Science.gov

Sample records for merle saaliste eha

  1. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  2. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  3. The Leadership of Merle Ohlsen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the contributions of Merle Ohlsen to the development of the counseling profession and to the American Association for Counseling and Development. Interviews Ohlsen about his early work history; professional organizations; professional issues including training, mentoring, and individual and group counseling; and the enrichment between…

  4. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  5. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud – Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned. PMID:25360436

  6. [Merle D'Aubigne's oblique proximal femoral osteotomy. Surgical technique].

    PubMed

    López Sosa, Francisco H; Valentín-Guerrero, Santiago; Miranda-López, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Proximal femoral osteotomy with the technique described by Merle D'AubignC and Valliant was used in the treatment of adult patients with osteoarthritis or idiopathic avascular necrosis. Dr. Antonio Flores applied this technique to children with subluxation and acetabular dysplasia, identified with exaggerated anteversion and valgus of the proximal femur. He reported correction of the deformity in 75% of patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technique, its indications and complications.

  7. Merl R. Eppse and Studies of Blacks in American History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.

    In a time of heightened concern for useful integrated studies in U.S. history, Merl Eppse's work is at the forefront of quality material. Unfortunately it has been largely ignored. Merl Eppse was one of the first educators to write a U.S. history textbook that presented the history of U.S. blacks in an integrated manner. He was the head of the…

  8. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the Merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed

    PubMed Central

    Hédan, Benoit; Corre, Sébastien; Hitte, Christophe; Dréano, Stéphane; Vilboux, Thierry; Derrien, Thomas; Denis, Bernard; Galibert, Francis; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coat colours in canines have many natural phenotypic variants. Some of the genes and alleles involved also cause genetic developmental defects, which are also observed in humans and mice. We studied the genetic bases of the merle phenotype in dogs to shed light on the pigmentation mechanisms and to identify genes involved in these complex pathways. The merle phenotype includes a lack of eumelanic pigmentation and developmental defects, hearing impairments and microphthalmia. It is similar to that observed in microphthalmia mouse mutants. Results Taking advantage of the dog as a powerful genetic model and using recently available genomic resources, we investigated the segregation of the merle phenotype in a five-generation pedigree, comprising 96 sampled Australian shepherd dogs. Genetic linkage analysis allowed us to identify a locus for the merle phenotype, spanning 5.5 megabases, at the centromeric tip of canine chromosome 10 (CFA10). This locus was supported by a Lod score of 15.65 at a recombination fraction θ = 0. Linkage analysis in three other breeds revealed that the same region is linked to the merle phenotype. This region, which is orthologous to human chromosome 12 (HSA12 q13-q14), belongs to a conserved ordered segment in the human and mouse genome and comprises several genes potentially involved in pigmentation and development. Conclusion This study has identified the locus for the merle coat colour in dogs to be at the centromeric end of CFA10. Genetic studies on other breeds segregating the merle phenotype should allow the locus to be defined more accurately with the aim of identifying the gene. This work shows the power of the canine system to search for the genetic bases of mammalian pigmentation and developmental pathways. PMID:16504149

  9. The Present-Minded Professor: Merle Curti's Work as an Intellectual Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Merle Curti's work in intellectual history, focusing on such issues as the synthesis of social and intellectual history into the historical analysis of social thought, Curti's "presentism," the influence of John Dewey on his scholarship, and his civic-minded scholarship during World War II. (CMK)

  10. The Present-Minded Professor: Merle Curti's Work as an Intellectual Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Merle Curti's work in intellectual history, focusing on such issues as the synthesis of social and intellectual history into the historical analysis of social thought, Curti's "presentism," the influence of John Dewey on his scholarship, and his civic-minded scholarship during World War II. (CMK)

  11. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  12. Biological activity of the bryostatin analog Merle 23 on mouse epidermal cells and mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Cataisson, Christophe; Chen, Jinqiu; Herrmann, Michelle A; Petersen, Mark E; Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Yuspa, Stuart H; Keck, Gary E; Blumberg, Peter M

    2016-12-01

    Bryostatin 1, a complex macrocyclic lactone, is the subject of multiple clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. Although bryostatin 1 biochemically functions like the classic mouse skin tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to bind to and activate protein kinase C, paradoxically, it fails to induce many of the typical phorbol ester responses, including tumor promotion. Intense synthetic efforts are currently underway to develop simplified bryostatin analogs that preserve the critical functional features of bryostatin 1, including its lack of tumor promoting activity. The degree to which bryostatin analogs maintain the unique pattern of biological behavior of bryostatin 1 depends on the specific cellular system and the specific response. Merle 23 is a significantly simplified bryostatin analog that retains bryostatin like activity only to a limited extent. Here, we show that in mouse epidermal cells the activity of Merle 23 was either similar to bryostatin 1 or intermediate between bryostatin 1 and PMA, depending on the specific parameter examined. We then examined the hyperplastic and tumor promoting activity of Merle 23 on mouse skin. Merle 23 showed substantially reduced hyperplasia and was not tumor promoting at a dose comparable to that for PMA. These results suggest that there may be substantial flexibility in the design of bryostatin analogs that retain its lack of tumor promoting activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of the modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method

    PubMed Central

    Ugino, Fernanda Kazue; Righetti, Carolina Moraes; Alves, Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Ono, Nelson Keiske

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the inter-evaluator reproducibility of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method. Method Forty-five patients took part in the study, with a mean age of 57.93 (±13.35) who underwent total hip arthroplasty. All were evaluated by three researchers, who received training to standardize their criteria. The evaluation was held by the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method (association of prefixes A, B and C) the same day at random, and the researchers did not report to one another throughout the evaluations. For mobility assessment, passive hip movements were performed and measured with the universal goniometer. The statistical analysis was carried out by the Cronbach Test (p≤0.05 and 0.7≤ α<1.0). Results The statistical analysis showed significantly high inter-evaluators reliability for the items: prefix (p<0.001; α = 0.961), pain (p<0.001; α= 0.892), gait (p<0.001; α= 0.898), mobility (p<0.001; α=0.810) and total score (p<0.001; α=0.917). Conclusion There was high significance and reliability among the three evaluators for all items of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method, suggesting that this method is reliable, provided its items are parameterized and previous training of evaluators is carried out. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study. PMID:24453605

  14. ``Can Apples Fall Upwards?'' Astronomy for Students and Their Teachers at the Merle A. Starr Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    1996-05-01

    An overview will be presented of the activities performed at the Merle A. Starr Observatory as part of the IDEA project entitled ``Can Apples Fall Upwards? Exploring the Notion of Gravity through Hands-On CCD-Based Travel within the Solar System.'' The Merle A. Starr Observatory, located on the University of Portland campus, is operated jointly by Portland State University and the University of Portland. This facility houses the historical McIntosh-Gee 1:10 replica of the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Its 20'' honey-combed Pirex mirror was one of three blanks cast by Corning in 1929 as an experiment for the 200'' mirror. Under the approved IDEA proposal, an Axiom AX-2 CCD camera with a KAF-1600 Kodak 1536x 1024 array, is used for image acquisition. A filter wheel, motorized focuser, and image processing software are also part of the approved proposal. This paper will discuss the efforts made to reach out to the local educational community in the Portland area and in the State of Oregon in general as indicated in the original IDEA proposal. This will include use of the instrument, electronic dissemination of the information, seminars for local teachers, and projects available for their pupils.

  15. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  16. New PMMA-co-EHA glass-filled composites for biomedical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Poliana; Corbellini, Marcelo; Ferreira, Bárbara Leite; Almeida, Nuno; Fredel, Márcio; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Correia, Rui

    2009-01-01

    A bioactive glass of the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-MgO-SiO(2) system was incorporated as a filler into poly(methylmethacrylate)-co-(ethylhexylacrylate) (PMMA-co-EHA) copolymer. The effect of filler proportion (0, 30, 40 and 50wt.%) on the bending properties was evaluated and a maximum flexural strength of 29MPa coupled with an elastic modulus of 1.1GPa was obtained at an intermediate filler concentration (30wt.%). These values are slightly higher than those usually reported for human cancellous bone. The in vitro bioactivity was assessed by determining the changes in surface morphology and composition after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo solution). Inductively coupled plasma was used to trace the evolution of ionic concentrations in the SBF solution, namely Ca and P. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates on the surface of composites, indicating that the composites are potentially bioactive.

  17. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  18. The synthetic bryostatin analog Merle 23 dissects distinct mechanisms of bryostatin activity in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kedei, Noemi; Telek, Andrea; Czap, Alexandra; Lubart, Emanuel S; Czifra, Gabriella; Yang, Dazhi; Chen, Jinqiu; Morrison, Tyler; Goldsmith, Paul K; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H; Kraft, Matthew B; Li, Wei; Keck, Gary E; Blumberg, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    Bryostatin 1 has attracted considerable attention both as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent and for its unique activity. Although it functions, like phorbol esters, as a potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, it paradoxically antagonizes many phorbol ester responses in cells. Because of its complex structure, little is known of its structure-function relations. Merle 23 is a synthetic derivative, differing from bryostatin 1 at only four positions. However, in U-937 human leukemia cells, Merle 23 behaves like a phorbol ester and not like bryostatin 1. Here, we characterize the behavior of Merle 23 in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. In this system, bryostatin 1 and phorbol ester have contrasting activities, with the phorbol ester but not bryostatin 1 blocking cell proliferation or tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion, among other responses. We show that Merle 23 displays a highly complex pattern of activity in this system. Depending on the specific biological response or mechanistic change, it was bryostatin-like, phorbol ester-like, intermediate in its behavior, or more effective than either. The pattern of response, moreover, varied depending on the conditions. We conclude that the newly emerging bryostatin derivatives such as Merle 23 provide powerful tools to dissect subsets of bryostatin mechanism and response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The synthetic bryostatin analog Merle 23 dissects distinct mechanisms of bryostatin activity in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kedei, Noemi; Telek, Andrea; Czap, Alexandra; Lubart, Emanuel S.; Czifra, Gabriella; Yang, Dazhi; Chen, Jinqiu; Morrison, Tyler; Goldsmith, Paul K.; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H.; Kraft, Matthew B.; Li, Wei; Keck, Gary E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bryostatin 1 has attracted considerable attention both as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent and for its unique activity. Although it functions, like phorbol esters, as a potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, it paradoxically antagonizes many phorbol ester responses in cells. Because of its complex structure, little is known of its structure-function relations. Merle 23 is a synthetic derivative, differing from bryostatin 1 at only four positions. However, in U-937 human leukemia cells, Merle 23 behaves like a phorbol ester and not like bryostatin 1. Here, we characterize the behavior of Merle 23 in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. In this system, bryostatin 1 and phorbol ester have contrasting activities, with the phorbol ester but not bryostatin 1 blocking cell proliferation or tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion, among other responses. We show that Merle 23 displays a highly complex pattern of activity in this system. Depending on the specific biological response or mechanistic change, it was bryostatin-like, phorbol ester-like, intermediate in its behavior, or more effective than either. The pattern of response, moreover, varied depending on the conditions. We conclude that the newly emerging bryostatin derivatives such as Merle 23 provide powerful tools to dissect subsets of bryostatin mechanism and response. PMID:21458422

  20. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  1. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC/RAP Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Savannah River Site on June 9-13 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 9th thru June 13th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy Radiological Assistance Program (DOE RAP) Region-3 participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response exercise at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC, RAP, and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Montgomery, Alabama. The exercise was designed to allowed members of the DOE RAP Region-3 team to collect soil, water, vegetation and air samples from SRS and submit them through an established FRMAC hotline. Once received and processed through the hotline, FRMAC delivered the samples to the EPA MERL for sample preparation and laboratory radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential improvements in each step of the processes. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability between FRMAC and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The observations and lessons-learned from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.

  2. Environmental magnetism and effective radium concentration: the case study of the painted cave of Pech Merle, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, Aude; Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bourges, François

    2017-04-01

    Painted caves, showing testimony of prehistoric art, are nowadays subject to intense attention to understand the conditions of stability and avoid degradation. The preservation of cultural sequences and archaeological artefacts represents especially a crucial issue in the case of caves opened to visitors. For this purpose, a better knowledge of these preserved environments that imprint paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of deposition is needed. In this context, different environmental parameters of the Pech Merle cave, in France, are currently actively monitored including temperature, hygrometry, and gas measurements such as CO2 and radon-222 (decay product of radium-226). This temporal monitoring needs to be complemented by a detailed characterisation of the site, including petrophysical and mineralogical properties. To better constrain the environmental and paleoenvironmental context, more than 100 samples including soils, sediments, rocks and speleothems were collected inside and outside the cave area. We report here magnetic properties of powdered samples (low-field susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, and saturation magnetization) coupled with effective radium concentration (ECRa) measurements. We observe that magnetic susceptibility, which ranges over 5 orders of magnitude from calcareous rocks to topsoils and argillaceous filling deposits, correlates well with ECRa values. This correlation, previously observed (Girault et al., 2016) in very different geological contexts, could be interpreted as a common concentration of sources, also indicating a signature of natural samples to the contrary of anthropic environments disturbed by human activities, in which case the association is blurred. This study demonstrates the general interest of combining two different parameters - here low-field magnetic susceptibility and effective radium concentration determined using non-destructive techniques in the field and in the laboratory - to physically characterize

  3. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a--- Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators--- The Four Star Families)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the complete modern Hawaiian navigational full-sky. Over eight years of field notes, observations, and interviews with cultural leaders, historians, and ho`okele wa`a (navigators) were used to construct and validate Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators. In contrast to the various historical sky maps designed by different practitioners and local groups in pre-colonial times, this sky-map depicts the four whole-sky constellations used by present day wayfinders. Designed by a loosely bound group of cultural leaders and navigators as a tool to use in modern non-instrumental navigation, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a is a pragmatic fusion of ancient Hawaiian tradition, traditions of greater Polynesia, and modern-day Indigenous cultural forces. Like a very small number of cultures who use the sky for non-instrumental navigation, the ho`okele wa`a conceive of each season's visible sky as a whole image, using a single constellation that stretches from the northern to the southern horizon as a tool that facilitates direction finding in skies that are often very cloudy, and that chunks the sky into sections that decrease the cognitive load placed on the navigator. Moving through the seasons, beginning in Winter, Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Four Star Families) are Kekaomakali`I (The Bailer), Kaiwikuamo`o (The Backbone), Manaiakalani (The Fishhook), and Kalupekawelo (The Kite). The whole-sky character of each of the four "star families," combines with that star family's mo`olelo (purposeful story) to further facilitate navigation, employing the emotional component of moral and familial associations to enhance memorization and to provide wayfinders with encouragement on their long journeys.

  4. The EHA and Mainstreaming: Has the Idaho Supreme Court Taken a Step Backward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    The paper examines an Idaho Supreme Court decision (Thornock versus Boise Independent School District) that placement of a severely handicapped student in a regular classroom with the assistance of an aide was preferable to placement in a segregated special education classroom. The paper argues that this decision is contrary to the provisions of…

  5. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA): A Statutory and Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Relan

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the historical background of educating the handicapped; presents the general features of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, including funding, enforcement remedies, and procedural rights; and discusses issues raised by the law. (MLF)

  6. Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NLTE corrections for Mg and Ca lines (Merle+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Thevenin, F.; Pichon, B.; Bigot, L.

    2012-05-01

    Non-LTE corrections for Mg and Ca lines in the stellar parameter range Teff=[3500,5250]K, log(g)=[0.5, 2.0], [Fe/H]=[-4.0,0.5] and [α/Fe]=[0.0,0.4]. The W/W* ratio can be applied to the measured equivalent widths to determine NLTE abundance with classical LTE radiative transfer codes. 45 files for 45 lines of MgI, CaI and CaII are given. In each file, 453 rows at max for a grid of 453 model atmospheres. Only models with W>=1mÅ are given. Only models with 0.0

  8. Development of a high strength hot isostatically pressed /HIP/ disk alloy, MERL 76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.; Eng, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A nickel-based powder metal disk alloy developed for use in advanced commercial gas turbines is described. Consideration is given to final alloy chemistry modifications made to achieve a desirable balance between tensile strength and stress rupture life and ductility. The effects of post-consolidation heat treatment are discussed, the preliminary mechanical properties obtained from full-scale turbine disks are presented.

  9. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion on Streamflow, Recharge, Physical Habitat, and Temperature, Na Wai `Eha, Maui, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    The perennial flow provided by Waihe‘e River, Waiehu Stream, ‘Īao Stream, and Waikapū Stream, collectively known as Nā Wai ‘Ehā (“The Four Streams”), made it possible for widespread agricultural activities to flourish in the eastern part of West Maui, Hawai‘i. The streams of the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area flow in their upper reaches even during extended dry-weather conditions because of persistent groundwater discharge to the streams. Overall, the lower reaches of these streams lose water, which may contribute to groundwater recharge. During climate years 1984–2007 (when complete streamflow records were available for Waihe‘e River and ‘Īao Stream), Waihe‘e River had the greatest median flow of the four streams upstream of the uppermost diversion on each stream. The median flows, in million gallons per day, during climate years 1984–2007 were: 34 for Waihe‘e River near an altitude of 605 feet; 25 for ‘Īao Stream near an altitude of 780 feet; and estimated to be 4.3 for Waikapū Stream near an altitude of 1,160 feet; 3.2 for North Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 880 feet; and 3.2 for South Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 870 feet. Existing stream diversions in the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area have a combined capacity exceeding at least 75 million gallons per day and are capable of diverting all or nearly all of the dry-weather flows of these streams, leaving some downstream reaches dry. Hourly photographs collected during 2006–2008 indicate that some stream reaches downstream of diversions are dry more than 50 percent of the time. Many of these reaches would be perennial or nearly perennial in the absence of diversions.

  10. The Fierce Urgency of Now: What, if Any, Lessons Have We Learned about Educating Children Who Were Excluded from Public Schools Prior to EHA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD) is timely and resonates with the theme of the 2009 TASH Conference, "If not Us, Who? If not NOW, When?" The articles grapple with critical issues across a number of dimensions that reflect the complexity of inclusion and exclusion, the importance of…

  11. The Fierce Urgency of Now: What, if Any, Lessons Have We Learned about Educating Children Who Were Excluded from Public Schools Prior to EHA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD) is timely and resonates with the theme of the 2009 TASH Conference, "If not Us, Who? If not NOW, When?" The articles grapple with critical issues across a number of dimensions that reflect the complexity of inclusion and exclusion, the importance of…

  12. School-Based Support Teams, 1981-82 and 1982-83. E.H.A. Part B Flow-Through Entitlement. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The report documents the 1981-82 and 1982-83 cycles of School-Based Support Team (SBST) services administered by the New York City Public Schools Division of Special Education. SBSTs include school social workers, psychologists, and educational evaluators as core members and are intended to provide consultation and support to regular education…

  13. Development of a hydroxyapatite coating containing silver for the prevention of peri-prosthetic infection.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Yaser; Coathup, Melanie J; Hing, Karin A; Blunn, Gordon W

    2012-03-01

    We hypothesized that the electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (EHA) can be used to incorporate silver (Ag), providing a controlled and sustained release of Ag ions at a bactericidal concentration. Six groups were investigated: electrochemical co-precipitation of HA and Ag (EHA/Ag); EHA pre-coated discs treated in AgN0(3) (EHA/AgN0(3)); plasma sprayed HA (PHA) pre-coated discs treated in AgN0(3) (PHA/AgN0(3)); EHA with 2 "layers" of Ag (EHA/Ag/2 layers); EHA coating only; and PHA coating only. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses quantified coating thickness, calcium/phosphorous ratio, and % atomic silver content, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry quantified the amount of Ag released in phosphate-buffered saline, and zone of inhibition tests on agar plates using a lawn of Staph aureus were quantified in each group. XRD and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Ag in all coatings. EHA coated discs with two layers of Ag and the EHA discs soaked in AgN0(3) showed significantly higher zones of inhibition at all time points when compared with all other groups (except PHA/AgN0(3) on day 0). This study demonstrated that Ag ions can be incorporated into a HA coating using an electrochemical technique.

  14. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  15. Obvious and Subtle Contributions of Merlin C. Wittrock to Programmatic R&D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; O'Neil, Harry

    2010-01-01

    We describe some of Merl's more subtle contributions that extended beyond his own prodigious scholarly record, his high-quality teaching, and his mentoring of students. The context of our remarks on Programmatic R&D focuses on his contribution to the University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Education. Merl was the first director of…

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-02

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings.

  17. Collaborative Case-Based Reasoning for Knowledge Discovery of Elders Health Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy. PMID:25337150

  18. Collaborative case-based reasoning for knowledge discovery of elders health assessment system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-Xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy.

  19. National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1 (Update FY17Q4)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; O'Connor, Patrick

    2016-09-30

    The National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1, Update FY17Q4, includes geospatial point-level locations and key characteristics of existing hydropower plants in the United States that are currently online. These data are a subset extracted from NHAAP’s Existing Hydropower Assets (EHA) dataset, which is a cornerstone of NHAAP’s EHA effort that has supported multiple U.S. hydropower R&D research initiatives related to market acceleration, environmental impact reduction, technology-to-market activities, and climate change impact assessment. For more information on NHAAP’s EHA effort, please visit the project web page at: http://nhaap.ornl.gov/existing-hydropower.

  20. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  1. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  2. Comparative study of hydroxyapatite from eggshells and synthetic hydroxyapatite for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gon; Balázsi, Csaba; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Hee-Ok

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite (sHA) and hydroxyapatite from eggshells (eHA) by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and to compare the regenerative ability of the bone using sHA and eHA in a rabbit calvarial defect model. FT-IR and XRD were used to compare the physical properties of sHA and eHA. sHA was purchased from Sigma, and eHA was kindly donated from the Hungarian academy of science. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used for the animal study. After the formation of a bilateral parietal bony defect (diameter 8.0 mm), either sHA or eHA was grafted into the defect. The defect in the control was left unfilled. Bone regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The peak broadening of the XRD experiments were in agreement with scanning electron microscope observation; the sHA had a smaller granule size than the eHA. The eHA had impurities phases of CaO (International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD) 075-0264) and Ca(OH)(2) (ICDD 072-0156). Total new bone was 17.11 ± 10.24% in the control group, 28.81 ± 12.63% in sHA group, and 25.68 ± 10.89% in eHA group at 4 weeks after the operation. The difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Total new bone at 8 weeks after the operation was 27.50 ± 10.89% in the control group, 38.62 ± 17.42% in sHA group, and 41.99 ± 8.44% in the eHA group. When comparing the sHA group to the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). However, the eHA group was significantly different from the control group (P = .038). When comparing the eHA group to the sHA group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Both types of HA showed higher bone formation than the unfilled control. However, eHA had significantly higher bone formation than the unfilled control at 8 weeks after operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Ko, Jin H; Wahed, Abdus S

    2014-04-30

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis' 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial.

  4. HTLV-1 Tax Effects on Cellular Mitotic Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    34 HTLV -I Tax Effects on Cellular Mitotic Regulation" Randall Merling Doctor of Philosophy Degree 12 April 2007 Christophe Broder, Ph" . Department ’o...copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "The Effects of HTLV -1 Tax on Mitotic Regulation" Is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond...University of the Health Sciences 11 iii ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: “The Effects of HTLV -1 Tax on Mitotic Regulation” Author: Randall K. Merling

  5. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  6. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  7. 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA, CAS No. 149-57-5) to conduct testing.

  8. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  9. Eggshell Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Graft Substitute in the Healing of Maxillary Cystic Bone Defects: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kanumuru, Narasimha Reddy; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Sidharthan, A; Kumar, T S Sampath; Prasad, L Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, use of graft materials to promote healing of defects of bone is wellknown. Traditionally, missing bone is replaced with material from either patient or donor. Multiple sources of bone grafts have been used to graft bone defects to stimulate bone healing. Hydroxyapatite is naturally occurring mineral component of bone, which is osteoconductive. This versatile biomaterial is derived from many sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) in the bone regeneration of human maxillary cystic bone defects secondary to cystic removal/apicoectomy and compare the material properties of EHA in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of eight maxillary bone defects were grafted after cystic enucleation and/or apicoectomy in the year 2008 and completed the study at 1 year. The patients were followed-up 2 weeks after surgery for signs and symptoms of infection or any other complications that may have been related to surgical procedure. Follow-up radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery followed by 1, 2, and 3 months to assess the efficacy of EHA in bone healing. Physicochemical characterization of the EHA was carried out in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), also compared the biocompatibility of EHA using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Results: By the end of the 8th week, the defects grafted with EHA showed complete bone formation. However, bone formation in non-grafted sites was insignificant. The values of density measurements were equal or more than that of surrounding normal bone. These results indicate that the osseous regeneration of the bone defect filled with EHA is significant. EHA showed the superior material properties in comparison with SHA. Conclusion: EHA is a versatile novel bone graft substitute that yielded promising results. Because of its biocompatibility, lack of disease transfer risks, ease of use and unlimited availability, EHA remains a viable choice

  10. Identification and quantitation of extractables from cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and estimation of their in vivo exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Decheng; Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Beasley, Christopher; Zhao, Zhongxi Zack; Harmon, Paul A; Ballard, John M; Pitzenberger, Steven M; Varga, Sandor L; Reed, Robert A

    2004-06-29

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine potential cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) extractables in a way to meaningfully predict the in vivo exposure resulting from clinical administration. Extractions of CAB-381-20 were performed in several solvent systems, consistently resulting in the detection of three extractables. The extractables have been identified as acetic acid, butyric acid, and E-2-ethyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-EHA) by LC/UV, LC/MS and NMR. Extraction studies of CAB powders in acetonitrile/phosphate buffer demonstrated quantitative extraction in 1 h for acetic acid (approximately 150 microg/g), butyric acid (approximately 200 microg/g), and EHA (approximately 20 microg/g). Subsequently, extraction studies for CAB powders and coated tablets in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were performed to evaluate potential in vivo exposure. Similarly, acetic and butyric acids were quantitatively extracted from CAB-381-20 powder after 24 h exposure in both USP simulated fluids. The amounts of EHA extracted from CAB powder after 24 h were determined to be 2 and 16 microg/g in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. After 24 h exposure in USP simulated fluids, the maximum amount of EHA extracted corresponds to < 0.3 microg of EHA per tablet. Pepsin and pancreatin in USP simulated fluids had no effect on EHA extraction and quantitation.

  11. Evaluation of enhanced haemolysis agar for detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes from production lines of fresh to cold-smoked fish.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Velho, M; Duarte, G; Gibbs, P

    2001-08-01

    Enhanced haemolysis agar (EHA) was compared to the two conventional Listeria isolation agars Oxford and PALCAM for its ability to detect Listeria spp. from production lines of fresh to cold-smoked fish. The ability of EHA for distinguishing L. monocytogenes colonies from other Listeria spp. was also evaluated.A total of 243 fish and environmental samples were analysed. Overall, 42 samples were found to contain Listeria spp. Only 34 samples were positive simultaneously by the three plating media. Two samples considered to be negative by the two conventional agars were found to be positive after isolation on EHA. All three selective agars were shown to be less effective in recovering Listeria spp. after primary enrichment in half-Fraser broth, compared to secondary enrichment in Fraser broth after 24 and 48 h. From 79 Listeria but presumptive negative L. monocytogenes colonies, EHA identified correctly 76 Listeria spp. and presented three false-negative results_three colonies further identified as L. monocytogenes but showing no noticeable haemolysis on EHA. Twenty-three of the thirty-three L. monocytogenes presumptive positive colonies, were confirmed positive and ten were identified as L. seeligeri. Despite its ability of distinguishing L. monocytogenes from the other Listeria spp., unless it is produced as a commercial medium, EHA cannot be an alternative to time-consuming classical identification because the preparation of this medium is both time and labour intensive.

  12. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  13. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-07-31

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions from non-external causes in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Yu; Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Yu, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerry; Tippett, Vivienne; Aitken, Peter; Neville, Gerard; McRae, David; Verrall, Ken; Tong, Shilu

    2012-03-01

    Heatwaves can have significant health consequences resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. However, their impact on people living in tropical/subtropical regions remains largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) from non-external causes (NEC) in Brisbane, a subtropical city in Australia. We acquired daily data on weather, air pollution and EHAs for patients aged 15 years and over in Brisbane between January 1996 and December 2005, and on mortality between January 1996 and November 2004. A locally derived definition of heatwave (daily maximum ≥37°C for 2 or more consecutive days) was adopted. Case-crossover analyses were used to assess the impact of heatwaves on cause-specific mortality and EHAs. During heatwaves, there was a statistically significant increase in NEC mortality (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.77), cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.48), diabetes mortality in those aged 75+ (OR 9.96; 95% CI 1.02 to 96.85), NEC EHAs (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23) and EHAs from renal diseases (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83). The elderly were found to be particularly vulnerable to heatwaves (eg, for NEC EHAs, OR 1.24 for 65-74-year-olds and 1.39 for those aged 75+). Significant increases in NEC mortality and EHAs were observed during heatwaves in Brisbane where people are well accustomed to hot summer weather. The most vulnerable were the elderly and people with cardiovascular, renal or diabetic disease.

  15. Development of health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave: a time series study in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shilu; Wang, Xiao Yu; FitzGerald, Gerry; McRae, David; Neville, Gerard; Tippett, Vivienne; Aitken, Peter; Verrall, Ken

    2014-05-09

    This study attempted to develop health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. Poisson generalised additive model was performed to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) in Brisbane. In general, the higher the intensity and the longer the duration of a heatwave, the greater the health impacts. There was no apparent difference in EHAs risk during different periods of a warm season. However, there was a greater risk for mortality in the 2nd half of a warm season than that in the 1st half. While elderly (≥75 years) were particularly vulnerable to both the EHA and mortality effects of a heatwave, the risk for EHAs also significantly increased for two other age groups (0-64 years and 65-74 years) during severe heatwaves. Different patterns between cardiorespiratory mortality and EHAs were observed. Based on these findings, we propose the use of a tiered heat warning system based on the health risk of heatwave. Health risk-based metrics are a useful tool for the development of local heatwave definitions. This tool may have significant implications for the assessment of heatwave-related health consequences and development of heatwave response plans and implementation strategies.

  16. Development of health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave: a time series study in Brisbane, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study attempted to develop health risk-based metrics for defining a heatwave in Brisbane, Australia. Methods Poisson generalised additive model was performed to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) in Brisbane. Results In general, the higher the intensity and the longer the duration of a heatwave, the greater the health impacts. There was no apparent difference in EHAs risk during different periods of a warm season. However, there was a greater risk for mortality in the 2nd half of a warm season than that in the 1st half. While elderly (≥75 years) were particularly vulnerable to both the EHA and mortality effects of a heatwave, the risk for EHAs also significantly increased for two other age groups (0 – 64 years and 65 – 74 years) during severe heatwaves. Different patterns between cardiorespiratory mortality and EHAs were observed. Based on these findings, we propose the use of a tiered heat warning system based on the health risk of heatwave. Conclusions Health risk-based metrics are a useful tool for the development of local heatwave definitions. This tool may have significant implications for the assessment of heatwave-related health consequences and development of heatwave response plans and implementation strategies. PMID:24885799

  17. Dispersion polymerization of methyl acrylate in nonpolar solvent stabilized by block copolymers formed in situ via the RAFT process.

    PubMed

    Houillot, Lisa; Bui, Chuong; Farcet, Céline; Moire, Claudine; Raust, Jacques-Antoine; Pasch, Harald; Save, Maud; Charleux, Bernadette

    2010-02-01

    The free-radical dispersion polymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) in isododecane was carried out in the presence of a poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) macromolecular RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) agent bearing a trithiocarbonate reactive group in the middle of the chain (P2EHA-TTC). The presence of the trithiocarbonate function was crucial for the synthesis of monodisperse colloidal poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) particles stabilized by the P2EHA segments. The hydrodynamic diameters ranged from 100 to 300 nm, using particularly low amounts of the macro(RAFT agent) (1-6 wt % vs. MA) in dispersion polymerizations carried out at 20 wt % solids content. As shown by 2D liquid chromatography, P2EHA-b-PMA or P2EHA-b-PMA-b-P2EHA block copolymers formed in situ at the early stage of the dispersion polymerization due to the reversible transfer process and played the role of particle stabilizer. The glass-transition temperature of the derived polymer films was not affected by the low amount of the chosen macromolecular stabilizer and the mechanical properties were mainly those of PMA, which makes the technique very attractive for coating applications.

  18. Impingement adversely affects 10-year survivorship after periacetabular osteotomy for DDH.

    PubMed

    Albers, Christoph E; Steppacher, Simon D; Ganz, Reinhold; Tannast, Moritz; Siebenrock, Klaus A

    2013-05-01

    Although periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) provides conceptual advantages compared with other osteotomies and reportedly is associated with joint survivorship of 60% at 20 years, the beneficial effect of proper acetabular reorientation with concomitant arthrotomy and creation of femoral head-neck offset on 10-year hip survivorship remains unclear. We asked the following questions: (1) Does the 10-year survivorship of the hip after PAO improve with proper acetabular reorientation and a spherical femoral head; (2) does the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score improve; (3) can the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) be slowed; and (4) what factors predict conversion to THA, progression of OA, or a Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score less than 15 points? We retrospectively reviewed 147 patients who underwent 165 PAOs for DDH with two matched groups: Group I (proper reorientation and spherical femoral head) and Group II (improper reorientation and aspherical femoral head). We compared the Kaplan-Meier survivorship, Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scores, and progression of OA in both groups. A Cox regression analysis (end points: THA, OA progression, or Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score less than 15) was performed to detect factors predicting failure. The minimum followup was 10 years (median, 11 years; range, 10-14 years). An increased survivorship was found in Group I. The Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score did not differ. Progression of OA in Group I was slower than in Group II. Factors predicting failure included greater age, lower preoperative Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score, and the presence of a Trendelenburg sign, aspherical head, OA, subluxation, postoperative acetabular retroversion, excessive acetabular anteversion, and undercoverage. Proper acetabular reorientation and the creation of a spherical femoral head improve long-term survivorship and decelerate OA progression in patients with DDH.

  19. Spectroscopy of Negatively Charged Excitons Interacting With 2DEG in CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te QWs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-23

    Merle d’Aubigne, F. Bassani, K. Saminadayar and S. Tatarenko , Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1752 (1993). [2] K. Kheng, R. T. Cox, V. P. Kochereshko, K. Saminadayar...S. Tatarenko , F. Bassani and A. Fran- ciosi, Superlatt. Microstruct. 15, 253, (1994). [3] G. Finkelstein, H. Shtrikman and 1. Bar-Joseph, Phys. Rev...H. Shtrikman and 1. Bar-Joseph, Phys. Rev. B 53, R 1709, (1996). [6] A. Haury, A. Arnoult, V. A. Chitta, J. Cibert, Y. Merle d’Aubigne, S. Tatarenko

  20. Modeling and simulation of mixed-culture interactions in anaerobiosis of inhibitory substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, H.; Yap, M.G.S.; Ng, N.J.

    1995-12-31

    The model describes the anaerobiosis of 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA), which is a persistent and inhibitory organic waste. Model development was based on a biphasic degradation pathway mediated by three groups of bacteria. The model comprises seven equations with 13 constant parameters. The distinctive features include: (1) Grouping of anaerobic bacteria according to the metabolic functions; (2) Description of all essential reactions and mixed-culture interactions, namely interspecies H{sub 2} and volatile fatty acid transfers; and (3) Correlation of 2-EHA inhibition with the concentration of unionized 2-EHA. The validated and fine-tuned model was applied to simulate substrate utilization, intermediate and product formations, and bacterial cell synthesis.

  1. Modification of humic acid by ether functional group as biosorbent to Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanti, Ika; Winata, Wahyu Fajar; Sudiono, Sri; Triyono

    2017-03-01

    Modification of humic acid on the phenolic functional group with dimethylsulfate (DMS) for adsorption Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) have been conducted. Ash content was analyzed and characterized by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). Determination of Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) was conducted by Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The isolated humic acid has 19.8% ash content and after purification has 0.6% ash content, etherified humic acid (EHAs) has 1.4% ash content. Adsorption percentage of Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) by EHAs decreased until 4.936% and 41.782% respectively. The addition of Sn(II) and Ni(II) as competitors of Au(III) in the Au(III) adsorption by using EHAs, were affect the percentage of Au(III) adsorption.

  2. Evaluation of poly(acrylic acid-co-ethylhexyl acrylate) films for mucoadhesive transbuccal drug delivery: factors affecting the force of mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, A H; Paulson, J; Honary, S

    2000-07-03

    Based on the premise that similar surface properties between the adhesive and the substrate would yield a strong adhesive bond, copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), P(AA-co-EHA), were designed and synthesized for buccal mucoadhesion. A series of linear copolymers with varying feed ratios of the two monomers (AA and EHA) were synthesized through free radical copolymerization at 69+/-0.5 degrees C using azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator. The reactions were carried out in THF under nitrogen for 24 h. The glass transition temperatures, T(g), of the copolymers were determined using DSC. The adhesion studies were conducted to determine the effects of copolymer composition, contact time between the substrate and the adhesive, and crosshead speed on mucoadhesive performance of the copolymer films using a computer interfaced Instron material testing system. The glass transition temperature of the copolymers decreased with increasing EHA content. Wet glass surface as substrate was shown not to be a good substrate model for adhesion determination studies. The copolymer composed of 46:54 mol.% AA:EHA (an almost 1:1 ratio in the repeat units) yielded the highest mucoadhesive force in contact with porcine buccal mucosa which was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (used as positive control). The mucoadhesive force for all copolymers studied was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the negative control (backing material without copolymer film) except for the EHA homopolymer. Crosshead speed increased mucoadhesive force linearly and had a more pronounced effect on the mucoadhesive performance than time of contact between the adhesive and the substrate.

  3. Resonance mode in DNA dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkovic, S.; Sataric, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    In this article we use Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model (PBD) to study the nonlinear oscillations of DNA nucleotides of extremely high amplitude (EHA) leading to unzipping of DNA chain in the context of the process of replication. We give arguments that the EHA mode is nothing but the resonance mode (RM). We launched an idea about how molecular mechano-chemical energy transduction can be the origin of the RM. We compared some parameters of the solitonic wave in DNA in resonant and non-resonant regime.

  4. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered.

  5. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Environmental Influences in the Early Education of Migrant and Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Conference papers on early childhood education cover the following topics: individual variation among preschoolers in a cognitive intervention program in low income families presented by Phyllis Levenstein, programmatic research on disadvantaged youth and an ameliorative intervention program by Merle B. Karnes and others, special education and…

  6. Public Education, Educational Research, and the Nation's Agenda during the Progressive Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanningmeier, Erwin V.

    2006-01-01

    Patricia Graham's recent defense of public education in the United States shows that public education has been responsive to society's demands and supports the earlier observation of Charles Burgess and Merle Borrowman that the dominant educational ideology is a function of the nation's need for human resources. When the nation has clear and…

  7. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition Volume I: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    The authors wish to thank the reviewers Dr. David L. McNicol and Mr. Richard P. Diehl. In addition, we wish to thank the large number of people...throughout IDA who assisted us in the study, some very significantly, include especially (listed alphabetically): Merl Bell, Patricia Bronson , Brent

  8. Room with a View: Video in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreamer, Jean Thibodeaux; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Contains an introduction (Jean Thibodeaux Kreamer) to this section and five articles on video in libraries: "Managing an Integrated Video Collection" (Michael Hedges); "The Video Librarian's Hide and Seek: Videotapes and Collection Development" (Merle Slyhoff); "Video in the Schools" (Charles Triche); "A Conversation with Sally Mason" (James…

  9. Wittrock's Influence on Mathematics Education: Some Personal Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Merlin C. Wittrock was a friend and colleague who influenced me and many other contemporary mathematics educators on how students learn. In this article I summarize my interactions with Merl beginning in 1965, and how over the following half-century he influenced my thinking on student learning for understanding and, in turn, on how to design…

  10. Wittrock's Influence on Mathematics Education: Some Personal Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Merlin C. Wittrock was a friend and colleague who influenced me and many other contemporary mathematics educators on how students learn. In this article I summarize my interactions with Merl beginning in 1965, and how over the following half-century he influenced my thinking on student learning for understanding and, in turn, on how to design…

  11. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  12. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  13. Peace History: The Field and the Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that peace history should be taught as a separate course or part of a larger survey course because of the wealth of scholarly materials. Discusses four historical movements that form the main currents of U.S. peace historiography and states that historian Merle Curti was the most influential peace historian. (CFR)

  14. A Vote for Election Science as an Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the suggestion of Merle S. King, chairman of the department of computer science and information systems at Kennesaw State University and also a director of Kennesaw State's Center for Elections Systems, which has helped establish a uniform statewide voting system in Georgia. On the last day of the conference sponsored by the…

  15. Accountability and Institutional Research: Measuring Results. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (24th, Hartford, Connecticut, November 1-4, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This proceedings document is comprised of the 12 papers, panel presentations, and work shares presented at a 1997 conference on institutional research. The papers are: (1) "What Does Accountability in Higher Education Mean to You?" (William R. Dyson, Andrew G. De Rocco, John R. Doyle, and Merle W. Harris); (2) "The University of Delaware…

  16. A Vote for Election Science as an Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the suggestion of Merle S. King, chairman of the department of computer science and information systems at Kennesaw State University and also a director of Kennesaw State's Center for Elections Systems, which has helped establish a uniform statewide voting system in Georgia. On the last day of the conference sponsored by the…

  17. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats. PMID:26445479

  18. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations.

  19. Effect of Agobacterium growth phase and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite via mechanochemical method: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, A. A.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, A. H. M.

    2017-04-01

    The focus of bone graft properties has developed through generations, from the ability to withstand mechanical stress to the ability to integrate with the biological structure. In recent years, the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft material in orthopedic and dental applications has been increasing. HA is a natural occuring mineral with excellent bioactivity but relatively poor mechanical properties. It constitutes 96% portion of enamel in teeth and 67% portion of bone. HA can be extracted from animal bones or fabricated from synthetic or biologic sources. In this study, eggshells were used as raw material to synthesize eggshell-derived HA (EHA) via mechanochemical method. The synthesis of EHA involved CaO, which was obtained from the calcination of eggshells, and reaction with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrous (DCPD) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of rotational speed and heat treatment temperature on EHA's characteristics were investigated. The characterization studies were carried out by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HA powder was successfully synthesized with crystallite and particle sizes in the range of 8-47 nm and 250-550 nm respectively. It was observed from this study that the increase of milling rotational speed had increased the phase purity of EHA samples. Furthermore, the higher heating temperature of HA samples resulted in higher degree of crystallinity of HA and the appearance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as secondary phase.

  1. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro.

  2. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and plant regeneration

    Treesearch

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A genetic transformation protocol for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) hypocotyl explants was developed. Green ash hypocotyls were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pq35GR containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion...

  4. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  5. Evaluating the External Validity of High-Incidence Special Education Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murr, Natalie Simona

    2015-01-01

    The passing of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970, as well as subsequent education policy, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004), have been pivotal to ensuring that both the civil and educational rights of students with disabilities continue to be promoted and protected within educational settings. In…

  6. Sorption of humic acids and alpha-endosulfan by clayminerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hengpraprom, S.; Lee, C.M.; Coates, R.T.

    2005-02-18

    Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by kaolinite andmontmorillonite alone and in the presence of sorbed and dissolved humicacid (HA) was investigated (pH 8 and 25oC). Three types of HA, Elliotsoil HA (EHA), Peat HA (PHA), and Summit Hill HA (SHHA), were used torepresent typical humic substances found in soils. For sorption of HA byeither mineral, Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kf) values appeared todecrease in the order of EHA>PHA>SHHA, which followedincreasing polarity (expressed as the O/C atomic ratio) and decreasingpercent-carbon content. For both clays, sorption of alpha-endosulfan bythe HA mineral complex was greater than for sorption by the clay alone.Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by the HA mineral complexes followed thesame order as the Kf of the HAs (EHA>PHA>SHHA). Based on theamount of HA adsorbed by each mineral, organic carbon partitioncoefficients (KOC) were determined for sorption of alpha-endosulfan bytwo of the HA mineral complexes. The value of KOC for alpha-endosulfansorption was greater for kaolinite EHA than kaolinite SHHA. However, theopposite trend was found with the montmorillonite HA complexes.Montmorillonite appeared to sorb alpha-endosulfan and/or HA with higheraffinity than kaolinite, which likely is due to its 2:1 layer structureand higher surface area. Sorption of endosulfan diol, a hydrolysisproduct, by the minerals was much less than the parentpesticide.

  7. Evaluating the External Validity of High-Incidence Special Education Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murr, Natalie Simona

    2015-01-01

    The passing of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970, as well as subsequent education policy, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004), have been pivotal to ensuring that both the civil and educational rights of students with disabilities continue to be promoted and protected within educational settings. In…

  8. Parents and Litigation: Insights from a Special Education Law Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the mid-1970s, over one million children with disabilities were excluded from the nation's schools. In 1975, as a result of intense litigation and advocacy, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA, P.L. 94-142), now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mandating that public schools…

  9. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting of black cherry

    Treesearch

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite, mature black cherry genotype was developed. To increase transformation efficiency, vacuum infiltration, sonication, and a combination of the two treatments were applied during the cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105...

  10. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Treesearch

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  11. Phylogenetic Evidence for H2 based Electron Bifurcation In Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. W.; Boyd, E. S.; Schut, G.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    Energy conservation is a fundamental underpinning of all life and is accomplished by electron transport phosphorylation and/or substrate level phosphorylation. A third mechanism, known as flavin-based electron bifurcation, has recently been established as a mechanism by which life can conserve energy. In this mechanism, a flavin-containing multienzyme complex catalyzes the thermodynamically unfavorable reduction of low potential ferredoxin using electron donors with higher potentials, such as NAD(P)H or H2. Such endergonic reactions are driven forward through the simultaneous oxidation of the electron donor with higher potential acceptors such as NAD+ or heterodisulfide. Membrane associated energy converting [NiFe]hydrogenases (Ech, Eha) link the oxidation of ferredoxin with the production of H2 and in the process conserve energy in the form of an ion (Na+/H+) gradient. Ech/Eha exhibit a modular composition represented by a Na+/H+ antiporter domain and a [NiFe] hydrogenase domain. In addition, Ech/Eha can be accompanied by a formate dehyrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, or an FAD/NAD(P)H module that enables coupling with these substrates. Representatives of Ech/Eha have been identified among anaerobic Archaea and Bacteria, including deeply rooted methanogens, sulfur-reducing Crenarcheota/Euryarchaeota as well as Thermotogae. Ech exhibit extensive homology to a number of subunits within the NADH quinone oxidoreductase or complex I family (Nuo, Fpo). Metabolically, Ech generally couple the oxidation of carbon monooxide, formate or ferredoxin to the production of H2. In contrast, the Eha complex couples the translocation of Na+ and the oxidation of H2 to the reduction of ferredoxin, which is then available for the reduction of CO2 in methanogens. In the case of Eha, the gradient of Na+/H+ produced through translocation coupled to ferredoxin oxidation can in be used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP via an ATP synthase complex, thereby representing one of the

  12. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  13. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  14. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  15. Short-term exercise-heat acclimation enhances skin vasodilation but not hyperthermic hyperpnea in humans exercising in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Koga, Shunsaku; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation (EHA) attenuates hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans exercising in a hot environment. Twenty-one male subjects were divided into the two groups: control (C, n = 11) and EHA (n = 10). Subjects in C performed exercise-heat tests [cycle exercise for ~75 min at 58% [Formula: see text] (37°C, 50% relative humidity)] before and after a 6-day interval with no training, while subjects in EHA performed the tests before and after exercise training in a hot environment (37°C). The training entailed four 20-min bouts of exercise at 50% [Formula: see text] separated by 10 min of rest daily for 6 days. In C, comparison of the variables recorded before and after the no-training period revealed no changes. In EHA, the training increased resting plasma volume, while it reduced esophageal temperature (T (es)), heart rate at rest and during exercise, and arterial blood pressure and oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) during exercise. The training lowered the T (es) threshold for increasing forearm vascular conductance (FVC), while it increased the slope relating FVC to T (es) and the peak FVC during exercise. It also lowered minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]) during exercise, but this effect disappeared after removing the influence of [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text]. The training did not change the slope relating ventilatory variables to T (es). We conclude that short-term EHA lowers ventilation largely by reducing metabolism, but it does not affect the sensitivity of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise in humans.

  16. Folate Receptor Targeted Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers for Delivery of Orlistat as a Repurposed Drug against Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhethanabotla, Rohith; Mishra, Kaushik; Devulapally, Rammohan; Foygel, Kira; Sekar, Thillai V; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Massoud, Tarik F; Joy, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with no available targeted therapy. Off target effects and poor bioavailability of the FDA approved anti-obesity drug orlistat hinder its clinical translation as a repurposed new drug against TNBC. Here we demonstrate a newly engineered drug formulation for packaging orlistat tailored to TNBC treatment. We synthesized TNBC-specific folate receptor targeted micellar nanoparticles (NPs) carrying orlistat, which improved the solubility (70-80 μg/ml) of this water insoluble drug. The targeted NPs also improved the delivery and bioavailability of orlistat to MDA-MB-231 cells in culture and to tumor xenografts in nude mouse model. We prepared HEA-EHA copolymer micellar NPs by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and 2-ethylhexylacrylate (EHA), and functionalized them with folic acid and an imaging dye. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of TNBC cells indicated a dose dependent increase in apoptotic populations in cells treated with free orlistat, orlistat NPs, and folate-receptor targeted Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs in which Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than free orlistat. In vitro analysis data demonstrated significant apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in cells activated through caspase 3 and PARP inhibition. In vivo analysis demonstrated significant antitumor effects in living mice after targeted treatment of tumors, and confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Moreover, Folate receptor targeted Fol-DyLight747-orlistat NPs treated mice exhibited significantly higher reduction in tumor volume compared to control group. Taken together, these results indicate that orlistat packaged in HEA-b-EHA micellar NPs is a highly promising new drug formulation for TNBC therapy. PMID:26553061

  17. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius; Doray, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The increase in available student placements at colleges and universities, the implementation of provincial and federal postsecondary education policies, and the rise of the educational aspirations of families and individuals have all led to the massification of Canadian higher education. Based on Merle's typology of the forms of democratization, this article attempts to revisit the theory of equality of opportunities by critically analyzing the link between massification of higher education and social equity. The results of an analysis of longitudinal data from the (YIT) Youth in Transition Survey show that at the age of 24 in 2008, approximately 77% of young Canadians have pursued studies in a college or university. If access to postsecondary education is now higher, to what extent has it improved social equity? The article shows, in light of the Merle's typology, that mass university education is achieved in part under the seal of a segregative democratization, while college education tends to be egalitarian.

  19. Microstructural behavior of interfaces in hot isostatically pressed, dual alloy combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combinations of the nickel-base superalloys MERL 76 and low carbon Astroloy, Rene 95 and low carbon Astroloy, Rene 95 and NASA-TRW-VIA were consolidated from prealloyed powders by hot isostatic pressing. These combinations were exposed to 870 C for 1500 hours, and in a gradient furnance to temperatures up to incipient melting and subjected to microstructural examinations. The only phases found at the interfaces were those which were also present in the component alloys.

  20. Industry Study Paper: The Aircraft Industry, AY 2004, Seminar 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    market ever reach its golden days prior to 9/11? In this report, we will start by defining the industry, look at its sectors, and in the process...programs, and expanding after-market services. They have a golden opportunity to capitalize on growth in the commercial market, particularly as it...February 2004. Online. LexisNexis. 9 March 2004. Merle, Renae. “In Defense Bidding, Yankee Doodle Does It: Foreign Firms See U.S. 35

  1. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  2. Comparison of transcriptional response to phorbol ester, bryostatin 1, and bryostatin analogs in LNCaP and U937 cancer cell lines provides insight into their differential mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kedei, N; Telek, A; Michalowski, A M; Kraft, M B; Li, W; Poudel, Y B; Rudra, A; Petersen, M E; Keck, G E; Blumberg, P M

    2013-02-01

    Bryostatin 1, like the phorbol esters, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) but paradoxically antagonizes many but not all phorbol ester responses. Previously, we have compared patterns of biological response to bryostatin 1, phorbol ester, and the bryostatin 1 derivative Merle 23 in two human cancer cell lines, LNCaP and U937. Bryostatin 1 fails to induce a typical phorbol ester biological response in either cell line, whereas Merle 23 resembles phorbol ester in the U937 cells and bryostatin 1 in the LNCaP cells. Here, we have compared the pattern of their transcriptional response in both cell lines. We examined by qPCR the transcriptional response as a function of dose and time for a series of genes regulated by PKCs. In both cell lines bryostatin 1 differed primarily from phorbol ester in having a shorter duration of transcriptional modulation. This was not due to bryostatin 1 instability, since bryostatin 1 suppressed the phorbol ester response. In both cell lines Merle 23 induced a pattern of transcription largely like that of phorbol ester although with a modest reduction at later times in the LNCaP cells, suggesting that the difference in biological response of the two cell lines to Merle 23 lies downstream of this transcriptional regulation. For a series of bryostatins and analogs which ranged from bryostatin 1-like to phorbol ester-like in activity on the U937 cells, the duration of transcriptional response correlated with the pattern of biological activity, suggesting that this may provide a robust platform for structure activity analysis.

  3. X-15 personnel July 1962

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-07-16

    X-15 personnel July 1962 Cockpit: Edward "Ed" Nice Ladder: Thomas "Tom" McAlister Back Row, left to right: William Clark, Edward "Ed" Sabo, Donald "Don" Hall, Billy Furr, Allen Dustin, Raymond "Ray" White, George E. Trott, Alfred "Al" Grieshaber, Merle Curtis, LeRoy "Lee" Adelsbach, Allen Lowe, Jay L. King, Lorenzo "Larry" Barnett. Kneeling, left to right: Byron Gibbs, Price "Bob" Workman, Ira Cupp, unidentified, John Gordon.

  4. Use of Life Cycle Costing in the Development of Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Bringhurst, Mountain Fuel Supply 6. T. Joseph Cardenas, McGraw Hill 7. Sally A. Hooks, EEI 8. Merle F. McBride, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 9. Kenneth D...Stanonik, GAMA 23. Clifford D. Smith, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 24. Chris Thomaidis, Department of Housing & Urban Development 25. Adrian Tuluca, Steven...Professionals, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. 8. Stewart, Rodney D., Cost EstimatinQ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982. 9. Owens Corning , Telephone

  5. Comparison of transcriptional response to phorbol ester, bryostatin 1, and bryostatin analogues in LNCaP and U937 cancer cell lines provides insight into their differential mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Kedei, N.; Telek, A.; Michalowski, A.M.; Kraft, M.B.; Li, W.; Poudel, Y.B.; Rudra, A.; Petersen, M.E.; Keck, G.E.; Blumberg, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bryostatin 1, like the phorbol esters, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) but paradoxically antagonizes many but not all phorbol ester responses. Previously, we have compared patterns of biological response to bryostatin 1, phorbol ester, and the bryostatin 1 derivative Merle 23 in two human cancer cell lines, LNCaP and U937. Bryostatin 1 fails to induce a typical phorbol ester biological response in either cell line, whereas Merle 23 resembles phorbol ester in the U937 cells and bryostatin 1 in the LNCaP cells. Here, we have compared the pattern of their transcriptional response in both cell lines. We examined by qPCR the transcriptional response as a function of dose and time for a series of genes regulated by PKCs. In both cell lines bryostatin 1 differed primarily from phorbol ester in having a shorter duration of transcriptional modulation. This was not due to bryostatin 1 instability, since bryostatin 1 suppressed the phorbol ester response. In both cell lines Merle 23 induced a pattern of transcription largely like that of phorbol ester although with a modest reduction at later times in the LNCaP cells, suggesting that the difference in biological response of the two cell lines to Merle 23 lies downstream of this transcriptional regulation. For a series of bryostatins and analogues which ranged from bryostatin 1-like to phorbol ester-like in activity on the U937 cells, the duration of transcriptional response correlated with the pattern of biological activity, suggesting that this may provide a robust platform for structure activity analysis. PMID:23146662

  6. Trace-Penalty Minimization for Large-scale Eigenspace Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Spectral Projection Method, LBNL Tech Report , Nov 2012. [2] E. ANDERSON, Z. BAI, J. DONGARRA, A. GREENBAUM, A. MCKENNEY, J. DU CROZ, S. HAM- MERLING...N00014-08-1-1101, and NSF Grant DMS-1115950. 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any

  7. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of several nickel-base superalloys at 650 °c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.; Maier, R. D.

    1982-10-01

    Specimens of seven nickel-base superalloys for gas turbine disk application that had been failed in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 °C were examined by transmission electron microscopy to observe the effects of composition and microstructure on the deformation characteristics of the alloys. The alloys were Waspaloy, HIP Astroloy, H+F Astroloy, H+F René 95, IN 100, MERL 76, and NASA IIB-7. The amount of bulk deformation observed in all the alloys was low. At inelastic strain amplitudes less than about 10-3 only favorably oriented grains exhibited yielding, and the majority of those had <110> near the tensile axis. Deformation occurred on octahedral systems for all the alloys except MERL 76, which also exhibited primary cube slip. The difference in slip behavior between MERL 76 and its parent composition, IN 100, was attributed to the addition of Nb. Deformation occurred in well-defined slip bands in the alloys that contained only fine aging γ', 0.01 to 0.06 μm in size. Alloys which also contained a population of larger aging γ' particles, 0.1 to 0.3 μm, exhibited more homogeneous deformation. Deformation in the creep-fatigue cycle, which employed a 15 minute dwell at the maximum tensile strain of the cycle, was not greatly different from fatigue deformation except that a few extended faults were formed.

  8. Properties and microstructures for dual alloy combinations of three superalloys with alloy 901

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual alloy combinations have potential for use in aircraft engine components such as turbine disks where a wide range of stress and temperature regimes exists during operation. Such alloy combinations may directly result in the conservation of elements which are costly or not available domestically. Preferably, a uniform heat treatment yielding good properties for both alloys should be used. Dual alloy combinations of iron rich Alloy 901 with nickel base superalloys Rene 95, Astroloy, or MERL 76 were not isostatically pressed from prealloyed powders. Individual alloys, alloy mixtures, and layered alloy combinations were given the heat treatments specified for their use in turbine disks or appropriate for Alloy 901. Selected specimens were overaged for 1500 hr at 650 C. Metallographic examinations revealed the absence of phases not originally present in either alloy of a combination. Mechanical tests showed adequate properties in combinations of Rene 95 or Astroloy with Alloy 901 when given the Alloy 901 heat treatment. Combinations with MERL 76 had better properties when given the MERL 76 heat treatment. The results indicate that these combinations are promising candidates for use in turbine disks.

  9. Energy generation by methanation of persistent wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, H.; Chen, Y.F.; Yap, M.G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A 15-L anaerobic fixed-film reactor (AFFR) was evaluated for treating a trade effluent containing inhibitory concentrations of persistent branched-chain fatty acids, namely 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA) and neopentanoic acid (NPA), at a total of 17,000 mg COD/L. The AFFR was packed with fire-expanded clay spheres, and start-up was accomplished in 60 d. The organic load was increased in steps from 1.1 to 8.5 g COD/L/d. Total COD, 2-EHA, and NPA removal efficiencies were maintained above 70, 98, and 75%, respectively. The reactor could recover from a shock load of 150% increase in organic load. Combined mechanisms of organic adsorption and biodegradation rendered the AFFR more stable with shock loads. Methane gas produced from the process could be used for preheating the effluent.

  10. Preparation of an adhesive in emulsion for maxillofacial prosthetic.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Judith A; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-10-13

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives.

  11. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koiry, Bishnu; Singha, Nikhil

    2014-10-01

    Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr) as catalyst in combination with N,N,N’,N”,N”- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr) as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights versus conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using 1H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2) were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR), inverted Finemann-Ross (FR) and Kelen-Tudos (KT) methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis.

  12. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  13. Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

  14. Elliptical silicon arrays with anisotropic optical and wetting properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Xianzhe; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Xun; Zhu, Difu; Hao, Yudong; Ren, Zhiyu; Yang, Bai

    2010-08-17

    We demonstrate a facile etching method to fabricate silicon elliptical pillar arrays (Si-EPAs) with unique anisotropic optical and wetting characters using polystyrene elliptical hemisphere arrays (EHAs) as mask. The EHAs were fabricated via a modified micromolding method. By varying the experimental conditions in the fabrication process, the morphology of the resulting microstructures can be controlled exactly. Because of the anisotropic morphology of the elliptical pillar, the Si-EPA shows unique anisotropic properties, such as anisotropic surface reflection and anisotropic wetting property. Additionally, through oblique evaporation deposition of Au and selective chemical modification to turn the elliptical pillars into "Janus" elliptical pillars, the "Janus" Si-EPA shows more peculiar anisotropic properties owing to the further increased asymmetry. We believe that the Si-EPAs will have potential applications in anisotropic optical and electronic devices.

  15. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Wantastiquet Lake (VT 00073), Connecticut River Basin, Weston. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    0 Visual Inspection Check List APPENDIX B Project Records and Plans 0 • APPENDIX C Photographs APPENDIX D Hydraulic Computations APPENDIX E...has recently been covered with asphalt pavement. In 1968 plans were prepared for improvements to the outlet control structure, and to spillways No. 1...Maintenance Procedures A systematic operating and maintenance plan should be imple- mented within one year to include as a minimum the following .. items

  16. Non-Aircrew Officer Positions: Determination of Grade Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    ABSTRACT (Continoe . e.re. aide If nece..ry nd Identify by block number) For over 20 years the Io ehas needed a systematic method to establish officer... for planning. decision making. special work experience, and communication skills. In fact, the five job evaluation factors in combination with the...statements cc, escrile 315jnsi.i requirements of y,ir job for the fak lons below, COMMUNICATION SKILLS ORIGINALITY, INGENUITY, 8& CREATIVENESS MANAGEMENT

  17. Improvement of the U.S. Army Intermediate Cold Wet Boot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    thermal comfort of the human foot during exposure to cold ambient temperatures. 33-5 Figure 4. Photograph showing human volunteers during the 1990 ICWB...boot indicating that it would provide an increased level of thermal comfort . The then-current U.S. Army Intermediate Cold-Wet Boot, 34 33 32 31 E 30 E...has been recommended that the U.S. Army continue to evaluate future improvements in these materials designed to increase individual thermal comfort and

  18. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  19. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-01-01

    Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in 'real-world' rather than research settings. This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a 'real-world' programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test 'early' and evolved' programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. 'Early' theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. 'Evolved' theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Contrary to programme planners' predictions in 'early' and 'evolved' programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with 'evolved' theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to address some limitations encountered when evaluating programmes without a theoretical

  20. Evaluation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for the genetic transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    PubMed

    Chetty, V J; Ceballos, N; Garcia, D; Narváez-Vásquez, J; Lopez, W; Orozco-Cárdenas, M L

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains differ not only in their ability to transform tomato Micro-Tom, but also in the number of transgene copies that the strains integrate in the genome. The transformation efficiency of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Micro-Tom with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1, EHA105, GV3101, and MP90, harboring the plasmid pBI121 was compared. The presence of the nptII and/or uidA transgenes in regenerated T(0) plants was determined by PCR, Southern blotting, and/or GUS histochemical analyses. In addition, a rapid and reliable duplex, qPCR TaqMan assay was standardized to estimate transgene copy number. The highest transformation rate (65 %) was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain GV3101, followed by EHA105 (40 %), AGL1 (35 %), and MP90 (15 %). The mortality rate of cotyledons due to Agrobacterium overgrowth was the lowest with the strain GV3101. The Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more efficient than GV3101 in the transfer of single T-DNA insertions of nptII and uidA transgenes into the tomato genome. Even though Agrobacterium strain MP90 had the lowest transformation rate of 15 %, the qPCR analysis showed that the strain MP90 was the most efficient in the transfer of single transgene insertions, and none of the transgenic plants produced with this strain had more than two insertion events in their genome. The combination of higher transformation efficiency and fewer transgene insertions in plants transformed using EHA105 makes this Agrobacterium strain optimal for functional genomics and biotechnological applications in tomato.

  1. Prophylaxis therapy in haemophilia A: current situation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lucía, J F; Aznar, J A; Abad-Franch, L; Escuin, R R; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Pérez, R; Batlle, J; Balda, I; Alperovich, G; Parra, R

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Epidemiological Study in Haemophilia carried out in 2006 enrolled 2400 patients [2081-86.7% with haemophilia A (HA) and 319-13.3% with haemophilia B]; 465 of them (19.4%) were on prophylaxis. These rates were higher in patients with severe haemophilia (45.4%) and severe paediatric cases (72.5%). On the basis of information recorded in this study, we analysed the current situation of prophylaxis therapy administered to patients with HA in Spain, as well as their orthopaedic status. Prophylaxis was used in 399 (19.2%) patients with HA; such prophylaxis was primary (PP) in 20.3% and secondary (SP) in 75.9% of cases. Among severe HA patients, 313 (45.9%) were on prophylaxis (22.3% on PP and 74.7% on SP). Taking into account the patients' age, 34.7% of severe HA adults were on prophylaxis (6% PP and 92.1% SP), whereas 71.5% of severe HA paediatric patients (40.5% PP and 55.4% SP) received this kind of treatment. Established haemophilic arthropathy (EHA) was detected in 142 from 313 severe HA patients (45.3%) on prophylaxis, but only in 2.9% of patients under PP vs. 59% of patients receiving SP. There was no EHA in adult severe HA patient on PP, whereas 70.4% on SP had joint damage (P < 0.00001). Among paediatric severe HA patients, EHA was detected in 3.3% under PP and 37.8% under SP (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, our data suggest that an early initiation of prophylaxis avoids EHA in the long-term in patients with severe HA. We should emphasize the early onset of prophylaxis regimens.

  2. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  3. Screening of Catalyst and Important Variable for The Esterification of Acrylic Acid with 2 Ethylhexanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Chin, S. Y.

    2017-06-01

    The global demand of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2EHA) market has witnessed a significant growth in the past few years and this growth is anticipated to increase in the coming years. 2EHA is one of the basic organic building blocks that mainly used in the production of coatings, adhesives, superabsorbents, thickeners and plastic additives. Homogenous acid-catalysed esterification of acrylic acid (AA) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) is commonly used for the production of 2EHA. The homogeneous catalysts such as sulfuric and para-toluene sulfonic acid have resulted the costly and complicated downstream process that generates acidic, corrosive and non-environmental friendly waste. Therefore, it is importance to develop a cheaper process that employing heterogeneous catalysts and alternative raw material from wastewater containing acrylic acid. In this research, the study for the esterification of AA with 2EH catalysed by ion-exchange resin was conducted. The best sulfonic acid functional cation-exchange resin among SK104, SK1B, PK208, PK216, PK228, RCP145, and RCP160 was screened. PK208 outperformed the other resins and it was used subsequently in the parametric studies. The effect of important parameters (initial concentration of acrylic acid (AA), temperature, molar ratio of reactant (AA and 2EH), catalyst loading, and polymerisation inhibitor loading) was studied using 2 factorial design to determine the significant parameters to the esterification. It was found that the initial concentration of AA and temperature were most significantly affecting the esterification of AA with 2EH.

  4. Hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 is encoded in a region of pTiBo542 outside of T-DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Helmer, G.L.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1986-12-01

    A binary-vectory strategy was used to study the hypervirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. Strain A281 is hypervirulent on several solanaceous plants. Plasmids were constructed (pCS65 and pCS277) carrying either the transferred DNA (T-DNA) or the remainder of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid (pEHA101) from this strain and tested each of these constructs were tested in trans with complementary each of regions from heterologous Ti plasmids. Hypervirulence on tobacco could be reconstructed in a bipartite strain with the L,L-succinamopine T-DNA and the vir region on separate plasmids. pEHA101 was able to complement octopine T-DNA to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants. Nopaline T-DNA was complemented better on tomato plants by pEHA101 than it was by its own nopaline vir region, but not to hypervirulence. L,L-Succinamopine T-DNA could not be complemented to hypervirulence on tobacco and tomato plants with either heterologous vir region. From these results the authors suggest that the hypervirulence of strain A281 is due to non-T-DNA sequences on the Ti plasmid.

  5. Assessing mismatches between ecosystem structure and function in Jiaozhou Bay by coordination degree algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiwang; Chen, Zhenhua; Yao, Xiaohong; Sun, Peng

    2017-04-01

    A healthy ecosystem depends on the coordination of ecosystem structure and function. The coordination among ecosystem components, however, is seldom taken into account in current ecosystem health assessments (EHA). Neglect of such coordination may lead to large degrees of uncertainty in EHA and fail to support ecosystem management. We propose an approach to quantify the level of dynamic mismatching between ecosystem structure and function and the impact on ecosystem health by incorporating the ecosystem coordination index into EHA. The coordination degree is calculated using variation coefficient of six proxies for ecosystem structure and functions. The ecosystem at Jiaozhou Bay, as a microcosm of China's coast, has been documented to fluctuate from healthy to unhealthy status over the past three decades. The results indicate that there is a 3%-17% lower health level than that calculated by common methods used in the literature, indicating that the health of Jiaozhou Bay has become worse than expected. Habitat change contributes 20%-52% to ecosystem mismatches and is the most uncoordinated factor. Mismatch-related declines account for approximately one-fourth of the total ecological declines. Restoration scenarios that aim to resolve ecosystem mismatches could increase efficiency by about 50% compared to restoration scenarios that do not consider mismatches. This study investigates ecological declines in a coastal bay due to 30 years of rapid economic development. In doing so, this study provides novel insights and enhances our understanding of the reasons for failure in ecological restoration.

  6. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Robust Position Controller for an Electrohydrostatic Actuator Using Adaptive Antiwindup Sliding Mode Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640

  7. Application of sonication in combination with vacuum infiltration enhances the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in Indian soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arun, Muthukrishnan; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Shivanandhan, Ganeshan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Soybean is a recalcitrant crop to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Development of highly efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent transformation protocol is highly desirable for soybean genetic improvement. Hence, an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol has been developed for cultivar PK 416 by evaluating various parameters including Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (LBA4404, EHA101, and EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA1304 plasmid), sonication duration, vacuum infiltration pressure, and vacuum duration using cotyledonary node explants of soybean prepared from 7-day-old seedlings. The transformed plants were successfully developed through direct organogenesis system. Transgene expression was assessed by GUS histochemical and gfp visual assays, and integration was analyzed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Among the different combinations and durations evaluated, a maximum transformation efficiency of 18.6 % was achieved when the cotyledonary node explants of cv. PK 416 were sonicated for 20 s and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 250 mmHg in A. tumefaciens EHA105 suspension. The amenability of the standardized protocol was tested on four more soybean cultivars JS 90-41, Hara Soy, Co 1, and Co 2 in which all the cultivars responded favorably with transformation efficiency ranging from 13.3 to 16.6 %. The transformation protocol developed in the present study would be useful to transform diverse soybean cultivars with desirable traits.

  8. Design and experimental evaluation of a robust position controller for an electrohydrostatic actuator using adaptive antiwindup sliding mode scheme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities.

  9. Alexithymia and emotional regulation: A cluster analytical approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alexithymia has been a familiar conception of psychosomatic phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were subtypes of alexithymia associating with different traits of emotional expression and regulation among a group of healthy college students. Methods 1788 healthy college students were administered with the Chinese version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and another set of questionnaires assessing emotion status and regulation. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the three factor scores of the TAS-20. The cluster solution was cross-validated by the corresponding emotional regulation. Results The results indicated there were four subtypes of alexithymia, namely extrovert-high alexithymia (EHA), general-high alexithymia (GHA), introvert-high alexithymia (IHA) and non-alexithymia (NA). The GHA was characterized by general high scores on all three factors, the IHA was characterized by high scores on difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings but low score on externally oriented cognitive style of thinking, the EHA was characterized by high score on externally oriented cognitive style of thinking but normal score on the others, and the NA got low score on all factors. The GHA and IHA were dominant by suppressive character of emotional regulation and expression with worse emotion status as compared to the EHA and NA. Conclusions The current findings suggest there were four subtypes of alexithymia characterized by different emotional regulation manifestations. PMID:21345180

  10. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction.

    PubMed

    Clément, G; Wood, S J; Lathan, C E; Peterka, R J; Reschke, M F

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  11. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Lathan, C. E.; Peterka, R. J.; Reschke, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  12. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything. Palliative care enabled 85% of patients and families to spend less on medicines, 31% of patients received free medicines, all patients reduced use of out-patient departments (OPDs), 20% reduced use of inpatient departments (IPDs), and therefore spent less on travel, 8% of patients had started earning again due to improved health, members of 10% of families started earning again, and one hospital educated 171 village headmen and increased by 5% the number of patients and their families receiving government benefits. If only 0.7% of needy adults are receiving palliative care, these benefits could be delivered to 143 times more families, targeted effectively at poverty reduction. Palliative care has great scope to reduce that most desperate poverty in India caused by chronic illness. This article concerns a study by the UK NGO EMMS International and Indian NGO EHA, to assess whether palliative care reduces household poverty. EHA staff had noticed that many patients spend a lot on ineffective treatment before joining palliative care, many families do not know their entitlement to government healthcare subsidies or government pensions, and many

  13. Primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with an alumina ceramic-on-ceramic bearing: results after a minimum of twenty years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Petsatodis, George E; Papadopoulos, Pericles P; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Hatzokos, Ippokratis G; Agathangelidis, Filon G; Christodoulou, Anastasios G

    2010-03-01

    The biological problems related to wear debris after total hip arthroplasty have stimulated renewed interest in alternatives to metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of 100 patients who had undergone a total of 109 primary total hip arthroplasties with a cementless alumina ceramic-on-ceramic prosthesis between January 1985 and December 1989. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was forty-six years. Clinical evaluation was performed with use of the Charnley modification of the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scale. Seventy-eight patients who had had a total of eighty-five arthroplasties were available for follow-up evaluation at an average of 20.8 years. The patients' average age at the time of the latest follow-up was 66.8 years. Six hips (six acetabular cups and one femoral stem) in six patients underwent revision. Aseptic loosening of the cup combined with focal osteolysis was the cause of all six revisions. In one patient, the stem was also revised because of aseptic loosening. At the time of final follow-up, the result was excellent (according to the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scale) in 68% of the hips, good in 19%, fair in 9%, and poor in 4%. The mean Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score improved from 7.9 points preoperatively to 16.9 points postoperatively (p < 0.001). The cumulative rate of survival of the prostheses was 84.4% at 20.8 years. The results of these cementless ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties continued to be satisfactory at a minimum of twenty years postoperatively. The improved design of contemporary prostheses and the new generation of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces may lead to even better long-term results.

  14. Vortex collapse for the L2-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G.; Zwiers, I.

    2011-08-01

    The focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions admits vortex solitons, standing wave solutions with spatial structure, Q(m)(r, θ) = eimθR(m)(r). In the case of spin m = 1, we prove there exists a class of data that collapse with the vortex soliton profile at the log-log rate. This extends the work of Merle and Raphaël (the case m = 0) and suggests that the L2 mass that may be concentrated at a point during generic collapse may be unbounded. Difficulties with m ⩾ 2, or when the spin symmetry is broken, are also discussed.

  15. Canine deafness.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2012-11-01

    Conductive deafness, caused by outer or middle ear obstruction, may be corrected, whereas sensorineural deafness cannot. Most deafness in dogs is congenital sensorineural hereditary deafness, associated with the genes for white pigment: piebald or merle. The genetic cause has not yet been identified. Dogs with blue eyes have a greater likelihood of hereditary deafness than brown-eyed dogs. Other common forms of sensorineural deafness include presbycusis, ototoxicity, noise-induced hearing loss, otitis interna, and anesthesia. Definitive diagnosis of deafness requires brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

  16. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by the PI in the open literature.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-29

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  18. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  20. High Pressure Gas Permeation and Liquid Diffusion Studies of Coflon and Tefzel Thermoplastics. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The life of fluid-carrying flexible or umbilical pipes during service at elevated temperatures and pressures depends inter alia on their resistance to attack by the fluids present and the rate at which these fluids are absorbed by the pipe lining materials. The consequences of fluid ingress into the thermoplastic lining could mean a) a reduction in its mechanical strength, to increase chances of crack formation and growth and thus a loss of integrity, b) the occurrence of permeation right through the lining material, with pressure build- up in the outer pipe wall construction (of flexible pipes) or chemical attack (from a hostile permeant) on outer layers of reinforcements. Therefore it is important within this project to have relevant permeation data for Coflon and Tefzel thermoplastics: the former is plasticised, the latter is not. A previous report (CAPP/M.2) described experimental equipment and techniques used by MERL when measuring high pressure (up to 5000 psi) gas permeation and liquid diffusion through thermoplastic samples cut from extruded bar or pipe, and provided the basic theory involved. Norsk Hydro are also performing gas permeation tests on pipe sections, at up to 100 bars (1450 psi) pressure or so, and reporting separately. Some comparisons between data from Norsk Hydro and MERL have been made herein. The tests should be considered as complementary, as the Norsk Hydro test has the obvious benefit of using complete pipe sections, whilst MERL can test at much higher pressures, up to 1000 bar if necessary. The sophisticated analytical measuring equipment of Norsk Hydro can distinguish the individual components of mixed gases and hence the various permeation-linked coefficients whereas MERL, in using pressure increase at constant volume to determine permeation rate, is limited to obtaining single gas data, or apparent (or representative) coefficients for a mixed gas as a whole. Except for the initial fluid diffusion data for Tefzel described in CAPP

  1. [Coat color in dogs. 2: Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Laukner, A

    1998-04-01

    The meaning of the coat colour of the dog reaches further than only to the field of breeding for beauty. Besides aspects of destination (hunting dogs, herding dogs) the clinical meaning is of particular interest. Some colours can show certain defects. Diseases of allowed colours are the colour dilution alopecia (CDA) in diluted (mostly "blue") pigmentation with its subtype of Black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD) in black pigmentation and congenital deafness in extreme piebalds. Not allowed coat colours, which are connected with defects, are the extreme dapple of the Merle-syndrome and the "grey" Collie with cyclic hematopoesis.

  2. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  3. Replacement of two amino acids of 9R-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sooman, Linda; Wennman, Anneli; Hamberg, Mats; Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

    2016-02-01

    The genome of Aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (EHA25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9S-dioxygenase (DOX)-allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the Fusarium and Colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of Aspergilli, including (DOX)-9R-AOS of Aspergillus terreus. The aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of EHA25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. Recombinant EHA25900 oxidized 18:2n-6 sequentially to 9R-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HPODE) and to a 9R(10)-allene oxide. 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS catalyze abstraction of the pro-R hydrogen at C-11, but the direction of oxygen insertion differs. A comparison between twelve 9-DOX domains of 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS revealed conserved amino acid differences, which could contribute to the chirality of products. The Gly616Ile replacement of 9R-DOX-AOS (A. niger) increased the biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide, whereas the Phe627Leu replacement led to biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide as main products. The double mutant (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) formed over 90% of the 9S stereoisomer of HPODE. 9S-HPODE was formed by antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion, i.e., the original H-abstraction was retained but the product chirality was altered. We conclude that 9R-DOX-AOS can be altered to 9S-DOX-AOS by replacement of two amino acids (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) in the DOX domain.

  4. Anthelmintic effect of 2H-chromen-2-one isolated from Gliricidia sepium against Cooperia punctata.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Gliricidia sepium is a tropical legume with known anthelmintic-like properties. The aim of this study was to: (1) perform a bio-guided fractionation of an acetonic extract of G. sepium leaves using the egg hatch assay (EHA); (2) elucidate the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemical using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); and (3) assess the ultrastructural damage of the Cooperia punctata treated eggs. The anthelmintic activity of G. sepium was traced from an acetonic extract using the EHA. Phytochemicals were isolated through silica gel columns and elucidated through spectroscopic measurements (1H and 13C). Final fraction was evaluated with EHA at decreasing concentrations of: 1.100; 0.500, 0.250, 0.125, 0.060, 0.001 and 0.00001 mg mL-1. Egg hatching inhibition was calculated using the formula: 100*(1-HT/HC). The maximal half of effective concentration (EC50) was calculated with GraphPad. Bio-guided isolation procedures lead to the elucidation of 2H-chromen-2-one, which inhibited both hatching and embryo development of C. punctata (EC50 of 0.024 ± 0.082 mg mL-1) (P < 0.05). Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM) revealed electrodensity alterations and fractures in the eggshell layers. After toxicity evaluations and in vivo assessment, 2H-chromen-2-one can be suggested as a novel AH-phytochemical for reducing larval density in pastures and worm burdens inside the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of sub-Himalyan region of northern India using different tests.

    PubMed

    Rialch, Ajayta; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2013-12-06

    The present investigation was planned with the objective of studying the status of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats of different agro-climatic zones of sub-Himalyan region of northern India using in vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and in vitro tests namely egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). Out of fourteen flocks, FECRT detected resistance in eight flocks (two sheep flocks and six goat flocks) with FECR% ranging from 54.95 to 90.86. Pre treatment coproculture contained predominantly Haemonchus contortus, followed by Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum and Strongyloides, while post treatment coproculture results showed that only H. contortus survived fenbendazole (FBZ) (in FECRT) or thiabendazole (TBZ) (in LDA) treatment except in three flocks of Tarai region {one sheep flock (Us1), and two goat flocks (Ug1 and Ug5)} where BZ resistant Trichostrongylus were also detected. The GIN of those eight farms which were found resistant by FECRT were also detected resistant by EHA. Arithmetic mean and range of ED50 value of susceptible group was found to be 0.059 μg/ml and 0.037-0.096 μg/ml, respectively, and the same for the resistant group were found to be 0.119 μg/ml and 0.101-0.147 μg/ml, respectively. With LDA, the arithmetic mean and range of LC50 value of susceptible group was found 0.0030 μg/ml and 0.001-0.005 μg/ml, respectively, and those of resistant group was found 0.0105 μg/ml and 0.009-0.012 μg/ml, respectively. The values of Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that negative correlation was found between FECR% and ED50 and between FECR% and LC50 while positive correlation existed between ED50 and LC50 value and the p-values indicated that these correlations were statistically highly significant. In the present study, FECRT and EHA gave comparable results with regard to detection of BZ resistance in GIN in sheep and goats. Although with LDA, the

  6. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  7. The mannose-specific plant lectins from Cymbidium hybrid and Epipactis helleborine and the (N-acetylglucosamine)n-specific plant lectin from Urtica dioica are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, J; Neyts, J; Schols, D; Hosoya, M; Van Damme, E; Peumans, W; De Clercq, E

    1992-06-01

    A series of four mannose(Man)-, three N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)n-, ten N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose(GalNAc/Gal)-, one 5-acetylneuraminic acid (alpha-2,3-Gal/GalNAc)- and one 5-acetylneuroaminic acid(alpha-2,6-Gal/Gal-NAc)-specific plant agglutinins were evaluated for their antiviral activity in vitro. the mannose-specific lectins from the orchid species Cymbidium hybrid (CA), Epipactis helleborine (EHA) and Listera ovata (LOA) were highly inhibitory to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) in MT-4, and showed a marked anti-human cytomegalovirus (CMV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus activity in HEL, HeLa and MDCK cells, respectively. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of CA and EHA for HIV ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 micrograms/ml, that is about 3 orders of magnitude below their toxicity threshold (50% inhibitory concentration for MT-4 cell growth: 54 to 60 micrograms/ml). Also, the (GlcNAc)n-specific lectin from Urtica dioica (UDA) was inhibitory to HIV-1-, HIV-2-, CMV-, RSV- and influenza A virus-induced cytopathicity at an EC50 ranging from 0.3 to 9 micrograms/ml. The GalNAc/Gal-, alpha-2,3-Gal/GalNAc- or alpha-2,6-Gal/GalNAc-specific lectins were not inhibitory to HIV or CMV at non-toxic concentrations. CA, EHA and UDA proved to be potent inhibitors of syncytium formation between persistently HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected HUT-78 cells and CD4+ Molt/4 (clone 8) cells (EC50: 0.2-2 micrograms/ml). Unlike dextran sulfate, the plant lectins CA, EHA and UDA did not interfere with HIV-1 adsorption to MT-4 cells and RSV- and influenza A virus adsorption to HeLa and MDCK cells, respectively. They presumably interact at the level of virion fusion with the target cell.

  8. Development of the egg hatch assay for detection of anthelminthic resistance in human hookworms.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Wright, Victoria; Ramsan, Mahdi; Haji, Hamadi J; Taylor, Martin; Savioli, Lorenzo; Bickle, Quentin

    2005-06-01

    Evidence of development and rapid spread of anthelminthic resistance in veterinary nematodes raises concern that the increasingly frequent treatments used in chemotherapy-based programmes to control human soil-transmitted helminths may select resistant worms. The aim of this study was to adapt, refine, and evaluate the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) test, which has been used for veterinary nematodes, for field testing of benzimidazole (BZ) susceptibility/resistance in human hookworms. A second objective was to use this EHA to assess whether a population of worms resistant to mebendazole (MBZ) has built up in a sub-population of frequently treated children in Pemba Island. Stools from 470 school children enrolled in the first (Standard 1) and in the fifth (Standard 5) class were examined at baseline and at 21 days after treatment with 500 mg MBZ or placebo tablets. Standard 1 children had never received any MBZ treatment whilst Standard 5 children had received a total of 13 rounds of treatment. The EHA, involving culture of purified eggs with increasing drug concentrations showed that, for thiabendazole (TBZ), the mean ED(50)s (concentrations required to prevent 50% of the viable eggs from hatching) for all children at baseline were 0.079 microg/ml at 48h and 0.120 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For MBZ, the mean ED(50)s for all children at baseline were 0.895 microg/ml at 48h and 1.50 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For TBZ and for MBZ the ED(50) from Standard 1 were similar to those from Standard 5 children both at 48 and at 72h. At the follow-up for TBZ and for MBZ, there was no significant difference between the ED(50) from children who had received MBZ and children treated with placebo. In Pemba, TBZ ED(50) values of children non-exposed (Standard 1) and of children exposed (Standard 5) to MBZ treatment, and data from children treated with MBZ and placebo indicate that a drug-resistant worm population has not built up within treated individuals, and that periodic treatment has

  9. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    PubMed

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  10. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  11. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  12. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections.

  13. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  14. Using the omega leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus to transform tomato fruits with the papillomavirus hpv16 L1 gene to enhance production of the antigenic protein HPV16 L11.

    PubMed

    Salyaev, R K; Rekoslavskaya, N I; Stolbikov, A S; Tret'yakova, A V

    2016-05-01

    To enhance translation of the L1 protein antigen of the oncogenic human papillomavirus type HPV16 L1, the Ω sequence of the 5'-untranslated region of tobacco mosaic virus was inserted into a genetic construct as an enhancer. To transform plants, A. tumefaciens EHA105 cells were transfected with this construct. After the genetic transformation, the HPV16 L1 protein antigen was detected in tomato fruit in amounts of 287-2330 ng per 1 mg total soluble protein, which significantly exceeds the amount of the protein antigen obtained in our previous studies without using the omega leader sequence.

  15. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces]. Technical progress report, August 1, 1985--July 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  16. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  17. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Co-polymers Based on Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Hexyl Acrylate Containing Naphthopyrans for a Light-Sensitive Contact Lens.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Cláudia R J O D; Heron, B Mark; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Gil, Maria H; Sobral, Abílio J F N

    2011-01-01

    Three different naphthopyrans were incorporated in co-polymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), with and without cross-linking with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), by a free radical polymerization method. The obtained materials were characterised in terms of some of their chemical and physical properties that could be important for the final functional properties of the envisaged application. Despite other important functional properties that should be evaluated in the near future, the system based in the physical entrapment of 3,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-3H-naphtho [2,1-b]pyran presented a good potential for its application as novel light-sensitive contact lenses.

  19. Proof of a Spectral Property related to the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Merle, Frank; Raphaël, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    We give a proof of a Spectral Property related to the description of the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation iut+Δu+u|=0 in dimensions N=2,3,4. Assuming this property, the rigorous mathematical analysis developed in a recent series of papers by Merle and Raphaël provides a complete description of the collapse dynamics for a suitable class of initial data. In particular, this implies in dimension N=2 the existence of a large class of solutions blowing up with the log-log speed |∼√{{log|log(T-t)}/{T-t}} where T>0 is the blow up time. This Spectral Property is equivalent to the coercivity of some Schrödinger type operators. An analytic proof is given in [F. Merle, P. Raphaël, Blow up dynamic and upper bound on the blow up rate for critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Ann. of Math. 161 (1) (2005) 157-222] in dimension N=1 and in this paper, we give a computer assisted proof in dimensions N=2,3,4. We propose in particular a rigorous mathematical frame to reduce the check of this type of coercivity property to accessible and robust numerical results.

  20. Numerical study of blow-up and dispersive shocks in solutions to generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, C.; Peter, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of solutions to general Korteweg-de Vries equations with critical and supercritical nonlinearity, both in the context of dispersive shocks and blow-up. We study the stability of solitons and show that they are unstable against being radiated away and blow-up. In the L2 critical case, the blow-up mechanism by Martel, Merle and Raphaël can be numerically identified. In the limit of small dispersion, it is shown that a dispersive shock always appears before an eventual blow-up. In the latter case, always the first soliton to appear will blow up. It is shown that the same type of blow-up as for the perturbations of the soliton can be observed which indicates that the theory by Martel, Merle and Raphaël is also applicable to initial data with a mass much larger than the soliton mass. We study the scaling of the blow-up time t∗ in dependence of the small dispersion parameter ɛ and find an exponential dependence t∗(ɛ) and that there is a minimal blow-up time t0∗ greater than the critical time of the corresponding Hopf solution for ɛ → 0. To study the cases with blow-up in detail, we apply the first dynamic rescaling for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations. This allows to identify the type of the singularity.

  1. The fracture morphology of nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Miner, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of compact tension specimens from seven nickel-base superalloys fatigue tested at 650 C were studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography to determine the nature and morphology of the crack surface in the region of stable growth. Crack propagation testing was performed as part of an earlier study at 650 C in air using a 0.33 Hz fatigue cycle and a creep-fatigue cycle incorporating a 900 second dwell at maximum load. In fatigue, alloys with a grain size greater than 20 micrometers, HIP Astroloy, Waspaloy, and MERL 76, exhibited transgranular fracture. MERL 76 also displayed numerous fracture sites which were associated with boundaries of prior powder particles. The two high strength, fine grain alloys, IN 100 and NASA IIB-7, exhibited intergranular fracture. Rene 95 and HIP plus forged Astroloy displayed a mixed failure mode that was transgranular in the coarse grains and intergranular in the fine grains. Under creep-fatigue conditions, fracture was found to be predominantly intergranular in all seven alloys.

  2. Use of a trochanteric flip osteotomy improves outcomes in Pipkin IV fractures.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Brian D; Moon, Charles N; Franco, Dennis P

    2009-04-01

    The optimal surgical approach for combined femoral head and acetabular fractures (Pipkin IV) is controversial because of their rarity and lack of definitive reports. Surgical dislocation with trochanteric flip osteotomy (TFO) allows simultaneous exposure of the acetabulum and femoral head. We protected the obturator internus and inferior capsule during repair with a heavy suture at the inferior extent of the traumatic capsulotomy. We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients with Pipkin IV fractures treated using this approach during a 6-year period. The minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 47 months; range, 24-71 months). Clinical outcomes were measured using the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel and Thompson-Epstein scoring scales. Radiographically, all patients achieved healing of their acetabular fractures; 11 achieved healing of the femoral head fracture and osteonecrosis developed in one patient. The average Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score was 15.6 of 18; using the Thompson-Epstein score, 10 of the 12 patients had good or excellent outcomes, one had a fair outcome, and one had a poor outcome. Trochanteric flip osteotomy allowed for simultaneous exposure and repair of both lesions in Pipkin IV fractures. Using a uniform surgical protocol with TFO rendered clinical results comparable to previously reported outcomes in series of isolated femoral head fractures. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on patients undergoing hip revision prostheses: a randomized prospective double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Dante; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Del Piccolo, Nicolandrea; Stagni, Cesare; Amendola, Luca; Rani, Nicola; Gnudi, Saverio; Giardino, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) was investigated in 30 subjects undergoing hip revision using the Wagner SL stem. The subjects were treated for 6 h/day up to 90 days after revision. Study end points were assessed clinically by the functional scale of Merle D'Aubigné and instrumentally by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the Gruen zones. Subject improvement according to Merle D'Aubigné scale was higher (P < 0.05) in subjects undergoing active stimulation compared to placebo. In analyzing the DXA findings, we subtracted for each area the postoperative bone mineral density (BMD) values from those measured at 90 days and we considered all results above 3.5% as responders. There were no significant differences in the average BMD values at each Gruen zone between the two groups both postoperatively and at 90 days investigation. In Gruen zones 5 and 6, corresponding to the medial cortex, we observed six responders (40%) in both areas in the control group, while in the stimulated group we observed 14 (93%) and 10 (66%) responders, respectively (both P < 0.05). This study showed that PEMF treatment aids clinical recovery and bone stock restoration.

  4. One stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy: surgical technique and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.

  5. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-11-15

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings "The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle," depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ~25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as "leopard" in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed.

  6. One-third of Hips After Periacetabular Osteotomy Survive 30 Years With Good Clinical Results, No Progression of Arthritis, or Conversion to THA.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Till Dominic; Steppacher, Simon Damian; Liechti, Emanuel Francis; Tannast, Moritz; Siebenrock, Klaus Arno

    2017-04-01

    Since its first description in 1984, periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) has become an accepted treatment for hip dysplasia. The 30-year survivorship with this procedure has not been reported. Because these patients are often very young at the time of surgery, long-term followup and identification of factors associated with poor outcome could help to improve patient selection. Looking at the initial group of patients with hip dysplasia undergoing PAO at the originator's institution, we asked: (1) What is the cumulative 30-year survival rate free from conversion to THA, radiographic progression of osteoarthritis, and/or a Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score < 15? (2) Did hip function improve and pain decrease? (3) Did radiographic osteoarthritis progress? (4) What are the factors associated with one or more of the three endpoints: THA, radiographic progression of osteoarthritis, and/or Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score < 15? We retrospectively evaluated the first 63 patients (75 hips) who underwent PAO for hip dysplasia between 1984 and 1987. At that time, hip dysplasia was the only indication for PAO and no patients with acetabular retroversion, the second indication for a PAO performed today, were included. During that period, no other surgical treatment for hip dysplasia in patients with closed triradiate cartilage was performed. Advanced osteoarthritis (≥ Grade 2 according to Tönnis) was present preoperatively in 18 hips (24%) and 22 patients (23 hips [31%]) had previous femoral and/or acetabular surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42 hips [56%]) were converted to a THA and one patient (one hip [1%]) had hip fusion at latest followup. Two patients (three hips [4%]) died from a cause unrelated to surgery 6 and 16 years after surgery with an uneventful followup. From the remaining 21 patients (29 hips), the mean followup was 29 years (range, 27-32 years). Of those, five patients (six hips [8%]) did not return for the most recent followup and only a questionnaire was available

  7. Mean 20-year followup of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Steppacher, Simon D; Tannast, Moritz; Ganz, Reinhold; Siebenrock, Klaus A

    2008-07-01

    The goal of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia to prevent secondary osteoarthrosis. We determined the 20-year survivorship of symptomatic patients treated with this procedure, determined the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the surviving hips, and identified factors predicting poor outcome. We retrospectively evaluated the first 63 patients (75 hips) who underwent periacetabular osteotomy at the institution where this technique was developed. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 29 years (range, 13-56 years), and preoperatively 24% presented with advanced grades of osteoarthritis. Four patients (five hips) were lost to followup and one patient (two hips) died. The remaining 58 patients (68 hips) were followed for a minimum of 19 years (mean, 20.4 years; range, 19-23 years) and 41 hips (60%) were preserved at last followup. The overall mean Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score decreased in comparison to the 10-year value and was similar to the preoperative score. We observed no major changes in any of the radiographic parameters during the 20-year postoperative period except the osteoarthritis score. We identified six factors predicting poor outcome: age at surgery, preoperative Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, positive anterior impingement test, limp, osteoarthrosis grade, and the postoperative extrusion index. Periacetabular osteotomy is an effective technique for treating symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and can maintain the natural hip at least 19 years in selected patients. Level III, prognostic study.

  8. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ∼25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

  9. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything. Palliative care enabled 85% of patients and families to spend less on medicines, 31% of patients received free medicines, all patients reduced use of out-patient departments (OPDs), 20% reduced use of inpatient departments (IPDs), and therefore spent less on travel, 8% of patients had started earning again due to improved health, members of 10% of families started earning again, and one hospital educated 171 village headmen and increased by 5% the number of patients and their families receiving government benefits. If only 0.7% of needy adults are receiving palliative care, these benefits could be delivered to 143 times more families, targeted effectively at poverty reduction. Palliative care has great scope to reduce that most desperate poverty in India caused by chronic illness. Context: This article concerns a study by the UK NGO EMMS International and Indian NGO EHA, to assess whether palliative care reduces household poverty. Aims: EHA staff had noticed that many patients spend a lot on ineffective treatment before joining palliative care, many families do not know their entitlement to government healthcare subsidies or

  10. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  13. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer. PMID:27351975

  14. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  17. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  19. Anisotropic Weyl symmetry and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial; Sohn, Jongsu E-mail: ploh@skku.edu

    2010-11-01

    We construct an anisotropic Weyl invariant theory in the ADM formalism and discuss its cosmological consequences. It extends the original anisotropic Weyl invariance of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity using an extra scalar field. The action is invariant under the anisotropic transformations of the space and time metric components with an arbitrary value of the critical exponent z. One of the interesting features is that the cosmological constant term maintains the anisotropic symmetry for z = −3. We also include the cosmological fluid and show that it can preserve the anisotropic Weyl invariance if the equation of state satisfies P = zρ/3. Then, we study cosmology of the Einstein-Hilbert-anisotropic Weyl (EHaW) action including the cosmological fluid, both with or without anisotropic Weyl invariance. The correlation of the critical exponent z and the equation of state parameter ω-bar provides a new perspective of the cosmology. It is also shown that the EHaW action admits a late time accelerating universe for an arbitrary value of z when the anisotropic conformal invariance is broken, and the anisotropic conformal scalar field is interpreted as a possible source of dark energy.

  20. The innervation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver: protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities.

    PubMed

    Esteban, F J; Jiménez, A; Barroso, J B; Pedrosa, J A; del Moral, M L; Rodrigo, J; Peinado, M A

    1998-08-01

    We have explored the innervation of the rainbow trout (O. mykiss) liver using immunohistochemical procedures and light microscopy to detect in situ protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities (PGP-IR and NOS-IR). The results showed PGP-IR nerve fibres running with the extralobular biliary duct (EBD), hepatic artery (EHA) and portal vein (EPV) that form the hepatic hilum, as well as following the spatial distribution of the intrahepatic blood vessel and biliary channels. These nerve fibres appear as single varicose processes, thin bundles, or thick bundles depending on their diameter and location in the wall of the blood vessel or biliary duct. No PGP-IR fibres were detected in the liver parenchyma. NOS-IR nerve fibres were located only in the vessels and ducts that form the hepatic hilum (EBD, EHA, EPV); in addition, NOS-IR nerve cell bodies were found isolated or forming ganglionated plexuses in the peribiliary fibromuscular tissue of the EBD. No PGP-IR ganglionated plexuses were detected in the EBD. The location of the general (PGP-IR) and nitrergic (nNOS-IR) intrinsic nerves of the trout liver suggest a conserved evolutionary role of the nervous control of hepatic blood flow and hepatobiliary activity.

  1. The innervation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver: protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities

    PubMed Central

    ESTEBAN, F. J.; JIMÉNEZ, A.; BARROSO, J. B.; PEDROSA, J. A.; DEL MORAL, M. L.; RODRIGO, J.; PEINADO, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    We have explored the innervation of the rainbow trout (O. mykiss) liver using immunohistochemical procedures and light microscopy to detect in situ protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivities (PGP-IR and NOS-IR). The results showed PGP-IR nerve fibres running with the extralobular biliary duct (EBD), hepatic artery (EHA) and portal vein (EPV) that form the hepatic hilum, as well as following the spatial distribution of the intrahepatic blood vessel and biliary channels. These nerve fibres appear as single varicose processes, thin bundles, or thick bundles depending on their diameter and location in the wall of the blood vessel or biliary duct. No PGP-IR fibres were detected in the liver parenchyma. NOS-IR nerve fibres were located only in the vessels and ducts that form the hepatic hilum (EBD, EHA, EPV); in addition, NOS-IR nerve cell bodies were found isolated or forming ganglionated plexuses in the peribiliary fibromuscular tissue of the EBD. No PGP-IR ganglionated plexuses were detected in the EBD. The location of the general (PGP-IR) and nitrergic (nNOS-IR) intrinsic nerves of the trout liver suggest a conserved evolutionary role of the nervous control of hepatic blood flow and hepatobiliary activity. PMID:9827640

  2. Acyclic Sesquiterpenes from the Fruit Pericarp of Sapindus saponaria Induce Ultrastructural Alterations and Cell Death in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Amanda Louzano; Scariot, Débora Botura; Pelegrini, Bruna Luíza; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies reported antiprotozoal activities of Sapindus saponaria L. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial activity and mechanism of action of extract and fractions of S. saponaria L. Hydroethanolic extract (EHA) obtained from fruit pericarps was fractionated using solid-phase extraction in a reversed phase, resulting in fractions enriched with saponins (SAP fraction) and acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (OGSA fraction). The activities of EHA, SAP, and OGSA were evaluated by antiproliferative assays with promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms. Cytotoxicity on macrophages and hemolytic activity were also analyzed. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes were evaluated by electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction and phosphatidylserine exposure. OGSA was more selective for parasites than mammalian J774A1 macrophage cells, with selectivity indices of 3.79 and 7.35, respectively. Our results showed that only the OGSA fraction did not present hemolytic activity at its IC50 for promastigote growth. Electron microscopy revealed changes in parasite flagellum, cell body shape, and organelle size, mainly mitochondria. Flow cytometry analysis indicated mitochondrial membrane and cell membrane dysfunction. OGSA showed antileishmanial activity, resulting in several changes to protozoa cells, including mitochondrial depolarization and early phosphatidylserine exposure, suggesting a possible apoptotic induction. PMID:28904555

  3. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Screening Test of Ethyl Hydrogen Adipate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chunja; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Han, Kyoung-Goo; Jo, Eunhye; Yoo, Sun-kyoung; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity and safety of ethyl hydrogen adipate (EHA) by determining its effect on the reproductive function and development of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (control), 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day. One male and five females of the 800 mg/kg/day died. Body weight loss was observed in the males of the 800 mg/kg/day and in females of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. In addition, mating indices decreased and pre-implantation loss rates increased in parental animals of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The gestation index decreased in the male and female rats of the 800 mg/kg/day. Moreover, the body weight of the pups from the 800 mg/kg/day group decreased on post-parturition day 4. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of EHA for parental males and females was 400 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, and that for pups was 400 mg/kg/day. PMID:27818735

  4. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Sanita; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Wei Wen; Gu, Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHAE) is a malignant vascular tumor derived from endothelial cell often misdiagnosed as Hepatic carcinoma on the basis of radiological features. Till now etiology of this rare curiosity is unknown but it is related with use of oral contraceptives pills (OCP), liver trauma, exposure to vinyl chloride and hepatitis. We herein report on a case which failed to be diagnosed by cytopathology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient was a 46 yr old man presented with abdominal distension for a month. Initial liver function test (LFT) was increased whereas renal function test (RFT) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. His abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules and multiple liver calcifications. Subsequently laparoscopic omental biopsy and Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was done showing the neoplastic cells scattered in fibrous stroma. The immunohistochemistry for endothelial tumor cells stained positive for Vimentin (+++), CD10 (+++), CD34 (++), CD31 (+), Factor VIII antigen (focal) (+) and low proliferative activity for ki-67. Our case is very interesting in which patient admitted with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and diagnosed to be a Malignant Hepatic EHAE metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery. The patient was on thalidomide 50 mg/day and increased to 100 mg/day. 5-Flurouracil (FU) intraperitoneal chemotherapy and other symptomatic and supportive treatment was given to the patient. Our case highlights on the importance of immunohistopathological diagnosis, compare the radiological findings of this disease and discuss the treatment strategy with review of available literature. PMID:26191313

  5. Anthelmintic activity of plant extracts from Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia F; Costa Junior, Livio M; Lima, Aldilene S; Silva, Carolina R; Ribeiro, Maria N S; Mesquista, José W C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Vilegas, Wagner

    2017-03-15

    Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus. Hydroacetonic (ACT) and hydroalcoholic (ETH) extracts were evaluated using an Egg Hatching Assay (EHA), a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). A second set of incubations was performed using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the anthelmintic effects of EHA and LEIA. Data from each extract were used to calculate inhibition concentrations (IC50). All tested extracts showed activity against at least one life stage of H. contortus. The use of PVPP revealed that the tannins are not the only extracts of secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic effects. The results showed clear in vitro anthelmintic activities against H. contortus at different stages and indicated the potential use of these species as a promising alternative approach to control helminthic infections of small ruminants.

  6. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, P; Sekar, C

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 3 × 10(-5)M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Farr, Craig; McLaughlin, James; Berdasco, Nancy; Wiench, Karin; Kimber, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There are currently available no systematic experimental data on the skin sensitizing properties of acrylates that are of relevance in occupational settings. Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory. For those reasons, we have examined in the LLNA 4 acrylates: butyl acrylate (BA), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The LLNA data indicated that all 4 compounds have some potential to cause skin sensitization. In addition, the relative potencies of these acrylates were measured by derivation from LLNA dose-response analyses of EC3 values (the effective concentration of chemical required to induce a threefold increase in proliferation of draining lymph node cells compared with control values). On the basis of 1 scheme for the categorization of skin sensitization potency, BA, EA, and MA were each classified as weak sensitizers. Using the same scheme, EHA was considered a moderate sensitizer. However, it must be emphasized that the EC3 value for this chemical of 9.7% is on the borderline between moderate (<10%) and weak (>10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential.

  8. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P < 0.0001), however, praziquantel did not record any reduction of Fasciola egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P < 0.01). In albendazole, the hatching varied according to the drug concentration. At the highest two concentrations; 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, the hatching percentages were 7.4 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 1.5 (P < 0.01) respectively. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect.

  9. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  10. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    PubMed

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  11. Femoral cement within cement technique in carefully selected aseptic revision arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Lucas; Buttaro, Martin; Comba, Fernando; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results in a group of patients who underwent aseptic revision hip arthroplasty using the cement within cement (CWC) technique. Between 1999 and 2005, 37 aseptic revision hip operations were performed. There were 30 women and five men, with an average age of 68 years. The reasons for revision were femoral stem fracture, cup failure, acetabular protrusion after hemi-arthroplasty and recurrent dislocation. At an average follow-up of 46 months, none of the patients required further femoral revision. The average post-operative Merle D'Aubigne score was 16.6 points (p<0.05). No evidence of radiological stem failure was observed and no femoral component was considered to be at risk for loosening. In this series of patients, the CWC technique provided consistent with high functional outcomes. This valid and effective alternative should be considered in carefully selected aseptic cases.

  12. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  13. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  14. The dual-mobility POLARCUP: first results from a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bauchu, Philippe; Bonnard, Olivier; Cyprès, Alain; Fiquet, Arnaud; Girardin, Philippe; Noyer, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Dislocation is a leading cause of revision after total hip arthroplasty (THA). To address this risk, dual-mobility technology was developed, which features a mobile polyethylene liner locked onto a femoral head and articulating in a metallic acetabular shell. This study reports clinical outcome data after implantation of the third-generation POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System (Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics AG, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Primary THA procedures were performed in 150 patients. At 7.1 years, cumulative cup survival according to Kaplan-Meier was 97.4%. The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigne score improved from 8.9 to 17.1 during the investigation. Two cups were revised at 5.4 and 6.4 years because of aseptic loosening. No dislocations were observed during follow-up. The current results confirm excellent early to midterm clinical outcomes for the POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Mahadwad, O K; Jasra, R V; Parikh, P A; Tayade, R J

    2010-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of commonly used textile dyes, namely, Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Red (ME4BL), Golden Yellow (MERL), Blue-222, Methylene Blue, and Malachite Green, has been studied, using TiO2 (P25) as a photocatalyst. All the dye solutions could be decolorized. Kinetics of RB-5 oxidation reaction has been studied and was found to be of first order in dye concentration. Effects of different parameters such as catalyst amount, initial concentration of the dyes, and pH of solution along with biological parameters (TOC and COD) on the rate of degradation were studied. Experimental results showed that photocatalytic degradation of commonly used RB-5 was very effective at the optimum catalyst quantity of 2.5 g/L.

  16. Peasant and state in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Dinerman, A

    2001-01-01

    Merle Bowen's study focuses on the evolution of the 'middle peasantry' in both colonial and postcolonial Mozambique. In doing so, she successfully challenges long-standing, if highly problematic, notions that the Mozambican economy consists of a 'traditional', subsistence-oriented peasant sector with only nominal links to 'modern' forms of agriculture, the urban areas, and regional and international markets. At the same time, she usefully illuminates continuities in colonial and post-independence agrarian policies and shows the ways in which the experience of smallholder agricultural co-operatives under the Portuguese shaped the peasantry's perceptions of, and responses to, collective agriculture under Frelimo. However, the evidence in Bowen's case study does not necessarily sustain her central thesis that the post-independence state, like its colonial predecessor, was 'anti-peasant'. This is one of several criticisms made of Bowen's text.

  17. Acetabular Fractures in the Elderly: Midterm Outcomes of Column Stabilisation and Primary Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Briones, A.; Smith, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Interest in arthroplasty techniques for periarticular or intra-articular fractures in the elderly/osteoporotic patient continues to rise, including for geriatric acetabular fractures. In line with this, many acetabular fracture surgeons are now undertaking acute total hip arthroplasty in elderly/osteoporotic patients. Little is known however of the outcomes of this procedure, beyond the first year after surgery. Questions/Purposes. We determined the clinical outcomes of a series of elderly osteoporotic patients (mean age at surgery 77.4 years) treated for acetabular fractures with column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty, at a mean of 49 months after surgery. Methods. 24 patients (25 hips) were reviewed at a mean of 49 months after surgery. The surgical technique employed has previously been described. Radiographs were obtained, and clinical outcomes were assessed using Harris Hip Scores and the Merle d'Aubigné score. Results. 14 hips were available for assessment (9 deceased, 2 lost to follow-up). No patient suffered any complications beyond the perioperative period, no acetabular components were loose clinically or on latest radiographs, and the mean Harris Hip Score was 92. All but one patient scored good or excellent on the Merle d'Aubigné score. Conclusions. Column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty are a viable option for complex geriatric acetabular fractures, with encouraging midterm results. We conclude that THR is a viable long-term solution in this situation provided that the acetabular columns are stabilised prior to implantation, but more research is needed to aid in overall management decision making. PMID:28194414

  18. Hypertrophy of the tensor fascia lata muscle as a complication of total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roiz, Juan Miguel; Bori, Guillem; Tomas, Xavier; Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro A; García-Díez, Ana Isabel; Pomés, Jaume; Garcia, Sebastián

    2017-02-01

    Hypertrophy of the tensor fascia lata muscle (HTFLM) is a rare complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is a potential source of pain, palpable mass, or both. We retrospectively analyzed 1285 primary THAs and 482 THA revisions (THAR) performed at our center from 2008 to 2014. Among these, five patients had HTFLM (average age 68.8 years). The type of surgery and symptoms were evaluated, as were imaging studies (CT or MRI) of both hips (10 hips), and functional outcomes with the Merle d'Aubigné score. The suspected diagnosis was established at an average of 30.2 months after surgery. Four cases occurred after THA and one case after THAR. A modified Hardinge approach was used in four cases and a Röttinger approach in one case. Two cases had pain and palpable mass in the trochanteric region and three cases only pain. The asymmetric HTFLM of the THA side against the nonsurgical side was confirmed by measuring the cross section of the tensor fascia lata muscle on imaging. The sartorius muscle was measured for reference in each case. The Merle d'Aubigne scale had a mean value of 16.6 (range 13-18) at 38 months after the procedure. HTFLM after THA is a benign condition that could be mistaken for a tumor when presenting as a palpable mass. We propose that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral aspect of hips that have previously undergone THA.

  19. Osteointegration of an uncemented modular revision stem implanted during revision hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Pavel; Kučera, Tomáš; Urban, Karel; Zítko, David; Diaz-Garcia, Daniel; Grinac, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Though mid-term survival rates of over 95% in several series have been published, there is still a paucity of related literature regarding the role of vertical stem instability in the osteointegration of fluted tapered stems. This paper presents a comprehensive and prospective assessment on short-term experiences with uncemented modular femoral stem in the treatment of defective femur during revision surgery of total hip replacement. Clinical and radiological monitoring of 20 consecutive patients with implanted tapered fluted revision stem (Lima Corporate, Udine, Italy) was of 27 months in average (20-35 months). The average pre-operative Merle d'Aubigné and Postel method score was 6.3 points (3-10 points). The frequency of femur defects, classified according to Paprosky, was IIIA = 9 and IIIB = 11. During last follow-up, the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel hip score was on average 11.7 (6-16 points). Compared to post-operation radiograph, stem migration of 1.9 mm (0-11 mm) on average was found. This vertical stem migration was observed only when comparing hip radiographs immediately after surgery, and at 6 weeks post-surgery. The Paprosky IIIA defects group, presented a subsided stem by an average of 1.5 mm. In the group of Paprosky IIIB defects, the stem subsidence was on average 2.3 mm. All 20 patients in the study showed excellent osteointegration of the uncemented revision modular stem. This study found and excellent osteointegration of the Lima uncemented tapered fluted revision modular stem in defective femur with a cortical bone segment present in the diaphyseal isthmus area. The initial vertical instability leading to stem migrating during the first six weeks following surgery did not, however, affect its osteointegration.

  20. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Kim, Hee-soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Conclusion Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less. PMID:27536648

  1. Lesion of the hip abductor mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caviglia, Horacio; Cambiaggi, Guillermo; Vattani, Nosrat; Landro, María Eulalia; Galatro, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The disruption of the abductor muscles of the hip after hip revision surgery often causes limping, pain, and instability of the implant. The purpose of our paper is to describe a mesh technique to repair hip abductor mechanism injuries after hip revision. Patients and methods: Forty-six patients with hip abductor damage after prosthetic revision were treated. Inclusion criteria were: patients presenting with prosthetic loosening, complaint of pain, and with a positive Trendelenburg sign due to deficient abductor muscle mechanisms. Thirty-one were women (67.39%) with an average age of 64 years (34–82 years). The number of previous revision surgeries was three (two to seven). The Merle d’Aubigné score and variants before and after treatment were also reported. Results: In the postoperative follow-up after hip revision with the mesh technique, the Merle d’Aubigné score improved and the Trendelenburg sign was negative in 78.3% of the patients (p < 0.001). Also, the Trendelenburg test with the knee flexed was negative in 60.9% (p < 0.001) and the stair-climbing test was negative in 60.9% of cases (p < 0.001). The gluteus medius test in the lateral position was negative in 52.2% of patients, and in the lateral position with the knee flexed it was negative in 47.8% of patients (p < 0.001). Discussion: Repair of the abductor mechanism with the mesh technique has proven effective for both partial and total lesions. PMID:27382925

  2. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Kee; Cho, Myung-Rae; Kim, Hee-Soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less.

  3. Patient satisfaction and clinical results at a mean eight years following BHR arthroplasty: results from a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Nemandra A; Ahmed, Syed; Doctor, Cyrus; East, Debra J; Miles, Kim; Apthorp, Hugh D

    2014-01-01

    We present the clinical and radiological results of a prospective study of a consecutive series of patients treated with the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) prosthesis between 1999 and 2006 and followed for six to 12 years. Patients were reviewed preoperatively and six, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperatively and annually thereafter. They were assessed clinically and radiographically and the Merle d'Aubigne Postel and Oxford Hip scores were calculated at each visit. A SF-36 form assessed general health. Patient satisfaction was assessed by a Visual Analogue Score. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was performed.One hundred and seven patients (109 hips) were included (45 males, 62 females). Median age was 44 years. Mean follow-up was 97.4 months. Median preoperative Merle d'Aubigne Postel and Oxford hip scores were 10 (3-14) and 42 (26-55) respectively. Median SF36 score was 29 (0-65) and patients rated their level of pain as 7.7 on a scale of 0-10 (10 being the worst score). At final follow-up, median MDP and OHS scores were 17 (16-18) and 25 (12-46). Median SF36 score was 72 (27-97). Seven revisions were performed in six females and one male patient. Survival was 96.2% with revision for any reason as the end point. No revisions were performed in the group with hip dysplasia.The BHR prosthesis provides pain relief, high levels of patient satisfaction and improvement of function and well being in the medium-term. Failures occurred primarily in the female group.

  4. The NANOS short stem in total hip arthroplasty: a mid term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Max; Ettinger, Peter; Lerch, Matthias; Radtke, Kerstin; Budde, Stefan; Ezechieli, Marco; Becher, Christoph; Thorey, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A number of short stems for total hip arthroplasty have been introduced during the last decade. We describe our experience with the NANOS prosthesis (Smith and Nephew, Marl, Germany). The potential increase of bone mass around a femoral short stem using bone densitometry may be an indicator for secondary ingrowth. We report the outcome of 72 NANOS short stems in 65 patients between March 2003 and October 2007. The mean follow-up was 5.2±0.7 years and the mean age of the patients was 63±8.3 years. Along with demographic data and co-morbidities, the Harris Hip Score, the Merle d'Aubigné mobility score, and a patient-centred questionnaire were evaluated pre-operatively and during follow-up. The Mean Harris Hip Score increased from 47.3±12.2 pre-operatively to 97.6±0.6 at the final follow-up. The Merle d'Aubigné mobility score increased from 7.6±1.4 pre-operatively to 11.8±0.3 at the final follow-up. None of the 72 stems were revised, providing a survival rate of 100%. Radiolucent lines were visible rasiographically in two patients during follow-up. The NANOS short stem demonstrated a satisfactory outcome at mid term follow-up. The clinical and radiological results support to the principle of metaphyseal anchorage of a short stem prosthesis. Long term evaluation will be of interest to determine if these encouraging trends are reflected by prolonged survivorship.

  5. Nonoperative Treatment of Posterior Wall Acetabular Fractures After Dynamic Stress Examination Under Anesthesia: Revisited.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew R; Boudreau, John A; Moed, Berton R

    2015-08-01

    Performing an examination under general anesthesia (EUA) using dynamic stress fluoroscopy of patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures has been used as a tool to determine hip stability and the need for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the effectiveness of this technique, from a source other than its primary advocates, in patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures less than or equal to 50% who were stable on EUA and treated nonoperatively. Retrospective case series. University Level 1 Trauma Center. Seventeen patients with a posterior wall acetabular fracture stable on EUA treated nonoperatively. The patients were treated nonoperatively as guided by an EUA negative for instability. Patient follow-up averaged 30 months (range, 6-64 months). Outcome evaluation included the modified Merle d'Aubigné clinical score and the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire. Radiographic evaluation for subluxation or arthritis consisted of the 3 standard pelvic radiographs. Radiographic evaluation showed all hips to be congruent with a normal joint space. Sixteen of the 17 patients had radiographic outcomes rated as "excellent"; 1 patient was rated "good." The modified Merle d'Aubigné score (obtained in 12 patients) averaged very good, with only 1 having less than a good (graded as fair) clinical outcome. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire scores (from 11 patients) were not significantly different from normal and were within the normal reported values for all indices and categories. There was no correlation between fracture fragment size and outcome. This study further supports the contention that a stable hip joint, as determined by EUA, after posterior wall acetabular fracture treated nonoperatively is predictive of continued joint congruity, an excellent radiographic outcome, and good-to-excellent early clinical and functional outcomes. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for

  6. Mean 20-year Followup of Bernese Periacetabular Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Steppacher, Simon D.; Ganz, Reinhold; Siebenrock, Klaus A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia to prevent secondary osteoarthrosis. We determined the 20-year survivorship of symptomatic patients treated with this procedure, determined the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the surviving hips, and identified factors predicting poor outcome. We retrospectively evaluated the first 63 patients (75 hips) who underwent periacetabular osteotomy at the institution where this technique was developed. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 29 years (range, 13–56 years), and preoperatively 24% presented with advanced grades of osteoarthritis. Four patients (five hips) were lost to followup and one patient (two hips) died. The remaining 58 patients (68 hips) were followed for a minimum of 19 years (mean, 20.4 years; range, 19–23 years) and 41 hips (60%) were preserved at last followup. The overall mean Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score decreased in comparison to the 10-year value and was similar to the preoperative score. We observed no major changes in any of the radiographic parameters during the 20-year postoperative period except the osteoarthritis score. We identified six factors predicting poor outcome: age at surgery, preoperative Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, positive anterior impingement test, limp, osteoarthrosis grade, and the postoperative extrusion index. Periacetabular osteotomy is an effective technique for treating symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and can maintain the natural hip at least 19 years in selected patients. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18449617

  7. Medium-term results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in the treatment of symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Garras, D N; Crowder, T T; Olson, S A

    2007-06-01

    We studied the medium-term outcome of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in 52 patients (58 hips) with symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and a mean age of 37.6 years (13 to 48). The operations were performed between 1993 and 2005 by the senior author with a mean follow-up of 66.7 months (13 to 153). There were 42 women (47 hips) and ten men (11 hips). Of these patients, 24 (30 hips) had an osteotomy on the right side and 22 (28 hips) on the left. Six patients had bilateral operations. The clinical outcome was assessed using the modified Merle d'Aubigne scale, and pre- and post-operative radiological evaluation using the modified Tonnis osteoarthritis score, the centre-edge angle, the acetabular index, the status of Shenton's line, and the cross-over sign. The mean centre-edge angle and the acetabular index were 14 degrees (2 degrees to 34 degrees ) and 23.6 degrees (0 degrees to 40 degrees ) before operation, and 36.6 degrees (16 degrees to 72 degrees ) and 7.9 degrees (0 degrees to 28 degrees ) after, respectively (p < 0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Shenton's line was intact in 23 hips (39.6%) before operation and in 48 hips (82.8%) after. The cross-over sign was present in 31 hips (53.4%) before and in three hips (5.2%) after operation (p < 0.001, ANOVA). The total Merle d'Aubigne clinical score improved from a mean of 12.6 (9 to 15) to 16.0 (12 to 18) points (p < 0.001, ANOVA). Only four hips required subsequent total hip replacement. Our results indicate that the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy provides good symptomatic relief for patients with little to no arthritis (Tonnis type 0 or 1) with an underlying deformity that can be corrected to a position of a stable, congruent hip joint.

  8. Stability for line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yohei

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the stability for line solitary waves of the two dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL which is one of a high dimensional generalization of Korteweg-de Vries equation, where TL is the torus with the 2 πL period. The orbital and asymptotic stability of the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation on the energy space was proved by Benjamin [2], Pego and Weinstein [41] and Martel and Merle [30]. We regard the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation as a line solitary wave of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL. We prove the stability and the transverse instability of the line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by applying the method of Evans' function and the argument of Rousset and Tzvetkov [44]. Moreover, we prove the asymptotic stability for orbitally stable line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by using the argument of Martel and Merle [30-32] and a Liouville type theorem. If L is the critical period with respect to a line solitary wave, the line solitary wave is orbitally stable. However, since this line solitary wave is a bifurcation point of the stationary equation, the linearized operator of the stationary equation is degenerate. Because of the degeneracy of the linearized operator, we can not show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave by using the usual virial type estimate. To show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave, we modify a virial type estimate.

  9. Revision hip arthroplasty as a treatment of Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures without bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Mei, Jiong; Rao, Zhi-Tao; Wang, Shu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is conventionally considered that bone grafting is mandatory for Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) although few clinical studies have challenged the concept previously. The aim of the current study was to investigate the radiographic and functional results of Vancouver B3 PFF treated by revision total hip or hemiarthroplasty (HA) in combination with appropriate internal fixation without bone grafting. Materials and Methods: 12 patients with Vancouver B3 PFF were treated by revision THA/HA without bone grafting between March 2004 and May 2008. There were nine females and three males, with an average age of 76 years. PFFs were following primary THA/HA in nine patients and following revision THA/HA in three. Postoperative followup was 5.5 years on average (range, 3.5-6.5 years). At the final followup, radiographic results were evaluated with Beals and Tower's criteria and functional outcomes were evaluated using the Merle d’Aubigné scoring system. Results: All fractures healed within an average of 20 weeks (range, 12-28 weeks). There was no significant deformity and shortening of the affected limb and the implant was stable. The average Merle d’Aubigné score was 15.8. Walking ability was regained in 10 patients without additional assistance, while 2 patients had to use crutches. There were 2 patients with numbness of lateral thigh, possibly due to injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. There were no implant failures, dislocation and refractures. Conclusions: Revision THA/HA in combination with appropriate internal fixation without bone grafting is a good option for treatment of Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures in the elderly. PMID:24133303

  10. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  11. Proceedings from the 1st Insights in Hematology Symposium, Cluj-Napoca, Romania March 11-12, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bojan, Anca; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Ciurea, S; Dima, Delia; Fuji, Shigeo; Ghiaur, G; Grewal, Ravnit; Mccormack, Emmet; Tanase, Alina; Trifa, A; Tomuleasa, Ciprian

    2016-09-01

    In the March 2016 issue of the Lancet Haematology, the editorial office published a paper stating the roadmap for European research in hematology, based on the European Hematology Association (EHA) consensus document that outlines the directions in hematology for the following years across the continent. The meeting entitled "Insights in hematology" is organized a support for the initiative of a roadmap for European hematologists regarding research, may it be basic research or clinical research, but this consensus should not be focused mainly on European institutions, but rather form the backbone of global research between Europe and the United States, Japan or any other country. This will allow Europeans to learn as well as to share their experience with the rest of the scientific and medical community. And the Cluj-Napoca meeting should be followed by other such meetings all across the EU.

  12. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  13. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent, mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% +/- 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1 to 55.3%.

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) shoot apex with a fungal phytase gene improves phosphorus acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiying; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xingfen

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important world economic crop plant. It is considered that cotton is recalcitrant to in vitro proliferation. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration has been successful by using hypocotyl, whereas it is highly genotype dependent. Here, a genotype-independent cotton regeneration protocol from shoot apices is presented. Shoot apices from 3- to 5-day-old seedlings of cotton are infected with an Agrobacterium strain, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pC-KSA contained phytase gene (phyA) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), and directly regenerated as shoots in vitro. Rooted shoots can be obtained within 6-8 weeks. Plants that survived by leaf painting kanamycin (kan) were -further analyzed by DNA and RNA blottings. The transgenic plants with increased the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency were obtained following the transformation method.

  15. Plasma-induced polymerization for enhancing paper hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoping; Tang, Jiebin; Li, Junrong; Xiao, Huining

    2013-01-30

    Hydrophobic modification of cellulose fibers was conducted via plasma-induced polymerization in an attempt to graft the hydrophobic polymer chains on paper surface, this increasing the hydrophobicity of paper. Two hydrophobic monomers, butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), were grafted on cellulose fibers, induced by atmospheric cold plasma. Various influencing factors associated with the plasma-induced grafting were investigated. Contact-angle measurement, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the occurrence of the grafting and characterized the changes of the cellulose fiber after modification. The results showed that the hydrophobicity of the modified paper sheet was improved significantly after the plasma-induced grafting. The water contact angle on the paper surface reached up to 130°. The morphological differences between modified and unmodified samples were also revealed by SEM observation. The resulting paper is promising as a green-based packaging material.

  16. Hydrological Uncertainty Quantification using Entropy under Small-sample Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Entropy theory has been increasingly applied in hydrology in both descriptive and inferential ways.However, little attention has been given to the small-sample condition widespread in hydrological practice, where either hydrological measurements are limited or are even nonexistent. Accordingly, entropy estimated under this condition may incur considerable bias. In this study, small-sample condition is considered and two innovative entropy estimators, the Chao-Shen (CS) estimator and the James-Stein-type shrinkage (JSS) estimator, are introduced. Simulation tests are conducted with common distributions in hydrology, that lead to the best-performing JSS estimator. Then, multi-scale moving entropy-based hydrological analyses (MM-EHA) are applied to indicate the changing patterns of uncertainty of streamflow data collected from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, China. Results indicate some interesting changing patterns of uncertainty in those basins.

  17. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  18. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  19. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  20. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant.

  1. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse.

  2. Selection of Single Domain Antibodies from Immune Libraries Displayed on the Surface of E. coli Cells with Two β-Domains of Opposite Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Arteaga, Rocio; Ruano-Gallego, David; Fraile, Sofía; Margolles, Yago; Teira, Xema; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bodelón, Gustavo; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Screening of antibody (Ab) libraries by direct display on the surface of E. coli cells is hampered by the presence of the outer membrane (OM). In this work we demonstrate that the native β-domains of EhaA autotransporter and intimin, two proteins from enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) with opposite topologies in the OM, are effective systems for the display of immune libraries of single domain Abs (sdAbs) from camelids (nanobodies or VHH) on the surface of E. coli K-12 cells and for the selection of high affinity sdAbs using magnetic cell sorting (MACS). We analyzed the capacity of EhaA and intimin β-domains to display individual sdAbs and sdAb libraries obtained after immunization with the extracellular domain of the translocated intimin receptor from EHEC (TirMEHEC). We demonstrated that both systems displayed functional sdAbs on the surface of E. coli cells with little proteolysis and cellular toxicity, although E. coli cells displaying sdAbs with the β-domain of intimin showed higher antigen-binding capacity. Both E. coli display libraries were screened for TirMEHEC binding clones by MACS. High affinity binders were selected by both display systems, although more efficiently with the intimin β-domain. The specificity of the selected clones against TirMEHEC was demonstrated by flow cytometry of E. coli cells, along with ELISA and surface plasmon resonance with purified sdAbs. Finally, we employed the E. coli cell display systems to provide an estimation of the affinity of the selected sdAb by flow cytometry analysis under equilibrium conditions. PMID:24086454

  3. Long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms in excited states. I. 2 S -1 S interactions and Dirac-δ perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, C. M.; Debierre, V.; Matveev, A.; Kolachevsky, N.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the long-range interaction of metastable excited atomic states with ground-state atoms is analyzed. We show that the long-range interaction is essentially modified when quasidegenerate states are available for virtual transitions. A discrepancy in the literature regarding the van der Waals coefficient C6(2 S ;1 S ) describing the interaction of metastable atomic hydrogen (2 S state) with a ground-state hydrogen atom is resolved. In the the van der Waals range a0≪R ≪a0/α , where a0=ℏ /α m c is the Bohr radius and α is the fine-structure constant, one finds the symmetry-dependent result E2 S ;1 S(R ) ≈(-176.75 ±27.98 ) Eh(a0/R ) 6 (Eh denotes the Hartree energy). In the Casimir-Polder range a0/α ≪R ≪ℏ c /L , where L ≡E (2 S1 /2) -E (2 P1 /2) is the Lamb shift energy, one finds E2 S ;1 S(R ) ≈(-121.50 ±46.61 ) Eh(a0/R ) 6 . In the the Lamb shift range R ≫ℏ c /L , we find an oscillatory tail with a negligible interaction energy below 10-36Hz . Dirac-δ perturbations to the interaction are also evaluated and results are given for all asymptotic distance ranges; these effects describe the hyperfine modification of the interaction or, expressed differently, the shift of the hydrogen 2 S hyperfine frequency due to interactions with neighboring 1 S atoms. The 2 S hyperfine frequency has recently been measured very accurately in atomic beam experiments.

  4. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2004-12-01

    Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy.

  7. Root and shoot parts of strawberry: factories for production of functional human pro-insulin.

    PubMed

    Tavizi, Ashkan; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Mohebodini, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, a disease caused by excessive blood sugar, is caused by the lack of insulin. For commercial production, insulin is made in bacteria or yeast by protein recombinant technology. The focus of this research is evaluating another resource and producing of recombinant insulin protein in as strawberry as this plant has high potential in production of pharmaceutical proteins. Strawberry is a suitable bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins especially edible vaccines. In this research, human pro-insulin gene was cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector under CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, EHA101, C58, C58 (pGV2260) and C58 (pGV3101) strains were used for transformation of pro-insulin gene into strawberry cv. Camarosa, Selva, Sarian Hybrid, Pajaro, Paros, Gaviota, Alpine. Additionally, Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, R1000, A4 and MSU440 strains were utilized for gene transformation into hairy roots. PCR analysis indicated the presence of transformed human pro-insulin gene in the strawberry and hairy roots. Also, its transcription was confirmed using RT-PCR. Furthermore, the analysis of plants, fruits and hairy roots at the level of proteins using dot blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and ECL tests re-confirmed the expression of this protein in the transgenic plants as well as hairy roots. Protein purification of human pro-insulin from transgenic tissues was performed using affinity chromatography. Finally, the bioassay of recombinant pro-insulin was performed. The analysis of second generations of transgenic plants (T1) at DNA and protein levels was also performed as a complementary experiment. This study opens a new avenue in molecular farming of human pro-insulin through its mass production in roots and shoots of strawberry.

  8. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04 MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01 MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. PMID:26458114

  9. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  10. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid.

  11. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    PubMed

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of polyploid cereals. The efficiency of selection and transgene expression in wheat.

    PubMed

    Przetakiewicz, Anna; Karaś, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Three combinations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and vectors were used in the transformation of selected Polish wheat cultivars. The combinations were: two hypervirulent strains, AGL1, containing the pDM805 binary plasmid, and EHA101, containing pGAH; and the common Agro strain LBA4404, harboring the super-binary pTOK233 vector. pDM805 contained bar under the control of Ubi1 promoter, pGAH had nptII under nos, and pTOK233 had hpt under 35S. Additionally, pDM805 and pTOK233 carried the gus reporter gene under the Act1 promoter or 35S promoter, respectively. The highest selection rate was 12.6% and was obtained with EHA101(pGAH) on a kanamycin-containing medium. Sixty-five of the plants grown on that medium were PCR positive. The second best combination was LBA4404(pTOK233) and kanamycin selection, which gave an average transformation rate of 2.3%. Phosphinothricin selection gave 1.0% transformation efficiency, while hygromycin, depending on the strain/vector used, gave from 0.2 to 0.4%. PCR tests in T1 revealed that 67% of the lines showed a 3:1 segregation ratio, and 11% a 15:1 ratio, while in 22%, segregation was non-Mendelian. The high number of T0 transgenic plants containing one copy of the transgene was confirmed via Southern blot analysis. Kanamycin resistance in the T1 generation was very low; in some lines, all the progeny were kanamycin sensitive. GUS expression, only tested in young T1 plants, was in agreement with Mendelian segregation in three out of the twelve tested. The factors influencing the efficiency of selection and transgene expression are discussed in this paper.

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik).

    PubMed

    Akcay, Ufuk Celikkol; Mahmoudian, M; Kamci, H; Yucel, M; Oktem, H A

    2009-03-01

    A simple and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for a recalcitrant legume plant, lentil (Lens culinaris M.) is reported. Application of wounding treatments and efficiencies of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA105, C58C1, and KYRT1 were compared for T-DNA delivery into lentil cotyledonary node tissues. KYRT1 was found to be on average 2.8-fold more efficient than both EHA105 and C58C1 for producing transient beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gus) expression on cotyledonary petioles. Wounding of the explants, use of an optimized transformation protocol with the application of acetosyringone and vacuum infiltration treatments in addition to the application of a gradually intensifying selection regime played significant roles in enhancing transformation frequency. Lentil explants were transformed by inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, KYRT1 harboring a binary vector pTJK136 that carried neomycin phosphotransferase gene (npt-II) and an intron containing gusA gene on its T-DNA region. GUS-positive shoots were micrografted on lentil rootstocks. Transgenic lentil plants were produced with an overall transformation frequency of 2.3%. The presence of the transgene in the lentil genome was confirmed by GUS assay, PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. The transgenic shoots grafted on rootstocks were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. GUS activity was detected in vegetative and reproductive organs of T(0), T(1), T(2) and T(3) plants. PCR assays of T(1), T(2) and T(3) progenies confirmed the stable transmission of the transgene to the next generations.

  14. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-08-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  15. Do oxidized zirconium femoral heads reduce polyethylene wear in cemented THAs? A blinded randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Amine; Hage, Samer El; Langlois, Jean; Scemama, Caroline; Courpied, Jean Pierre; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2015-12-01

    Charnley low-friction torque total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains the gold standard in THA. The main cause for failure is wear of the socket. Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been associated with reduced wear rates. Also, oxidized zirconium has shown in vitro reduced wear rates. However, to our knowledge, there are no data comparing oxidized zirconium femoral heads with metal heads against HXLPE or ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) when 22.25-mm bearings were used, which was the same size that performed so well in Charnley-type THAs. We hypothesized that after a minimal 4-year followup (1) use of HXLPE would result in lower radiographic wear than UHMWPE when articulating with a stainless steel head or with an oxidized zirconium head; (2) use of oxidized zirconium would result in lower radiographic wear than stainless steel when articulating with UHMWPE and HXLPE; and (3) there would be no difference in terms of Merle d'Aubigné scores between the bearing couple combinations. One hundred patients were randomized to receive cemented THA with either oxidized zirconium or a stainless steel femoral head. UHMWPE was used in the first 50 patients, whereas HXLPE was used in the next 50 patients. There were 25 patients in each of the four bearing couple combinations. All other parameters were identical in both groups. Complete followup was available in 86 of these patients. Femoral head penetration was measured using a validated computer-assisted method dedicated to all-polyethylene sockets. Clinical results were compared between the groups using the Merle d'Aubigné score. In the UHMWPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.03 mm/year (range, 0.003-0.25 mm/year) in the oxidized zirconium group versus 0.11 mm/year (range, 0.03-0.29 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.08, p < 0.001). In the HXLPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.02 mm/year (range, -0.32 to

  16. The Anterior Intrapelvic Approach for Acetabular Fractures Using Approach-Specific Instruments and an Anatomical-Preshaped 3-Dimensional Suprapectineal Plate.

    PubMed

    Gras, Florian; Marintschev, Ivan; Grossterlinden, Lars; Rossmann, Markus; Graul, Isabel; Hofmann, Gunther O; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Anatomical acetabular plates the anterior intrapelvic approach (AIP) were recently introduced to fix acetabular fractures through the intrapelvic approach. Therefore, we asked the following: (1) Does the preshaped 3-dimensional suprapectineal plate interfere with or even impair the fracture reduction quality? (2) How often does the AIP approach need to be extended by the first (lateral) window of the ilioinguinal approach? Observational case series. Two Level 1 trauma centers. Patients with unstable acetabular fractures in 2014. Fracture fixation with anatomical-preshaped, 3-dimensional suprapectineal plates through the AIP approach ± the first window of the ilioinguinal approach. Fracture reduction results were measured in computed tomography scans and graded according to the Matta quality of reduction. Intraoperative parameters and perioperative complications were recorded. Radiological results (according to Matta) and functional outcome (modified Merle d'Aubigné score) were evaluated at 1-year follow-up. Thirty patients (9 women + 21 men; mean age ± SE: 64 ± 8 years) were included. The intrapelvic approach was solely used in 19 cases, and in 11 cases, an additional extension with the first window of the ilioinguinal approach (preferential for 2-column fractures) was performed. The mean operating time was 202 ± 59 minutes; the fluoroscopic time was 66 ± 48 seconds. Fracture gaps and steps in preoperative versus postoperative computed tomography scans were 12.4 ± 9.8 versus 2.0 ± 1.5 and 6.0 ± 5.5 versus 1.3 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. At 13.4 ± 2.9 months follow-up, the Matta grading was excellent in 50%, good in 25%, fair in 11%, and poor in 14% of cases. The modified Merle d'Aubigné score was excellent in 17%, good in 37%, fair in 33%, and poor in 13% of cases. The AIP approach using approach-specific instruments and an anatomical-preshaped, 3-dimensional suprapectineal plate became the standard procedure in our departments. Radiological and functional

  17. Outcomes using wedge stem with full hydroxiapatite coverage with a minimum of 5 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Monzon, D; Buttaro, M; Comba, F; Zanotti, G; Piccaluga, F; Neira-Borrajo, I

    2017-09-13

    Total Hip Arthroplsty (THA) using uncemented stems is a popular practice in the last decades. The implant survivorship is crtitical and a less than 10% revision at 10 years is been propesed for commercialization and use. To analyse the clinicoradiological results of an uncemented hydroxiapatite covered wedge stem with a 5 years minimum follow up. Prospective study, patients aged from 21-75years were included. All patients received an Element stem (Exactech) and uncemented cup with crosslink poly and 32 mm metal head, and posterior approach with piriformis retention was used. Scheduled clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3 weeks, 3-6 month, year and subsequent years using Harris Hip Score and Merle d'Aubigné Postel. Intraoperative and during follow up complications were recorded. One hundred and fourteen total hip replacements in 104 patients: 54 females and 50 males (52%/48%). Follow-up of 5.7 years (range, 5-6.2years). Average age 56.8years (range, 42-75years). Clinical evaluation the Merle d'Aubigné score improved 6.8 points and from the initianl Harris Hip Score 47.3 to 93.1 points at last follow up. Radiographic evaluation shows osteointegration in all stems. And in 6 cases (5.3% at 3 months subsidence was detected, average 1.4 mm (range 0-2.6 mm) with no clinical manifestation, 3 cases of subsidence were associated to intraoperative fractures (1 greater trochanter and 2 in the calcar area, all resolved with wire cerclaje). Subjective evaluation: 86 cases (82.6%) excellent, 9 patients (8.6%) good, 6 cases (5.9%) satisfactory and 3 cases (2.9%) poor. All poor results linked to the intraoperative complications. No patient lost during follow up period. No femoral pain dislocation or aseptic or loosening detected. All implants were in situ at last follow up. The radiological results confirm the benefits of this type of stem with good osteointegration. The clinical and subjective results are promising. With good surgical technical and without complications the

  18. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  19. Outreach geology with the "balades géologiques" project based on smartphone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoroff, Grégoire; de Wever, Patrick; Cornee, Annie

    2014-05-01

    ., Bonnefoy B., Houssaye A., De Wever P. & Merle D. (2008) - Promenade géologique à Etampes. Coll. balades géologiques, SGF-MNHN-BRGM, 30 pages. Egoroff G., De Wever P., Merle D. & Métivier B. (2011) - Promenade géologique à Dourdan. Biotope, Mèze - MNHN, Paris - BRGM, Orléans (Collection Balades géologiques), 38 pages. Nouvellet S., Egoroff G. & De Wever P. (2013) - Virtual Milly-la-Forêt Geological stroll, online. Android app Wikitude, « ID Bio-Balades géologiques » project "Milly-la-Forêt".

  20. Treatment of trochanteric fractures with the gamma3 nail - methodology and early results of a prospective consecutive monitored clinical case series.

    PubMed

    A C, Unger; E, Wilde; B, Kienast; C, Jürgens; A P, Schulz

    2014-01-01

    There is only sparse data on clinical results and complications of the third-generation Gamma nailing system (Gamma3, Stryker). Therefore, we started a large multi-centre case series in 2008. The aim of this paper is to present the study design and early results of a single arm of a prospective, consecutive, monitored, post-market follow-up evaluation of Gamma3 nails. From September 2009 to January 2012, 154 consecutive patients with an average age of 80 ± 1.43 years (50-99 years) and a trochanteric femoral fracture were included in the local arm of the trial. All patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were treated with a Gamma3 nail. Preoperative variables included age, gender, fracture classification, walking ability (Merle d'Aubigné score), daily activity level (retrospective Zuckerman score), ASA rating of operative risk, waiting time for operation, use of walker or crutches and body mass index (BMI). Skin-to-skin time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, intraoperative complications and device information were recorded for each patient. Follow-up postoperative assessment was undertaken at 4, 12 and 24 months. Hip range of motion, pain around the hip and the tight, walking ability (Merle d'Aubigné score, Sahlgrenska mobility score) and management of daily life (Zuckerman score) were used to evaluate the outcome. The descriptive data of age, gender, BMI, ASA classification, fracture type and skin-to-skin time is similar to other studies. Median fluoroscopy time was 62 seconds (range: 4-225 seconds) and significantly shorter in closed reductions. No intraoperative implant-related complication was recorded. A cut-out of the leg-screw during assessment period occurred in 2.6% patients (n = 4). At the 12-month assessment two (1.8%) non-unions were identified and two patients (1.8%) had broken the femoral shaft below the 180 mm nail after a fall. Analysis of the scores showed significantly declined mobility and activity in daily life four months after operation

  1. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  2. Treatment of acetabulum fractures through the modified Stoppa approach: strategies and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Mark J; Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G; Poka, Attila

    2014-11-01

    Since the original description by Letournel in 1961, the ilioinguinal approach has remained the predominant approach for anterior acetabular fixation. However, modifications of the original abdominal approach described by Stoppa have made another option available for reduction and fixation of pelvic and acetabular fractures. We evaluated our results in patients with acetabulum fractures with the modified Stoppa approach in terms of (1) hip function as measured by the Merle d'Aubigne hip score; (2) complications; and (3) quality of fracture reduction and percentage of fractures that united. Between September 2008 and August 2012, 289 patients with acetabular fractures were treated at our Level I trauma center. Twelve percent (36 of 289) of patients were treated operatively using the modified Stoppa approach. Ninety-seven percent (35 of 36) of our patients had fracture patterns involving displacement of the posterior column. Six (17%) were converted early to a total hip arthroplasty, and 14 (39%) were lost to final followup, leaving 22 of 36 for subjective clinical outcome analysis at a mean of 32 months (range, 9-59 months). Our general indications for this approach during the period in question were fractures of the anterior column and anterior wall, anterior column with posterior hemitransverse fractures, both column fractures, transverse fractures, and T-type fractures. Followup included regularly scheduled office visits with radiographs (AP pelvis, Judet views) that were graded by the treating surgeon and by the authors of this study (MJI, BCT) and patient outcome surveys. Merle d'Aubigne hip scores were very good in 55% (12 of 22), good in 9% (two of 22), medium in 18% (four of 22), fair in 5% (one of 22), and poor in 14% (three of 22), and 70% (23 of 33) of patients were able to ambulate without any assistive devices. Complications included one superficial infection and three deep infections, two patients with temporary lateral thigh numbness, no obturator

  3. Mid-term outcome of a modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatite-coated, anatomic femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Cossetto, David J; Goudar, Anil

    2012-12-01

    To report the mid-term outcome of a modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatitecoated, anatomic femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA). 160 consecutive patients aged 42 to 92 (mean, 70) years underwent 185 cementless THAs for primary osteoarthritis or femoral neck fractures. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon using the same modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatite-coated, anatomic femoral stem, regardless of age and bone quality. Clinical evaluation (pain, range of movement, and ability to walk) was based on the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores. Radiological assessment was based on criteria by Engh et al. in the 7 Gruen zones with regard to the presence of radiolucent lines, osteolysis, cancellous condensation, cortical hypertrophy or atrophy, reactive lines, and pedestal formation. Failure of the stem was defined as revision or impending revision because of aseptic loosening or pain. Of the 160 patients, 21 died and none were lost to follow-up. In 3 of the 21 patients, the femoral stems were revised for periprosthetic fractures after a fall at 6 weeks, 10 months, and 3.8 years. 138 patients (162 THAs) completed a mean follow-up of 7.8 (range, 5.5-10.4) years. Their overall mean Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores increased from 7.09 preoperatively to 16.36 postoperatively. The mean Engh score was 24.9 out of 27, with the mean score for femoral stem fixation 10 out of 10 and 14.9 out of 17 for femoral stem stability. No reactive lines at the bone-stem interfaces and no subsidence or osteolysis were evident in any of the radiographs. There were 5 periprosthetic femoral fractures, 2 deep infections, 3 dislocations, and 2 aseptic loosening (one each for the femoral stem and acetabular socket). Survivorship of the femoral stem at 10 years was 99% when revision secondary to only aseptic loosening of the stem was the endpoint. It was 96% when failures due to all causes (infection, periprosthetic fracture, and aseptic loosening) were the

  4. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  5. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  6. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don) (Combretaceae) against Haemonchus contortus ova and larvae.

    PubMed

    Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2010-04-19

    Parasitic nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi), are among the most common and economically important causes of disease in sheep and goats owned by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Africa. The control of these infections relies mainly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, herbal preparations are widely used by pastoralists and small holder farmers for the treatment of their livestock against helminth parasites. The anthelmintic effect of acetone leaf extract and fractions of Combretum molle was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the components against gastrointestinal sheep nematodes. The fractions were obtained by solvent:solvent extraction from the acetone extract. These were evaluated for nematocidal activity by means of an egg hatch (EHA) and larval a development and viability assay (LDVA) in vitro. The effect of the test extracts on the hatchability of eggs and development of first to third stage larvae and the survival rate of the third stage larvae. H. contortus, were used to determine the relative bioactivities. Best-fit LC(50) values were computed using global model of nonlinear regression curve-fitting. The extracts inhibited egg hatching and development of the larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. Best-fit LC(50) values for the egg hatch test were 0.866, 0.333, 0.833, 0.747, and 0.065mg/mL for acetone extract, n-butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. The best-fit LC(50) values for the LDVA were 0.604, 0.362, 1.077, 0.131 and 0.318mg/mL for the acetone extract, butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. In the EHA the 35% water in methanol fraction was significantly more active than all the other fractions (p<0.05); however the activity was not significantly different with the LDVA. C. molle leaf could find application in anthelmintic therapy in veterinary practice.

  7. cyclostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and organic matter accumulation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, F.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    The first member of Maokou Formation of Sichuan basin is composed of well preserved carbonate ramp couplets of limestone and marlstone/shale. It acts as one of the potential shale gas source rock, and is suitable for time-series analysis. We conducted time-series analysis to identify high-frequency sequences, reconstruct high-resolution sedimentation rate, estimate detailed primary productivity for the first time in the study intervals and discuss organic matter accumulation mechanism of source rock under sequence stratigraphic framework.Using the theory of cyclostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy, the high-frequency sequences of one outcrop profile and one drilling well are identified. Two third-order sequences and eight fourth-order sequences are distinguished on outcrop profile based on the cycle stacking patterns. For drilling well, sequence boundary and four system tracts is distinguished by "integrated prediction error filter analysis" (INPEFA) of Gamma-ray logging data, and eight fourth-order sequences is identified by 405ka long eccentricity curve in depth domain which is quantified and filtered by integrated analysis of MTM spectral analysis, evolutive harmonic analysis (EHA), evolutive average spectral misfit (eASM) and band-pass filtering. It suggests that high-frequency sequences correlate well with Milankovitch orbital signals recorded in sediments, and it is applicable to use cyclostratigraphy theory in dividing high-frequency(4-6 orders) sequence stratigraphy.High-resolution sedimentation rate is reconstructed through the study interval by tracking the highly statistically significant short eccentricity component (123ka) revealed by EHA. Based on sedimentation rate, measured TOC and density data, the burial flux, delivery flux and primary productivity of organic carbon was estimated. By integrating redox proxies, we can discuss the controls on organic matter accumulation by primary production and preservation under the high-resolution sequence

  8. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates.

    PubMed

    Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2002-12-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  9. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations.

  10. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  11. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  12. Scenario-based assessment of buildings' damage and population exposure due to earthquake-induced tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt with regards to population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has very important tourist activity. Historical records indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the worst-case credible tsunami scenario analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out in two sea level conditions (mean sea level and maximum high-tide sea level) by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the framework of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila, over 12 000 (13 400 in the case of maximum high tide) buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could sustain damaging consequences, ranging from critical damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2, resulting in more than 150 000 (165 000 in the case of maximum high

  13. Primary total hip arthroplasty with hydroxyapatite coated titanium femoral stems. Does design philosophy influence long term outcome?: Results of a prospective randomised controlled trial with follow-up of 10-15 years.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, N A; Skinner, J A; East, D J; Butler-Manuel, A; Hinves, B L; Shepperd, J A N

    2014-09-01

    We present results of a prospective randomised controlled trial examining two cohorts of patients treated with proximally (Group A) and fully coated (Group B) femoral components with long term follow up. Patients were reviewed preoperatively and 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks post operatively then annually. The Merle d'Aubigne Postel (MDP) hip score was used to assess clinical outcome. A Visual Analog Score (VAS) was also recorded. Statistical calculation was performed using the student's t- test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis. One hundred and four patients were included in group A and 103 patients in group B. Mean age was 60.4 years and 60.8 years respectively. Mean follow- up was 12.9 years. Mean pre-operative MDP scores were 8.8 and 9.5 in Groups A and B respectively. Mean pre-operative VAS score 7.8 and 7.4 respectively. At final follow up mean MDP and VAS were 16.9, 16.6 and 2.1, 2.4 respectively. Three femoral revisions occurred in Group A. Seven revisions occurred in Group B. Survival of the femoral component with revision for any reason as the end point was 96% in Group A and 94.8% in Group B. Both components produced symptomatic relief and similar revision rates. Thigh pain occurred only in Group A.

  14. Trainable Convolution Filters and Their Application to Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritwik; Banerjee, Arunava; Vemuri, Baba C; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel image classification system that is built around a core of trainable filter ensembles that we call Volterra kernel classifiers. Our system treats images as a collection of possibly overlapping patches and is composed of three components: (1) A scheme for a single patch classification that seeks a smooth, possibly nonlinear, functional mapping of the patches into a range space, where patches of the same class are close to one another, while patches from different classes are far apart-in the L_2 sense. This mapping is accomplished using trainable convolution filters (or Volterra kernels) where the convolution kernel can be of any shape or order. (2) Given a corpus of Volterra classifiers with various kernel orders and shapes for each patch, a boosting scheme for automatically selecting the best weighted combination of the classifiers to achieve higher per-patch classification rate. (3) A scheme for aggregating the classification information obtained for each patch via voting for the parent image classification. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique using face recognition as an application area and provide extensive experiments on the Yale, CMU PIE, Extended Yale B, Multi-PIE, and MERL Dome benchmark face data sets. We call the Volterra kernel classifiers applied to face recognition Volterrafaces. We show that our technique, which falls into the broad class of embedding-based face image discrimination methods, consistently outperforms various state-of-the-art methods in the same category.

  15. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  16. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  17. [Care for a family carer in Primary Care using the uncertainty theory].

    PubMed

    Vives-Relats, Carme; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Rodero-Sánchez, Virtudes; Cid-Buera, Dolors

    2011-01-01

    This case discussion starts from the Uncertainty Theory of illness of Merle Mishel, who raised the idea that even without a solution to the uncertainty, a person should accept it as a part of their life and reinterpret it as an opportunity to promote a new view of life governed by probability. The author proposes theoretical concepts that allow the phenomena experienced by family caregivers to be approached from the perspective of their experiences and stress. It establishes uncertainty and indecisiveness as contradictions that should not create anxiety permanently. This can be released gradually, if we create lines of flight though the care. Among these lines are located the Problem Solving Method as a strategy useful in primary health care to reduce the uncertainty of the caregivers. This article describes the outcome of Isabel, a 63- year-old female family caregiver of her dependent mother and her daughter with anorexia. The primary care nurse identifies the problem of weariness of the care-givers role and that of conflict of decisions during home visits. It describes the assessment made from the main concepts of the theory and the work with the care-givers by the problem solving method in order to reduce anxiety and help to mobilize internal resources and increase their welfare.

  18. A Novel Approach for Treatment of Acetabular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zichao; Qin, Hui; Ding, Haoliang; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. Material/Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented. Results Mean operative time was 222±78 minutes. Average blood loss was 993±361 mL. Anatomical reduction was achieved in all patients. Minimum follow-up period was 31 months. Postoperative hypoesthesia in the area of innervation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was reported in one patient, with spontaneous recovery at one month after surgery. No complications were reported during the follow-up period. At the most recent follow up, clinical outcomes were graded as “excellent” in six patients, “good” in eight patients and “fair” in one patient based on the modified Merle d’Aubigné-Postel score. Conclusions PSA appears to be a timesaving and safe approach for treatment of acetabular fractures that affords good visual access and allows for excellent fracture reduction. Our preliminary results revealed a much lower incidence of complications than traditional approaches, suggesting PSA is an alternative for treatment of acetabular fractures. PMID:27734825

  19. Coronal Acetabular Fractures: The Anterior Approach in Computed Tomography-Navigated Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Suhm, Norbert; Kaim, Achim; Regazzoni, Pietro; Steinbrich, Wolfgang; Messmer, Peter

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the anterior approach to the coronal roof component of carefully selected acetabular fractures in computed tomography (CT)-navigated closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF).Methods: Four patients with nondisplaced or slightly displaced coronal fractures of the acetabular roof were treated with percutaneous screw fixation. Screws were implanted over guidepins placed under CT navigation. Mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 16 months.Results: All screws could be placed as intended. There were no peri- or postoperative complications. Radiological follow-up showed primary osseous union. Clinical results were excellent according to a median Merle-d'Aubigne score of 18.Conclusion: Nondisplaced or slightly displaced coronally oriented fractures of the acetabular roof can be treated by minimally invasive percutaneous CT-navigated fixation through an anterior approach that does not endanger the sciatic nerve. Early clinical results are encouraging. Close cooperation between trauma surgeons and radiologists and careful selection of cases is mandatory.

  20. Treatment of proximal femur infections with antibiotic-loaded cement spacers

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, J.; Bohrer, P.; Schmitt, E.; Anagnostakos, K.

    2009-01-01

    In case of periprosthetic hip infections the implantation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA spacers is accepted for an adequate treatment option. Although their indication for the treatment of destructive, bacterial infections of the proximal femur would make sense, literature data are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated spacers in the treatment of proximal femur infections. In 10 consecutive patients (5 M/ 5 F, mean age 66 y.) with bacterial proximal femur infections, a femoral head/neck resection was prospectively performed with a subsequent implantation of an antibiotic-loaded spacer. The joint-specific outcome was evaluated by the Merle d´Aubigne and the Mayo hip score, the general outcome by SF-36. The time periods were divided into “infection situation”, “between stages” and meanly 1 year “after prosthesis implantation”. The spacers were meanly implanted over 90 [155-744] days. In all cases an infection eradication could be achieved. After infection eradication, a prosthesis implantation was performed in 8 cases. The general scores showed significant increases at each time period. With regard to the dimension “pain”, both scores demonstrated a significant increase between “infection situation” and “between stages”, but no significance between “between stages” and “after prosthesis implantation”. Spacers could be indicated in the treatment of proximal femur infections. Besides an infection eradication, a pain reduction is also possible. PMID:19841730

  1. Changes in the radiological measurements of the tibiofibular syndesmal area in patients with Weber C ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction, internal fixation, and transyndesmal screw.

    PubMed

    Jasqui-Remba, S; Torres-Gómez, A; Salas-Morales, G A; Hernández-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    The tibiofibular syndesmosis provides stability to the ankle mortise. The ankle syndesmosis is compromised in all Weber C type injuries. The radiographic method described by Merle DAubigné considers the bony relationships as a measure of syndesmotic widening. We sought to investigate whether the patients with a C type ankle fracture treated with ORIF and placement of a transyndesmal screw have an increment of the tibiofibular space and decrease of the tibiofibular overlap after the transyndesmal screw is removed. Our sample included 52 patients with Weber C ankle fractures treated by ORIF and transyndesmal screw at a level II trauma center. We measured the tibiofibular clear space and tibiofibular overlap in each phase of the treatment. The transyndesmal screw was removed at day 55.56 (± 21.83). We found an increase of the tibiofibular overlap of 0.20 mm (± 2.29, p = 0.532); and 0.21 mm (± 0.97, p = 0.146) in the tibiofibular clear space. The changes of 2.38% in the tibiofibular overlap and 5.29% in the tibiofibular clear space between the postoperative and post-removal periods were not statistically significant. After removal of the syndesmal screw, there is a slight radiographic broadening of the syndesmosis; however, it is small and statistically not significant.

  2. Comparison of 10-year clinical wear of annealed and remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Mashima, Naohiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Kamada, Tomomi; Motomura, Goro; Imai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-06-01

    No previous studies comparing the clinical wear rates of the two different kinds of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (XLPE), annealed and remelted, are available. We compared the creep and steady wear rates of 36 matched pairs (72 hips in total) adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score matching techniques. Zirconia femoral heads with 26-mm diameter were used in all cases. The femoral-head cup penetration was measured digitally on radiographs. Significantly greater creep (p=0.006) was detected in the remelted (0.234mm) than annealed (0.159mm) XLPE. However, no significant difference (p=0.19) was found between the steady wear rates (0.003 and 0.008mm/year, respectively) of the annealed and remelted XLPE. Multiple regression analyses showed that remelted XLPE is significant independent variable (p<0.001) that is positively associated with creep. However, the patient age and body weight, cup size, the liner thickness, cup inclination, follow-up periods, and postoperative Merle d'Aubigné hip score had no significant effects (p>0.05) on the steady wear rates. No patients exhibited above the osteolysis threshold of 0.1mm/year, progressive radiolucencies, osteolysis, or polyethylene fracture. This propensity-matched cohort study document no significant difference in wear resistant performances of annealed and remelted XLPE over an average period of 10 years.

  3. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports (plus latest data which will be included in final reports for Phase 1). Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and I-propanol (Fluid 1) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  4. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports. Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, some crack growth resistance measurements, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and 1-propanol (Fluid I) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  6. Asymptotic Stability of High-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, Raphaël; Muñoz, Claudio; Pilod, Didier; Simpson, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    We prove that solitons (or solitary waves) of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, a physically relevant high dimensional generalization of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation appearing in Plasma Physics, and having mixed KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) dynamics, are strongly asymptotically stable in the energy space. We also prove that the sum of well-arranged solitons is stable in the same space. Orbital stability of ZK solitons is well-known since the work of de Bouard [Proc R Soc Edinburgh 126:89-112, 1996]. Our proofs follow the ideas of Martel [SIAM J Math Anal 157:759-781, 2006] and Martel and Merle [Math Ann 341:391-427, 2008], applied for generalized KdV equations in one dimension. In particular, we extend to the high dimensional case several monotonicity properties for suitable half-portions of mass and energy; we also prove a new Liouville type property that characterizes ZK solitons, and a key Virial identity for the linear and nonlinear part of the ZK dynamics, obtained independently of the mixed KdV-NLS dynamics. This last Virial identity relies on a simple sign condition which is numerically tested for the two and three dimensional cases with no additional spectral assumptions required. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and different nonlinearities could be obtained after a suitable local well-posedness theory in the energy space, and the verification of a corresponding sign condition.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  8. 3rd generation alumina-on-alumina in modular hip prosthesis: 13 to 18 years follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Toni, Aldo; Giardina, Federico; Guerra, Giovanni; Sudanese, Alessandra; Montalti, Maurizio; Stea, Susanna; Bordini, Barbara

    2017-02-21

    Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) couplings are alternative bearings surfaces that have been reported to reduce osteolysis, wear debris and aseptic loosening compared to the use of polyethylene. Early experiences with ceramics had poor results, but they have led to many improvements in the manufacture and design of subsequent implants. We analysed medical files of 300 CoC total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a modular neck performed during period 1995-2000 by a single surgeon for a minimum follow-up of 13 years, evaluating clinical and radiological outcome. The mean clinical Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score at the final follow-up is 17.4, against a preoperative value of 11.4. Overall survivorship with an endpoint of revision is 93.2% (95% CI, 89.0%-97.3%) at 15 years, while considering only prosthesis failures related to aseptic loosening and ceramic breakage, survival rate at 15 years is 97.2% (95% CI, 94.8%-100%). We observed complications that led to revision surgery in 11 patients (4%) (periprosthetic fractures, liner ruptures, septic loosening of the implant, aseptic loosening of the cup, aseptic loosening of the stem). The occurrence of squeaking is low (1.6%, 4 cases) and we analysed the characteristics of these patients. Our study shows an excellent long term survivorship of third generation alumina CoC THA. We reiterate the importance to have a stable implant to maximise the advantage of ceramic and to avoid complications.

  9. Analysis of K- and L-shell spectra from indirectly driven implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Osterheld, A. L.; Lee, R. W.; Kania, D. R.; Suter, L. J.; Mancini, R. C.; Hooper, C. F., Jr.; Delamater, N. D.

    1994-02-01

    We report on the analysis of K-and L-shell spectra obtained from Ar and Xe dopants seeded into the fuel region of plastic capsules indirectly imploded using the Nova laser. Stark broadening of the Ar Ly-beta and He-beta lines is used to infer fuel electron density, while spatially average fuel electron temperature is deduced from the ratio of Ar Ly-beta to He-beta. A postprocessing code has been developed to simulate experimental spectra by taking into account spatial gradients and line transfer effects. It is shown that correct modeling of the x-ray emission requires a proper treatment of the coupled radiative transfer and kinetics problem. A recently developed diagnostic based on the lineshape of Ar He-beta and its associated dielectronic satellites is shown to provide a simultaneous measure of electron temperature and electron density. Comparisons of TOTAL and MERL line broadening calculations for this case are shown. L-shell Xe spectroscopy is under continuing development as an electron temperature and electron density diagnostic. Density and temperature sensitive ratios of spectral features each consisting of many lines have been identified. Observed Xe spectra from imploded cores show the same qualitative behavior with temperture as predicted by model calculations of Xe emission spectra.

  10. Assertive rehabilitation for intracapsular fracture of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Suguru; Miura, Aiko; Yagyu, Mie; Oizumi, Anzu; Yamada, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    To study the impact of assertive conservative therapy on walking in frail elderly patients with intracapsular fracture of the proximal femaur. Prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Two private geriatric rehabilitation hospitals. From October 1997 to December 2004, 20 patients, not indicated for surgery, were treated with conservative therapy. There were 18 women and 2 men, and their ages were 87.1+/-4.2 (mean +/-SD) years. All of them could walk before hip fracture. Thirteen patients accepted our assertive therapy, which consisted of standing on the fractured limb and walking in parallel bars as soon as possible. Seven patients refused our methods and were conventionally treated; the injured limb was immobilized under skin traction, and then they gradually tried to use a wheelchair for pain reduction. We used the following measures before therapy and six months after: Merle d'Aubigné & Postel's Hip Score, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and face pain scale. The two groups were similar demographically. All patients except one (n = 12) responded to our method and could walk. However, the patients treated with the conventional method (n = 7) did not recover the ability to walk. The mean FIM (transfer and locomotion, five items) was 18.2 +/-7.9 points in the former and 9.4 +/- 4.3 points in the latter. Assertive rehabilitation was more effective at restoring the ambulatory ability of frail elderly patients with intracapsular fracture of the hip than the conventional method.

  11. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  12. [Treatment of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Wang, Pan-Feng; Fu, Qing-Ge; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Su, Jia-Can; Pan, Si-Hua

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw. Twelve patients with Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 males and 4 females with an average age of 53 years (range 31 to 65 years). Seven cases were caused by traffic accident, 4 cases by falling from hight, 1 case by heavy object. According to the Seinsheimer classification, all the cases were type V fractures. All the cases accepted the surgical treatment with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw fixation. The mean period of follow-up was 28 months (range 20 to 38 months). All the cases obtained bone union in average 3.3 months (from 3 to 4.5 months). There were no complications such as deep infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and bone nonunion. The results of clinical evaluation according to Merle d'Aubigne scores were 16.75 +/- 1.14 and excellent in 4 cases, good in 8 cases. Application of dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw as a superior option can get satisfactory reduction with reliable fixation and will be one of a better choice for fixation of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures.

  13. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes.

  14. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2016-09-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the "karumba group" based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The "karumba group" encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the "karumba group". For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation.

  15. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: epidemiological and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Fox, Donald A; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima; Paule, Merle G

    2012-08-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers at this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals relating to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data on children exposed to inorganic mercury and methylmercury, and discussed the behavioral outcome measures as they relate to age and stage of brain development. Donald A. Fox presented data that low-dose human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces late-onset obesity only in male mice that is associated with neurodegeneration. Didima de Groot presented results on prenatal exposure of rats to methylazoxymethanol and discussed the results in light of the etiology of western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson-dementia complex. Merle G. Paule addressed the long-term changes in learning, motivation and short-term memory in aged Rhesus monkeys following acute 24 h exposure to ketamine during early development. Overall, these presentations addressed fundamental issues in the emerging areas of lifetime neurotoxicity testing, differential vulnerable periods of exposure, nonmonotonic dose-response effects and neurotoxic risk assessment. The results indicate that developmental neurotoxicity results in permanent changes, thus emphasizing the need to prevent such toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and Neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Donald A.; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima; Paule, Merle

    2013-01-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers in this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals as they relate to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data on children exposed to methylmercury and discussed the behavioral outcome measures as they relate to age and stage of brain development. Donald A. Fox presented data that low-to-moderate dose human equivalent gestational lead exposure produced late-onset obesity, and motor and coordination dysfunction only in male mice. Didima de Groot discussed the role of caloric restriction and/or high fat diets during gestation and/or postnatal development in mediating the metabolic and neurotoxic effects of developmental methylmercury exposure in rats. Merle G. Paule addressed the long-term changes in learning, motivation and short-term memory in aged Rhesus monkeys following 24 hour exposure to ketamine during early development. Overall, these presentations addressed fundamental issues in the emerging areas of lifetime neurotoxicity testing, differential vulnerable periods of exposure, nonmonotonic dose-response effects and neurotoxic risk assessment. PMID:22245043

  17. Medial fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly treated by SEM bipolar prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Goretti, C; Cirilli, M; Soldati, D; Rizquallah, J; Marri, C; Musacchi, G; Guerra, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 335 cases of medical fracture of the femoral neck in the elderly patient (mean age 80.5 years) treated by SEM type bipolar prosthesis. A total of 93 patients (28.3%) were followed-up for a total of 98 hips submitted to surgery (5 bilateral) after a mean period of 42 months, minimum 12 months, maximum 96. Clinical follow-up included these parameters: pain, movement, walking, according to Merle D'Aubigné. Radiographic follow-up consisted in standard views and maximum adduction and abduction. Pain was present in 49% of cases, although it did not significantly invalidate movement (quotients 6 and 5 in 96% of cases); in 60% of the cases there were problems with walking mostly due to the general conditions of the patient. Wear phenomena in the acetabulum were present in 32 hips (32.6%) with no correlation with clinical data. Dynamic x-rays showed that only 31% of the implants maintained intraprosthetic movement. What emerges from the study is the importance of adequate measurement of the prosthetic cupola to improve acetabular fit.

  18. The formation and evolution of eccentric binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Observations are revealing a host of post-mass-transfer binary systems in significantly eccentric orbits, most notably Barium stars [1] and subdwarf-B + main-sequence systems [2]. Their formation is very puzzling in light of the fact that tidal forces efficiently circularise the orbit. Using our state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution code BINSTAR [3], we explore the formation and evolution of eccentric binary systems within the framework of the osculating orbital theory. This scheme describes, in a physically realistic manner, the perturbing forces acting on the orbit arising from mass transfer [4]. Results are presented, showing the impact of wind losses and Roche lobe overflow on the orbital separation and eccentricity for a range of initial stellar and binary parameters. As an interesting case study, we also discuss a promising formation channel for the eccentric white dwarf + main-sequence binary IP Eri [5], which invokes a tidally enhanced wind-loss mechanism. Our approach reproduces the observed system parameters remarkably well [6]. [1] Jorissen A., 1999, IAU Symposium, 191, 437 [2] Vos et al., 2013, A&A, 559, 54 [3] Siess L. et al., 2012, A&A, 550, 100 [4] Hadjidemetriou J., 1969, Ap&SS, 3, 330 [5] Merle et al., 2014, A&A, in press (arXiv:1405.4669) [6] Siess L., Davis P. J., Jorissen A., 2014, A&A, 565, A57

  19. Code Validation Utilizing Spectral Data Analysis of ICF Implosion Experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Haynes, Donald, Jr.; Delamater, Norman; Regan, Sean

    2003-10-01

    Time-resolved spectral data from recent ICF implosion experiments of plastic microballoons containing deuterium fuel doped with argon is proving quite useful in checking the corresponding 1D and 2D simulation results from the multi-dimensional hydrocode RAGE [1]. Comparisons with experimental density and temperature determined by fitting theoretical argon line shapes generated by MERL [2] to experimental data show that the simulated density and temperature in the fuel are too large unless some seed for mixing is incorporated. We use a nonuniform drive as a seed for mix. The need for mix is further supported through simulations using the 1D Lagrangian code HYADES (no mix) that give neutron yields an order of magnitude larger than that seen in experiment. This work was performed under NLUF grant DE-FG03-01SF22224 and DOE contract No. W-7405-ENG-36. [1] Gittings, M.L., SAIC's adaptive grid Eulerian hydrocode, DNA Numerical Methods Symposium, Apr 1992. [2] Mancini, R.C., Kilcrease, D.P., Woltz, L.A., and Hooper Jr., C.F., Comput. Phy. Commun. 63, 314-322 (1991).

  20. [Reflections on a small series of cementless total hip prostheses].

    PubMed

    Troussel, S; Van Innis, F; Thys, R

    1990-01-01

    We report on our series of 48 patients with uncemented hip prostheses, with an average follow-up of 3 years. The clinical results, according to the Merle d'Aubigné's classification, are comparable to those obtained with cemented prostheses except for transitory pain, very often localized to the lateral aspect of the thigh, which seems to be correlated with the bone adaptation to the implant. Radiological findings are valuable in the assessment of long-term results with uncemented prostheses. During the operation, it is of utmost importance that the surgeon obtain a very tight fit of the prosthesis into the bone, which must be confirmed on postoperative X-ray. Under such conditions, the radiological appearance remains the same, showing a condensation line outlining the cup and absence of radiolucent lines along the stem. On the other hand, cortical thickening, bony condensation around the tip of the stem and sclerotic lines are the radiological evidence of bone adaptation to the prosthesis. They are not indicative of a less good result. Finally, radiolucent lines wider than 1 millimeter, extending along the stem, or a progressive sinking of the femoral component are the radiological signs of implant instability. In these rare cases, the prognosis may be compromised.

  1. [Risk factors for total hip arthroplasty dislocation and its functional outcomes].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Reig, J; Lizaur-Utrilla, A; Miralles-Muñoz, F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors for dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and its functional outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted on 22 cases with dislocation and 431 controls without dislocation, all performed with lateral access. The data were collected prospectively with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Patient related factors, from primary surgery, and position of components on simple radiographs were analyzed. Harris and Merle D'Aubigné hip scores, and short Womac questionnaire were used. Demographic, patient-related or surgical technique factors were not risk predictors of dislocation. With regard to position of components, an acetabular abduction >50° (p = 0.003) and anteversion lower or higher than 10°- 20° (p = 0.044) were risk factors. Controls and dislocation treated conservatively had similar outcomes, and in both were better than in those treated with surgical revision (p = 0.03). Factors relating to the patient and soft tissues status may influence the stability of the arthroplasty, but malposition of the acetabular component seems to be the most important and common risk factor for dislocation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  2. Proximal Femoral Reconstructions with Bone Impaction Grafting and Metal Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Fernando; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Extensive circumferential proximal cortical bone loss is considered by some a contraindication for impaction bone grafting in the femur. We asked whether reconstruction with a circumferential metal mesh, impacted bone allografts, and a cemented stem would lead to acceptable survival in these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients (15 hips) with severe proximal femoral bone defects (average, 12 cm long; 14 type IV and one type IIIB using the classification of Della Valle and Paprosky) reconstructed with this method. The minimum followup was 20 months (average, 43.2 months; range, 20–72 months). Preoperative Merle D’Aubigné and Postel score averaged 4.8 points. With revision of the stem as the end point, the survivorship of the implant was 100% at one year and 86.6% at 72 months. The mean functional score at last followup was 14.4 points. We observed two fractures of the metal mesh at 31 and 48 months in cases reconstructed with a stem that did not bypass the mesh. Dislocation (3 cases) and acute deep infection (3 cases) were the most frequent complications. Patients with complete absence of the proximal femur may be candidates for biological proximal femoral reconstructions using this salvage procedure. Bone impaction grafting must be a routine technique if this method is selected. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19294476

  3. Two-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy: good outcome in 35 hips.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, Jarkko; Hirvensalo, Eero

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a 2-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy. This includes both an extraperitoneal and an anterolateral exposure of the pelvic bones allowing an unconstrained approach without dissection of the muscle insertion. 2 plates are used to stabilize the osteotomy and full range motion of the hip is permitted within 2 days of surgery, while weight bearing is restricted for 6 weeks after the operation. We reviewed the complications and technical results in 27 patients (28 hips) after a minimum follow-up of mean 3 (1-5) years. No major surgical complications occurred, but dysfunction of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred frequently (14 patients). The radiographical correction of the femoral head covering was similar to those in previous reports of rotational osteotomy. The range of hip motion was not affected by the operation. A significant increase in the mean Merle D'Aubigné and Harris Hip scores was observed in a subgroup of 20 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. In conclusion, the method we have used is safe and the early results are satisfactory.

  4. Acetabular Reconstruction with Human and Bovine Freeze- Dried Bone Grafts and a Reinforcement Device

    PubMed Central

    Rosito, Ricardo; Galia, Carlos Roberto; Macedo, Carlos Alberto Souza; Moreira, Luis Fernando; Quaresma, Lourdes Maria Araújo C.; Palma, Humberto Moreira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND This is a cohort trial (1997–2005) of 49 patients submitted to an acetabular component revision of a total hip arthroplasty, using impacted human and bovine freeze-dried cancellous bone grafts (H&FDBG) and a reinforcement device. OBJECTIVE To compare clinical/radiographic graft incorporation capability between cancellous bone grafts. PATIENTS/METHODS There were two groups: I (n=26) receiving human grafts and II (n=25) receiving bovine grafts. The average follow-up times were 55 and 49 months, respectively. Clinical analysis was based on the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, and the radiographic analysis involved an established score based on Conn’s et al. criteria for radiographic bone incorporation. RESULTS No clinical/radiographic differences were found between the groups and both showed an overall rate of 88.5% and 76% of graft incorporation (p=0.424). CONCLUSION The results presented here are comparable to those in the literature with the use of deep-FG. Therefore, cancellous bone grafts can be safely and adequately used in acetabular component revision in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:18719763

  5. Factors predicting the failure of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: a meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Hull, Jason; Jiranek, William A

    2009-12-01

    There is no clear evidence regarding the outcome of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in different patient populations. We performed systematic meta-regression analysis of 23 eligible studies. There were 1,113 patients of which 61 patients had total hip arthroplasty (THA) (endpoint) as a result of failed Bernese PAO. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between THA and presence of grade 2/grade 3 arthritis, Merle de'Aubigne score (MDS), Harris hip score and Tonnis angle, change in lateral centre edge (LCE) angle, late proximal femoral osteotomies, and heterotrophic ossification (HO) resection. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of having THA increases with grade 2/grade 3 osteoarthritis (3.36 times), joint penetration (3.12 times), low preoperative MDS (1.59 times), late PFO (1.59 times), presence of preoperative subluxation (1.22 times), previous hip operations (1.14 times), and concomitant PFO (1.09 times). In the absence of randomised controlled studies, the findings of this analysis can help the surgeon to make treatment decisions.

  6. Factors predicting the failure of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: a meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Jason; Jiranek, William A.

    2008-01-01

    There is no clear evidence regarding the outcome of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in different patient populations. We performed systematic meta-regression analysis of 23 eligible studies. There were 1,113 patients of which 61 patients had total hip arthroplasty (THA) (endpoint) as a result of failed Bernese PAO. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between THA and presence of grade 2/grade 3 arthritis, Merle de’Aubigne score (MDS), Harris hip score and Tonnis angle, change in lateral centre edge (LCE) angle, late proximal femoral osteotomies, and heterotrophic ossification (HO) resection. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of having THA increases with grade 2/grade 3 osteoarthritis (3.36 times), joint penetration (3.12 times), low preoperative MDS (1.59 times), late PFO (1.59 times), presence of preoperative subluxation (1.22 times), previous hip operations (1.14 times), and concomitant PFO (1.09 times). In the absence of randomised controlled studies, the findings of this analysis can help the surgeon to make treatment decisions. PMID:18719916

  7. Nature, not books: scientists and the origins of the nature-study movement in the 1890s.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Scientists played a key role in the first systematic introduction of nature study into North American public schools in the late nineteenth century. The initiatives of Wilbur Jackman and John Merle Coulter, affiliated with the young University of Chicago, and Liberty Hyde Bailey and Anna Botsford Comstock, at Cornell University, coincided with the "new education" reform movement that found object lessons and experience-based education superior to textbook teaching. Educational psychologists and philosophers of the 1890s, including G. Stanley Hall, related curriculum methods to perceived developmental stages in children, with a focus on immediate experience. Putting these pedagogical ideas--gained in summer institutes, normal schools, and programs at Chicago and Cornell--into practice were administrators and classroom teachers in both urban and rural classrooms. By 1900, a consensus about the value of nature study among scientists, community leaders, and teachers established it as the recognized general method of studying the natural world in public schools across much of the United States.

  8. Effects of Zoledronate on Mortality and Morbidity after Surgical Treatment of Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Ömer; Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Tunç, Oytun Derya; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, İbrahim; Şen, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of intertrochanteric femoral fractures on mortality, morbidity, and cost of zoledronate treatment in elderly patients treated by osteosynthesis. Based on Evans classification, 114 patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures were treated with osteosynthesis. After the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures, the treatment group (M/F, 24/32; mean age, 76.7 ± SD years) received zoledronate infusion, and the control group (M/F, 20/38; mean age, 80.2 ± SD years) received placebo. Postoperative control visits were performed at 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month time points. Functional level of patients was evaluated by the modified Harris hip score and Merle d'Aubigné hip score. By 12 months, the mean HHS in treatment and control groups was 81.93 and 72.9, respectively. For time of death of the patients, mortality was found to be 57.1% (16/28) on the first 3 months and 92.9% (26/28) on the first six months. The mortality rate in the treatment and control groups was 14.3% (8/56) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. The use of zoledronic acid after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients is a safe treatment modality which helps to reduce mortality, improves functional outcomes, and has less side effects with single dose use per year. PMID:27092280

  9. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE SEGMENTAL IMPACTION OF FEMORAL HEAD FOLLOWING AN ACETABULAR FRACTURE SURGICALLY MANAGED

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Carina; Daniachi, Daniel; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Riccioli, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Correlate the postoperative radiographic evaluation with variables accompanying acetabular fractures in order to determine the predictive factors for segmental impaction of femoral head. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medial files of patients submitted to open reduction surgery with internal acetabular fixation. Within approximately 35 years, 596 patients were treated for acetabular fractures; 267 were followed up for at least two years. The others were excluded either because their follow up was shorter than the minimum time, or as a result of the lack of sufficient data reported on files, or because they had been submitted to non-surgical treatment. The patients were followed up by one of three surgeons of the group using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel clinical scales as well as radiological studies. Results: Only tow studied variables-age and amount of postoperative reductionshowed statistically significant correlation with femoral head impaction. Conclusions: The quality of reduction-anatomical or with up to 2mm residual deviation-presents a good radiographic evolution, reducing the potential for segmental impaction of the femoral head, a statistically significant finding. PMID:27004191

  11. Surgical treatment of high-standing greater trochanter.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Maniwa, S; Ochi, M

    1999-01-01

    Eleven patients with high-standing greater trochanter (13 joints) aged 13-36 years underwent surgery. Distal transfer of the greater trochanter (group T) was performed in 4 patients (5 joints) and lateral displacement osteotomy (group L) in 7 (8 joints). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 years in group T and 5.9 years in group L. Clinical results were evaluated by the hip score according to Merle d'Aubigne. The mean hip score in group T was 13.4 points before operation and 15.4 points after operation, and in group L, 12.8 and 17.4 points, respectively. The postoperative clinical results of group L were significantly better than those of group T (P = 0.0494). In radiological evaluation, although the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) increased in both groups in group L it improved remarkably from 9.8 to 24.3, indicating a large descending distance of the greater trochanter. The lever arm ratio (LAR) did not change significantly in group T, but it decreased from 1.97 to 1.60 in group L (P = 0.004). This means that the lever arm of the abductors can certainly be extended by lateral displacement osteotomy. Lateral displacement osteotomy is the most effective procedure for high-standing greater trochanter.

  12. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Institute of Technology . Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  13. Uncemented third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty using metal acetabular shell with direct taper locking liner.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Sachiyuki; Wakui, Motohiro; Matsueda, Munenori

    2013-06-01

    The ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC)-bearing couple in total hip arthroplasty (THA) was developed to reduce the wear debris and osteolysis. Although the mechanical strength of third-generation ceramic has improved over previous generations, the risk of osteolysis and ceramic fracture is still an important concern. We studied 124 uncemented THAs with third-generation CoC-bearing couple implanted between 2000 and 2004. The ceramic liner and head were secured with the direct taper locking mechanism. One hundred and eleven hips were followed-up for minimum of 8 years, with an average follow-up period of 10.1 years (range 8.0-12.8 years). Patients were evaluated with a particular emphasis on the prevalence of the osteolysis and the ceramic fracture. The survivorship with the end point as implant revision for any reason was 94.9 % (95 % confidence intervals 90.0-99.3 %) at 12.8 years. Revisions were performed because of one ceramic liner fracture, three dislocations, and two deep infections. No radiographic evidence of wear or osteolysis was observed. The preoperative Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score increased from 11.6 to 17.1. Patients, who received third-generation CoC THA had no detectable wear and osteolysis. One ceramic fracture occurred, and the main reason for revision was dislocation.

  14. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  15. Integrating terrestrial sequestration into a greenhouse gas management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joel R.; Sampson, Neil

    Terrestrial sequestration has the potential to contribute to national and global greenhouse gas management strategies. However, spatial and temporal variability in sequestration potential and in the implementation of sequestering technologies introduces serious questions about how to resolve uncertainties and raise the credibility of terrestrial sequestration. Carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems without land use change generally is less than one ton CO2e/ha and driven primarily by precipitation. Land use and management changes are relatively common and are driven by economics and social considerations both in the private and public sectors. Implementing a credible greenhouse gas management program that integrates terrestrial sequestration along with other sources and sinks requires a systematic approach to identify and quantitatively monitor changes in the drivers of terrestrial sequestration. A credible terrestrial sequestration monitoring program will require close attention to integrating direct measurement of soils and vegetation, statistically valid scaling, remote sensing, and computer modeling. Predicting changes at a level of confidence useful to policy development will also require an understanding of how land owners and managers respond to private sector price signals and government conservation initiatives.

  16. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  17. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  18. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The preparation of RVNRL using Malaysian - produced latices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Manshol bin W.; Mohid, Norjanah bte; Hasan, Jusoh bin; Noor, Wan Khairul Amalina bte Wan Md.; Jaafar, Zulkifli

    1993-07-01

    The research project is carried out using the latices supplied by three of the suppliers in Malaysia. From the results of the studies carried out in search for the best sensitiser for RVNRL preparation, the use of n-butyl acrylate ( n-BA ) as a sensitiser seemed to give the most promising results. However, its use as a sensitiser is not universal to all latices available in the country. The problem was overcome by the use of different formulations for different latices. For the latex supplied by Golden Hope ( Hytex ), a combination of sensitisers i.e. n-BA plus 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate ( 2-EHA ) with a 10 % potassium hydroxide solution as the stabiliser, was the requirement. Latex supplied by MARDEC ( Matex ), seemed to need only n-BA as the sensitiser. Nevertheless, a stabiliser was still required and the use of a 10 % KOH solution was found to be suitable. A large range of stabilisers and sensitisers were applicable to Guthrie latex. The use of n-BA as the sensitiser and potassium laurylic acid as the stabiliser seemed the most favourable formulation. All the results are discussed in the form of correlation between dose and the tensile properties of RVNRL vulcanizates, equilibrium swelling ratio and standing time of the latex formulation.

  20. ARC-1940-M-704-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1940-08-30

    AMES STAFF STANDING IN FRONT OF THE NEW FLIGHT RESEARCH BUILDING. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: FIRST ROW: M.U. NETTLE, M.A. WILLEY, M.H. DAVIES, M.W. ST. JOHN, S.J. DEFRANCE, E.R. SHARP, M.G. POOLE, V. BURGESS, R.A. PIPKIN. SECOND ROW: A.B. FREEMAN, T.W. O'BRIANT, L.T. VIDELL, C. F. WILSON, R.M. FOSTER, M.C. MASSA, M.J. HOOD, C. BIOLETTI, C.W. FRICK, W.G. VINCENTI, H.W. KIRSCHBAUM, L. A. RODERT, E.C. BRAIG, C. GERBO. THIRD ROW: R.E. BROWNING, E.H. WOOD, R HUGHES, G BULIFANT, J.V. KELLEY, H.J. ALLEN, J. P. HOUSTON, K.S. BURCHARD, M. A. GREENE, FOURTH ROW: A. G. BUCK, E.W. BETTS, R.E. BRAIG, H.J. GOETT, J.F. PARSONS, H.S. DUNLAP, L.E. MINDEN, R.J. CLARKE. FIFTH ROW: W.O. PETERSON, W. WALKER, C.H. HARVEY, J.C. DELANEY, T.W. MACOMBER, A.L. BLOCKER, N.K. DELANY, A.S. HERTZOG, R.R. NICKLE, P.T. PRIZLER, R.R. BENN, E.H.A. SCHNITKER.

  1. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  2. Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.

    PubMed

    Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2009-12-01

    Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation.

  3. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  4. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    PubMed

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable.

  5. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  6. N- and C-terminal residues combine in the fusion-pH influenza hemagglutinin HA2 subunit to form an N cap that terminates the triple-stranded coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jue; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a stable recombinant ectodomain of influenza hemagglutinin HA2 subunit, EHA2 (23–185), defined by proteolysis studies of the intact bacterial-expressed ectodomain, was determined to 1.9-Å resolution by using x-ray crystallography. The structure reveals a domain composed of N- and C-terminal residues that form an N cap terminating both the N-terminal α-helix and the central coiled coil. The N cap is formed by a conserved sequence, and part of it is found in the neutral pH conformation of HA. The C-terminal 23 residues of the ectodomain form a 72-Å long nonhelical structure ordered to within 7 residues of the transmembrane anchor. The structure implies that continuous α helices are not required for membrane fusion at either the N or C termini. The difference in stability between recombinant molecules with and without the N cap sequences suggests that additional free energy for membrane fusion may become available after the formation of the central triple-stranded coiled coil and insertion of the fusion peptide into the target membrane. PMID:10430879

  7. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-07-29

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay.

  9. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Establishment of a high efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2009-04-01

    Technologies for transformation of rice have been developed to meet the requirements of functional genomics in order to enable the production of transgenic rice plants with useful agricultural characters. However, many rice varieties are not efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium. We have succeeded in establishing a highly efficient transformation system in rice by co-cultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on three filter papers moistened with enriched N6 or DKN media instead of using solid media. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (EHA101, Agrobacterium concentration of OD600=0.04) were co-cultured on three pieces of filter paper (9cm in diameter) moistened with 5.5mL of N6 or DKN liquid co-cultivation medium supplemented with 2,4-d (2mg/L), proline (10mM), casein hydrolysate (300mg/L), sucrose (30g/L), glucose (5g/L), l-cysteine (100mg/L) and acetosyringone (15mg/L) at 25°C for 3 days in the dark. Compared with the transformation efficiency of calli co-cultivated on solid media, transformation efficiency was increased by about fivefold by using the filter paper method for many varieties of rice, including those that previously yielded much poor transformation rates.

  11. [Obtaining transgenic rice plants and their progenies using Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Yin, Z C; Yang, F; Xu, Y; Li, B J

    1998-12-01

    Rice (Oriza sativa L.) suspension cells of Taipei 309 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens stran EHA101 harbouring binary vector pBYT2 for 3 days in the presence of vir inducer, 100 mumol/L acetosyringone (AS). After 2 months of continuous selection, 17 stable hygromycin-resistant, GUS-positive calli were recovered from 364 suspension cell clusters co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. 10 putative transgenic R0 plants obtained from 8 tansformed calli and their progenies were analyzed for the integration and expression of foreign genes. Southern blot analysis of R0 and R1 generations indicated that foreign genes had been stably integrated in the genome of transgenic rice and sexually transmitted. One of the transgenic lines showed 5 copies of T-DNA integration, while the others had only one copy. Histochemical staining observation and fluorometric assay of GUS activity in transgenic rice cells and plants showed ubiquitin promoter from maize was highly effective in driving the expression of gus reporter gene in transgenic rice cells. GUS protein and its activity were also investigated through ndPAGE-X-Gluc staining assay, and it was found that the GUS protein in transgenic rice cells was smaller in size than the standard GUS protein (Sigma Co. G0786) but as large as that from E.coli HB101 (pBI121). This study suggested that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant is an efficient and reliable method to introduce foreign genes into rice.

  12. A dual purpose universal influenza vaccine candidate confers protective immunity against anthrax.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Maria T; Li, Junwei; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Navarro, Ashley; Wu, Lihong; Yan, Yongyong; Zeng, Mingtao

    2017-03-01

    Preventive influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of three tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax oedema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses. The EFn-3×M2e-HA2 plus PA vaccine formulation elicited robust, antigen-specific, IgG responses; and was protective against heterologous influenza viral challenge when intranasally delivered to mice three times. Moreover, use of the detoxified anthrax toxin system as an adjuvant had the additional benefit of generating protective immunity against anthrax. Hence, this novel vaccine strategy could potentially address two major emerging public health and biodefence threats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  14. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju

    2014-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling.

  15. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR.

  16. Highly efficient transformation and plant regeneration of tall fescue mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Jin-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ting; Jin, Wei; Lang, Chun-Xiu; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun

    2005-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Two-months-old suspension cultures served as excellent explants for transformation. The explants were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a plasmid pDBA121 containing genes for hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar). The commercial herbicide Basta was used as a selective agent. Inclusion of acetosyringone (ACS) 20 mg/L in the co-culture medium led to an increase in transformation efficiency. The efficiency of transformation was highly dependent on the genotype, the explant, the culture medium and selective agent used. Tall fescue transformation efficiency is 2.85-10.9 plants per gram fresh weight (FW) of suspension cultures. This is much higher than the corresponding values reported before (2-5 plants). So far more than 300 transgenic plants have been obtained, the fertility of some transgenic plants had decreased. Stable integration and high expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization or herbicide Basta spraying test.

  17. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jawahar, N.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Sivakumar, K.; Thangadurai, V.

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  19. Parametric regression model for survival data: Weibull regression model as an example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Weibull regression model is one of the most popular forms of parametric regression model that it provides estimate of baseline hazard function, as well as coefficients for covariates. Because of technical difficulties, Weibull regression model is seldom used in medical literature as compared to the semi-parametric proportional hazard model. To make clinical investigators familiar with Weibull regression model, this article introduces some basic knowledge on Weibull regression model and then illustrates how to fit the model with R software. The SurvRegCensCov package is useful in converting estimated coefficients to clinical relevant statistics such as hazard ratio (HR) and event time ratio (ETR). Model adequacy can be assessed by inspecting Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by categorical variable. The eha package provides an alternative method to model Weibull regression model. The check.dist() function helps to assess goodness-of-fit of the model. Variable selection is based on the importance of a covariate, which can be tested using anova() function. Alternatively, backward elimination starting from a full model is an efficient way for model development. Visualization of Weibull regression model after model development is interesting that it provides another way to report your findings. PMID:28149846

  20. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-02-26

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  3. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  4. Entropy of hydrological systems under small samples: Uncertainty and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dengfeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Wu, Jichun; Singh, Vijay P.; Zeng, Xiankui; Wang, Lachun; Chen, Yuanfang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Entropy theory has been increasingly applied in hydrology in both descriptive and inferential ways. However, little attention has been given to the small-sample condition widespread in hydrological practice, where either hydrological measurements are limited or are even nonexistent. Accordingly, entropy estimated under this condition may incur considerable bias. In this study, small-sample condition is considered and two innovative entropy estimators, the Chao-Shen (CS) estimator and the James-Stein-type shrinkage (JSS) estimator, are introduced. Simulation tests are conducted with common distributions in hydrology, that lead to the best-performing JSS estimator. Then, multi-scale moving entropy-based hydrological analyses (MM-EHA) are applied to indicate the changing patterns of uncertainty of streamflow data collected from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, China. For further investigation into the intrinsic property of entropy applied in hydrological uncertainty analyses, correlations of entropy and other statistics at different time-scales are also calculated, which show connections between the concept of uncertainty and variability.

  5. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly modified F-18B Hornet fighter being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center settles towards the runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. Known as the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), the two-seat F-18 is currently engaged in a multi-year project to evaluate a variety of advanced control subsystems and sensors. Among the more than 20 experiments being researched in the joint NASA/DOD/industry program is the Electrical-Powered Actuation Design (EPAD), which is testing prototype aileron actuators which operate independently of the aircraft's hydraulic system. One experimental electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) generates hydraulic force to move the aileron via a compact electric-driven hydraulic pump incorporated in the actuator itself. Another 'smart' actuator uses actuator-mounted electronics while a third electro-mechanical actuator is electrically operated and moves the aileron mechanically. Such actuators could eliminate much of the need for complex central hydraulic systems on future aircraft, with signifigant savings in weight and cost. They are also being evaluated for use on the planned Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  6. Selectable marker elimination in the T0 generation by Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation involving Mungbean yellow mosaic virus TrAP as a non-conditional negative selectable marker and bar for transient positive selection.

    PubMed

    RamanaRao, Mangu Venkata; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2010-05-01

    Transient selection involving the bar gene and non-conditional negative selection against stable T-DNA integration through the use of the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) transcriptional activator protein gene (TrAP) were used in a novel co-transformation strategy to generate selectable marker gene (SMG)-eliminated transgenic tobacco plants in the T(0) generation itself. Two compatible binary plasmids, pCam-bar-TrAP-gus harbouring bar as an SMG and the MYMV TrAP gene as a non-conditional negative selectable marker, and pGA472 with the nptII gene as an unselected experimental gene of interest (GOI) were placed in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 and used for co-transformation. Transient selection with 5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) for 2-4 weeks and subsequent establishment in a PPT-minus medium yielded 114 plants from 200 leaf discs. The unselected nptII gene was detected by Southern blot analysis in 13 plants, revealing a co-transformation efficiency of 11.5%. Five of these plants harboured only the nptII gene (GOI) and not the bar gene (SMG). Thus, SMG elimination was achieved in the T(0) generation itself in 4.4% (5/114) of plants, which were transiently selected for 2-4 weeks on PPT. MYMV TrAP, a non-conditional negative selectable marker, effectively reduced the recovery of plants with stable integration of the SMG (bar).

  7. Independent academic Data Monitoring Committees for clinical trials in cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Filippatos, Gerasimos S; de Graeff, Pieter; Bax, Jeroen J; Borg, John-Joseph; Cleland, John G F; Dargie, Henry J; Flather, Marcus; Ford, Ian; Friede, Tim; Greenberg, Barry; Henon-Goburdhun, Cécile; Holcomb, Richard; Horst, Bradley; Lekakis, John; Mueller-Velten, Guenther; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Prasad, Krishna; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Severin, Thomas; Sherman, Warren; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Swedberg, Karl; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Vardas, Panagiotis; Ruschitzka, Frank; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-04-01

    Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) play a crucial role in the conducting of clinical trials to ensure the safety of study participants and to maintain a trial's scientific integrity. Generally accepted standards exist for DMC composition and operational conduct. However, some relevant issues are not specifically addressed in current guidance documents, resulting in uncertainties regarding optimal approaches for communication between the DMC, steering committee, and sponsors, release of information, and liability protection for DMC members. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in collaboration with the Clinical Trials Unit of the European Heart Agency (EHA) of the ESC convened a meeting of international experts in DMCs for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical trials to identify specific issues and develop steps to resolve challenges faced by DMCs.The main recommendations from the meeting relate to methodological consistency, independence, managing conflicts of interest, liability protection, and training of future DMC members. This paper summarizes the key outcomes from this expert meeting, and describes the core set of activities that might be further developed and ultimately implemented by the ESC, HFA, and other interested ESC constituent bodies. The HFA will continue to work with stakeholders in cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical research to promote these goals.

  8. [Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing three T-DNAs binary vector].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Guo; Qin, Hua

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops. To achieve this point, a binary vector pNB35SVIP1 with three T-DNAs was constructed by using several mediate plasmids, in which one copy of bar gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included. EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform soybean (Glycine max) cotyledon nodes. Through 2 - 3 months regeneration and selection on 3 - 5mg/L glufosinate containing medium, transgenic soybean plants were confirmed to be obtained at 0.83% - 3.16%, and co-transformation efficiency of both gene in the same individual reached up to 86.4%, based on southern blot test. By the analysis of PCR, southern blot and northern blot combining with leaf painting of herbicide in T1 progenies, 41 plants were confirmed to be eliminated of bar gene with the frequency of 7.6% . Among the T1 populations tested, the loss of the alien genes happened in 22.7% lines, the silence of bar gene took place in 27.3% lines, and VIP1 gene silence existed in 37.1% marker-free plants. The result also suggested that the plasmid with three T-DNAs might be an ideal vector to generate maker-free genetic modified organism.

  9. Supramolecular complexes of multivalent cholesterol-containing polymers to solubilize carbon nanotubes in apolar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nguendia, Jules Zeuna; Zhong, Weiheng; Fleury, Alexandre; De Grandpré, Guillaume; Soldera, Armand; Sabat, Ribal Georges; Claverie, Jerome P

    2014-05-01

    Copolymers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and cholesteryloxycarbonyl-2-hydroxymethacrylate (CEM) were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Supramolecular complexes of these copolymers with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were soluble in THF, toluene, and isooctane. The colloidal solutions remained stable for months without aggregation. The rationale for the choice of CEM was based on the high adsorption energy of cholesterol on the CNT surface, as computed by DFT calculations. Adsorption isotherms were experimentally measured for copolymers of various architectures (statistical, diblock, and star copolymers), thereby demonstrating that 2-5 cholesterol groups were adsorbed per polymer chain. Once the supramolecular complex had dried, the CNTs could be easily resolubilized in isooctane without the need for high-power sonication and in the absence of added polymer. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the CNTs were devoid of bundles. The supramolecular complexes could also be employed in an inverse emulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) in isooctane and dodecane, thereby leading to the formation of a continuous polymeric sheath around the CNTs. Thus, this technique leads to the formation of very stable dispersions in non-polar organic solvents, without altering the fundamental properties of the CNTs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Expression of anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch BmK ANEP III in plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Y B; Huang, T T; Lai, L L; Zhou, J; Yang, W Y; Zhang, J H

    2011-01-01

    Anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK ANEP III) has better anti-epileptic and anticonvulsive effects in the test animal models. The present study is aimed at developing transgenic tomato and tobacco lines overproducing the ANEP III protein. Using the molecular cloning technique, the plant expression vector pBI-ANEP III was constructed successfully. The ANEP III expression cassette included a double CaMV 35S promoter with omega enhancers, the ANEP III gene with the Kozak sequence, the ER retention signal and the NOS terminator. Recombinant plasmids were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by freeze-thaw transformation methods. By the Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation method, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) lines were transformed. Transformants were screened and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was demonstrated that the ANEP III gene was successfully expressed in the genomic DNA of transgenic plants. The ANEP III protein was detected by immunofluorescence analysis, and the results confirmed the high amount of ANEP III protein, being 0.81 and 1.08% of total soluble proteins in transgenic tobacco and tomato. The study of plants with high expression levels of ANEP III has an important theoretical and practical significance and provides valuable information for establishing a new, economical and effective system for industrial protein production.

  11. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-06-04

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  12. EHEC Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Brian D.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbriae) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this chapter have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25635238

  13. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  14. Alkylated hydroxylamine derivatives eliminate peripheral retinylidene Schiff bases but cannot enter the retinal binding pocket of light-activated rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Piechnick, Ronny; Heck, Martin; Sommer, Martha E

    2011-08-23

    Besides Lys-296 in the binding pocket of opsin, all-trans-retinal forms adducts with peripheral lysine residues and phospholipids, thereby mimicking the spectral and chemical properties of metarhodopsin species. These pseudophotoproducts composed of nonspecific retinylidene Schiff bases have long plagued the investigation of rhodopsin deactivation and identification of decay products. We discovered that, while hydroxylamine can enter the retinal binding pocket of light-activated rhodopsin, the modified hydroxylamine compounds o-methylhydroxylamine (mHA), o-ethylhydroxylamine (eHA), o-tert-butylhydroxylamine (t-bHA), and o-(carboxymethyl)hydroxylamine (cmHA) are excluded. However, the alkylated hydroxylamines react quickly and efficiently with exposed retinylidene Schiff bases to form their respective retinal oximes. We further investigated how t-bHA affects light-activated rhodopsin and its interaction with binding partners. We found that both metarhodopsin II (Meta II) and Meta III are resistant to t-bHA, and neither arrestin nor transducin binding is affected by t-bHA. This discovery suggests that the hypothetical solvent channel that opens in light-activated rhodopsin is extremely stringent with regard to size and/or polarity. We believe that alkylated hydroxylamines will prove to be extremely useful reagents for the investigation of rhodopsin activation and decay mechanisms. Furthermore, the use of alkylated hydroxylamines should not be limited to in vitro studies and could help elucidate visual signal transduction mechanisms in the living cells of the retina. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Successful recovery of transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using the 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Saha, Bedabrata; Roy, Nand Kishor; Mishra, Sagarika; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-06-01

    A new method for obtaining transgenic cowpea was developed using positive selection based on the Escherichia coli 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker and mannose as the selective agent. Only transformed cells were capable of utilizing mannose as a carbon source. Cotyledonary node explants from 4-day-old in vitro-germinated seedlings of cultivar Pusa Komal were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the vector pNOV2819. Regenerating transformed shoots were selected on medium supplemented with a combination of 20 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as carbon source. The transformed shoots were rooted on medium devoid of mannose. Transformation efficiency based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots was 3.6%. Southern blot analysis on five randomly chosen PCR-positive plants confirmed the integration of the pmi transgene. Qualitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of pmi in T₀ transgenic plants. Chlorophenol red (CPR) assays confirmed the activity of PMI in transgenic plants, and the gene was transmitted to progeny in a Mendelian fashion. The transformation method presented here for cowpea using mannose selection is efficient and reproducible, and could be used to introduce a desirable gene(s) into cowpea for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

  16. Migration kinetics of four photo-initiators from paper food packaging to solid food simulants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Ji, Shuilin; Zhang, Juzhou; Tao, Gushuai; Peng, Chuanyi; Hou, Ruyan; Zhang, Liang; Sun, Yue; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    The migration behaviour of four photo-initiators (BP, EHA, MBP and Irgacure 907) was studied by 'printing' onto four different food-packaging materials (Kraft paper, white cardboard, Polyethylene (PE)-coated paper and composite paper) and tracking movement into the food simulant: Tenax-TA (porous polymer 2,6-diphenyl furan resin). The results indicated that the migration of the photo-initiators was related to the molecular weight and log Ko/w of each photo-initiator. At different temperatures, the migration rates of the photo-initiators were different in papers with different thicknesses. The amount of each photo-initiator found in the food was closely related to the food matrix. The Weibull model was used to predict the migration load into the food simulants by calculating the parameters τ and β and determining the relationship of the two parameters with temperature and paper thickness. The established Weibull model was then used to predict the migration of each photo-initiator with respect to different foods. A two-parameter Weibull model fitted the actual situation, with some deviation from the actual migration amount.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion.

  18. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis.

  19. Clinical use of PI3K inhibitors in B-cell lymphoid malignancies: today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, I B; Flowers, C R; Blum, K A; Cohen, J B

    2017-03-01

    PI3K inhibitors are an important new therapeutic option for the treatment of relapsed and refractory B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Idelalisib is a PI3Kδ inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the relapsed/refractory setting, and several other PI3K inhibitors are being developed targeting other isoforms of the PI3K enzyme, which results in distinct toxicities and variable efficacy in the clinical setting. Areas covered: We provide a general overview of PI3K inhibitors, recommended applications, and the mechanism and management of toxicities. We further review trials, ongoing and completed, leading to the approval of idelalisib as well other PI3K inhibitors currently in development. Articles were obtained from PubMed, and abstracts were searched for the past 5 years from the websites for ASCO, ASH, EHA, and ICML/Lugano. Expert commentary: PI3K inhibitors provide an important and powerful pharmacologic tool in the armamentarium against hematologic malignancies, especially for relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unique toxicities are associated with inhibition of different isoforms of the PI3K enzyme, as demonstrated with the infectious and autoimmune toxicities associated with the PI3Kδ inhibitor, idelalisib. Due to these unique toxicities, PI3K inhibitors should only be used in formally approved combinations and settings.

  20. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Murraya koenigii against gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Molla, Sabir Hossen; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present study have been conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous and crude methanolic leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii. Infection of ruminants with gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite has become a worldwide problem. The parasite causes economic losses in a variety of ways. Previously sheep producers relied heavily on anti-parasitic drugs to control gastro-intestinal parasites of the flocks. But due to misuse of these drugs the parasites become resistant to drugs. Thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of controlling the GI parasites. Adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) have been done for in vitro study, and faecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay have been done for in vivo study. The in vitro study revealed anthelmintic effects of M. koenigii on Haemonchus contortus as evident from their paralytic condition and/or death at eight hour post exposure in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts which exhibit to be dose-dependent. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of M. koenigii were found to have low percent inhibitory effect on egg hatching. It may be concluded that M. koenigii showed significant anthelmintic activity.

  1. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Sailaja, M

    2005-03-01

    A protocol for the transformation of castor embryo axes using the pCAMBIA vector 1304 in disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is presented. Co-cultivated explants were initially subjected to expansion and proliferation on MS medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) TDZ followed by three cycles of selection on medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and increasing concentrations of hygromycin (20-40-60 mg l(-1)). Selected shoot clusters were transferred to medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA for proliferation and 0.2 mg l(-1) BA for shoot elongation. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA. The presence and stable integration of the hpt gene was confirmed through PCR, RT-PCR, PCR-Southern blot, sequence analysis, Southern blot analysis and PCR analysis of progeny. Southern blot analysis of the primary transformants showed single copy integration and progeny analysis revealed monogenic inheritance of the introduced gene. This paper reports the first successful attempt at producing transgenic castor.

  2. Development of antibiotic marker-free creeping bentgrass resistance against herbicides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seog; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L.) without antibiotic-resistant markers were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic callus tissues were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, harboring the bar and the CP4-EPSPS genes for bialaphos and glyphosate resistance. Phosphinothricin-resistant calli and plants were selected. Soil-grown plants were obtained at 14-16 weeks after transformation. Genetic transformation of the selected, regenerated plants was validated by PCR. Southern blot analysis revealed that at least one copy of the transgene was integrated into the genome of the transgenic plants. Transgene expression was confirmed by Northern blot. CP4-EPSPS protein was detected by ELISA. Transgenic plants remained green and healthy when sprayed with Basta, containing 0.5% glufosinate ammonium or glyphosate. The optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method resulted in an average of 9.4% transgenic plants. The results of the present study suggest that the optimized marker-free technique could be used as an effective and reliable method for routine transformation, which may facilitate the development of varieties of new antibiotic-free grass species.

  3. An efficient in planta transformation of Jatropha curcas (L.) and multiplication of transformed plants through in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Balusamy; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mayavan, Subramanian; Karthik, Sivabalan; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Udayakumar, Rajangam; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-05-01

    An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation was developed in Jatropha curcas. The various factors affecting J. curcas in planta transformation were optimized, including decapitation, Agrobacterium strain, pin-pricking, vacuum infiltration duration and vacuum pressure. Simple vegetative in vivo cleft grafting method was adopted in the multiplication of transformants without the aid of tissue culture. Among the various parameters evaluated, decapitated plants on pin-pricking and vacuum infiltrated at 250 mmHg for 3 min with the Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harbouring the binary vector pGA 492 was proved to be efficient in all terms with a transformation efficiency of 62.66%. Transgene integration was evinced by the GUS histochemical analysis, and the GUS positive plants were subjected to grafting. Putatively transformed J. curcas served as "Scion" and the wild type J. curcas plant severed as "Stock". There was no occurrence of graft rejection and the plants were then confirmed by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Genetic stability of the grafted plants was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), marker which showed 100% genetic stability between mother and grafted plants. Thus, an efficient in planta transformation and grafting based multiplication of J. curcas was established.

  4. [Study on human aFGF fusion gene transformation with soybean 24 kDa oleosin and expression in safflower].

    PubMed

    Gai, Yu-Hong; Wang, Wang; Jin, Xiao; Wang, Jia-Qi; Li, Hong-Bo; Wang, Gang; Yang, Jing; Wei, Jian

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in transgenic safflower and lay the foundation for the use of the plant bioreactor large-scale production aFGF. The haFGF gene was transformed into plant preference of the aFGF sequence as a basis for design of primers, plant preferences aFGF gene sequences was amplified by PCR. The vegetable body expression vector was constructed by using digested connection method and then transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by the freeze-thaw method. It transferred to safflowers by agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and identified by PCR, southern blot and RT-PCR. The full-length aFGF gene sequences were amplified through PCR and constructed into plant expression vector with soybean oleosin and promoter, and transformed into safflower. Three independently transformed safflower plant units with point insertion were successfully obtained, which showed the same size of aFGF expression at the transcriptional level. The plant oil body expression vectors were successfully constructed, and the optimal condition for genetic transformation was selected. The transgenic safflower plants were obtained.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf base derived callus tissues of popular indica rice (Oryza sativa L. sub sp. indica cv. ADT 43).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2011-09-01

    A simple and efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an agronomically useful abiotic sensitive popular indica rice cv. ADT 43 has been developed. Initiation of calli were best achieved from the leaf bases of 4 days old rice seedlings on LS medium supplemented with 2.5mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0mg/L thiamine-HCl. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (strain EHA 105, OD(600)=0.8) were co-cultured on LS30-AsPC medium for 2 days at 25±2°C in the dark. Based on GUS expression analysis, 10min co-cultivation time with 100μM acetosyringone was found optimum for the delivery of gus gene. Calli were proved to be very sensitive to Agrobacterium infection and we found that the level of necrotic response can be minimized after co-cultivation with 30% LS, 10g/L PVP, 10% coconut water and 250mg/L timentin which improved the final transformation efficiency to 9.33%. Molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants reveals the integration, expression and inheritance of transgene in the progeny (T(1)) of these plants. The copy number of transgenes has been found to vary from 1 to 2 in transgenic plants (T(0) and T(1)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2017-04-27

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterologous Expression of an Alkali and Thermotolerant Lipase from Talaromyces thermophilus in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Xueqi; Xia, Liming

    2015-07-01

    To heterologously express a Talaromyces thermophilus lipase gene in Trichoderma reesei, an efficient binary vector pChph-pCBH1sigpro-ttl which includes a newly designed cbh1 promoter and hygromycin-resistant marker was constructed. This plasmid was then transformed into T. reesei via improved Agrobacterium EHA 105-mediated transformation. After modification of co-culture conditions and enzymolysis treatment of conidia, 258 transformants were produced. A two-step screening method based on antibiotic resistance and capacity to utilize lactose and tributyrin was introduced to further select promising candidates, which would be additionally verified by PCR analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and lipase activity assay. Lipase production was carried out in shaking flasks, and the activity reached 241 IU/mL (7415.4 IU/mg) after 84-h fermentation. It was found that this lipase performed high alkali and thermostable tolerance with the optimal pH 9.5 and temperature 60 °C, and it could retain more than 70 % activity after being disposed in pH 11 or 70 °C for 1 h. This study herein would benefit the genetic engineering of T. reesei and the industrial application of this important fungal lipase.

  8. Efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, Rubus ideaus L.

    PubMed

    Mathews, H; Wagoner, W; Cohen, C; Kellogg, J; Bestwick, R

    1995-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase), in raspberry cultivars Meeker (MK), Chilliwack (CH) and Canby (CY). Leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pAG1452 or pAG1552, encoding gene sequences for SAMase under the control of the wound and fruit specific tomato E4 promoter. Primary shoot regenerants on selection medium were chimeral containing both transformed and non-transformed cells. Non-chimeral transgenic clones were developed by iterative culture of petiole, node and leaf explants, on selection medium, from successive generations of shoots derived from the primary regenerants. Percent recovery of transformants was higher with the selection marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), than with neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Transformation frequencies of 49.6%, 0.9% and 8.1% were obtained in cultivars Meeker, Chilliwack and Canby respectively from petiole expiants using hygromycin selection. Genomic integration of transgenes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants from a total of 218 independent transformation events (161 MK, 4 CH, 53 CY) have been successfully established in soil.

  9. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care.

  10. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  11. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation.

  12. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  13. Heuristics for multiobjective optimization of two-sided assembly line systems.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, N; Ponnambalam, S G; Sivakumar, K; Thangadurai, V

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.

  14. Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M

    2003-05-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment in public health is a broad concept, which goes beyond parasitological methods and should be clearly defined according to several indicators of morbidity. Several factors may influence the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs. The quality of drug is an issue of great importance, especially when produced locally as a generic product and used in large-scale chemotherapy-based control programmes. Other factors include the drug-patient interaction, the host-parasite relationship, the diagnostic method used, genetic variations between parasite strains and induced drug resistance. Veterinary scientists have warned that drug resistance can be selected through frequent mass treatment of sheep and goats and have developed a body of knowledge on evaluation of efficacy and detection of resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. In soil-transmitted nematodes infections of humans, the egg reduction rate (ERR), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and novel molecular biological techniques may be used to monitor drug efficacy in helminth control programmes and to detect early occurrence of resistance. Evidence of reduced drug efficacy of some anthelminthics has been suggested by recent studies and strategies to prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance in human soil-transmitted nematodes.

  15. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented.

  16. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Acrylic AB and ABA block copolymers based on poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Dhruba J; Ata, Souvik; Singha, Nikhil K; Jehnichen, Dieter; Voit, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Acrylic block copolymers have several advantages over conventional styrenic block copolymers, because of the presence of a saturated backbone and polar pendant groups. This investigation reports the preparation and characterization of di- and triblock copolymers (AB and ABA types) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A series of block copolymers, PEHA-block-PMMA(AB diblock) and PMMA-block-PEHA-block-PMMA(ABA triblock) were prepared via ATRP at 90 °C using CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyl diethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and acetone as additive. The chemical structure of the macroinitiators and molar composition of block copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR analysis, and molecular weights of the polymers were analyzed by GPC analysis. DSC analysis showed two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), indicating formation of two domains, which was corroborated by AFM analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of AB and ABA block copolymers showed scattering behavior inside the measuring limits indicating nanophase separation. However, SAXS pattern of AB diblock copolymers indicated general phase separation only, whereas for ABA triblock copolymer an ordered or mixed morphology could be deduced, which is assumed to be the reason for the better mechanical properties achieved with ABA block copolymers than with the AB analogues.

  18. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  19. Ceramic-on-ceramic THA Implants in Patients Younger Than 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Hannouche, Didier; Devriese, Flore; Delambre, Jérôme; Zadegan, Frédéric; Tourabaly, Idriss; Sedel, Laurent; Chevret, Sylvie; Nizard, Rémy

    2016-02-01

    Poor survival of THA implants in very young patients has been attributed to use of cemented implants, wear of conventional polyethylene, and the presence of morphologic deformities in the proximal femur or in the acetabulum. Few studies have reported the long-term results of ceramic-on-ceramic implants in THAs in patients younger than 20 years. We determined: (1) the proportion of patients who experienced complications related to the ceramic bearing (squeaking, fracture); (2) the survivorship free from loosening and free from revision for any reason; (3) whether patients with osteonecrosis had inferior survivorship compared with patients whose surgical indication was all other diagnoses including sequelae of pediatric hip disorders (developmental dysplasia of the hip, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis); and (4) clinical function. Between 1979 and 2013, we performed 113 primary THAs in 91 patients younger than 20 years at the time of surgery. Of those, 105 THAs (83 patients) were done with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings (91% of the 91 patients); during that period, a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couple was indicated in all patients younger than 20 years. In eight patients (eight hips), a cemented polyethylene cup was implanted because the diameter of the acetabulum was smaller than the smallest available ceramic cup (46 mm), or because adequate fixation of a ceramic press-fit cup could not be achieved despite careful reaming of the acetabulum. The most common diagnosis indicating THA was avascular necrosis of the femoral head (56.2%; 59 hips). Thirty-five patients (40 hips) had undergone previous operations before the replacement. Three patients (4%; four hips) died from unrelated causes, nine patients (11%; 13 hips) were lost to followup, and four patients (five hips) had a followup greater than 8.5 years but have not been seen in the last 5 years. Patients were assessed clinically (using the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score, Hip disability and

  20. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    PubMed

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability. Copyright

  1. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. Design The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Results Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months’ follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D’Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months’ follow-up. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program. PMID:27375837

  2. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2017-01-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the “karumba group” based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The “karumba group” encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the “karumba group”. For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation. PMID:28255262

  3. Incidence of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris From 28-mm Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasties With Minimum 10 Years of Follow-Up: Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Assessment of 44 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Béchir; Putman, Sophie; Cholewinski, Pierre; Paris, Amandine; Migaud, Henri; Girard, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings has been suspected to cause adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD), with the incidence varying greatly by implant type and patient gender. The prevalence of ARMD from small-diameter MoM bearings in women is unknown, especially after 10 years of follow-up (FU). Cementless 28-mm MoM total hip arthroplasty bearings (Metasul) were implanted consecutively in 42 active women between 1996 and 2002. They were reviewed after a minimum of 10 years' FU with clinical, laboratory, radiological, and ultrasound assessments. Mean FU was 15.9 years (range, 13-18). The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné and Oxford scores were 16.9 (range, 13-18) and 15.1 (range, 12-24), respectively, at FU. Mean cup inclination angle was 46.3° (range, 35°-57°). No femoral osteolysis was detected, but limited acetabular osteolysis (11%) over the screw holes occurred in 5 cases. No liquid or solid synovial reactions or ARMD were apparent on ultrasound, even in the 5 cases of pelvic osteolysis. Mean chromium levels were 1.32 μg/L (range, 0.1-7.9) and cobalt levels were 1.85 μg/L (range, 0.35-13.6). Cobalt was >3 μg/L in only 3 cases. The 15.9-year survivorship was 95% (range, 94.1%-98.9%). Reliable results were obtained with 28-mm MoM bearings, notably in young, active patients. This implant configuration requires very accurate positioning. No ARMD was seen in this group at 16 years' FU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for avascular necrosis of the femoral head after unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis: 10-year clinical results.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Motomura, Goro; Hamai, Satoshi; Kohno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-11-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) is the most serious complication after unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), and is often unsalvageable. We report a minimum 10 years of clinical results for transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy of the femoral head (TRO) for AVN. This study included 7 patients (7 hips) with a mean age at surgery of 13.3 years, and the follow-up period was 15.8 years. All patients had prior treatment via closed reduction and pinning of the unstable SCFE, and showed severely collapsed femoral heads. The direction of rotation was anterior in 3 hips and posterior in 4. The Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score (MDPS) was used for clinical assessment, and joint degeneration was assessed with the Kellgren and Lawrence classification (KL-grade). The spherical intact area of the femoral head was moved to the weight-bearing portion, and subluxation was corrected via rotation combined with intentional varus positioning. The mean MDPS improved from 10.3 points to 15.6 points at 5 years, and it was maintained at 15.0 points by 10 years; 3 hips were excellent, 1 was good, 2 were fair, and 1 showed poor outcomes. No patient experienced re-collapse after TRO or required conversion to hip replacement or arthrodesis. After 10 years, degenerative changes became evident over time, and 2 hips progressed to KL-4 with a decreased MDPS. Although some joint degeneration is inevitable in the long-term, TRO is an effective salvage procedure for treating AVN after unstable SCFE. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mid-term results of cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing with and without computer navigation.

    PubMed

    Sugano, N; Nishii, T; Miki, H; Yoshikawa, H; Sato, Y; Tamura, S

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a CT-based navigation system using infrared light-emitting diode markers and an optical camera. We used this system to perform cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couple in 53 patients (60 hips) between 1998 and 2001. We reviewed 52 patients (59 hips) at a mean of six years (5 to 8) postoperatively. The mid-term results of total hip replacement using navigation were compared with those of 91 patients (111 hips) who underwent this procedure using the same implants, during the same period, without navigation. There were no significant differences in age, gender, diagnosis, height, weight, body mass index, or pre-operative clinical score between the two groups. The operation time was significantly longer where navigation was used, but there was no significant difference in blood loss or navigation-related complications. With navigation, the acetabular components were placed within the safe zone defined by Lewinnek, while without, 31 of the 111 components were placed outside this zone. There was no significant difference in the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score at the final follow-up. However, hips treated without navigation had a higher rate of dislocation. Revision was performed in two cases undertaken without navigation, one for aseptic acetabular loosening and one for fracture of a ceramic liner, both of which showed evidence of neck impingement on the liner. A further five cases undertaken without navigation showed erosion of the posterior aspect of the neck of the femoral component on the lateral radiographs. These seven impingement-related mechanical problems correlated with malorientation of the acetabular component. There were no such mechanical problems in the navigated group. We conclude that CT-based navigation increased the precision of orientation of the acetabular component and control of limb length in total hip replacement, without navigation-related complications. It also reduced the rate of

  6. Modified Dunn osteotomy using an anterior approach used to treat 26 cases of SCFE.

    PubMed

    Niane, M M; Kinkpé, C V A; Daffé, M; Sarr, L; Gueye, A B; Sané, A D; Séye, S I L

    2016-02-01

    Osteotomy performed below the femoral neck plays a leading role in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). It results in anatomical reduction. Several modifications have been made to Dunn's original osteotomy technique. We have developed another modification to this technique that uses an anterior surgical approach on a traction table with fluoroscopy control. Will this technique help to reduce the number of complications? Will its results be superior to those achieved with the standard Dunn osteotomy procedure? This was a retrospective single-center study of 26 cases in 24 patients (2 bilateral cases). Patients were positioned supine on a traction table with fluoroscopy control. An anterior surgical approach was used. A trapezoid-shaped osteotomy was performed below the femoral head. The head's reduction was checked on the fluoroscope and the fixation confirmed. The Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) score was used for the clinical assessment. The radiographic assessment was based on Southwick's angle. The mean slip angle of the femoral head was 57°. A mean correction of 47° was achieved. Based on the PMA score, good and excellent results were achieved in 20 cases (77%) and poor results occurred in 6 cases (23%). The surgical treatment had a significant effect on the PMA score (P=0.0008). In terms of complications, there were five cases of chondrolysis and one case of necrosis associated with chondrolysis. The anterior approach provides direct access to the femoral neck, and thereby a cautious osteotomy at the site of the slip itself. Use of a traction table makes the external manipulations, reduction and fixation procedures easier to carry out. The results of this study were comparable to published results. IV, retrospective treatment study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America.

    PubMed

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2016-07-01

    To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months' follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program.

  8. Alcohol use in elective total hip arthroplasty: risk or benefit?

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Villa, Jesus M; Contreras, Juan S

    2013-02-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with adverse health measures after elective surgery. The effects of low or moderate consumption remain unclear. We determined differences among patients with different consumption levels in (1) preoperative and postoperative patient-perceived outcomes and hip scores, (2) changes in those scores from preoperatively to postoperatively, (3) demographics and comorbidities, and (4) length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization charges. We retrospectively reviewed 191 patients (218 primary hips). Based on a self-administered consumption questionnaire, patients were stratified into three groups: (1) nondrinkers (n = 52), (2) occasional drinkers (n = 56), and (3) moderate drinkers (n = 17). Demographics, BMI, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade; preoperative and postoperative Quality of Well-being Scale, SF-36, WOMAC, Harris hip, and Merle d'Aubigné-Postel hip scores; and LOS and hospital charges were obtained and compared among groups adjusting for patient characteristics. Minimum followup was 1 year (mean, 3.5 years; range, 1-6 years). Most abstainers were older, female, and Hispanic. Preoperatively, moderate drinkers had better WOMAC function and total scores and Harris hip scores. There were no differences postoperatively among groups. However, nondrinkers had greater improvement (preoperative to postoperative) in the WOMAC function, pain, and total scores. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate drinkers had a higher contribution margin and net income. Alcohol consumption is more common among men and non-Hispanics. Moderate consumption was associated with better WOMAC and Harris hip scores. After surgery, abstainers achieved greater improvements in the WOMAC function, pain, and total scores. Level III, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Partial long-stem resection Austin-Moore hip endoprosthesis in the treatment of metastases to the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Chrobok, Adam; Spindel, Jerzy; Mrozek, Tomasz; Miszczyk, Leszek; Koczy, Bogdan; Tomasik, Patryk; Matysiakiewicz, Jacek

    2005-12-30

    Background. The proximal femur is a frequent location of bone metastases, and pathological fractures in this area are common. A pathological fracture and/or pain associated with bone destruction are indications for surgery. Among many methods of surgical treatment, partial resection and subsequent arthroplasty appears to be the most efficient. The low cost of the implant and the relatively simple surgical technique incline us to apply long-stem (305mm) partial Austin-Moore hip prosthesis in these cases. Material and methods. Between June 2003 and February 2005 we operated 31 patients (10 men and 21 women) for pathological fracture or proximal femur metastasis. The average age of these patients was 63.8 years. The most common primary neoplasmatic focus among the women was breast cancer (17 cases, 80%), and among the men, clarocellular renal cancer (3 cases, 34%). Results. In most cases - 21 patients (67%) - we achieved excellent or good outcome according to the Merle d'Aubigne Functional Test, as well as reasonable pain relief. Endoprosthesis dislocation occurred in 2 cases and early postoperative death in 2 other cases. Conclusions. Surgical treatment is needed in cases of actual or impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Resection arthroplasty is the method of choice in bone metastases to proximal femur. This procedure is well tolerated by patients. The use of long-stem partial Austin-Moore hip prosthesis appears to be a good alternative to costly modular implants, while its long stem protects the femoral shaft against fractures in cases where additional metastatic lesions are found there.

  10. Acetabular revision using a press-fit dual mobility cup.

    PubMed

    Massin, P; Besnier, L

    2010-02-01

    Dual mobility cups are especially indicated in total hip replacement revision, the risk of recurrent instability being greater than in primary surgery. In revision, however, primary cup fixation is uncertain without routine anchoring screws. The stability of dual mobility cups impacted without cement, supplementary screw(s) or anchoring pegs fixation is satisfactory in total hip arthroplasty acetabular component revision, and prevents instability accidents. Twenty three patients were operated on by the same surgeon between January 1999 and December 2006 and prospectively followed up to a mean 4 1/2 years (range,2-10 yrs). A Collégia cup (Wright Medical France, Créteil, France) was impacted in 23 total hip arthroplasty acetabular component revisions, including 17 cases of SOFCOT grade-1 bone-stock loss and six of grade 2. There were six clinically poor results on the Merle D'Aubigné scale. One case of early migration occurred, in a multioperated acetabulum. There was one isolated dislocation and one recurrent dislocation associated with loose greater trochanter nonunion, but tolerated as it was infrequent. This option simplifies revision surgery and limits the risk of dislocation if the abductor muscles unit is continuous. It is indicated when local bone-site compromise encompass a wall-contained cavitary defect at most. A medial wall defect, if moderate, does not in our view preclude using a primary cup, impacted with a certain degree of protrusion. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to confirm these medium-term findings. Level IV. Prospective non comparative therapeutic study. Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term functional and radiological outcomes of allograft hip prosthesis composite. A fourteen -year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dubory, Arnaud; Mascard, Eric; Dahan, Méryl; Anract, Philippe; Court, Charles; Boisgard, Stéphane; Viard, Brice; Missenard, Gilles

    2017-07-01

    Allograft hip composite prosthesis (APC) is a type of reconstruction after resection of the proximal femur. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes after an APC reconstruction. Forty-six patients were retrospectively included (14 revision total hip replacements, 30 primary malignant bone tumors, two metastasis). The mean length of femoral bone resection was 16.4 cm (7 to 27). With a mean follow-up of 14.7 years (6.3 to 32.6), Postel-Merle d'Aubigné score was 15.7 (8 to 21), Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score at 23.1 or 77% (15 to 29), and abductor strength at 3.4 (2 to 5). Allograft resorption was minor for 20 patients (44.4%), moderate for 13 patients (28.9%), and severe for 12 patients (26.7%). Host-allograft shaft bone fusion was achieved in 37 cases (84.1%). Trochanteric fracture occurred in 26 cases (59.1%). Length of femoral resection, allograft bone resorption, and trochanteric fracture did not have an effect on functional outcomes. At ten years follow-up, overall revision-free and femoral stem survivals were 54.1 ± 0.8% and 81.4 ± 0.6% respectively. No parameter evaluated influenced the survivorship. APC is a reliable reconstruction adapted for huge proximal femoral bone resections. Trochanteric fracture and allograft bone resorption do not seem to influence functional results. Level IV.

  12. The Acetabular Fracture Prognostic Nomogram: Does it Work for Fractures of the Posterior Wall?

    PubMed

    Moed, Berton R; McMahon, Megan J; Armbrecht, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    A recently proposed nomogram is an attempt to define the subset of acetabular fractures at risk for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) within 2 years of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Our objectives were to determine whether this nomogram provides information adequate to reliably (1) prognosticate outcome within 2 years after ORIF or (2) identify optimal initial treatment choice (THA vs. ORIF) for patients with a posterior wall fracture. Retrospective case series. University level 1 Trauma Center. From a database of consecutive posterior wall fractures treated by ORIF, 103 patients were identified for analysis: 6 with an unsatisfactory result at less than 2 years and 97 followed 2-14 years. Calculation of percent risk of requiring THA within 2 years using the nomogram. Comparison of this percent risk to the actual clinical outcome within 2 years after ORIF, measured in 2 ways: (1) THA performed (5 patients) and (2) overall unsatisfactory hip function determined by the modified Merle d'Aubigné score (9 patients total: the 5 with THA plus 4 additional without THA but having unsatisfactory hip function). The calculated percent risk ranged widely, with much overlap among patients having satisfactory or unsatisfactory results of ORIF. Statistical analysis did not yield a clinically useful positive predictive value: 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08-0.53] for THA and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.21-0.69) for an overall unsatisfactory clinical result. The acetabular fracture prognostic nomogram in its current form does not provide sufficient information to prognosticate outcome after ORIF or to determine appropriate surgical management for posterior wall fractures. Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. [Effectiveness of co-management between orthopaedic surgeons and internists for inpatient elders with hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Lizaur-Utrilla, Alejandro; Calduch Broseta, Juan V; Miralles Muñoz, Francisco A; Segarra Soria, Mar; Díaz Castellano, Manuel; Andreu Giménez, Lucio

    2014-11-07

    Hip fracture is a common injury in elder patients who have comorbidities, and it increases the risk of morbimortality. They could benefit from co-management (CM) between orthopaedic surgeons and internists. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of this CM. Prospective study of 138 patients over 64 years with hip fracture treated with CM care and one-year of follow-up. The control group was a cohort of 153 patients with similar criteria who had been treated with conventional care. Several pre- and postsurgical variables, complications, and potential risk factors for mortality were analyzed. The Charlson index, mental test, Katz and SF-12 quality of life questionnaires, and Merle D'Aubigné hip score were used. Surgical delay was lower in the CM cohort (P=.001). The rates of complications and readmissions were similar in both cohorts. The average stay was lower (P=.001) in the CM cohort. In-hospital and 3-month mortality were similar, but it was lower in the CM cohort at 6 (P=.04) and 12 months (P=.03). In both cohorts, gender, number of comorbidities, ASA score, Charlson index or surgery type were not predictors of mortality. Surgical delay>2 days was a predictor in the CM cohort, whereas age was a predictor in the control cohort. The final functional outcomes were similar in both cohorts. Our results show the effectiveness of this CM to reduce surgical delay, hospital stay and mortality at 6 months. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and comminuted acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for comminuted posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a comminuted posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic factors after a traumatic hip dislocation. A long-term retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Moreta, J; Foruria, X; Sánchez, A; Aguirre, U

    2017-09-06

    Traumatic hip dislocations can have devastating complications such as osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis. The aim of this study was to identify the variables and prognostic factors associated with clinical and radiological outcome after a traumatic hip dislocation at long-term follow-up. A review was performed of all dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip from January 1999 to December 2012. A computed tomography scan was performed after reduction in all cases. The Harris Hip Score and modified Merle-d'Aubigné-Postel method were used for clinical evaluation and radiological assessment was performed according to the Thompson and Epstein classification. There were 30 cases in 29 patients with a mean follow-up of 11 years (range, 4-17). The great majority were simple dislocations (21; 70%) vs. complex dislocations (9; 30%). Closed reduction was performed in less than 6h in all except one case (29; 96.7%). All of the patients with simple dislocations had an excellent outcome without radiological signs of osteoarthritis at the end of the follow-up (P<.01). Overall, arthritic signs had developed in 4 patients (13.3%) and avascular necrosis was noted in 3 patients (10%). Five patients with intraarticular fragments were treated non-operatively, and 3 of them developed arthritic changes (P<.05). Our study suggests that complex dislocations are associated with poorer functional and radiological outcomes than simple dislocations. We also found a strong association between intraarticular fragments and osteoarthritis, so surgical fragment removal could be considered in these cases. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Offset fémoral et le fonctionnement de la hanche dans la prothèse totale de la hanche

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Abdelillah; Moncef, Erraji; Najib, Abbassi; Abdeljaouad, Najib; Abdelkarim, Daudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2014-01-01

    L'offset fémoral est l’élément pronostic le plus important dans l'arthroplastie de la hanche. Sa restauration est devenue de plus en plus une obligation. Toute modification de la valeur native de l'offset retenti sur la qualité du fonctionnement clinique de la hanche. Le but de notre travail était d’évaluer le fonctionnement clinique de la hanche en fonction de la valeur de l'offset fémoral après une arthroplastie. C'est une étude rétrospective effectuée entre 2010 et 2013, comportant 27 patients ayant bénéficiés d'une arthroplastie totale de la hanche. Les patients ayant eu un geste chirurgicale antérieur sur la même hanche ou sur la hanche controlatérale ont été exclus. Les mesures ont été effectuées sur des radiographies standards de la hanche en rotation interne d'environ 15°, avec un agrandissement à 100%. Les résultats cliniques étaient évalués au moyen du score de WOMAC qui était en moyenne de 15,2 points, et le score de Merle d'Aubigné-Postel avec une moyenne de 15 points. Deux autres tests ont été évalués dans notre étude qui sont le step et le hop test. Les meilleurs résultats fonctionnels ont été obtenus chez les patients ayant eu une latéralisation de la tige fémoral avec un offset augmenté. PMID:25400835

  17. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  18. Prevention of Dislocation Risk During Hip Revision Surgery with the Dual Mobility Concept; Study of a New Generation of Dual Mobility Cups.

    PubMed

    Dangin, Antoine; Boulat, Sandrine; Farizon, Frédéric; Philippot, Rémi

    2016-10-26

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgery presenting well-known failures that may require surgical revision. To reduce the risk of hip dislocation after revision THA, we hypothesize the interest of the use of a new generation dual mobility cup by evaluating its survival and complication rates. We analyzed the survival and the failures rate of 91 patients who underwent revision THAs with a specific dual mobility cup Novae® E TH (SERF, Décines-Charpieu, France). The surgical indication for revision THAs were: 59 aseptic loosening or insert advanced wear (61.5%), 10 recurrent dislocations (10.9%), and 22 deep infections (24.1%). All patients underwent the same surgical technique and received a clinical and radiological examination. Failure of the cup was defined as an aseptic loosening; all failures were reported. During the follow up, 17 patients died and five were unaccounted for. The mean follow-up of the 86 patients included was 33 months (0-71) with a mean age of 71 years (41-99) at the time of surgery. The Postel Merle D'Aubigné (PMA) increased by 6.8 points from preoperative until the last consultation. No aseptic loosening was reported. The postoperative dislocation rate was 3.5% and 4.6% for deep infections. The overall rate for re-revision THAs was 8.1%. New choice of design and coating for the cup have demonstrated good results to reduce the rate of aseptic loosening compared to other studies. The three hip dislocations concerned two patients who had a history of recurrent dislocation and psychiatric pathologies. The limit of the study is its short follow-up, partially explained by the occurrence of 10 deaths in the first year of follow-up (lowering the mean). The use of a cementless dual mobility tripod cup for revision THA confirms its place in the possible therapeutic range by its excellent results at medium term.

  19. [Long-term clinical and radiological outcomes in a serie of 26 cases of symptomatic adult developmental dysplasia of the hip managed with bernese periacetabular osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Alcobía Díaz, B; Luque Pérez, R; García Bullón, I; Moro Rodríguez, L E; López-Durán Stern, L

    2015-01-01

    Developmental hip dysplasia is a frequent cause of coxofemoral pain in young adults. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy emerges as a possible option for the management of pain relief and functional limitation, in order to delay the need for arthroplasty in these patients. A descriptive-retrospective study was conducted on 26 selected patients with symptomatic developmental hip dysplasia treated with bernese periacetabular osteotomy between 1996 and 2009 (94% women). Mean age at time of surgery was 39.8 y (15-49 y), with a mean follow-up of 10 years. Osteoarthritis (OA Tönnis scale), acetabular index and Wiberg angle were evaluated by radiology and functionality was valued by using the de Merle-D'Aubigné-Postel scale. The mean hospitalization time was 10 days. At 10 years, the mean radiography value of acetabular index was 9.03° and 38.3° for Wiberg angle (17° and 27° correction, respectively, above the mean pre-operative values). Joint lock was referred to by 43% of patients, and 53% to non-evidence based limb failure. Mean functional value was 14.30 (Good). At 5 years of follow-up, 20% advanced at least by one grade in OA Tönnis scale compared to their pre-operative status, increasing to 55% at 10 years. At 10 years after surgery, 83% patients did not need arthroplasty and 85% showed high satisfaction level. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is a useful alternative in young adults with symptomatic developmental hip dysplasia that can improve pain relief, femoral head coverage, and slow down coxofemoral osteoarthrosis progression in order to delay arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Simplified method to measure glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces of horses.

    PubMed

    Flauger, Birgit; Krueger, Konstanze; Gerhards, Hartmut; Möstl, Erich

    2010-02-01

    Glucocorticoids or their metabolites can be measured in several body fluids or excreta, including plasma, saliva, urine and faeces. In recent years the measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has gained increasing attention, because of its suitability for wild populations. In horses, however, the group-specific enzyme immunoassay described so far has a limited practicability due to its complex extraction procedure. Therefore, we tested the applicability of other enzyme immunoassays for glucocorticoid metabolites. The present study clearly proved that an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for 11-oxoaetiocholanolone using 11-oxoaetiocholanolone-17-CMO: BSA (3alpha,11-oxo-A EIA) as antigen showed high amounts of immunoreactive substances. Therefore it was possible to use just a small amount of the supernatant of a methanolic suspension of faeces. The results correlated well with the already described method for measuring GCMs in horse faeces, i.e. analysing the samples with an EIA after a two step clean up procedure of the samples (Merl et al. 2000). In addition, the 3alpha,11-oxo-A EIA has the advantage of providing a bigger difference between baseline values and peak values after ACTH stimulation. The new assay increased the accuracy of the test, lowered the expenses per sample, and storing samples at room temperature after collection was less critical than with other assays investigated in our study. This is a big advantage both in the field of wildlife management of equids and in the field of equestrian sports and it shows the importance of choosing an assay which is in good accordance with the metabolites excreted in a given species.

  1. Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Girard, Julien; Bocquet, Donatien; Autissier, Guillaume; Fouilleron, Nicolas; Fron, Damien; Migaud, Henri

    2010-10-20

    Total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than thirty years of age represents a long-term challenge. As polyethylene wear secondary to a high activity level could be problematic, hard-on-hard bearings have been proposed to reduce wear. The aim of this retrospective case series was to assess the clinical and radiographic results of primary metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger. We retrospectively studied thirty-four patients (forty-seven hips) who had undergone metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and analyzed the radiographic and clinical measurements after a mean duration of follow-up of 108 months (range, 62.4 to 153.6 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was twenty-five years (range, fifteen to thirty years). The diameter of the head of the femoral component was 28 mm in all hips except five, in which it was 32 mm. The metal-on-metal bearing was the same in all patients. The mean Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 10.6 (range, 1 to 14) to 17.1 (range, 12 to 18). No wear was found on the latest radiograph, but osteolysis was noted in three femora and two acetabula. Two revisions were performed, one because of impingement secondary to cup malorientation and the other because of acetabular loosening with osteolysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with revision of either component as the end point revealed a ten-year survival rate of 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 98.6%). The survival rate of the femoral stem was 100%. These encouraging intermediate-term results indicate that hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal bearing components may be a suitable solution for young and active patients with hip osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  2. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  3. The use of femoral struts and impacted cancellous bone allograft in patients with severe femoral bone loss who undergo revision total hip replacement: a three- to nine-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buttaro, M A; Costantini, J; Comba, F; Piccaluga, F

    2012-02-01

    We determined the midterm survival, incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and the enhancement of the width of the femur when combining struts and impacted bone allografts in 24 patients (25 hips) with severe femoral bone loss who underwent revision hip surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was aseptic loosening in 16 hips, second-stage reconstruction in seven, peri-prosthetic fracture in one and stem fracture in one hip. A total of 14 hips presented with an Endoklinik grade 4 defect and 11 hips a grade 3 defect. The mean pre-operative Merle D'Aubigné and Postel score was 5.5 points (1 to 8). The survivorship was 96% (95% confidence interval 72 to 98) at a mean of 54.5 months (36 to 109). The mean functional score was 17.3 points (16 to 18). One patient in which the strut did not completely bypass the femoral defect was further revised using a long cemented stem due to peri-prosthetic fracture at six months post-operatively. The mean subsidence of the stem was 1.6 mm (1 to 3). There was no evidence of osteolysis, resorption or radiolucencies during follow-up in any hip. Femoral width was enhanced by a mean of 41% (19% to 82%). A total of 24 hips had partial or complete bridging of the strut allografts. This combined biological method was associated with a favourable survivorship, a low incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture and enhancement of the width of the femur in revision total hip replacement in patients with severe proximal femoral bone loss.

  4. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data For the Environment Ageing of Coflon (PVDF). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    This report aims to identify correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological structure changes for Coflon. It is intended both to illustrate the overall methodology and to indicate the testing that needs to be undertaken in order to obtain correlations. Many fluid exposures have now been carried out on Coflon during the project and many data generated as a result. The report summarises the changes observed in mechanical and physical properties and relates these as well as possible to the chemistry thought to be occurring during ageing. For this purpose, data have been collated from already-issued MERL and TRI technical and progress reports. Most of the mechanical testing of aged testpieces has been performed soon after the completion of the exposure; however, there is of necessity a delay in obtaining chemical analysis of the same testpieces, so that more physical than chemical data are shown. Three fluids have so far caused measurable deterioration of Coflon, these being: methanol (Fluid A), a methanol and amine mixture (Fluid G), and a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen sulphide gas plus aqueous amine (Fluid F). Only the effects of these fluids will be dealt with in any detail in this report, although other fluids are assessed to give relevant background information. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, mode of sample failure at break, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate and resistance, stress relaxation rate, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity and molecular weight distributions together with changes in fluorine levels, and other observations where appropriate. However, not all of these were obtained for every ageing condition. Because of the wide range of tests employed, and the different ways in which their results are obtained, the following section has been included to serve as a background for making comparisons.

  5. Outcomes at least 10 years after cemented PF® (Zimmer) total hip arthroplasty: 83 cases.

    PubMed

    Aubault, M; Druon, J; Le Nail, L; Rosset, P

    2013-06-01

    Cementless total hip arthroplasty (TKA) is gaining ground over cemented TKA. The objective of this study was to assess survival rates of a cemented THA implant (PF(®), Zimmer), after at least 10 years and to assess changes in acetabular bone structure. Eighty-three ceramic-on-polyethylene THA prostheses were implanted between 1998 and 2001. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Harris hip score and Postel Merle d'Aubigné score. For each hip, radiographs were examined for acetabular radiolucent lines, geodes, and granulomas; in addition, changes in bone structure and trabeculae were assessed comparatively to the other hip and classified from no change to severe osteolysis. Changes in trabeculae served to assess the loads applied to the bone. Polyethylene wear was assessed using the Livermore method. A single patient was lost to follow-up. At last follow-up, 16 patients had died and six were contacted and had not required revision surgery; the remaining 52 patients (59 THAs) were re-evaluated and none had evidence of loosening. The Harris hip score at last evaluation was 91.6 compared to 60.5 preoperatively. No hips had evidence of acetabular osteolysis. For two hips, the radiographs showed complete acetabular radiolucent lines less than 2mm in width, with no mobilisation. Trabecular distribution was homogeneous with no stress shielding. Mean annual rate of wear was 0.08mm. No instances of femoral component loosening were recorded; granulomas involving no more than five Gruën zones were seen in three cases. This study confirms the reliability of cemented THA, with a 12-year survival rate of 98.3%, in keeping with earlier data. Thus, our results establish that cemented ceramic-on-polyethylene prostheses remain valid options for THA. IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Transformation of apple (Malus × domestica) using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase as a selectable marker and analysis of the T-DNA integration sites.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  8. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  9. Transgenic grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.): factors influencing agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Barik, D P; Mohapatra, U; Chand, P K

    2005-11-01

    A reproducible procedure was developed for genetic transformation of grasspea using epicotyl segment co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Two disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA 105 and LBA 4404, both carrying the binary plasmid p35SGUSINT with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the beta-glucuronidase (gus)-intron, were studied as vector systems. The latter was found to have a higher transforming ability. Several key factors modifying the transformation rate were optimized. The highest transformation rate was achieved using hand-pricked explants for infection with an Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD(600) congruent with 0.6 and diluted to a cell density of 10(9) cells ml(-1) for 10 min, followed by co-cultivation for 4 days in a medium maintained at pH 5.6. Putative transformed explants capable of forming shoots were selected on regeneration medium containing kanamycin (100 mug ml(-1)). We achieved up to 36% transient expression based on the GUS histochemical assay. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA of the kanamycin-resistant GUS-expressive shoots to a gus-intron probe substantiated the integration of the transgene. Transformed shoots were rooted on half-strength MS containing 0.5 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid, acclimated in vermi-compost and established in the experimental field. Germ-line transformation was evident through progeny analysis. Among T(1) seedlings of most transgenic plant lines, kanamycin-resistant and -sensitive plants segregated in a ratio close to 3:1.

  10. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  11. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Cassia alata leaf acetone extract and fractions on Haemonchus contortus: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-05-01

    The failure of modern anthelmintics to control nematode parasites of sheep and goats is a reality on many farms in the tropical/subtropical regions of the world. This necessitates chemotherapeutic control alternatives and plant secondary metabolite with activity is one of those potential solutions. This study was design to evaluate the efficacy of solvent: solvent fractions of Cassia alata Gelenggang Besar (Leguminosae) leaf acetone extract against Heamonchus contortus Rudolphi (Trichostrongylidae). C. alata leaf was extracted with 70% acetone and fractions were obtained by solvent: solvent group separation procedures. The acetone extract and the fractions were tested by egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development and viability assay to assess relative bioactivity against H. contortus eggs and larvae. The extracts inhibited egg hatchability and killed infective larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. The best-fit LC(50) values were 0.562, 0.243, 0.490, 0.314, and 0.119 mg/mL for the acetone extract, chloroform, hexane, butanol and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively, when tested against nematode eggs. The best-fit LC(50) values were 0.191, 0.505, 1.444, 0.306, and 0.040 mg/mL for acetone extract, chloroform, hexane, butanol and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively, when tested against larvae. The 35% water in methanol fraction was the most active against the larvae and eggs of H. contortus demonstrating the lowest LC(50) values This study demonstrates that the leaf extracts of C. alata have anthelmintic activity; therefore it could find application in the control of helminths in livestock.

  12. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  13. Immunocompetent truncated E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed in Nicotiana tabacum plants: a candidate antigen for new generation of veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2012-06-22

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Mining Cities Based on Landscape Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, M.; Fang, F.; Xiao, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem health assessment (EHA) is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005-2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  15. UV ageing studies: evaluation of lightfastness declarations of commercial acrylic paints.

    PubMed

    Pintus, Valentina; Wei, Shuya; Schreiner, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    The lightfastness declarations of several different commercial acrylic paints and different quality series were tested by artificial UV ageing. To evaluate their lightfastness declarations, three acrylic colours (cadmium red, ultramarine blue and chromium oxide green) from six companies (Lascaux, Liquitex, Lukas, Rembrandt, Schmincke, and Winsor & Newton) were analysed before and after UV exposure. Characterisation and identification of these materials were carried out with Py-GC/MS, FTIR-ATR analyses, and colour measurements. Particular attention was focused on the Py-GC/MS measurements and on comparison of the single-shot method for pyrolysis of polymers and the double-shot mode which enables a unique combination of pyrolysis methods for analysis of polymers and thermal desorption for documentation of the volatile compounds. Depending on the particular company and the specific value of the lightfastness declaration, different binding media (i.e. poly(EA/MMA), poly(nBA/MMA), and poly(2-EHA/MMA)), and fillers (i.e. kaolinite, calcium carbonate, barite, and talc) were characterised and identified by Py-GC/MS and FTIR-ATR analyses. After UV exposure, several alteration processes with consequent formation of volatile compounds or new products were observed by both techniques, especially for the blue paints. In particular, the double-shot mode of Py-GC/MS enabled the detection of oxidation products, which could not be detected with the single-shot mode. Comparison of the lightfastness declarations for each of the blue, green, and red paints and the noted alterations broadly agreed for most of the paints.

  16. Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE) for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sichwart, Shanna; Tozakidis, Iasson E.P.; Teese, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new optimized system for the surface display and secretion of recombinant proteins is described, termed MATE (maximized autotransporter-mediated expression). It is based on an artificial gene consisting of the coding region for the signal peptide of CtxB, a multiple cloning site for passenger gene insertion, flanked by coding sequences for linear epitopes for monoclonal antibodies and OmpT, and factor Xa protease cleavage sites followed by a codon-optimized DNA sequence of the linker and the β-barrel of the type V autotransporter EhaA from Escherichia coli under control of an IPTG-inducible T5 promoter. The MATE system enabled the continuous secretion of recombinant passenger mCherry via OmpT-mediated cleavage, using native OmpT protease activity in E. coli when grown at 37 °C. It is the first example to show that native OmpT activity is sufficient to facilitate the secretion of a correctly folded target protein in preparative amounts obtaining 240 µg of purified mCherry from 800 mL of crude culture supernatant. Because the release of mCherry was achieved by a simple transfer of the encoding plasmid from an OmpT-negative to an OmpT-positive strain, it bears the option to use surface display for screening purposes and secretion for production of the selected variant. A single plasmid could therefore be used for continuous secretion in OmpT-positive strains or surface display in OmpT-negative strains. In conclusion, the MATE system appears to be a versatile tool for the surface display and for the secretion of target proteins in E. coli. PMID:27904356

  17. Purple-leaved Ficus lyrata plants produced by overexpressing a grapevine VvMybA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jietang; Li, Zhijian T; Chen, Juan; Henny, Richard J; Gray, Dennis J; Chen, Jianjun

    2013-11-01

    This study established an efficient method of regenerating plants of Ficus lyrata and producing purple-leaved F. lyrata plants through genetic transformation using a VvMybA1 gene of grapevine. Ficus lyrata, a species with unique violin- or guitar-shaped leaves, was regenerated from leaf-derived calli cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.5 μM N-phenyl-N'-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (TDZ) and 0.5 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Leaf discs were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring a binary vector DEAT that contains the VvMybA1 gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene and subsequently cultured on the established regeneration medium supplemented with 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Results showed that 87.5 % of the leaf discs produced kanamycin-resistant callus, and 68.8 % of them produced adventitious shoots. Transgenic plants with three leaf colors including green, green-purple, and purple were produced. Regular and quantitative real-time PCR analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes into the host genome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the VvMybA1 gene was responsible for the purple-colored phenotype. Purple-leaved plants with strong color stability grew vigorously in a greenhouse. This study illustrated the feasibility of using a genetically engineered VvMybA1 gene for drastic modification of leaf color of an important woody ornamental plant.

  18. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    EHA reaches to 215.287. We deem our method can be wielded to diverse applications in the future.

  19. Production of marker-free disease-resistant potato using isopentenyl transferase gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The use of antibiotic or herbicide resistant genes as selection markers for production of transgenic plants and their continuous presence in the final transgenics has been a serious problem for their public acceptance and commercialization. MAT (multi-auto-transformation) vector system has been one of the different strategies to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. In the present study, ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene was used as a selection marker gene. A chitinase gene, ChiC (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) was used as a gene of interest. ChiC gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH1 to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The infected tuber discs of potato were cultured on hormone- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Seven of the 35 explants infected with the pMAT21/ChiC produced shoots. The same antibiotic- and hormones-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the shoots (ipt like and normal shoots). Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of gene of interest and excision of the selection marker in 3 of the 7 clones. Expression of ChiC gene was confirmed by Northern blot and western blot analyses. Disease-resistant assay of the marker-free transgenic, in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani (early blight), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt). From these results it could be concluded that ipt gene can be used as a selection marker to produce marker-free disease-resistant transgenic potato plants on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium.

  20. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  1. Governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, K.; Takemura, K.; Fukagata, K.; Yokota, S.; Edamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    An electro-conjugation fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric liquid, which generates a powerful flow when high DC voltage is applied with tiny electrodes. This study deals with the derivation of the governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow based on the Korteweg-Helmholtz (KH) equation which represents the force in dielectric liquid subjected to high DC voltage. The governing equations consist of the Gauss's law, charge conservation with charge recombination, the KH equation, the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The KH equation consists of coulomb force, dielectric constant gradient force and electrostriction force. The governing equation gives the distribution of electric field, charge density and flow velocity. In this study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in order to get these distribution at arbitrary time. Successive over-relaxation (SOR) method is used in analyzing Gauss's law and constrained interpolation pseudo-particle (CIP) method is used in analyzing charge conservation with charge recombination. The third order Runge-Kutta method and conservative second-order-accurate finite difference method is used in analyzing the Navier-Stokes equations with the KH equation. This study also deals with the measurement of ECF ow generated with a symmetrical pole electrodes pair which are made of 0.3 mm diameter piano wire. Working fluid is FF-1EHA2 which is an ECF family. The flow is observed from the both electrodes, i.e., the flow collides in between the electrodes. The governing equation successfully calculates mean flow velocity in between the collector pole electrode and the colliding region by the numerical simulation.

  2. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-03-17

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were.

  3. Fugong virus, a novel hantavirus harbored by the small oriental vole (Eothenomys eleusis) in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Yang, Wei-Hong; Pan, Hong; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Han, Xi; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Desmond, James S; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhang, Yun-Zhi

    2016-02-16

    Rodents are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses, which cause two disease types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Hantaviruses related human cases have been observed throughout Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. To date, 23 distinct species of hantaviruses, hosted by reservoir, have been identified. However, the diversity and number of hantaviruses are likely underestimated in China, and hantavirus species that cause disease in many regions, including Yunnan province, are unknown. In August 2012, we collected tissue samples from 189 captured animals, including 15 species belonging to 10 genera, 5 families, and 4 orders in Fugong county, Yunnan province, China. Seven species were positive for hantavirus: Eothenomys eleusis (42/94), Apodemus peninsulae (3/25), Niviventer eha (3/27), Cryptotis montivaga (2/8), Anourosorex squamipes (1/1), Sorex araneus (1/1), and Mustela sibirica (1/2). We characterized one full-length genomic sequence of the virus (named fugong virus, FUGV) from a small oriental vole (Eothenomys eleusis). The full-length sequences of the small, medium, and large segments of FUGV were 1813, 3630, and 6531 nt, respectively. FUGV was most closely related to hantavirus LX309, a previously reported species detected in the red-backed vole in Luxi county, Yunnan province, China. However, the amino acid sequences of nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein (G), and large protein (L) were highly divergent from those of Hantavirus LX309, with amino acid differences of 11.2, 15.3, and 12.7 %, respectively. In phylogenetic trees, FUGV clustered in the lineage corresponding to hantaviruses carried by rodents in the subfamily Arvicolinae. High prevalence of hantavirus infection in small mammals was found in Fugong county, Yunnan province, China. A novel hantavirus species FUGV was identified from the small oriental vole. This virus is phylogenetic clustering with another hantavirus LX309, but shows

  4. Determination of low-level ink photoinitiator residues in packaged milk by solid-phase extraction and LC-ESI/MS/MS using triple-quadrupole mass analyzer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong-xu; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ding, Tao; Xu, Jin-zhong; Shen, Chong-yu

    2009-12-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous determination of seven photoinitiator residues: benzophenone, (1-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenylketone (Irgacure 184), isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), 2-ethylhexyl-(4-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHA or EHDAB), 2-methyl-1-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone (Irgacure 907), (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) and 2-benzyl-2-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1-butanone (Irgacure 369) in packaged milk and related packaging materials. Residues of photoinitiators were extracted from milk using acetonitrile, and further enriched and purified on HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges prior to being analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring mode, while photoinitiators in packaging materials were extracted using the same solvent. Satisfactory recovery (from 80 to 111%), intra- and inter-day precision (below 12%), and low limits of quantification (from 0.1 to 5.0 microg kg(-1)) were evaluated from spiked samples at three concentration levels (5.0, 10.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for Irgacure 184 and 2.5, 5.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for others). These excellent validation data suggested the possibility of using the LC-ESI/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of low-level photoinitiator residues migrating from printed food-packaging materials into milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real samples of different fat contents ranging from 8 to 30 g L(-1). The photoinitiator residues were revealed to be higher in milk with higher fat content and the most important contaminations were benzophenone and ITX in concentration ranges of 2.84-18.35 and 0.83-8.87 microg kg(-1), respectively.

  5. How Can a Little Shrimp Do so Much Damage?: Ecosystem Service Losses Associated with Land Cover Change in Mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Bhomia, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves provide a number of ecosystem services including habitats for many species of fish and shellfish, storm protection, influences on water quality, wood, aesthetics, and a source of nutrients and energy for adjacent marine ecosystems. C stocks of mangroves are among the highest of any forest type on Earth. We have measured the ecosystem carbon stocks in mangroves across the world and found them to range from 250 to >2000 Mg C/ha which is a CO2 equivalence of 917 to 7340 Mg/ha. Because the numerous values of mangroves are well known, it is ironic that rates of deforestation largely relating to land use/land cover change are among the highest of any forest type on earth exceeding that of tropical rain forests. Dominant causes of deforestation include conversion to aquaculture (shrimp), agricultural conversion, and coastal development. The carbon emissions arising from conversion of mangroves to other uses is exceptionally high. This is because vulnerability of the soil carbon stocks to losses with conversion. Emissions from conversion of mangrove to shrimp ponds range from about 800 to over 3000 Mg CO2e/ha. This places the carbon footprint of shrimp arising from such ponds as among the highest of any food product available. Of great interest is the potential value of mangroves in carbon marketing strategies and other financial incentives that are derived from the conservation of standing forests. This is because of the combination of high carbon stocks in intact mangroves, the high greenhouse gas emissions arising from their conversion, and the conservation of other valuable ecosystem services provided by intact mangroves.

  6. Unravelling Orbital Climatic Cycles from Devonian Magnetic Susceptibility Signal - The Quest for a Better Age Model for the Lochkovian and Pragian Stages (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. C.; Chadimova, L.; Hladil, J.; Slavik, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. When shown to reflect a detrital signal, which is influenced by climatic variations, Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) has been proven as a useful tool for identifying climatic cycles; which can subsequently be used to improve the time scale. Here, we focus on two sections from the Prague Synform (Czech Republic) cutting through the Lochkovian, Pragian and the lower part of the Emsian. Sedimentation is rhythmic, dominated by slightly clayey offshore limestones, being mostly calciturbidites and hemipelagites. We provide hysteresis analysis in order to get insight into the nature and the origin of the magnetic minerals driving the variation in the MS signal. The results point to a MS signal mostly carried by clay minerals. Subsequently, to improve estimation of the duration of the stages, we apply different spectral analysis techniques on this MS signal. From the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Evolutive Harmonic Analysis (EHA) and field observations, we subdivide the section into portions with a steady sedimentation rate (a first estimate of this rate is also delivered by these analyzes). Then, we apply Multitaper Method (MTM) and Multitaper harmonic Analysis (F-test) and extract the frequencies reaching 95% Confidence Level. These frequencies are then implemented into the Average Spectral Misfit procedures (ASM) which enables comparison with orbital targets. By combining these different techniques, 405 kyr cyclicty is identifed, a powerful duration paleochronometer. These new results indicate a duration of 7.7 ± 2 Myr for the Lochkovian stage and of 1.7 Myr ± 1.4 for the Pragian stage (compared to respectively 8.4 ± 6 Myr and 3.2 ± 5.4 Myr in the 2012 Geological Time Scale).

  7. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  8. Modification of PVC/ENR blend by electron beam irradiation: effect of crosslinking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, C. T.; Zaman, K.

    1999-05-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of PVC/ENR blends, they were irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine with doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy. Changes in mechanical properties of the blends with increasing irradiation dose were investigated. In an attempt to maximize the beneficial effect of irradiation, the influence of multifunctional acrylates (MFA) such as TMPTA, HDDA and EHA on the 70/30 PVC/ENR blend was investigated. The properties studied include hardness, gel fraction, tensile strength, elongation at break and glass transition temperature. The results revealed that all mechanical properties increased with increasing irradiation dose with exception of elongation at break. The enhancement in blend properties was further improved by addition of MFA. This is attributed to the increase in crosslink density. The steady increase in gel fraction with irradiation dose and the shifting of the irradiation those towards a lower value to achieve 70% gel fraction upon addition of MFA has provided evidence for significant increase in crosslink density. Among the MFA employed in this studies, TMPTA was found to render highest mechanical properties to the blend with irradiation. Thus, TMPTA can be useful as an efficient crosslink enhancer to PVC/ENR blends. Results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated radiation-induced crosslinks formed in PVC/ENR blends sensitized by TMPTA. The single glass transition temperature obtained confirms that the blend remains miscible upon irradiation with the presence of TMPTA. The changes in blend properties upon irradiation with the addition of acrylated polyurethene (PU) oligomer are also presented in this paper.

  9. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  10. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae.

  11. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination.

  12. A simple and reliable multi-gene transformation method for switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoichi; Shirakawa, Makoto; Koumoto, Yasuko; Honda, Masaho; Asami, Yuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-07-01

    A simple and reliable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method was developed for switchgrass. Using this method, many transgenic plants carrying multiple genes-of-interest could be produced without untransformed escape. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising biomass crop for bioenergy. To obtain transgenic switchgrass plants carrying a multi-gene trait in a simple manner, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was established by constructing a Gateway-based binary vector, optimizing transformation conditions and developing a novel selection method. A MultiRound Gateway-compatible destination binary vector carrying the bar selectable marker gene, pHKGB110, was constructed to introduce multiple genes of interest in a single transformation. Two reporter gene expression cassettes, GUSPlus and gfp, were constructed independently on two entry vectors and then introduced into a single T-DNA region of pHKGB110 via sequential LR reactions. Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101 carrying the resultant binary vector pHKGB112 and caryopsis-derived compact embryogenic calli were used for transformation experiments. Prolonged cocultivation for 7 days followed by cultivation on media containing meropenem improved transformation efficiency without overgrowth of Agrobacterium, which was, however, not inhibited by cefotaxime or Timentin. In addition, untransformed escape shoots were completely eliminated during the rooting stage by direct dipping the putatively transformed shoots into the herbicide Basta solution for a few seconds, designated as the 'herbicide dipping method'. It was also demonstrated that more than 90 % of the bar-positive transformants carried both reporters delivered from pHKGB112. This simple and reliable transformation method, which incorporates a new selection technique and the use of a MultiRound Gateway-based binary vector, would be suitable for producing a large number of transgenic lines carrying multiple genes.

  13. 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Diamos, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Sun H.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  14. The genome-wide expression profile of Scrophularia ningpoensis-treated thapsigargin-stimulated U-87MG cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Jeon, Sung-Bae; Lee, Beom-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Yangseok; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2009-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal site for protein synthesis, protein folding, calcium storage, and calcium signaling. Thapsigargin (TG), an inducer of ER stress, inhibits ER-associated Ca(2+)-ATPase and disrupts Ca(2+) homeostasis. ER stress plays an important pathogenetic role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and prion protein diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective mechanisms of Scrophularia ningpoensis (SN) extracts and chemicals on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells. In this study, the recovery activities of E-harpagoside (EHA), harpagide (HA), 8-O-E-p-methoxycinnamoylharpagide (MH), aucubin (AB), cinnamic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (pCA), p-methoxycinnamic acid methyl ester (MME), caffeic acid (CFA), ferulic acid (FA), and (E)-p-methoxycinnamic acid (MA) on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells were evaluated. The results revealed that SN, MME, CFA, and MH showed considerable recovery effects. Therefore, SN, MME, CFA, and MH were selected to evaluate the gene expression profile of U-87MG cells by using microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR. The results of this analysis revealed that cell cycle, proliferation, protein folding, and anti-apoptosis-related genes were up-regulated in SN, MME, CFA, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. In addition, significant decreases in apoptosis, the MAPK signaling pathway, and mitochondria-related gene expressions were observed in SN-, MME-, CFA-, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. Thus, SN, MME, CFA, and MH might affect neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA₃, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 μM acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses.

  16. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  17. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  18. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O22:H8 isolated from cattle reduces E. coli O157:H7 adherence in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, L; Albanese, A; Vilte, D; Cantet, R; Bentancor, A; Zolezzi, G; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Rivas, M; Mercado, E C; Cataldi, A

    2017-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection. In order to assess the basis of the interference, three STEC strains were isolated from STEC persistently-colonized healthy cattle from a dairy farm in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The three isolated strains are E. coli O22:H8 and carry the stx1 and stx2d genes. The activatable activity of Stx2d was demonstrated in vitro. The three strains carry the adhesins iha, ehaA and lpfO113. E. coli O22:H8 formed stronger biofilms in abiotic surface than E. coli O157:H7 (eae+, stx2+) and displayed a more adherent phenotype in vitro towards HeLa cells. Furthermore, when both serotypes were cultured together O22:H8 could reduce O157:H7 adherence in vitro. When calves were intragastrically pre-challenged with 10(8) CFU of a mixture of the three STEC strains and two days later challenged with the same dose of the strain E. coli O157:H7 438/99, the shedding of the pathogen was significantly reduced. These results suggest that E. coli O22:H8, a serotype rarely associated with human illness, might compete with O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction, making non-O157 carrying-calves less susceptible to O157:H7 colonization and shedding of the bacteria to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Takahira, R K; Juliani, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2012-05-25

    Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-old lambs with mean body weight (BW) of 22.5 kg were experimentally infected with a multidrug-resistant Haemonchus contortus strain. Infected animals were dosed orally with Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil to evaluate its anthelmintic potential. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups of six animals, and each received one of the following treatments: Group 1 - control (10 mL of water), Group 2 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (180 mg/kg BW); and Group 3 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (360 mg/kg BW). Animals received the oil once a day for 3 consecutive days. Lambs were evaluated clinically for blood biochemistry before, at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after treatment, and then were euthanized to assess the total worm burden. No statistically significant reduction in fecal egg count, packed cell volume or total worm count was observed after treatments. Also, no statistical difference among group means for blood levels of urea, creatinine, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase was found. Larval development assay (LDA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) were performed from feces of treated animals at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days after essential oil administration. An inhibition in LDA was observed 1 day after the 3-day treatment in larvae from feces of animals treated with 360 mg/kg essential oil. In conclusion, the essential oil at the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg was safe to sheep, but failed as an anthelmintic treatment when applied to young sheep artificially infected with a multidrug-resistant H. contortus strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests

    PubMed Central

    Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  1. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  2. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections.

    PubMed

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario; Harel, Josée

    2015-12-28

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment.

  3. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  4. [Reconstruction of complex acetabular fractures using the extensile kocher-langenbeck approach (modified maryland approach).].

    PubMed

    Braun, W; Mayr, E; Rüter, A

    1997-06-01

    seen (Brooker grade II). Using the classification of Merle D'Aubigné we had 1 excellent, very good, 2 good and 1 satisfactory result.

  5. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  6. [Application of three-dimensional printing personalized acetabular wing-plate in treatment of complex acetabular fractures via lateral-rectus approach].

    PubMed

    Mai, J G; Gu, C; Lin, X Z; Li, T; Huang, W Q; Wang, H; Tan, X Y; Lin, H; Wang, Y M; Yang, Y Q; Jin, D D; Fan, S C

    2017-03-01

    patients had achieved bone union. According to the modified Merle D'Aubigné and Postel scoring system, 5 cases were excellent, 2 cases were good, 1 case was fair. Conclusions: Surgical management of complex acetabular fracture via lateral-rectus approach combine with 3D printing personalized acetabular wing-plate can effectively improve reduction quality and fixation effect. It will be truly accurate, personalized and minimally invasive.

  7. [Results of the GECO series].

    PubMed

    Jenny, J -Y

    1996-12-01

    301 hip prostheses were implanted in patients under the age of 50 years. All patients were followed for a minimal period of 3 years or until revision. The young age is due to the etiologies: femoral head necrosis, congenital hip dislocation, post-traumatic arthrosis. The implanted prostheses were of different types: both components were usually cementless; most bearing surfaces were alumina-polyethylene, with a head diameter of 32 or 28 mm. Patients were followed for 3 to 18 years after implantation (mean: 7 years). At the last follow-up, 59 prostheses (20%) had been exchanged; 232 cases had a good functional result according to Merle d'Aubigné (77% of the whole series and 96% of the surviving prostheses). The non revised patients mostly had an excellent result with regard to pain, range of motion and gait, and 85% returned to work.The final X-ray examinations of surviving prostheses showed 22% acetabular and 25% femoral radiolucent lines without loosening, 7% severe acetabular polyethylene wear. 3% of acetabular and 9% of femoral prostheses had migrated, mostly during the first months after cementless implantation with subsequent stabilisation.Revisions were performed after 6 months to 16 years. Main reasons were primary instability of a cementless implant (14 cases), secondary instability of a cementless implant (18 cases) and loosening of a cemented implant (18 cases). The global survival rate is 67% after 10 years, and 47% after 14 years. The survival rate of cemented cups was higher than screwed uncemented cups after 12 years (73% vs 59% - p<0,05), and there was no difference with uncemented press-fit cups after 7 years (95% vs 90%). The survival rate of cemented cups was higher than uncoated uncemented cups after 13 years(67% vs 53% -p<0,05), and there was no difference with hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented cups after 5 years (97% vs 93%). There was no difference between survival rates of cemented or cementless femoral prosthesis after 12 years (63% vs 54

  8. [Second-generation metal bearings in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty: rationale, French homologation and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, C

    2000-12-01

    Long-term outcome of Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in young active patients is impaired worldwide due to wear of the polyethylene (PE) component and osteolysis. In the late eighties, reports of possible low wear with some former metal on metal total hip arthroplasties led to the reintroduction of metallic bearings. The aims of this work were to examine the rationale for using metal on metal bearings in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and report preliminary results obtained with cementless Metasul -Alloclassic hips. From January 1994 to March 1997, 64 cementless primary Alloclassic-THA (grit-blasted titanium SL stems and CSF treaded cups) with 28 mm Metasul bearings were performed. Mean age at surgery was 60 years (range, 36-73). Diagnoses were usual, mainly primary osteoarthrosis in 70 p. 100 of the hips. Two bearing surfaces were exchanged for late dislocation at 2.6 and 2.9 years. Thus, 62 hips in 58 active patients (4 bilateral) were reviewed after a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.2 years, range 24-66 months). Clinical results according to the Merle d'Aubigne and Charnley rating system were graded excellent or good in all 62 hips. Radiologically, calcar, atrophy and spot welds were noted in 93 p. 100 and 82 p. 100 of hips respectively. Proximal reactive and lucent lines and mild proximal stress shielding were observed in 8 p. 100 and 4.8 p. 100 of hips respectively. No osteolysis granuloma has thus far been observed in the vicinity of any component. Cobalt blood level remained normal, except in 6 cases due to occupational exposure (n=1), possible impingement (n=1) or an unknown cause (n=4). All elevated cobalt levels (range 7 to 25 microg/l) were nevertheless far below the toxic limit. Dislocation may be due either to the posterolateral surgical approach and/or early impingement with the first Metasul bearing design (head sleeve). Metasul acetabular component fixation is not restricted to only cementless metal-backing, unlike alumina-ceramic cups

  9. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  10. Small diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 13 years - a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tardy, N; Maqdes, A; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Oger, P

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, the properties of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings are better for wear, osteolysis and longevity. However, follow-up studies of more than 10 years are rare, in particular with hybrid fixation (cemented stainless steel stems and cementless cup), therefore we evaluated the results of this combination after a mean follow-up of 12.8 years: (1) to analyze the survival rate, (2) to compare it with the survival rate in the same series after 6.4 years (95.8% cup, 94.8% stem), (3) to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcome and (4) to analyze these failures. The number of revisions would increase after 10 years. We evaluated 106 total hip arthroplasties (THA) (Cedior™ press-fit cup with cemented Acora™ (n=50) and Exafit™ (n=56) stems and 28mm Metasul™ bearings performed between January 1999 and December 2002. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical assessment included the Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) and Oxford scores. The radiographic assessment evaluated radiolucencies and osteolysis on standard X-rays. A histological analysis was only performed during revision THA. After a mean 12.8 years of follow-up (10-16), 53 THA were reviewed in 48 patients. Thirteen THA revisions (14%) were performed including 11 aseptic revisions (5 stem fractures, 2 cases of impingement and 3 loosenings [1 bipolar and 3 cups] and one case of osteolysis). Overall survival, taking into account revision for aseptic loosening, was 87.6% (CI 95%=77.3 to 99.3%). The mean PMA and Oxford scores at the final follow-up were 17.6±0.8 points (16-18) and 16.5±5.2 points (12-38) respectively. The radiological follow-up mainly identified radiolucencies around the stem in Gruen zones 1 and 7 (17 and 21% respectively). The survival rate of hybrid MoM THA in this series decreased after 10 years and is lower than studies evaluating cementless THA with the 28-mm Metasul™ bearings (90.9 to 100% survival). Although the clinical results are

  11. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles and individual ferromagnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    The ultrafast magnetization dynamics of magnetic materials can be investigated using femtosecond laser pulses to perform femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday measurements [1]. In this talk, we will focus on the magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles which are either ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic at room temperature and on the dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots. In the first case (Co nanoparticles), we will demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics preceding the fluctuations over the anisotropy energy barrier is coherent but exhibits a strongly damped precession [2]. These results, which have been obtained with a three dimensional analysis of the magnetization vector [3] will be discussed in the context of the N'eel-Brown models involving the gyromagnetic character of the magnetization. We will also examine the dynamics of self-organized supra-crystals of cobalt nanoparticles [4]. In the second case, we will present the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots (CoPt3, Permalloy, Nickel) made either by e-beam lithography or induced optically on thin films deposited on sapphire and glass substrates. The technique employed is the magneto-optical pump probe imaging (MOPPI) which allows performing time resolved magneto-optical Kerr images with with spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 nm and 150 fs [5]. The study of the demagnetization of the dots for different laser intensities shows that it is possible to write and read ultrafast monodomains on thin films. [3pt] [1] E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 4250 (1996) [0pt] [2] L.H.F. Andrade, A. Laraoui, M. Vomir, D. Muller, J.-P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 127401 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. Vomir, L. H.F. Andrade, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 237601 (2005). [0pt] [4] I. Lisiecki, V. Halt'e, C. Petit, M.-P. Pileni, J.-Y. Bigot Adv. Mater., 20, 4176 (2008

  12. Outcome of unstable isolated fractures of the posterior acetabular wall associated with hip dislocation.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Santucci, A; Verdenelli, A; Bugatti, M G; Meco, L; Marinelli, M

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic hip dislocation with fracture of the posterior acetabular wall is associated with high rates of residual invalidity. The records of patients who underwent surgical treatment of traumatic dislocation of the hip associated with an isolated fracture of the posterior acetabular wall from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. There were 30 men and 12 women, who at the time of the trauma had a mean age of 42 years (range 21-65). Mean follow-up duration was 5 years (range 2-10). Pre-operative fracture evaluation was based on the classification of Judet et al. which divided this fractures into three types: type 1 is characterized by a single fracture line separating a single bone fragment from the remaining part of the posterior wall; type 2 fracture involves several fragments of the posterior wall and in type 3, a type 1 or type 2 fracture is associated with a sunk cancellous area in the acetabular wall medial to the fracture line but not affected by it, due to the shear impact of the femoral head at the time of dislocation. Clinical evaluation of the outcome was according to the criteria of Merle D'Aubigné and Postel as modified by Matta. Outcomes were divided into excellent/good and fair/poor. Since treatment was standard, data were further analyzed to assess the relative importance of age, sex, follow-up duration, sciatic nerve lesion on admission and mechanism of injury, using the Chi-square test. Full clinical recovery without sequelae or radiographic abnormalities was achieved by 10 patients, 8 with type 1 fracture and 2 with type 2 fracture. A good outcome was seen in 13 patients, 3 with type 1 fracture, 9 with type 2 fracture and 1 with type 3 fracture. Eight patients, 3 with type 2 fracture and 5 with type 3 fracture, had a fair outcome. Only follow-up ≥6 years influenced outcome significantly (p > 0.005). Our conclusions in light of our experience are that in type 1 lesions, anatomical reduction and stabilization achieve excellent outcomes, both clinical

  13. Femoral deficiency reconstruction using a hydroxyapatite-coated locked modular stem. A series of 43 total hip revisions.

    PubMed

    Philippot, R; Delangle, F; Verdot, F-X; Farizon, F; Fessy, M-H

    2009-04-01

    We report a continuous prospective series of patients operated on for total hip prosthesis femoral component loosening involving a bone defect. Reconstruction was performed using a hydroxyapatite-coated locked modular stem. The study's objective was to assess medium term clinical and X-ray results obtained with this original concept. The patients included received a REEF (DePuy) femoral implant for aseptic loosening or loosening associated with a periprosthetic fracture. Implantation was systematically accompanied by an extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO). Patients were followed up prospectively by clinical and X-ray examination. Their loosening was graded at inclusion according to Vives' classification as revised by SOFCOT in 1999. Analysis focused on actuarial implant survivorship, dislocation and the bone/implant interface. Forty-three hips were included: mean follow-up was 58.2 months (12-92) and mean age at surgery was 72.4 years (37-94). The main indications were severe bone loss rated grade III (n=15) or IV (n=16) according to the SOFCOT classification. There was one long-term failure, involving implant fracture secondary to nonunion of the femoral shaft. Mean Postel and Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) clinical assessment score increased from six preoperatively to 14.5 at end of follow-up. X-ray analysis found no stem migration by end of follow-up. There was consistent consolidation of the ETO around the stem, except in one case of stem fracture which evolved into tight nonunion. In terms of metaphyseal integration, five patients showed radiolucency without evolution over follow-up, and eight had severe calcar cortical atrophy at end of follow-up. Mean 5-year actuarial survivorship was 97.7+/-2.3%, with a 2% incidence of dislocation. The complications rate was low, and results were comparable with those reported in the literature. The study confirmed the interest of the extended trochanteric osteotomy exposure and the effectiveness of the hydroxyapatite

  14. Second-generation uncemented stems: excellent 5-13-year results.

    PubMed

    Tannast, Moritz; Ecker, Timo M; Murphy, Stephen B

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the 5-13-year results of a cementless total hip arthroplasty with a special focus on the survivorship,occurrence of osteolysis, incidence of intraoperative femoral fractures, thigh pain, and cortical hypertrophy of the femoral stem. The femoral component used in this study was titanium fluted, slotted, symmetrical component that was prepared with intraoperative machining. The proximal third of the stem had hydroxyl-apatite coating and horizontal steps. The clinical and radiographical results of a consecutive series of 157 total hip arthroplasties (124 patients)with this stem were investigated. Minimum follow-up was 5 years. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 47 years. Three patients died and ten patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 142 hips for evaluation. The clinical result was evaluated on the basis of the Merled’Aubigné score, complications and thigh pain. A detailed radiographic analysis was performed at each follow-up visit. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis was performed to evaluate stem, cup, and bearing survivorship. The mean follow-up was 8.5 years (range 5-13 years). The average Merle d’Aubigné score improved from 10.5 points preoperatively to 17.4 points postoperatively.The cumulative 10-year survival rate was 99% for the femoral component, 99% for the acetabular component,and 69% for the bearing. Thigh pain was identified in three patients (2%). There was no distal femoral osteolysis.Seventy-nine percent of all the hips had endosteal spot welds around the coated, proximal one-third of the prosthesis.51% had radio dense lines around the distal tip of the prosthesis,and 3% had cortical hypertrophy. One undersized stem and one cup were revised for aseptic loosening, and 25 bearings were exchanged. Uncemented, machined, fluted titanium canal-filling femoral components achieve reliable fixation in this young patient population. They have a decreased incidence of

  15. [Modified Exeter technique in revision hip surgery].

    PubMed

    de Thomasson, E; Guingand, O; Terracher, R; Mazel, C

    2008-06-01

    in two (Postel-Merle-d'Aubigné score). Defective distal cementing with implant migration (less than 5 mm) was noted in four cases followed by secondary stabilization. Transformation of the allograft occurred in 36 cases, associated with corticalization of the recipient bone in 14. This technique is reproducible since primary stability was obtained in 90% of hips, without hindering transformation of the allograft. The results, which are sustained over time, are the same as with the princeps technique and no radiographic evidence of stress shielding could be found.

  16. Les fractures luxations du cotyle: prise en charge et pronostic à long terme; étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Hmouri, Ismail; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du cotyle sont le plus souvent dues à des traumatismes de haute énergie. Elles constituent une urgence thérapeutique, l'association de la luxation à une fracture du cotyle fait apparaître la question du choix thérapeutique entre traitement orthopédique et traitement médical. L'objectif de l’étude est de mettre le point sur l'aspect thérapeutique dans ces lésions mais aussi leurs pronostics à long terme. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas colligés au service d'orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Rabat. Nous avons évalué les résultats de notre prise en charge mais aussi le pronostic à court et à long terme. Dans notre série, vingt cinq patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement orthopédique alors que les quinze restants ont été opérés, la voie d'abord la plus utilisée est la voie postérieure. Les résultats fonctionnels ont été évalués, après un recul de 3 à 8 ans, selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné. Nous avons obtenu 90% de résultats satisfaisants. La comparaison de nos résultats à ceux de la littérature montre que le résultat des traitements orthopédiques et chirurgicaux dépend essentiellement du type de fracture. Le pronostic à long terme reste imprévisible. La survenue des complications tardives telle que la nécrose céphalique et de l'arthrose reste toujours imprévisible, ce qui impose un suivi régulier et prolongé des patients. PMID:25722763

  17. [Custom cementless stem for osteoarthritis following developmental hip dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Flecher, X; Argenson, J N; Parratte, S; Ryembault, E; Aubaniac, J M

    2006-06-01

    Arthroplasty in developmental dysplasia of the hip joint raises technical problems related to the anatomy and age of the young patient. The purpose of this work was to report results obtained with a custom-designed cementless stem. This study included 257 hips reviewed at mean 82 months (range 43-162 months). Mean patient age was 55 years (17-78), mean weight 67 kg (42-118), and mean height 164 cm (147-190). A standard imaging protocol was performed for all patients: AP pelvis in reclining position, AP and lateral views of healthy and pathological hip, AP view of entire lower limb in standing position, computed tomography of lower limb. La position of the greater trochanter and the lengthening necessary was determined from the preoperative films. Stem integration and migration as well as osteolysis were studied postoperatively. Femoral anteversion and the anteroposterior diameter of the paleoacetabulum were measured on the superposed computed tomographic images. Surgery was performed via a Watson-Jones approach to insert a noncemented cup hooked in the obturator foramen and implanted in the paleoacetabulum. The femur endomedullary cavity was prepared with a ream having the form of the definitive stem and the prosthetic neck was custom fit to match the desired lever arm and anteversion. The series included 174 cases of dysplasia and 83 dislocations, 39% stage 1, 30% stage 2, 14% stage 3 and 17% stage 4. Mean lengthening was 39 mm. The mean helitorsion was 28 +/- 16 degrees and the mean anteroposterior diameter of the acetabulum was 51 mm. On average, the alpha correction in the prosthetic neck was -13.4 degrees (-71 degrees to +37 degrees). The Postel-Merle-d'Aubigné score improved from 10.4 points preoperatively to 16.7 points at last follow-up. Postoperative x-rays showed signs of osteointegration in 88% of cases, osteolysis in 5% and one case of stem impaction. Ten hips (3.9%) required revision for replacement (7 for an aseptic problem and 3 for sepsis

  18. Modern Radiological Imaging of Osteoarthritis of The Hip Joint With Consideration of Predisposing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Weber, M-A; Merle, C; Rehnitz, C; Gotterbarm, T

    2016-07-01

    hip joint.• Functional cartilage imaging can verify changes in the biochemical composition of the cartilage before they become morphologically evident. Citation Format: • Weber MA, Merle C, Rehnitz C et al. Modern Radiological Imaging of Osteoarthritis of The Hip Joint With Consideration of Predisposing Conditions. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 635 - 651. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

  20. Is cemented metal-polyethylene 22.2mm hip arthroplasty a gold standard? Results of a series of 105 primary arthroplasties at a minimum of ten years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mesnil, P; Vasseur, L; Wavreille, G; Fontaine, C; Duquennoy, A; Migaud, H

    2014-06-01

    Although Charnley-Kerboull metal-on-polyethylene 22.2mm cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered to be the gold standard in France, results with this prosthesis are conflicting, in particular in relation to Scandinavian registers. The goal of this retrospective study was to confirm the validity of this prosthesis at a minimum of 10years follow-up. Survival of this type of THA would fulfill NICE conditions (survival at 10 years of at least 90%). One hundred and five primary THA were performed in 93 patients (30 men and 63 women) mean age 72.6 years old (60-86) between January 1998 and March 2001. After a mean follow-up of 10.6 years (10-13 years), 21 patients (23 THA) were lost to follow-up and 32 (35 THA) had died leaving 40 patients (47 THA) for clinical analysis (Merle d'Aubigné and Oxford scores) and X-ray assessment. Survival was calculated with revision for any cause and radiological loosening with or without revision as end-points. The mean Oxford score at the final follow-up was 22/60 (13-45), the PMA score was 14.2 (11-17). Eight patients underwent revision surgery after a mean 7.5 years (2-11) (1 early dislocation and 7 acetabular cup loosenings). Survival at 10 years was 89.4% (CI95%: 78-95) for all causes of revision and 78% (CI95%: 61-91) for loosening with (n=7) or without (n=3) revision. No cases of septic or femoral loosening were observed. Twelve of the 47 revised hip replacements (25.5%) presented wear≥2mm. Although functional results were acceptable for this elderly population, survival did not reach the NICE value and was lower than results in the literature for this type of implant. Cup loosening and wear were the main causes of revision. retrospective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Analogue modelling of strike-slip fault propagation across a rheological/morphological crustal anisotropy: implications for the morphotectonic evolution of the Gloria Fault - Tore Madeira Rise area in NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe M.; Duarte, João C.; Terrinha, Pedro; Kullberg, Maria C.; Almeida, Jaime; Barata, Frederico; Carvalho, Bruno; Almeida, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The Gloria Fault (GF) marks the E-W dextral transcurrent plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in NE Atlantic, displaying complying high magnitude (historical and instrumental) seismic activity (e.g. M=7.1 in 1939 and M=8.4 in 1941, Bufforn et al., 1988), and cutting across a NNE-SSW 1000 km long bathymetric ridge: the so called Tore-Madeira Rise - TMR (rising in average 3km above the abyssal plain). The precise origin and tectono-magmatic evolution of the TMR is still not fully understood, although reported wide-angle refraction data points to a rheological configuration comprising an isostatically compensated thickened oceanic crust, possibly formed during a period of high accretion in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Pierce and Barton, 1991). Widespread evidence for volcanic activity has also been recognized, spanning from late Cretaceous to Present (Geldmacher et al. 2006, Merle et al. 2009), noticeably with the most recent volcanism (~500 Ky) occurring as tectonically aligned volcanic plugs, distributed along the E-W tectonic trend of the GF-related structures. To better understand the complex interference at play in this key area between the tectonic structures (essentially determined by the Gloria Fault system), the present and past magmatic activity and the resulting seafloor morphology, a series of dynamically scaled analogue modelling experiments have been conceived and carried out. The main focus of this experimental work was to decipher the potential influence of a rheological vs. morphological anisotropy (accounting for the TMR) on the lateral propagation of a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (representing the GF). The preliminary comparison of the obtained experimental results with the natural morphotectonic pattern in the study area reveals, not only a strong tectonic control of the ongoing volcanism, manifested by the observed preferred directions of aligned volcanic plugs, but also a so far unsuspected deflection/distributed pattern of several

  2. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  3. La pseudarthrose du col fémoral traitée par prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Bassir, Réda Allah; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Saleh Berrada, Mohammed; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La pseudarthrose du col fémoral est une complication redoutée de la facture du col fémoral, elle est due soit à une négligence thérapeutique, soit à une ostéosynthèse imparfaite. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans sa genèse, l’âge, les caractéristiques de la fracture, l’état de la tête fémorale, et une ostéosynthèse non solide. Le diagnostic des pseudarthroses est essentiellement radiologique. Le traitement reste encore difficile et mal codifié, les limites entre traitement conservateur et arthroplastie de la hanche ne sont pas encore bien définies. Nous rapportons une série de 15 cas de pseudarthrose du col fémoral traités par arthroplastie de la hanche au service de traumato-orthopédie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rabat de 2008 à 2014 soit un recul de 40 mois en moyenne. Nos patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique. L’âge de nos patients varie entre 48 et 81 ans, avec une moyenne de 69,2 ans. 85% d'entre eux sont âgés de plus de 60 ans. Nous avons dans notre série une prédominance féminine, soit 8 femmes pour 7 hommes. La négligence thérapeutique est la cause de la majorité des pseudarthroses du col du fémur traitées dans notre série. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilisé exclusivement la voie d'abord postéro externe de Moore. Nous avons mis en place une prothèse totale de couple polyéthylène-métal chez tous les patients, ces prothèses étaient cimentées chez 12 patients. Le résultat fonctionnel a été coté selon la classification de Merle d'Aubigné. Nos résultats ont été jugés bons selon cette cotation. L'arthroplastie totale de la hanche a une place importante dans le traitement des pseudarthroses du col fémoral et peut donner des résultats satisfaisants en permettant de récupérer une hanche mobile et indolore. PMID:25667720

  4. [Cement-free diaphyseal fixation principle for hip shaft exchange in large bone defects--analysis of 12 years experience with the Wagner revision shaft].

    PubMed

    Böhm, P; Bischel, O

    2001-01-01

    Considering the increasing incidence of revision for failed total hip arthroplasty, we evaluated if the principle of uncemented diaphyseal fixation which is realised with the Wagner SL revision stem, can solve the technical problems of significant bone loss of the proximal femur and can offer good preconditions for bony restoration in the medium term. A consecutive series of 129 femoral revisions with the Wagner SL revisions stem was evaluated. In 87 cases, the acetabular component was revised simultaneously. The revision was indicated in 97 cases of aseptic loosening, in 13 periprosthetic fractures (12 aseptic and 1 septic hip), in 16 cases of septic loosening and in 3 Girdlestone-hips after chronic deep infection. At the time of revision, the mean age of the patients was 64.9 (36.7-86.3) years. For classification of the preoperative defects, both the classification system proposed by Pak et al. and our own classification system were used. The mean period of time between operation and latest follow-up examination, rerevision, or death of the patient was 5.4 years (0.13-11.7 years). Six revision stems required rerevision because of malpositioning (1), significant subsidence (1), periprosthetic fracture (1), and deep infection (3). The mean Merle d'Aubigné score improved from preoperatively 7.7 points to 14.8 at follow-up. Cumulative survival (end point removal of the stem for any cause) was 94.4 percent at 11.7 years. A clear, good, or excellent bony restoration of the proximal femur was seen in 87.6 percent of the cases. The cumulative survival of the revised acetabular components was 97.7 percent at 11.7 years and for the non-revised cups it was 86.9 percent at 10.9 years. Due to the encouraging results with the Wagner revision stem, the principle of uncemented diaphyseal fixation seems to us to be able to solve most of the technical problems in cases of significant bone loss and obviously offers good preconditions for bony restoration. Our own classification

  5. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  6. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  7. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E.; Ruiz, María J.; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  8. In vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of two tannin rich plants.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in the in vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins using respective egg hatch assays (EHA) with acetone:water extracts of two tannin containing plants, chimay (Acacia pennatula) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Fresh eggs were incubated in PBS with different concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400, 3600, 5000 and 8000 μg/ml PBS). Additional concentrations were tested for O. viciifolia (75, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml PBS). Effective concentrations 50% (EC50), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI), were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated to compare the isolates, using the most susceptible isolate for each extract as the respective reference. A second set of incubations were made using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (0, 5000 μg/ml, 5000 μg/ml+PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the AH effect. The proportion of morulated eggs, eggs with L1 larvae failing eclosion (%LFE), and emerged larvae were estimated at different extract concentrations. Data of each isolate was used to calculate the effective concentration 50% (EC50) for each extract. The EC50 of each isolate was used to determine resistance ratio (RR) for the different isolates. For the 2 extracts, a susceptibility variation in egg hatching was observed for the different H. contortus isolates. The EC50 values for A. pennatula ranged from 2203 to 14106 μg (RR from 2.01 to 6.40). The O. viciifolia extract showed higher variability with EC50 values ranging from 104 to 4783 μg (RR from 3.66 to 45.74). The main AH effects of the two extracts tested on the ten isolates consisted in blocking the emergence of L1 larvae (higher% LFE). Additional observations on emerged larvae showed that extract exposure caused alterations in the internal structure, separating the cuticle from the pharynx, bulb and intestinal

  9. Role of Endoproteolytic Dibasic Proprotein Processing in Maturation of Secretory Proteins in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Sabine P.; Schoisswohl, Doris; Baron, Michel; Parriche, Martine; Kubicek, Christian P.

    1998-01-01

    Cell extracts of Trichoderma reesei exhibited dibasic endopeptidase activity toward the carboxylic side of KR, RR, and PR sequences. This activity was stimulated by the presence of Ca2+ ions and localized in vesicles of low bouyant density; it therefore exhibited some similarity to yeast Kex2. Analytical chromatofocusing revealed a single peak of activity. The dibasic endopeptidase activity was strongly and irreversibly inhibited in vitro as well as in vivo by 1 mM p-amidinophenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (pAPMSF) but not by PMSF at concentrations up to 5 mM. We therefore used pAPMSF to study the role of the dibasic endopeptidase in the secretion of protein by T. reesei. Secretion of xylanase I (proprotein processing sequence -R-R-↓-R-↓-A-) and xylanase II (-K-R-↓-Q-) was strongly inhibited by 1 mM pAPMSF, and a larger, unprocessed enzyme form was detected intracellularly under these conditions. Secretion of cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II; -E-R-↓-Q-) was only slightly inhibited by pAPMSF, and no accumulation of unprocessed precursors was detected. In contrast, secretion of CBH I (-R-A-↓-Q-) was stimulated by pAPMSF addition, and a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of intracellular CBH I was detected. Similar experiments were also carried out with a single heterologous protein, ShBLE, the phleomycin-binding protein from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus, fused to a series of model proprotein-processing sequences downstream of the expression signals of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter. Consistent with the results obtained with homologous proteins, pAPMSF inhibited the secretion of ShBLE with fusions containing dibasic (RK and KR) target sequences, but it even stimulated secretion in fusions to LR, NHA, and EHA target sequences. Addition of 5 mM PMSF, a nonspecific inhibitor of serine protease, nonspecifically inhibited the secretion of heterologous proteins from fusions bearing the NHA and LR targets. These data point to the existence of different

  10. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  11. Comparison of Surfactant Distributions in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive Films Dried from Dispersion under Lab-Scale and Industrial Drying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Baesch, S; Siebel, D; Schmidt-Hansberg, B; Eichholz, C; Gerst, M; Scharfer, P; Schabel, W

    2016-03-01

    Film-forming latex dispersions are an important class of material systems for a variety of applications, for example, pressure-sensitive adhesives, which are used for the manufacturing of adhesive tapes and labels. The mechanisms occurring during drying have been under intense investigations in a number of literature works. Of special interest is the distribution of surfactants during the film formation. However, most of the studies are performed at experimental conditions very different from those usually encountered in industrial processes. This leaves the impact of the drying conditions and the resulting influence on the film properties unclear. In this work, two different 2-ethylhexyl-acrylate (EHA)-based adhesives with varying characteristics regarding glass transition temperature, surfactants, and particle size distribution were investigated on two different substrates. The drying conditions, defined by film temperature and mass transfer in the gas phase, were varied to emulate typical conditions encountered in the laboratory and industrial processes. Extreme conditions equivalent to air temperatures up to 250 °C in a belt dryer and drying rates of 12 g/(m(2)·s) were realized. The surfactant distributions were measured by means of 3D confocal Raman spectroscopy in the dry film. The surfactant distributions were found to differ significantly with drying conditions at moderate film temperatures. At elevated film temperatures the surfactant distributions are independent of the investigated gas side transport coefficients: the heat and mass transfer coefficient. Coating on substrates with significantly different surface energies has a large impact on surfactant concentration gradients, as the equilibrium between surface and bulk concentration changes. Dispersions with higher colloidal stability showed more homogeneous lateral surfactant distributions. These results indicate that the choice of the drying conditions, colloidal stability, and substrates is crucial

  12. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  13. Influence of calculation error of total field anomaly in strongly magnetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoyu; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Li, Zelin

    2016-04-01

    An assumption made in many magnetic interpretation techniques is that ΔTact (total field anomaly - the measurement given by total field magnetometers, after we remove the main geomagnetic field, T0) can be approximated mathematically by ΔTpro (the projection of anomalous field vector in the direction of the earth's normal field). In order to meet the demand for high-precision processing of magnetic prospecting, the approximate error E between ΔTact and ΔTpro is studied in this research. Generally speaking, the error E is extremely small when anomalies not greater than about 0.2T0. However, the errorE may be large in highly magnetic environments. This leads to significant effects on subsequent quantitative inference. Therefore, we investigate the error E through numerical experiments of high-susceptibility bodies. A systematic error analysis was made by using a 2-D elliptic cylinder model. Error analysis show that the magnitude of ΔTact is usually larger than that of ΔTpro. This imply that a theoretical anomaly computed without accounting for the error E overestimate the anomaly associated with the body. It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that the error E is obvious and should not be ignored. It is also shown that the curves of ΔTpro and the error E had a certain symmetry when the directions of magnetization and geomagnetic field changed. To be more specific, the Emax (the maximum of the error E) appeared above the center of the magnetic body when the magnetic parameters are determined. Some other characteristics about the error Eare discovered. For instance, the curve of Emax with respect to the latitude was symmetrical on both sides of magnetic equator, and the extremum of the Emax can always be found in the mid-latitudes, and so on. It is also demonstrated that the error Ehas great influence on magnetic processing transformation and inversion results. It is conclude that when the bodies have highly magnetic susceptibilities, the error E can

  14. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E; Ruiz, María J; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I; Padola, Nora L

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain.

  15. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (< 3 m) were relatively high due to the presence of carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions

  16. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  17. Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hinenoya, Atsushi; Shima, Kensuke; Asakura, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Ooka, Tadasuke; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Faruque, Shah M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-04-18

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli (CTEC) has been isolated from patients with gastrointestinal or urinary tract infection, and sepsis. However, the source of human infection remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to detect and isolate CTEC strains from fecal specimens of healthy farm animals and characterized them phenotypically and genotypically. By PCR analysis, the cdtB gene was detected in 90 and 14 out of 102 and 45 stool specimens of healthy cattle and swine, respectively, and none from 45 chicken samples. Subtypes of the cdtB genes (I to V) were further examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplicons and by type-specific PCRs for the cdt-III and cdt-V genes. Of the 90 cdtB gene-positive cattle samples, 2 cdt-I, 25 cdt-III, 1 cdt-IV, 52 cdt-V and 1 both cdt-III and cdt-V gene-positive strains were isolated while 1 cdt-II and 6 cdt-V gene-positive were isolated from 14 cdtB positive swine samples. Serotypes of some isolates were identical to those of human isolates. Interestingly, a cdt-II gene-positive strain isolated from swine was for the first time identified as Escherichia albertii. Phylogenetic analysis grouped 87 E. coli strains into 77 phylogroup B1, 6 B2, and 4 D, respectively. Most of the B1 strains harbored both lpfAO113 and ehaA. Three and twenty-two cdt-V gene-positive strains harbored eaeA and stx genes, respectively, and seven possessed cdt-V, stx and subAB genes. The cnf2 gene, normally present in cdt-III gene-positive strains, was also detected in cdt-V gene-positive strains. Our results suggest that healthy cattle and swine could be the reservoir of CTEC, and they could be a potential source of human infections.

  18. The influence of internal surface treatments on tensile bond strength for two ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Kiyan, Vanessa Harumi; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Eduardo, Carlos da Paula

    2007-01-01

    The ceramic composition and surface microstructure of all-ceramic restorations are important components of an effective bonding substrate. Hydrofluoric acid and sandblasting are well-known procedures for surface treatment; however, surface treatment for high alumina-containing and lithium disilicate ceramics have not been fully investigated. This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of resin cement to two types of ceramic systems with different surface treatments. Thirty specimens of each ceramic system were made according to the manufacturer's instructions and embedded in polyester resin. Specimens of In-Ceram Alumina [I] and IPS Empress 2 [E] were distributed to three groups with differing surface treatments (n = 10): sandblasting with 50 microm aluminum oxide (APA); sandblasting with 110 microm aluminum oxide modified with silica particles (ROCATEC System-RS); a combination of sandblasting with APA and 10% hydrofluoric acid etching (HA) for two minutes on In-Ceram and for 20 seconds for IPS Empress 2. After the respective surface treatments, all the specimens were silanated, and Rely-X resin cement was injected onto the ceramic surface and light polymerized. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and thermally cycled 1,100 times (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). The tensile bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed. The mean bond strength values (MPa) for IPS Empress 2 were 12.01 +/- 5.93 (EAPA), 10.34 +/- 1.77 (ERS) and 14.49 +/- 3.04 (EHA). The mean bond strength values for In-Ceram Alumina were 9.87 +/- 2.40 (IAPA) and 20.40 +/- 6.27 (IRS). All In-Ceram specimens treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid failed during thermal cycling. The Rocatec system was the most effective surface treatment for In-Ceram Alumina ceramics; whereas, the combination of aluminum oxide sandblasting and hydrofluoric acid etching for 20 seconds worked more effectively for Empress 2

  19. [Ten-year experience with the Aldinger custom-made total hip arthroplasty: evaluation of the results].

    PubMed

    Masár, J

    2007-06-01

    The author presents the results of treatment with total hip arthroplasty (THA), in the Aldinger modification, in 91 patients receiving a total of 98 custom-made total hip implants in the period from 1993 to 2002. Eighty-eight patients (96.9 %) with 95 THAs were available for evaluation at the last follow-up. The group comprised 26 men (27 total hip implants), at an average age of 33.8 years (range, 25-57), and 65 women (71 implants) at an average age of 38.5 years (23-57) at the time of surgery. The right hip was operated on in 43 patients (18 men and 25 women) and the left one in 55 patients (9 men and 46 women). One man and six women underwent bilateral THA. The average time between the operation and the last follow-up was 8.6 years (range, 3 years and 11 months to 13 years and 3 months). The author describes the complete procedure from indications, planning and manufacture of an custom made implant to its implantation in combination with different types of acetabulum. The evaluation based on the Merle d'Aubigné score system, as modified by Griss, was carried out for an average follow-up of 8.6 years. RESULTS The outcomes were excellent, good and satisfactory in 69 (72.7 %), 16 (16.8 %) and 8 (8.4 %) patients, respectively. Two patients with septic complications (2.1 %) reported poor results. The overall complications involved aseptic loosening of the acetabulum in five, septic loosening of the acetabulum with severe lesions due to polyethylene wear in three, and infection in four patients. Eight cases were associated with periarticular ossifications and three patients developed deep venous thrombosis in the post-operative period. The prerequisite for good outcomes in total hip arthroplasty using cementless implants is, in the author's opinion, the attainment of high primary stability. One of the options to achieve this is a thorough analysis of proximal femoral morphology on CT scans, which permits the construction of an custom made implant to each individual

  20. Radiographic preoperative templating of extra-offset cemented THA implants: how reliable is it and how does it affect survival?

    PubMed

    Bachour, F; Marchetti, E; Bocquet, D; Vasseur, L; Migaud, H; Girard, J

    2010-11-01

    Securing femoral offset should in theory improve hip stability and abductor muscles moment arms. As problems arise mainly in case of originally increased offset (>40 mm), a range of extra-offset stems is available; the exact impact in terms of fixation, however, is not known. Extra-offset stems should more reliably reestablish original femoral offsets exceeding 40 mm than standard femoral components, limiting instability risk without possible adverse effect on fixation. To compare the ability of five commonly available femoral stem designs to restitute offset exceeding 40 mm, and to assess function and cement fixation at a minimum 6 years' follow-up in a stem conceived to reproduce such offset. A continuous series of 74 total hip replacements (THR) in hips with increased (>40 mm) femoral offset was studied. All underwent preoperative X-ray templating on Imagika™ software to assess offset reproduction by five models of stem: four standard, and one Lubinus SP2™ extra-offset stem. A retrospective clinical and X-ray study was conducted with a minimum 6 years' follow-up on the Lubinus SP2™ 117° stems used to try to reproduce offset in the 74 THRs. Apart from the increased (>40 mm) offset, the cervicodiaphyseal angle was consistently <135°, <130° in 60 femurs (81%) and <125° in 45 (60%). Planning showed the four standard stems to induce (>5mm femoral offset reduction in 50-83% of cases, versus only 25% with the Lubinus SP2™ 117°). All 74 hips received Lubinus SP2™ 117° stems: at a mean 78 months FU (range, 70-94 mo), their mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné score was 17±1.8 (range, 13-18). Five of the 74 THRs underwent surgical revision: three cases of loosening, in which the stem was replaced, and two of instability, without change of stem. Loosening was not related to offset reproduction quality; two of the three cases were due to initial cementing defect, and the third occurred in a femur with previous history of two osteotomies. There were four cases of

  1. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Kay. Other crewmembers included flight engineer Rex Cook, X-1A crew chief Richard Payne, launch crewmwmbers Jack Moise and Charles Littleton, and scanners Merle Woods and Richard DeMore. Joe Walker entered the X-1A and began launch preparations. At an altitude of 22,000 feet, a sudden explosion rocked the X-1A. Walker egressed the craft unhurt although it was extensively damaged. Unsuccessful attempts were made to jettison the rocket plane's fuel, and it was found that the X-1A's landing gear had deployed and locked. Landing the mated configuration would therfore be unsafe. It was then decided to drop the unmanned X-1A onto the Edwards AFB bombing range. The X-1A was jettisoned from an altitude of 6,500 feet. It was completely destroyed on impact.

  2. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    plume lost its original turbidity and unimodal seasonal pattern of pulsation upon the shelf as indicated by In Situ sampling and Satellite imagery series (LANDSAT TM 2-5 and MODIS). The coastal plume is largely fed with suspended matter from resupension processes and coastal erosion. C- The Japaratuba river fan. The inner-mid shelf harbors relict muddy and sandy siliclastic sediments and the shelf margin biodetritic carbonates. Riverine inputs have become insignificant. D- The southern shelf of Sergipe. The muddy, sandy and carbonate Merl sediments are heterogeneously distributed,and the coast is affected by diffuse small riverine inputs and wash out by the SEC. Sedimentation rates (210Pbex chronology with the CRS model) of Domains B and C ranged between 0.7 and 0.1 cm year-1, being similar to those of the eastern Brazilian shelf.

  3. [Bone reconstruction, leg length discrepancy, and dislocation rate in 52 Wagner revision total hip arthroplasties at 44-month follow-up].

    PubMed

    Boisgard, S; Moreau, P E; Tixier, H; Levai, J P

    2001-04-01

    The primary and secondary stability of a revision implant is highly compromised in cases with important loss of bone stock from the proximal femoral after severe femoral loosening. Several methods using implants with or without cement have been proposed for reconstruction after femoral bone loss. The purpose of this study was to analyze mid-term clinical and radiological outcome with the Wagner prosthesis for revision surgery. Fifty-two cases of aseptic femoral loosening were treated with this method in 36 women and 14 men, mean age 70 years (range 32-92 years). None of the patients was lost to follow-up; five who died after 18 months were retained for analysis. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 18-88 months). The mean preoperative Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) score was 10.5 +/- 0.4. These patients had major bone loss (5 grade II, 24 grade III, 23 grade IV in the SOFCOT classification). The transfemoral access was used in 17 cases and bone grafts in 32. Clinical outcome was assessed with the PMA score and leg length discrepancy was measured. Radiographically, stability was assessed by measuring stem impaction and progression of radiolucent lines. The overall functional score was significantly improved from 10.5 +/- 0.4 preoperatively to 14.6 +/- 0.5 (p<0.001). All items on the score improved but pain relief was the most notable. Improvement in the gait score was limited due to persistent limping in 39 patients. Leg length discrepancies were found in 8 patients with 6 shortenings and 2 lengthenings. The clinical situation remained stable after one year. The implant remained stable in 48 patients (92 p. 100) and stem impaction was observed in 4 before 12 months. Two of these cases required a second revision. Metaphyseal reconstruction was observed in 42 patients (81 p. 100), including 24 (46 p. 100) who exhibited homogeneous reconstruction with trabeculation. The reconstruction did not progress further after 18 months postoperatively. Complications included four

  4. Comparison of robotic-assisted and manual implantation of a primary total hip replacement. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Honl, Matthias; Dierk, Oliver; Gauck, Christian; Carrero, Volker; Lampe, Frank; Dries, Sebastian; Quante, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten; Hille, Ekkehard; Morlock, Michael M

    2003-08-01

    Robotic-assisted total hip replacement has become a common method of implantation, especially in Europe. It frequently has been postulated that robotic reaming would result in an improved clinical outcome due to the better fit of the prosthesis, but that has never been demonstrated in a prospective study, to our knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare robotic-assisted implantation of a total hip replacement with conventional manual implantation. One hundred and fifty-four patients scheduled for total hip replacement were randomly assigned to undergo either conventional manual implantation of an S-ROM prosthesis (eighty patients) or robotic-assisted implantation of such a prosthesis (seventy-four patients). The five-axis ROBODOC was used for the robotic-assisted procedures. Preoperatively as well as at three, six, twelve, and twenty-four months after surgery, the scores according to the Harris and Merle d'Aubigné systems and the Mayo clinical score were determined. Radiographs made at these intervals were analyzed for evidence of loosening, prosthetic alignment, and heterotopic ossification. Thirteen (18%) of the seventy-four attempted robotic implantations had to be converted to manual implantations as a result of failure of the system. The duration of the robotic procedures was longer than that of the manual procedures (mean and standard deviation,107.1 +/- 29.1 compared with 82.4 +/- 23.4 minutes, p < 0.001). Limb-length equality (mean discrepancy, 0.18 +/- 0.30 compared with 0.96 +/- 0.93 cm, p < 0.001) and varus-valgus orientation of the stem (mean angle between the femur and the shaft of the prosthesis, 0.34 degrees +/- 0.67 degrees compared with 0.84 degrees +/- 1.23 degrees, p < 0.001) were better after the robotic procedures. At six months, slightly more heterotopic ossification was seen in the group treated with robotic implantation. The group treated with robotic implantation had a better Mayo clinical score at six and twelve months and a

  5. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  6. Is there any range-of-motion advantage to using bearings larger than 36mm in primary hip arthroplasty: A case-control study comparing 36-mm and large-diameter heads.

    PubMed

    Delay, C; Putman, S; Dereudre, G; Girard, J; Lancelier-Bariatinsky, V; Drumez, E; Migaud, H

    2016-10-01

    Large-diameter (>36mm) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has developed rapidly since the advent of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings and highly cross-linked polyethylene. Theoretically, the increase in diameter reduces the risk of instability, although the advantage of calibers beyond 36mm has not been demonstrated in terms of range-of-motion recovery. We conducted a comparative study with a single prosthesis model to determine whether increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides: (1) better recovery of range-of-motion, (2) a higher functional score, and (3) reduction of the dislocation rate. Increasing the range-of-motion by increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides better range-of-motion. We analyzed two consecutive, single-operator cementless THA series performed via the mini posterior approach, which differed only in the bearing system (51 metal-on-metal [MoM] with a mean caliber of 45mm±3.3 [range, 40-54] and 61 CoC with a 36-mm caliber). Both series were comparable preoperatively in terms of age, diagnosis, functional scores, preoperative range-of-motion, body mass index, UCLA activity level, and Charnley score. We compared the joint range of movement at follow-up and the gains in range of movement, onset of dislocation, and functional scores (Oxford, Postel-Merle d'Aubigné [PMA]). The mean overall joint range-of-motion was 254°±39° (range, 150-310°) for an 81°±44° (range, -50 to 180°) gain in the MoM group and 256°±23° (range, 200-280°) for an 84°±40° (range, 0-160°) gain in the CoC group (NS). The MoM group presented the following results: Oxford=13.71±3.66 (range, 12-33) for a gain of 24.82 points±7.9 (range, -1 to 40), PMA=17.75±1.06 (range, 11-18) for a gain of 7.78 points±4.01 (range, 2-15). The CoC group had: Oxford=14.98±4.42 (range, 12-36) for a gain of 24.75 points±6.55 (range, 12-40), PMA 17.66±0.7 (range, 14-18) for a gain of 8 points±3.77 (range, 1-15). None of the gains and scores at follow-up differed significantly between

  7. [Arthroscopy of the hip joint].

    PubMed

    Pasa, L; Hart, R; Kocis, J; Muzík, V; Veselý, R

    2005-01-01

    Arthroscopic examination of joints has recently gained wide application. Due to hip joint shape and a difficult approach to it, hip arthroscopy has long remained outside the attention and abilities of arthroscopists. The authors present their first experience with operative hip arthroscopy that offers new options for the treatment of intra-articular pathology of the hip joint. In the years 2001-2003, 24 hip arthroscopies were performed. The following pathological conditions were diagnosed and treated: loose bodies, chondral lesions of the femoral head and acetabulum, ruptures of the labrum acetabuli and ligamentum teres, impingement syndrome of the labrum acetabuli, and coxitis. No post-operative neurologic symptoms or vascular complications were observed. All procedures were carried out on patients in a supine position, with the treated joint in traction. A standard 30 degrees device and common instruments for arthroscopic surgery were used. The instruments were inserted in the articular fissure with the use of an X-ray intensifier. Movement in the hip joint during surgery is very limited due to traction, joint shape and the length of working canals. After traction is released, it is possible to examine also the intra-articular part of the femoral neck. The pre-operative complaints (clunking, painful joint) were relieved up to 4 to 6 weeks after surgery in 23 patients. In one patient primarily diagnosed with coxitis, infection was not eradicated after lavage and debridement and, because inflammation deeply affected the femoral head, the hip was eventually treated by Girdlestone arthroplasty. The results were evaluated clinically and on the basis of the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel questionnaire assessing pain and walking abilities by both the patients and the surgeon. All 24 patients reported poor or average conditions before surgery and, after surgery, 23 experienced improvement to a very good or average condition. One patient's state failed to improve and was

  8. [Biological acetabular defect reconstruction in revision hip arthroplasty using impaction bone grafting and an acetabular reconstruction ring].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M J; Gravius, S; Schmolders, J; Wimmer, M D; Wirtz, D C

    2014-04-01

    improvement in the average Harris Hip Score (82.2 ± 8.7 vs. 44.7 ± 10.7) and the Merle d'Aubigné Score (14.6 ± 1.9 vs. 7.5 ± 1.3). Radiological solid osseointegration of the cup was observed in 21 cases; partial radiolucent lines were seen in 2 cases (9 %) in the zones I-III delineated by DeLee and Charnley. In 21 cases (91 %) radiographs confirmed no measurable migration or displacement of the acetabular component and the bone graft was determined to be incorporated on the basis of osseous consolidation within the grafted area in 20 cases (87 %). During follow-up 3 prosthesis (13 %) required revision.

  9. Flavonoids from whole Plant of Euphorbia hirta and their Evaluation against Experimentally induced Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shyam Sundar; Azmi, Lubna; Mohapatra, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

    2017-01-01

    increased and of plasma histamine and H+-K+-ATPase significantly decreased in rats groups treated by both the whole plant extract of E. hirta and flavonoids.Both the whole plant extract of E. hirta and flavonoids reduced the lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase and increased the levels of catalase and reduced glutathione in rats groups. Abbreviation used: 1HNMR: Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, CAT: Catalase, EHAE: Aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta, EHEF: Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Euphorbia hirta, GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, GSH: Reduced Glutathione, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, IR: Infrared spectroscopy, LPO: Lipid Peroxidase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, MS: Mass Spectroscopy, OMZ: Omeprazole, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, TBHQ: tert-Butylhydroquinone, TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, UV: Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy PMID:28479737

  10. ROBUST hot wire probe efficiency for total water content measurements in glaciated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Delphine; Lilie, Lyle; Weber, Marc; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2017-04-01

    airborne instrument package but no clear trend has been highlighted for the moment. References : Davison, C., J. MacLeod, J. Strapp, and D. Buttsworth, 2008: Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe in a Naturally Aspirating Configuration: Initial Aerodynamic Design and Testing. 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2008-435 (Accessed February 9, 2015). Davison, C. R., J. W. Strapp, L. E. Lilie, T. P. Ratvasky, and C. Dumont, 2016: Isokinetic TWC Evaporator Probe: Calculations and Systemic Error Analysis. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/6.2016-4060 (Accessed July 29, 2016). Dezitter, F., A. Grandin, J.-L. Brenguier, F. Hervy, H. Schlager, P. Villedieu, and G. Zalamansky, 2013: HAIC - High Altitude Ice Crystals. 5th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-2674 (Accessed February 9, 2015). Grandin, A., J.-M. Merle, M. Weber, J. Strapp, A. Protat, and P. King, 2014: AIRBUS Flight Tests in High Total Water Content Regions. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2014-2753 (Accessed March 8, 2016). Leroy, D., and Coauthors, 2016: HAIC/HIWC field campaigns - Specific findings on ice crystals characteristics in high ice water content cloud regions. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/6.2016-4056 (Accessed January 10, 2017). Leroy, D., and Coauthors, 2017: Ice Crystal Sizes in High Ice Water Content Clouds. Part II: Statistics of Mass Diameter Percentiles in Tropical Convection Observed during the HAIC/HIWC Project. J. Atmospheric Ocean. Technol., 34, 117-136, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0246.1. Strapp, J. W., J. MacLeod, and L. Lilie, 2008: Calibration of ice water content in a wind tunnel/engine test cell facility. 15th Intl. Conf. on Cloud

  11. Low bacterial diet versus control diet to prevent infection in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy causing episodes of neutropenia.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Elvira C; Mank, Arno; Leclercq, Edith; Mulder, Renée L; Davies, Michelle; Kersten, Marie José; van de Wetering, Marianne D

    2016-04-24

    Neutropenia is a potentially serious side effect of chemotherapy and a major risk factor for infection, which can be life-threatening. It has been hypothesised that a low bacterial diet (LBD) can prevent infection and (infection-related) mortality in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy that causes episodes of neutropenia, but much remains unclear. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. The primary objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of an LBD versus a control diet in preventing infection and in decreasing (infection-related) mortality in adult and paediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy that causes episodes of neutropenia. Secondary objectives were to assess time to first febrile episode, need for empirical antibiotic therapy, diet acceptability and quality of life. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 4), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (2015, Issue 4), PubMed (from 1946 to 4 May 2015), EMBASE (from 1980 to 4 May 2015) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (from 1981 to 4 May 2015).In addition, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings of American Society of Hematology (ASH; from 2000 to 2015), European Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT; from 2000 to 2015), Oncology Nurses Society (ONS; from 2000 to 2015), International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP; from 2000 to 2014), Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC; from 2000 to 2015), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO; from 2000 to 2015), Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC; from 2000 to 2015), European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN; from 2000 to 2015), American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN; from 2000 to 2015) and European Hematology Association (EHA; from 2000

  12. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    : "The Changing Atmosphere: A Global Challenge" (1990), and, with his wife Judith Jacobsen "The Crowded Greenhouse: Population, Climate Change and Creating a Sustainable World" (2002). After ASP, he continued his focus on environmental issues as a member of the Environmental and Societal Impacts group at NCAR. John retired from NCAR in 2005. John had many active pursuits beyond his professional work. He was an accomplished pilot, with licenses for flying single and multiengine aircraft, sailplanes, and balloons. He piloted a sailplane in at least one meteorological field program. He also was an avid river rafter. John faced the disease that took his life as he did all events in his life, with grace and dignity. He endured the loss of two spouses to cancer, Merle Jenkins Firor in 1979, and Judith Jacobsen in 2004. John is survived by his four children with his first wife, Daniel Firor of Seattle, Washington; Kay Firor of Cove, Oregon; James Firor of Hotchkiss, Colorado, and Susan Firor of Moscow, Idaho; a sister; a brother; and three grandchildren. His children and his many friends in Boulder and elsewhere gave him loving support during his days battling Alzheimer's. John used to define a 'southern gentleman' as a man dressed in white linen suit on a hot dusty summer day in a small Georgia town who could cross the street without breaking a sweat. John and his intellect and his management ability were like that; he could deal gracefully and successfully with almost anything that came his way. A man of great accomplishment, he rarely showed an ego to match. In the darkest days following the JEC Report, he almost single-handedly invented a new NCAR scientific appointment system. He chose the first cadre of 'senior scientists' to populate the top rank. There were about eighteen members in this group, but there was one name conspicuously absent - his own. This 'error' was quietly corrected by the UCAR Board.

  13. Modelling of the impact of the Rhone River N:P ratios over the NW Mediterranean planktonic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Carlotti, François

    2016-04-01

    , Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  14. Control of the geomorphic evolution of an active crater: Popocatpetl (Mexico) 1994-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Macias, J. L.; Sanjosé, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    . References.- Cruz-Reyna, S. de la; Meli, R.; Macías, J.L.; Castillo, F.; & Cabrera, B., 1998. Cyclical dome extrusions that by late 1997 filled one-third of crater capacity, In Smithsonian-GVP Monthly Reports, Popocatépetl, Smithsonian Institution. Bull. Glob. Volcanism Netw, (GVN) 23 (2), 2 - 4. Donnadieu, F.; Kelfoun, K.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Decchi, E.; & Merle, O., 2003. Digital photogrammetry as a tool in analogue modelling: applications to volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123 (1-2), 161-180. Macías, J.L. & Siebe, C., 2005. Popocatépetl crater filled to the brim: significance for hazard evaluation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (141) 327-330. Martín-Del Pozzo, A.L.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, F.; Correa, I.; & Mendiola, I.F., 2003. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research ,125, 107-120. Matiella, M.A.; Watson, I.M.; Delgado, H.; Rose, W.I.; , Cárdenas, L.; & Realmuro, V.J., 2008, Volcanic emissions from Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, quantified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared data: A case study of the December 2000-January 2001 emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 170, 1-2, 76-85. Procter, J.N.; Platz, T.; & Cronin, S.J., 2006. A remnant summit lava dome and its influence on future eruptive hazards, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 10211. Schilling, S.P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Messerich, J.A.; & Thompson, R.A., 2006. Map: Rebuilding Mount St. Helens. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2928. Tanarro, L. M.; Zamorano, J.J.; & Palacios, D., 2005. Glacier degradation and lahar formation on the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) during the last eruptive period (1994-2003), Zeitschrift Geomorphologie (140) 73-92. Zamorano, J.J., Gómez, A. 1996 "Análisis geomorfoloógico a detalle,1:10 000 del cráter del volcán Popocatépetl (1989-1996)" IV Reuni

  15. Modeling of the impact of Rhone River nutrient inputs on the dynamics of planktonic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Garreau, Pierre; Guyennon, Arnaud; Carlotti, François

    2014-05-01

    future research. Report of the Workshop «Variability of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean circulation and termohaline properties : similarities and differences ». Rome, 7-9 November, 2011, 48 pp. Parsons, T. R., and Lalli, C. M. (2002) Jellyfish population explosions: Revisiting a hypothesis of possible causes. La Mer 40: 111-121. Pujo-Pay, M., Conan, P., Oriol L., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Falco, C., Ghiglione, J.-F., Goyet, C., Moutin, T. and Prieur, L. (2011) Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P) from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea, Biogeoscciences, 8, 883-899. The MerMex Group, Durrieu de Madron X, Guieu C, Sempéré R, Conan P, Cossa D, D'Ortenzio F, Estournel C, Gazeau F, Rabouille C, Stemmann L, Bonnet S, Diaz F, Koubbi P, Radakovitch O, Babin M, Baklouti M, Bancon-Montigny C, Belviso S, Bensoussan N, Bonsang B, Bouloubassi I, Brunet C, Cadiou J-F, Carlotti F, Chami M, Charmasson S, Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  16. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  17. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles