FAHRA; Martin T.J. Hilger, FAHRA; Brenda S. Holden, FAHRA; Sharon K. Johnson, FAHRA; Merle D. Meland, FAHRA; James Mom; Bobbie O'Boyle, FAHRA; Paula Osborn, representing Royce Osborn, FAHRA; Roland W. Rhynus, FAHRA; Mark Rutherford and Richard Steuve. As old friends will do when they get together after many years, these two groups on opposite sides of the country shared their stories with both humor and pathos. They reminisced about people they had known and hospitals where they had worked. They recalled some good times and some not so good, as they looked back at the beginning of an organization first called American Hospital Radiology Administrators. Mostly they talked of the many changes that have taken place over the years in healthcare and for the profession of radiology administration. Radiology Management is pleased to share some of those conversations here.

  3. Multiple Acetabular Revisions in THA - Poor Outcome Despite Maximum Effort

    PubMed Central

    Bischel, O; Seeger, JB; Krüge, M; Bitsch, BG

    2012-01-01

    A consecutive series of 52 acetabular revisions was evaluated retrospectively. Inclusion criteria for all patients were at least one former exchange of the acetabular component. Reconstruction was performed with reliable techniques and implants other than extensively porous coated device (e.g. tantalum). The mean follow up was 5.63 (0.01-14.05) years. Cumulative survival at 14.05 years with removal of the acetabular component due to aseptic loosening or the worst case criterion (removal of the acetabular component for any cause and/or lost to follow-up) as the end point was 66.38 (95 % C.-I.: 47.80-84.96) % and 58.42 (95 % C.-I.: 41.01-75.83) %, respectively. The cumulative survival rate with mechanical failure of the acetabular reconstruction as the endpoint was significantly lower in patients with two or more previous revisions in comparison to those with only one former procedure (log rank test: p=0,0112 respectively). The mean Merle d’Aubignée-score improved from 7.3 (0-14) preoperatively to 10.6 (0-17) points at latest follow up examination. Survival of acetabular reconstructions with common techniques and implants is decreasing with the number of previous revisions. This may cause major concerns with regard to the rising number of patients needing repeated revisions. Maximizing durability of primary THA, precise preoperative planning as well as improved techniques and implants for revision may decrease this problem in the long term. PMID:23193432

  4. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  5. Total hip replacement through a posterior approach using a 22 mm diameter femoral head : the role of the transverse acetabular ligament and capsular repair in reducing the rate of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, S; James, J; Hodgkinson, J P; Hemmady, M V

    2014-09-01

    Despite a lack of long-term follow-up, there is an increasing trend towards using femoral heads of large diameter in total hip replacement (THR), partly because of the perceived advantage of lower rates of dislocation. However, increasing the size of the femoral head is not the only way to reduce the rate of dislocation; optimal alignment of the components and repair of the posterior capsule could achieve a similar effect. In this prospective study of 512 cemented unilateral THRs (Male:Female 230:282) performed between 2004 and 2011, we aimed to determine the rate of dislocation in patients who received a 22 mm head on a 9/10 Morse taper through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component. The mean age of the patients at operation was 67 years (35 to 89). The mean follow-up was 2.8 years (0.5 to 6.6). Pre- and post-operative assessment included Oxford hip, Short Form-12 and modified University of California Los Angeles and Merle D'Aubigne scores. The angles of inclination and anteversion of the acetabular components were measured using radiological software. There were four dislocations (0.78%), all of which were anterior. In conclusion, THR with a 22 mm diameter head performed through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the TAL as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component was associated with a low rate of dislocation. PMID:25183591

  6. A double mobility acetabular implant for primary hip arthroplasty in patients at high risk of dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, RG; Young, P; Uzoigwe, C; Barkham, B; Yusoff, S; Minhas, THA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dislocation following total hip replacement continues to be a problem for which no completely satisfactory solution has been found. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the incidence of hip dislocations with varying degrees of success, including elevated rim liners, constrained liners and large diameter bearings. We present our experience with the double mobility acetabular component in patients at high risk of instability. Methods This was a retrospective review of 65 primary total hip arthroplasties in 55 patients (15 men, 40 women), performed between October 2005 and November 2009. The majority (80%) of patients had at least two and 26% had at least three risk factors for instability. The mean age was 76 years (range: 44–92 years). The patients were followed up for a mean duration of 60 months (range: 36–85 months). Results Fourteen patients died and one was lost to follow-up, leaving fifty hips for final assessment. Until the final follow-up appointment, no patients had dislocation and none required revision surgery. The mean Oxford hip score improved from 45.0 to 26.5 (p<0.0001). The mean Merle d’Aubigné pain score improved from 1.4 to 4.9 (p<0.0001), the walking score from 2.3 to 3.1 (p<0.07) and the absolute hip function score from 5.4 to 10.8 (p<0.0001). There were no clinical or radiographic signs of loosening. Conclusions The double mobility acetabular component was successful at preventing dislocation during early to medium-term follow-up. However, as data are still lacking with regard to polyethylene wear rates at the additional bearing surface, it would be prudent to restrict the use of this implant to selected patients at high risk of instability. PMID:25350182

  7. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data For the Environment Ageing of Coflon (PVDF). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    This report aims to identify correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological structure changes for Coflon. It is intended both to illustrate the overall methodology and to indicate the testing that needs to be undertaken in order to obtain correlations. Many fluid exposures have now been carried out on Coflon during the project and many data generated as a result. The report summarises the changes observed in mechanical and physical properties and relates these as well as possible to the chemistry thought to be occurring during ageing. For this purpose, data have been collated from already-issued MERL and TRI technical and progress reports. Most of the mechanical testing of aged testpieces has been performed soon after the completion of the exposure; however, there is of necessity a delay in obtaining chemical analysis of the same testpieces, so that more physical than chemical data are shown. Three fluids have so far caused measurable deterioration of Coflon, these being: methanol (Fluid A), a methanol and amine mixture (Fluid G), and a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen sulphide gas plus aqueous amine (Fluid F). Only the effects of these fluids will be dealt with in any detail in this report, although other fluids are assessed to give relevant background information. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, mode of sample failure at break, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate and resistance, stress relaxation rate, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity and molecular weight distributions together with changes in fluorine levels, and other observations where appropriate. However, not all of these were obtained for every ageing condition. Because of the wide range of tests employed, and the different ways in which their results are obtained, the following section has been included to serve as a background for making comparisons.

  8. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  9. Modified Kocher-Langenbeck approach in combined surgical exposures for acetabular fractures management

    PubMed Central

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Rohilla, Rajesh; Singh, Amanpreet; Wadhwani, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Displaced fractures of the acetabulum are best treated with anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation. Adequate visualization of some acetabular fracture types may necessitate extensile or combined anterior and posterior approaches. Simultaneous anterior iliofemoral and posterior Kocher-Langenbeck (K-L) exposures with two surgical teams have also been described. To assess whether modified Kocher-Langenbeck (K-L) approach can substitute standard K-L approach in the management of elementary acetabular fractures other than the anterior wall and anterior column fractures and complement anterior surgical approaches in the management of complex acetabular fractures. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with transverse and associated acetabular fractures requiring posterior exposure were included in this prospective study. In 9 cases (7 transverse, 1 transverse with posterior wall, and 1 posterior column with posterior wall), stabilization was done through modified K-L approach. In 11 cases (3 transverse and 8 associated fractures), initial stabilization through iliofemoral approach was followed by modified K-L approach. Results: The average operative time was 183 min for combined approach and 84 min for modified K-L approach. The postoperative reduction was anatomical in 17 patients and imperfect in 3 patients. The radiological outcome was excellent in 15, good in 4, and poor in one patient. The clinical outcome was excellent in 15, good in 3 and fair and poor in 1 each according to modified Merle d’Aubigne and Postel scoring system. Conclusion: We believe that modified K-L approach may be a good alternative for the standard K-L approach in the management of elementary fractures and associated fractures of the acetabulum when combined with an anterior surgical approach. It makes the procedure less invasive, shortens the operative time, minimizes blood loss and overcomes the exhaustion and fatigue of the surgical team. PMID:27053812

  10. Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests

    PubMed Central

    Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  11. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  12. Unravelling Orbital Climatic Cycles from Devonian Magnetic Susceptibility Signal - The Quest for a Better Age Model for the Lochkovian and Pragian Stages (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. C.; Chadimova, L.; Hladil, J.; Slavik, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. When shown to reflect a detrital signal, which is influenced by climatic variations, Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) has been proven as a useful tool for identifying climatic cycles; which can subsequently be used to improve the time scale. Here, we focus on two sections from the Prague Synform (Czech Republic) cutting through the Lochkovian, Pragian and the lower part of the Emsian. Sedimentation is rhythmic, dominated by slightly clayey offshore limestones, being mostly calciturbidites and hemipelagites. We provide hysteresis analysis in order to get insight into the nature and the origin of the magnetic minerals driving the variation in the MS signal. The results point to a MS signal mostly carried by clay minerals. Subsequently, to improve estimation of the duration of the stages, we apply different spectral analysis techniques on this MS signal. From the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Evolutive Harmonic Analysis (EHA) and field observations, we subdivide the section into portions with a steady sedimentation rate (a first estimate of this rate is also delivered by these analyzes). Then, we apply Multitaper Method (MTM) and Multitaper harmonic Analysis (F-test) and extract the frequencies reaching 95% Confidence Level. These frequencies are then implemented into the Average Spectral Misfit procedures (ASM) which enables comparison with orbital targets. By combining these different techniques, 405 kyr cyclicty is identifed, a powerful duration paleochronometer. These new results indicate a duration of 7.7 ± 2 Myr for the Lochkovian stage and of 1.7 Myr ± 1.4 for the Pragian stage (compared to respectively 8.4 ± 6 Myr and 3.2 ± 5.4 Myr in the 2012 Geological Time Scale).

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and plant regeneration of the hardwood tree species Fraxinus profunda.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Micah E; Pijut, Paula M

    2014-06-01

    This transformation and regeneration protocol provides an integral framework for the genetic improvement of Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) for future development of plants resistant to the emerald ash borer. Using mature hypocotyls as the initial explants, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda). This transformation protocol is an invaluable tool to combat the highly aggressive, non-native emerald ash borer (EAB), which has the potential to eliminate native Fraxinus spp. from the natural landscape. Hypocotyls were successfully transformed with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the pq35GR vector, containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as well as a fusion gene between neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and gusA. Hypocotyls were cultured for 7 days on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 22.2 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA), 4.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ), 50 mg L(-1) adenine hemisulfate (AS), and 10 % coconut water (CW) prior to transformation. Hypocotyls were transformed using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum infiltration after Agrobacterium was exposed to 100 μM acetosyringone for 1 h. Adventitious shoots were regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 μM BA, 4.5 μM TDZ, 50 mg L(-1) AS, 10 % CW, 400 mg L(-1) timentin, and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin. Timentin at 400 and 20 mg L(-1) kanamycin were most effective at controlling Agrobacterium growth and selecting for transformed cells, respectively. The presence of nptII, GUS (β-glucuronidase), and EGFP in transformed plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while the expression of EGFP was also confirmed through fluorescent microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR. This transformation protocol provides an integral foundation for future genetic modifications of F. profunda to provide resistance to EAB. PMID:24493252

  14. Alleviating peanut allergy using genetic engineering: the silencing of the immunodominant allergen Ara h 2 leads to its significant reduction and a decrease in peanut allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Dodo, Hortense W; Konan, Koffi N; Chen, Fur C; Egnin, Marceline; Viquez, Olga M

    2008-02-01

    Peanut allergy is one of the most life-threatening food allergies and one of the serious challenges facing the peanut and food industries. Current proposed solutions focus primarily on ways to alter the immune system of patients allergic to peanut. However, with the advent of genetic engineering novel strategies can be proposed to solve the problem of peanut allergy from the source. The objectives of this study were to eliminate the immunodominant Ara h 2 protein from transgenic peanut using RNA interference (RNAi), and to evaluate the allergenicity of resulting transgenic peanut seeds. A 265-bp-long PCR product was generated from the coding region of Ara h 2 genomic DNA, and cloned as inverted repeats in pHANNIBAL, an RNAi-inducing plant transformation vector. The Ara h 2-specific RNAi transformation cassette was subcloned into a binary pART27 vector to construct plasmid pDK28. Transgenic peanuts were produced by infecting peanut hypocotyl explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring the pDK28 construct. A total of 59 kanamycin-resistant peanut plants were regenerated with phenotype and growth rates comparable to wild type. PCR and Southern analyses revealed that 44% of plants stably integrated the transgene. Sandwich ELISA performed using Ara h 2-mAbs revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Ara h 2 content in several transgenic seeds. Western immunobloting performed with Ara h 2-mAb corroborated the results obtained with ELISA and showed absence of the Ara h 2 protein from crude extracts of several transgenic seeds of the T(0) plants. The allergenicity of transgenic peanut seeds expressed as IgE binding capacity was evaluated by ELISA using sera of patients allergic to peanut. The data showed a significant decrease in the IgE binding capacity of selected transgenic seeds compared to wild type, hence, demonstrating the feasibility of alleviating peanut allergy using the RNAi technology.

  15. Plant regeneration and genetic transformation of C. canadensis: a non-model plant appropriate for investigation of flower development in Cornus (Cornaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Feng, Chun-Miao; Franks, Robert; Qu, Rongda; Xie, De-Yu; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Efficient Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation for investigation of genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in inflorescence architectures in Cornus species. Cornus canadensis is a subshrub species in Cornus, Cornaceae. It has recently become a favored non-model plant species to study genes involved in development and evolution of inflorescence architectures in Cornaceae. Here, we report an effective protocol of plant regeneration and genetic transformation of C. canadensis. We use young inflorescence buds as explants to efficiently induce calli and multiple adventitious shoots on an optimized induction medium consisting of basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.1 mg/l of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. On the same medium, primary adventitious shoots can produce a large number of secondary adventitious shoots. Using leaves of 8-week-old secondary shoots as explants, GFP as a reporter gene controlled by 35S promoter and hygromycin B as the selection antibiotic, a standard procedure including pre-culture of explants, infection, co-cultivation, resting and selection has been developed to transform C. canadensis via Agrobacterium strain EHA105-mediated transformation. Under a strict selection condition using 14 mg/l hygromycin B, approximately 5 % explants infected by Agrobacterium produce resistant calli, from which clusters of adventitious shoots are induced. On an optimized rooting medium consisting of basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid and 7 mg/l hygromycin B, most of the resistant shoots develop adventitious roots to form complete transgenic plantlets, which can grow normally in soil. RT-PCR analysis demonstrates the expression of GFP transgene. Green fluorescence emitted by GFP is observed in transgenic calli, roots and cells of transgenic leaves under both stereo fluorescence microscope and confocal microscope. The success of genetic transformation provides an appropriate

  16. Governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, K.; Takemura, K.; Fukagata, K.; Yokota, S.; Edamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    An electro-conjugation fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric liquid, which generates a powerful flow when high DC voltage is applied with tiny electrodes. This study deals with the derivation of the governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow based on the Korteweg-Helmholtz (KH) equation which represents the force in dielectric liquid subjected to high DC voltage. The governing equations consist of the Gauss's law, charge conservation with charge recombination, the KH equation, the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The KH equation consists of coulomb force, dielectric constant gradient force and electrostriction force. The governing equation gives the distribution of electric field, charge density and flow velocity. In this study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in order to get these distribution at arbitrary time. Successive over-relaxation (SOR) method is used in analyzing Gauss's law and constrained interpolation pseudo-particle (CIP) method is used in analyzing charge conservation with charge recombination. The third order Runge-Kutta method and conservative second-order-accurate finite difference method is used in analyzing the Navier-Stokes equations with the KH equation. This study also deals with the measurement of ECF ow generated with a symmetrical pole electrodes pair which are made of 0.3 mm diameter piano wire. Working fluid is FF-1EHA2 which is an ECF family. The flow is observed from the both electrodes, i.e., the flow collides in between the electrodes. The governing equation successfully calculates mean flow velocity in between the collector pole electrode and the colliding region by the numerical simulation.

  17. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  18. Immunocompetent truncated E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed in Nicotiana tabacum plants: a candidate antigen for new generation of veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2012-06-22

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant. PMID:22554468

  19. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  20. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-03-17

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were.

  1. Transformation of Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) cherry rootstock mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2006-03-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) scion cv. Montmorency and rootstock cv. Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105:pBISN1 carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron interrupted ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA). Whole leaf explants were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens, and selection and regeneration of transformed cells and shoots of both cultivars was carried out for 12 weeks on selection medium containing 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg l(-1) timentin. These media were [Quoirin and Lepoivre (Acta Hortic 78:437-442, 1977)] supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BA) + 0.05 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and woody plant medium [Lloyd and McCown (Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30:421-427, 1980)] containing 2.0 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA for cv. Montmorency and cv. Gisela 6, respectively. Seven out of 226 (3.1%) explants of cv. Montmorency and five out of 152 (3.9%) explants of cv. Gisela 6 produced 30/39 GUS- and PCR-positive shoots from the cut midribs via an intermediate callus. Southern analysis of the GUS- and PCR-positive transformants confirmed stable integration of the transgenes with 1-3 copy numbers in the genomes of seven lines of cv. Montmorency and five of cv. Gisela 6. The selected transformants have a normal phenotype in vitro. PMID:16369768

  2. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  3. Immunocompetent truncated E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed in Nicotiana tabacum plants: a candidate antigen for new generation of veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2012-06-22

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant.

  4. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae.

  5. Synthesis of Water-Dispersible Molecularly Imprinted Electroactive Nanoparticles for the Sensitive and Selective Paracetamol Detection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ren; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-08-17

    A novel kind of water-dispersible molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles was prepared combining macromolecular self-assembly with molecularly imprinting technique employing paracetamol (PCM) as template molecule. An amphiphilic electroactive copolymer (P(NVC-EHA-AA), PNEA) containing carbazole group was first synthesized through a one-pot free radical copolymerization. The coassembly of the electroactive copolymers with the template molecules (PCM) in aqueous solution generated nanoparticles embedded with PCM, leading to the formation of molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles (MIENPs). A robust MIP film was formed on the surface of electrode by electrodeposition of MIENPs and subsequent electropolymerization of the carbazole units in MIENPs. After the extraction of PCM molecules, a MIP sensor was successfully constructed. It should be noted that electropolymerization of the electroactive units in MIENPs creates cross-conjugated polymer network, which not only locks the recognition sites but also significantly accelerates the electron transfer and thus enhances the response signal of the MIP sensor. These advantages endowed the MIP sensor with good selectivity and high sensitivity for PCM detection. The MIP sensor could recognize PCM from its possible interfering substances with good selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, two linear ranges from 1 μM to 0.1 mM and 0.1 to 10 mM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM were obtained for PCM detection. The MIP sensor also showed good stability and repeatability, which has been successfully used to analyze PCM in tablets and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  6. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  7. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  8. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  9. Production of marker-free disease-resistant potato using isopentenyl transferase gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The use of antibiotic or herbicide resistant genes as selection markers for production of transgenic plants and their continuous presence in the final transgenics has been a serious problem for their public acceptance and commercialization. MAT (multi-auto-transformation) vector system has been one of the different strategies to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. In the present study, ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene was used as a selection marker gene. A chitinase gene, ChiC (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) was used as a gene of interest. ChiC gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH1 to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The infected tuber discs of potato were cultured on hormone- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Seven of the 35 explants infected with the pMAT21/ChiC produced shoots. The same antibiotic- and hormones-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the shoots (ipt like and normal shoots). Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of gene of interest and excision of the selection marker in 3 of the 7 clones. Expression of ChiC gene was confirmed by Northern blot and western blot analyses. Disease-resistant assay of the marker-free transgenic, in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani (early blight), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt). From these results it could be concluded that ipt gene can be used as a selection marker to produce marker-free disease-resistant transgenic potato plants on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium.

  10. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  11. UV ageing studies: evaluation of lightfastness declarations of commercial acrylic paints.

    PubMed

    Pintus, Valentina; Wei, Shuya; Schreiner, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    The lightfastness declarations of several different commercial acrylic paints and different quality series were tested by artificial UV ageing. To evaluate their lightfastness declarations, three acrylic colours (cadmium red, ultramarine blue and chromium oxide green) from six companies (Lascaux, Liquitex, Lukas, Rembrandt, Schmincke, and Winsor & Newton) were analysed before and after UV exposure. Characterisation and identification of these materials were carried out with Py-GC/MS, FTIR-ATR analyses, and colour measurements. Particular attention was focused on the Py-GC/MS measurements and on comparison of the single-shot method for pyrolysis of polymers and the double-shot mode which enables a unique combination of pyrolysis methods for analysis of polymers and thermal desorption for documentation of the volatile compounds. Depending on the particular company and the specific value of the lightfastness declaration, different binding media (i.e. poly(EA/MMA), poly(nBA/MMA), and poly(2-EHA/MMA)), and fillers (i.e. kaolinite, calcium carbonate, barite, and talc) were characterised and identified by Py-GC/MS and FTIR-ATR analyses. After UV exposure, several alteration processes with consequent formation of volatile compounds or new products were observed by both techniques, especially for the blue paints. In particular, the double-shot mode of Py-GC/MS enabled the detection of oxidation products, which could not be detected with the single-shot mode. Comparison of the lightfastness declarations for each of the blue, green, and red paints and the noted alterations broadly agreed for most of the paints.

  12. How Can a Little Shrimp Do so Much Damage?: Ecosystem Service Losses Associated with Land Cover Change in Mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Bhomia, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves provide a number of ecosystem services including habitats for many species of fish and shellfish, storm protection, influences on water quality, wood, aesthetics, and a source of nutrients and energy for adjacent marine ecosystems. C stocks of mangroves are among the highest of any forest type on Earth. We have measured the ecosystem carbon stocks in mangroves across the world and found them to range from 250 to >2000 Mg C/ha which is a CO2 equivalence of 917 to 7340 Mg/ha. Because the numerous values of mangroves are well known, it is ironic that rates of deforestation largely relating to land use/land cover change are among the highest of any forest type on earth exceeding that of tropical rain forests. Dominant causes of deforestation include conversion to aquaculture (shrimp), agricultural conversion, and coastal development. The carbon emissions arising from conversion of mangroves to other uses is exceptionally high. This is because vulnerability of the soil carbon stocks to losses with conversion. Emissions from conversion of mangrove to shrimp ponds range from about 800 to over 3000 Mg CO2e/ha. This places the carbon footprint of shrimp arising from such ponds as among the highest of any food product available. Of great interest is the potential value of mangroves in carbon marketing strategies and other financial incentives that are derived from the conservation of standing forests. This is because of the combination of high carbon stocks in intact mangroves, the high greenhouse gas emissions arising from their conversion, and the conservation of other valuable ecosystem services provided by intact mangroves.

  13. 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Diamos, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Sun H.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  14. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination. PMID:26922728

  15. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  16. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-02-06

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study.

  17. Synthesis of Water-Dispersible Molecularly Imprinted Electroactive Nanoparticles for the Sensitive and Selective Paracetamol Detection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ren; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-08-17

    A novel kind of water-dispersible molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles was prepared combining macromolecular self-assembly with molecularly imprinting technique employing paracetamol (PCM) as template molecule. An amphiphilic electroactive copolymer (P(NVC-EHA-AA), PNEA) containing carbazole group was first synthesized through a one-pot free radical copolymerization. The coassembly of the electroactive copolymers with the template molecules (PCM) in aqueous solution generated nanoparticles embedded with PCM, leading to the formation of molecularly imprinted electroactive nanoparticles (MIENPs). A robust MIP film was formed on the surface of electrode by electrodeposition of MIENPs and subsequent electropolymerization of the carbazole units in MIENPs. After the extraction of PCM molecules, a MIP sensor was successfully constructed. It should be noted that electropolymerization of the electroactive units in MIENPs creates cross-conjugated polymer network, which not only locks the recognition sites but also significantly accelerates the electron transfer and thus enhances the response signal of the MIP sensor. These advantages endowed the MIP sensor with good selectivity and high sensitivity for PCM detection. The MIP sensor could recognize PCM from its possible interfering substances with good selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, two linear ranges from 1 μM to 0.1 mM and 0.1 to 10 mM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM were obtained for PCM detection. The MIP sensor also showed good stability and repeatability, which has been successfully used to analyze PCM in tablets and human urine samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27463123

  18. Power management and distribution system for a More-Electric Aircraft (MADMEL) -- Program status

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, M.A.; Shah, N.M.; Cleek, K.J.; Walia, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    A number of technology breakthroughs in recent years have rekindled the concept of a more-electric aircraft. High-power solid-state switching devices, electrohydrostatic actuators (EHAs), electromechanical actuators (EMAs), and high-power generators are just a few examples of component developments that have made dramatic improvements in properties such as weight, size, power, and cost. However, these components cannot be applied piecemeal. A complete, and somewhat revolutionary, system design approach is needed to exploit the benefits that a more-electric aircraft can provide. A five-phase Power Management and Distribution System for a More-Electric Aircraft (MADMEL) program was awarded by the Air Force to the Northrop/Grumman, Military Aircraft Division team in September 1991. The objective of the program is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced electrical power generation and distribution system for a more-electric aircraft (MEA). The MEA emphasizes the use of electrical power in place of hydraulics, pneumatic, and mechanical power to optimize the performance and life cycle cost of the aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the MADMEL program and a top-level summary of the program results, development and testing of major components to date. In Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies, the electrical load requirements were established and the electrical power system architecture was defined for both near-term (NT-year 1996) and far-term (FT-year 2003) MEA application. The detailed design and specification for the electrical power system (EPS), its interface with the Vehicle Management System, and the test set-up were developed under the recently completed Phase 3. The subsystem level hardware fabrication and testing will be performed under the on-going Phase 4 activities. The overall system level integration and testing will be performed in Phase 5.

  19. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae. PMID:25416252

  20. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion. PMID:18301900

  1. Diverse Virulence Gene Content of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Finishing Swine

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Manning, Shannon D.; Funk, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a critical public health concern because they can cause severe clinical outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, in humans. Determining the presence or absence of virulence genes is essential in assessing the potential pathogenicity of STEC strains. Currently, there is limited information about the virulence genes carried by swine STEC strains; therefore, this study was conducted to examine the presence and absence of 69 virulence genes in STEC strains recovered previously from finishing swine in a longitudinal study. A subset of STEC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine their genetic relatedness. Swine STEC strains (n = 150) were analyzed by the use of a high-throughput real-time PCR array system, which included 69 virulence gene targets. Three major pathotypes consisted of 16 different combinations of virulence gene profiles, and serotypes were determined in the swine STEC strains. The majority of the swine STEC strains (n = 120) belonged to serotype O59:H21 and carried the same virulence gene profile, which consisted of 9 virulence genes: stx2e, iha, ecs1763, lpfAO113, estIa (STa), ehaA, paa, terE, and ureD. The eae, nleF, and nleH1-2 genes were detected in one swine STEC strain (O49:H21). Other genes encoding adhesins, including iha, were identified (n = 149). The PFGE results demonstrated that swine STEC strains from pigs raised in the same finishing barn were closely related. Our results revealed diverse virulence gene contents among the members of the swine STEC population and enhance understanding of the dynamics of transmission of STEC strains among pigs housed in the same barn. PMID:25107960

  2. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

  3. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  4. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  5. La pseudarthrose du col fémoral traitée par prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Bassir, Réda Allah; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Saleh Berrada, Mohammed; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La pseudarthrose du col fémoral est une complication redoutée de la facture du col fémoral, elle est due soit à une négligence thérapeutique, soit à une ostéosynthèse imparfaite. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans sa genèse, l’âge, les caractéristiques de la fracture, l’état de la tête fémorale, et une ostéosynthèse non solide. Le diagnostic des pseudarthroses est essentiellement radiologique. Le traitement reste encore difficile et mal codifié, les limites entre traitement conservateur et arthroplastie de la hanche ne sont pas encore bien définies. Nous rapportons une série de 15 cas de pseudarthrose du col fémoral traités par arthroplastie de la hanche au service de traumato-orthopédie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rabat de 2008 à 2014 soit un recul de 40 mois en moyenne. Nos patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique. L’âge de nos patients varie entre 48 et 81 ans, avec une moyenne de 69,2 ans. 85% d'entre eux sont âgés de plus de 60 ans. Nous avons dans notre série une prédominance féminine, soit 8 femmes pour 7 hommes. La négligence thérapeutique est la cause de la majorité des pseudarthroses du col du fémur traitées dans notre série. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilisé exclusivement la voie d'abord postéro externe de Moore. Nous avons mis en place une prothèse totale de couple polyéthylène-métal chez tous les patients, ces prothèses étaient cimentées chez 12 patients. Le résultat fonctionnel a été coté selon la classification de Merle d'Aubigné. Nos résultats ont été jugés bons selon cette cotation. L'arthroplastie totale de la hanche a une place importante dans le traitement des pseudarthroses du col fémoral et peut donner des résultats satisfaisants en permettant de récupérer une hanche mobile et indolore. PMID:25667720

  6. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles and individual ferromagnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    The ultrafast magnetization dynamics of magnetic materials can be investigated using femtosecond laser pulses to perform femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday measurements [1]. In this talk, we will focus on the magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles which are either ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic at room temperature and on the dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots. In the first case (Co nanoparticles), we will demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics preceding the fluctuations over the anisotropy energy barrier is coherent but exhibits a strongly damped precession [2]. These results, which have been obtained with a three dimensional analysis of the magnetization vector [3] will be discussed in the context of the N'eel-Brown models involving the gyromagnetic character of the magnetization. We will also examine the dynamics of self-organized supra-crystals of cobalt nanoparticles [4]. In the second case, we will present the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots (CoPt3, Permalloy, Nickel) made either by e-beam lithography or induced optically on thin films deposited on sapphire and glass substrates. The technique employed is the magneto-optical pump probe imaging (MOPPI) which allows performing time resolved magneto-optical Kerr images with with spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 nm and 150 fs [5]. The study of the demagnetization of the dots for different laser intensities shows that it is possible to write and read ultrafast monodomains on thin films. [3pt] [1] E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 4250 (1996) [0pt] [2] L.H.F. Andrade, A. Laraoui, M. Vomir, D. Muller, J.-P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 127401 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. Vomir, L. H.F. Andrade, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 237601 (2005). [0pt] [4] I. Lisiecki, V. Halt'e, C. Petit, M.-P. Pileni, J.-Y. Bigot Adv. Mater., 20, 4176 (2008

  7. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  8. Analogue modelling of strike-slip fault propagation across a rheological/morphological crustal anisotropy: implications for the morphotectonic evolution of the Gloria Fault - Tore Madeira Rise area in NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe M.; Duarte, João C.; Terrinha, Pedro; Kullberg, Maria C.; Almeida, Jaime; Barata, Frederico; Carvalho, Bruno; Almeida, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The Gloria Fault (GF) marks the E-W dextral transcurrent plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in NE Atlantic, displaying complying high magnitude (historical and instrumental) seismic activity (e.g. M=7.1 in 1939 and M=8.4 in 1941, Bufforn et al., 1988), and cutting across a NNE-SSW 1000 km long bathymetric ridge: the so called Tore-Madeira Rise - TMR (rising in average 3km above the abyssal plain). The precise origin and tectono-magmatic evolution of the TMR is still not fully understood, although reported wide-angle refraction data points to a rheological configuration comprising an isostatically compensated thickened oceanic crust, possibly formed during a period of high accretion in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Pierce and Barton, 1991). Widespread evidence for volcanic activity has also been recognized, spanning from late Cretaceous to Present (Geldmacher et al. 2006, Merle et al. 2009), noticeably with the most recent volcanism (~500 Ky) occurring as tectonically aligned volcanic plugs, distributed along the E-W tectonic trend of the GF-related structures. To better understand the complex interference at play in this key area between the tectonic structures (essentially determined by the Gloria Fault system), the present and past magmatic activity and the resulting seafloor morphology, a series of dynamically scaled analogue modelling experiments have been conceived and carried out. The main focus of this experimental work was to decipher the potential influence of a rheological vs. morphological anisotropy (accounting for the TMR) on the lateral propagation of a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (representing the GF). The preliminary comparison of the obtained experimental results with the natural morphotectonic pattern in the study area reveals, not only a strong tectonic control of the ongoing volcanism, manifested by the observed preferred directions of aligned volcanic plugs, but also a so far unsuspected deflection/distributed pattern of several

  9. Comparison of Surfactant Distributions in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Films Dried from Dispersion under Lab-Scale and Industrial Drying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Baesch, S; Siebel, D; Schmidt-Hansberg, B; Eichholz, C; Gerst, M; Scharfer, P; Schabel, W

    2016-03-01

    Film-forming latex dispersions are an important class of material systems for a variety of applications, for example, pressure-sensitive adhesives, which are used for the manufacturing of adhesive tapes and labels. The mechanisms occurring during drying have been under intense investigations in a number of literature works. Of special interest is the distribution of surfactants during the film formation. However, most of the studies are performed at experimental conditions very different from those usually encountered in industrial processes. This leaves the impact of the drying conditions and the resulting influence on the film properties unclear. In this work, two different 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate (EHA)-based adhesives with varying characteristics regarding glass transition temperature, surfactants, and particle size distribution were investigated on two different substrates. The drying conditions, defined by film temperature and mass transfer in the gas phase, were varied to emulate typical conditions encountered in the laboratory and industrial processes. Extreme conditions equivalent to air temperatures up to 250 °C in a belt dryer and drying rates of 12 g/(m(2)·s) were realized. The surfactant distributions were measured by means of 3D confocal Raman spectroscopy in the dry film. The surfactant distributions were found to differ significantly with drying conditions at moderate film temperatures. At elevated film temperatures the surfactant distributions are independent of the investigated gas side transport coefficients: the heat and mass transfer coefficient. Coating on substrates with significantly different surface energies has a large impact on surfactant concentration gradients, as the equilibrium between surface and bulk concentration changes. Dispersions with higher colloidal stability showed more homogeneous lateral surfactant distributions. These results indicate that the choice of the drying conditions, colloidal stability, and substrates is crucial

  10. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E; Ruiz, María J; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  11. Nanostructure and salt effect of zwitterionic carboxybetaine brush at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Yamakawa, Yuta; Ghosh, Arjun; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    Zwitterionic amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(ethylhexyl acrylate)-b-poly(carboxybetaine) (PEHA-b-PGLBT), was synthesized by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method with precise control of block length and polydispersity. The polymers thus obtained were spread onto the water surface to form a polymer monolayer. The fundamental property and nanostructure of the block copolymer monolayer were systematically studied by the surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and X-ray reflectivity (XR) techniques. The π values of the monolayer increased by compression in relatively larger A regions. After showing a large plateau region by compression, the π value sharply increased at very small A regions, suggesting the formation of poly(GLBT) brush formation just beneath the water surface. The domain structure of μm size was observed by BAM in the plateau region. XR profiles for the monolayer at higher surface pressure regions clearly showed the PGLBT brush formation in addition to PGLBT carpet layer formation under the hydrophobic PEHA layer on the water surface, as was observed for both anionic and cationic brush layer in the water surface monolayer studied previously. The critical brush density, where the PGLBT brush is formed, was estimated to be about 0.30 chains/nm(2) for the (EHA)45-b-(GLBT)60 monolayer, which is relatively large compared to other ionic brushes. This observation is consistent with the fact that the origin of brush formation is mainly steric hindrance between brush chains. The brush thickness increased by compression and also by salt addition, unlike the normal ionic brush (anionic and cationic), whose thickness tended to decrease, i.e., shrink, by salt addition. This might be a character unique to the zwitterionic brush, and its origin is thought to be transition to an ionic nature from the almost nonionic inner salt caused by salt addition since both the cation and anion of the

  12. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (< 3 m) were relatively high due to the presence of carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions

  13. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  14. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. F. inerme Makino) an important medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofang; Zhao, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Context: Asakura-sanshoo (Zanthoxylum piperitum [L.] DC. f. inerme Makino) is an important medicinal plant in East Asia. Transgenic technique could be applied to improve plant traits and analyze gene function. However, there is no report on regeneration and genetic transformation in Asakura-sanshoo. Aims: To establish a regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system in Asakura-sanshoo, which could be used for cultivar improvement and gene function analysis. Settings and Design: The various combinations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were explored for the optimal plant regeneration from petiole and stem of Asakura-sanshoo. The half-strength woody plant medium (WPM) with different concentrations of NAA and IBA was used to induce root. For genetic transformation, A. tumefaciens strain EHA-105 harboring the plasmid pBin-Ex-H-ipt which carries the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and kanamycin resistance gene neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) were used. The transformation efficiency was detected by the kanamycin resistant frequency. Materials and Methods: Petioles and stems were obtained from the in vitro cultured Asakura-sanshoo. The petiole and stem segments were precultured for 3 days, and then inflected using the bacterium at the concentration of OD600 0.5–0.8 for 10 min, followed by 3 days co-cultivation. Selection of the transgenic plants was carried out after 7 days the regeneration using gradient kanamycin at 30 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Successful transformed plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Southern blotting analysis. Results: The highest shoots regeneration was obtained on WPM supplement with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L NAA. The optimal rooting medium was half strength macro-element WPM. The kanamycin resistant frequency of petiole and

  15. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  16. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E.; Ruiz, María J.; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  17. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  18. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme fvtox1 mutants revealed that the FvTox1 toxin is involved in foliar sudden death syndrome development in soybean.

    PubMed

    Pudake, Ramesh N; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Sahu, Binod B; Leandro, Leonor F; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2013-08-01

    The soil borne fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean, which is a serious foliar and root rot disease. The pathogen has never been isolated from the diseased foliar tissues; phytotoxins produced by the pathogen are believed to cause foliar SDS symptoms. One of these toxins, a 13.5-kDa acidic protein named FvTox1, has been hypothesized to interfere with photosynthesis in infected soybean plants and cause foliar SDS. The objective of this study is to determine if FvTox1 is involved in foliar SDS development. We created and studied five independent knockout fvtox1 mutants to study the function of FvTox1. We conducted Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to accomplish homologous recombination of FvTox1 with a hygromycin B resistance gene, hph, to generate the fvtox1 mutants. Approximately 40 hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained from 10(6) conidial spores of the F. virguliforme Mont-1 isolate when the spores were co-cultivated with the A. tumefaciens EHA105 but not with LBA4044 strain carrying a recombinant binary plasmid, in which the hph gene encoding hygromycin resistance was flanked by 5'- and 3'-end FvTox1 sequences. We observed homologous recombination-mediated integration of hph into the FvTox1 locus among five independent fvtox1 mutants. In stem-cutting assays using cut soybean seedlings fed with cell-free F. virguliforme culture filtrates, the knockout fvtox1 mutants caused chlorophyll losses and foliar SDS symptoms, which were over twofold less than those caused by the virulent F. virguliforme Mont-1 isolate. Similarly, in root inoculation assays, more than a twofold reduction in foliar SDS development and chlorophyll losses was observed among the seedlings infected with the fvtox1 mutants as compared to the seedlings infected with the wild-type Mont-1 isolate. These results suggest that FvTox1 is a major virulence factor involved in foliar SDS development in soybean. It is expected that

  19. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  20. In vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of two tannin rich plants.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in the in vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins using respective egg hatch assays (EHA) with acetone:water extracts of two tannin containing plants, chimay (Acacia pennatula) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Fresh eggs were incubated in PBS with different concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400, 3600, 5000 and 8000 μg/ml PBS). Additional concentrations were tested for O. viciifolia (75, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml PBS). Effective concentrations 50% (EC50), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI), were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated to compare the isolates, using the most susceptible isolate for each extract as the respective reference. A second set of incubations were made using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (0, 5000 μg/ml, 5000 μg/ml+PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the AH effect. The proportion of morulated eggs, eggs with L1 larvae failing eclosion (%LFE), and emerged larvae were estimated at different extract concentrations. Data of each isolate was used to calculate the effective concentration 50% (EC50) for each extract. The EC50 of each isolate was used to determine resistance ratio (RR) for the different isolates. For the 2 extracts, a susceptibility variation in egg hatching was observed for the different H. contortus isolates. The EC50 values for A. pennatula ranged from 2203 to 14106 μg (RR from 2.01 to 6.40). The O. viciifolia extract showed higher variability with EC50 values ranging from 104 to 4783 μg (RR from 3.66 to 45.74). The main AH effects of the two extracts tested on the ten isolates consisted in blocking the emergence of L1 larvae (higher% LFE). Additional observations on emerged larvae showed that extract exposure caused alterations in the internal structure, separating the cuticle from the pharynx, bulb and intestinal

  1. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    plume lost its original turbidity and unimodal seasonal pattern of pulsation upon the shelf as indicated by In Situ sampling and Satellite imagery series (LANDSAT TM 2-5 and MODIS). The coastal plume is largely fed with suspended matter from resupension processes and coastal erosion. C- The Japaratuba river fan. The inner-mid shelf harbors relict muddy and sandy siliclastic sediments and the shelf margin biodetritic carbonates. Riverine inputs have become insignificant. D- The southern shelf of Sergipe. The muddy, sandy and carbonate Merl sediments are heterogeneously distributed,and the coast is affected by diffuse small riverine inputs and wash out by the SEC. Sedimentation rates (210Pbex chronology with the CRS model) of Domains B and C ranged between 0.7 and 0.1 cm year-1, being similar to those of the eastern Brazilian shelf.

  2. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  3. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  4. Ares I and Ares V First Stage - Powering Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Williams, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Stage activity in 2007 has focused on a series of preliminary design (PDR) activities associated with each booster subsystem. These events will culminate in a formal preliminary design review in 2008, where subsystems and component specifications will be developed and associated analyses and drawings will be evaluated for technical adequacy. The first stage also has been undergoing a series of trade studies to determine means for upgrading booster performance and reducing operational costs. Performance improvement studies have included changing from polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant to hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB); replacing aluminum with composite motor casings; and optimizing or upgrading the propellant grain and nozzle structures. Some or all of these changes could result in a block upgrade to the Ares I first stage, after becoming the standard configuration for the Ares V. The cost reduction studies included a change from reusable or recoverable boosters to completely expendable boosters; changing from hydrazine-powered to more environmentally friendly electrohydrostatic actuators (EHAs) on the thrust vector control (TVC) system; and changing the location of the separation plane to reduce the likelihood of recontact upon booster separation. The expendability trade study resulted in a decision to keep the recoverable boosters, as the new hardware costs significantly outweighed the potential operational cost savings due to reduced ground operations. Likewise, due to cost considerations, the team continued using existing hydrazine-powered actuators for the TVC system. The separation plane location for Ares I is still being studied, with results to be announced in 2008. In short, the Ares launch vehicles' first stage is building upon NASA's close familiarity with this Shuttle-derived system, while continuing to seek out improvements for long-term exploration.

  5. Study on selective separation of uranium(VI) by new N,N-dialkyl carboxy-amides

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Sugo, Yumi; Kimura, Takaumi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2007-07-01

    of new N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides, macro amount of U(VI) extraction and radiolysis of four compounds were carried out and the following results were obtained: Cyclohexyl group and branched alkyl group combined N,N-di-alk yl carboxy-amides show good separation factors for U/Pu. DH2EBA and DO2EBA show an enough extraction ability for the macro amount of U(VI). The radiation stability of N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides (DOHA, DHDMBA and D2EH2EHA) was equal for that of TBP. For adoption of N,N-di-alkyl carboxy-amides for FBR cycle, more information of degradation, extraction of fission products and accurate of the third phase formation boundary are necessary. (authors)

  6. Control of the geomorphic evolution of an active crater: Popocatpetl (Mexico) 1994-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Macias, J. L.; Sanjosé, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    . References.- Cruz-Reyna, S. de la; Meli, R.; Macías, J.L.; Castillo, F.; & Cabrera, B., 1998. Cyclical dome extrusions that by late 1997 filled one-third of crater capacity, In Smithsonian-GVP Monthly Reports, Popocatépetl, Smithsonian Institution. Bull. Glob. Volcanism Netw, (GVN) 23 (2), 2 - 4. Donnadieu, F.; Kelfoun, K.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Decchi, E.; & Merle, O., 2003. Digital photogrammetry as a tool in analogue modelling: applications to volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123 (1-2), 161-180. Macías, J.L. & Siebe, C., 2005. Popocatépetl crater filled to the brim: significance for hazard evaluation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (141) 327-330. Martín-Del Pozzo, A.L.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, F.; Correa, I.; & Mendiola, I.F., 2003. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research ,125, 107-120. Matiella, M.A.; Watson, I.M.; Delgado, H.; Rose, W.I.; , Cárdenas, L.; & Realmuro, V.J., 2008, Volcanic emissions from Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, quantified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared data: A case study of the December 2000-January 2001 emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 170, 1-2, 76-85. Procter, J.N.; Platz, T.; & Cronin, S.J., 2006. A remnant summit lava dome and its influence on future eruptive hazards, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 10211. Schilling, S.P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Messerich, J.A.; & Thompson, R.A., 2006. Map: Rebuilding Mount St. Helens. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2928. Tanarro, L. M.; Zamorano, J.J.; & Palacios, D., 2005. Glacier degradation and lahar formation on the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) during the last eruptive period (1994-2003), Zeitschrift Geomorphologie (140) 73-92. Zamorano, J.J., Gómez, A. 1996 "Análisis geomorfoloógico a detalle,1:10 000 del cráter del volcán Popocatépetl (1989-1996)" IV Reuni

  7. Modelling of the impact of the Rhone River N:P ratios over the NW Mediterranean planktonic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Carlotti, François

    2016-04-01

    , Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  8. Modeling of the impact of Rhone River nutrient inputs on the dynamics of planktonic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Garreau, Pierre; Guyennon, Arnaud; Carlotti, François

    2014-05-01

    future research. Report of the Workshop «Variability of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean circulation and termohaline properties : similarities and differences ». Rome, 7-9 November, 2011, 48 pp. Parsons, T. R., and Lalli, C. M. (2002) Jellyfish population explosions: Revisiting a hypothesis of possible causes. La Mer 40: 111-121. Pujo-Pay, M., Conan, P., Oriol L., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Falco, C., Ghiglione, J.-F., Goyet, C., Moutin, T. and Prieur, L. (2011) Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P) from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea, Biogeoscciences, 8, 883-899. The MerMex Group, Durrieu de Madron X, Guieu C, Sempéré R, Conan P, Cossa D, D'Ortenzio F, Estournel C, Gazeau F, Rabouille C, Stemmann L, Bonnet S, Diaz F, Koubbi P, Radakovitch O, Babin M, Baklouti M, Bancon-Montigny C, Belviso S, Bensoussan N, Bonsang B, Bouloubassi I, Brunet C, Cadiou J-F, Carlotti F, Chami M, Charmasson S, Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  9. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    : "The Changing Atmosphere: A Global Challenge" (1990), and, with his wife Judith Jacobsen "The Crowded Greenhouse: Population, Climate Change and Creating a Sustainable World" (2002). After ASP, he continued his focus on environmental issues as a member of the Environmental and Societal Impacts group at NCAR. John retired from NCAR in 2005. John had many active pursuits beyond his professional work. He was an accomplished pilot, with licenses for flying single and multiengine aircraft, sailplanes, and balloons. He piloted a sailplane in at least one meteorological field program. He also was an avid river rafter. John faced the disease that took his life as he did all events in his life, with grace and dignity. He endured the loss of two spouses to cancer, Merle Jenkins Firor in 1979, and Judith Jacobsen in 2004. John is survived by his four children with his first wife, Daniel Firor of Seattle, Washington; Kay Firor of Cove, Oregon; James Firor of Hotchkiss, Colorado, and Susan Firor of Moscow, Idaho; a sister; a brother; and three grandchildren. His children and his many friends in Boulder and elsewhere gave him loving support during his days battling Alzheimer's. John used to define a 'southern gentleman' as a man dressed in white linen suit on a hot dusty summer day in a small Georgia town who could cross the street without breaking a sweat. John and his intellect and his management ability were like that; he could deal gracefully and successfully with almost anything that came his way. A man of great accomplishment, he rarely showed an ego to match. In the darkest days following the JEC Report, he almost single-handedly invented a new NCAR scientific appointment system. He chose the first cadre of 'senior scientists' to populate the top rank. There were about eighteen members in this group, but there was one name conspicuously absent - his own. This 'error' was quietly corrected by the UCAR Board.

  10. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  11. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was