Science.gov

Sample records for merle saaliste eha

  1. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  2. The Leadership of Merle Ohlsen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the contributions of Merle Ohlsen to the development of the counseling profession and to the American Association for Counseling and Development. Interviews Ohlsen about his early work history; professional organizations; professional issues including training, mentoring, and individual and group counseling; and the enrichment between…

  3. A Response to Merle Borrowman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Harold J.

    1975-01-01

    Author criticized Merle Borrowman's paper (AA 521 907) as two separate papers, the one identifying comparative education as a "swamp" field, the other positively describing the field in terms of "the distribution of cross cultural studies (inclining) one to perceive the world differently and indeed more fruitfully." (Author/RK)

  4. Telemedicine Networks of EHAS Foundation in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Simó-Reigadas, Javier; Liñán-Benítez, Leopoldo; García-Giganto, Víctor; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas in developing countries are characterized by lack of resources, low population density, and scarcity of communications infrastructure. These circumstances make it difficult to provide appropriate health-care services. This paper explains research results achieved by Enlace Hispano Americano de Salud – Hispano American Health Link (EHAS) and how they have contributed to improve healthcare in isolated areas of developing countries through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As the first step, EHAS always collaborates with public health systems to identify its communication and information needs. Based on the analysis of needs, EHAS does research on appropriate technologies to provide communication in each context and on information systems suited to needs of health personnel. In parallel, EHAS has worked to provide applications that, making use of the communications services installed, could improve the health-care services in these remote areas. In this line, solutions to improve epidemiological surveillance or to provide telemedicine services (like a digital stethoscope or a tele-microscopy system) have been developed. EHAS has also performed several researches trying to ensure the sustainability of their solutions and has summarized them in a Management Framework for Sustainable e-Healthcare Provision. Finally, the effort to spread acquired knowledge has crystallized in a book that details all the technologies and procedures previously mentioned. PMID:25360436

  5. [Merle D'Aubigne's oblique proximal femoral osteotomy. Surgical technique].

    PubMed

    López Sosa, Francisco H; Valentín-Guerrero, Santiago; Miranda-López, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Proximal femoral osteotomy with the technique described by Merle D'AubignC and Valliant was used in the treatment of adult patients with osteoarthritis or idiopathic avascular necrosis. Dr. Antonio Flores applied this technique to children with subluxation and acetabular dysplasia, identified with exaggerated anteversion and valgus of the proximal femur. He reported correction of the deformity in 75% of patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technique, its indications and complications.

  6. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the Merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed

    PubMed Central

    Hédan, Benoit; Corre, Sébastien; Hitte, Christophe; Dréano, Stéphane; Vilboux, Thierry; Derrien, Thomas; Denis, Bernard; Galibert, Francis; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coat colours in canines have many natural phenotypic variants. Some of the genes and alleles involved also cause genetic developmental defects, which are also observed in humans and mice. We studied the genetic bases of the merle phenotype in dogs to shed light on the pigmentation mechanisms and to identify genes involved in these complex pathways. The merle phenotype includes a lack of eumelanic pigmentation and developmental defects, hearing impairments and microphthalmia. It is similar to that observed in microphthalmia mouse mutants. Results Taking advantage of the dog as a powerful genetic model and using recently available genomic resources, we investigated the segregation of the merle phenotype in a five-generation pedigree, comprising 96 sampled Australian shepherd dogs. Genetic linkage analysis allowed us to identify a locus for the merle phenotype, spanning 5.5 megabases, at the centromeric tip of canine chromosome 10 (CFA10). This locus was supported by a Lod score of 15.65 at a recombination fraction θ = 0. Linkage analysis in three other breeds revealed that the same region is linked to the merle phenotype. This region, which is orthologous to human chromosome 12 (HSA12 q13-q14), belongs to a conserved ordered segment in the human and mouse genome and comprises several genes potentially involved in pigmentation and development. Conclusion This study has identified the locus for the merle coat colour in dogs to be at the centromeric end of CFA10. Genetic studies on other breeds segregating the merle phenotype should allow the locus to be defined more accurately with the aim of identifying the gene. This work shows the power of the canine system to search for the genetic bases of mammalian pigmentation and developmental pathways. PMID:16504149

  7. The Present-Minded Professor: Merle Curti's Work as an Intellectual Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of Merle Curti's work in intellectual history, focusing on such issues as the synthesis of social and intellectual history into the historical analysis of social thought, Curti's "presentism," the influence of John Dewey on his scholarship, and his civic-minded scholarship during World War II. (CMK)

  8. Hot isostatically pressed manufacture of high strength MERL 76 disk and seal shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, R. D.; Evans, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using MERL 76, an advanced high strength direct hot isostatic pressed powder metallurgy superalloy, as a full scale component in a high technology, long life, commercial turbine engine were demonstrated. The component was a JT9D first stage turbine disk. The JT9D disk rim temperature capability was increased by at least 22 C and the weight of JT9D high pressure turbine rotating components was reduced by at least 35 pounds by replacement of forged Superwaspaloy components with hot isostatic pressed (HIP) MERL 76 components. The process control plan and acceptance criteria for manufacture of MERL 76 HIP consolidated components were generated. Disk components were manufactured for spin/burst rig test, experimental engine tests, and design data generation, which established lower design properties including tensile, stress-rupture, 0.2% creep and notched (Kt = 2.5) low cycle fatigue properties, Sonntag, fatigue crack propagation, and low cycle fatigue crack threshold data. Direct HIP MERL 76, when compared to conventionally forged Superwaspaloy, is demonstrated to be superior in mechanical properties, increased rim temperature capability, reduced component weight, and reduced material cost by at least 30% based on 1980 costs.

  9. Evaluation of the reliability of the modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method

    PubMed Central

    Ugino, Fernanda Kazue; Righetti, Carolina Moraes; Alves, Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Ono, Nelson Keiske

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the inter-evaluator reproducibility of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method. Method Forty-five patients took part in the study, with a mean age of 57.93 (±13.35) who underwent total hip arthroplasty. All were evaluated by three researchers, who received training to standardize their criteria. The evaluation was held by the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method (association of prefixes A, B and C) the same day at random, and the researchers did not report to one another throughout the evaluations. For mobility assessment, passive hip movements were performed and measured with the universal goniometer. The statistical analysis was carried out by the Cronbach Test (p≤0.05 and 0.7≤ α<1.0). Results The statistical analysis showed significantly high inter-evaluators reliability for the items: prefix (p<0.001; α = 0.961), pain (p<0.001; α= 0.892), gait (p<0.001; α= 0.898), mobility (p<0.001; α=0.810) and total score (p<0.001; α=0.917). Conclusion There was high significance and reliability among the three evaluators for all items of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method, suggesting that this method is reliable, provided its items are parameterized and previous training of evaluators is carried out. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study. PMID:24453605

  10. ``Can Apples Fall Upwards?'' Astronomy for Students and Their Teachers at the Merle A. Starr Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    1996-05-01

    An overview will be presented of the activities performed at the Merle A. Starr Observatory as part of the IDEA project entitled ``Can Apples Fall Upwards? Exploring the Notion of Gravity through Hands-On CCD-Based Travel within the Solar System.'' The Merle A. Starr Observatory, located on the University of Portland campus, is operated jointly by Portland State University and the University of Portland. This facility houses the historical McIntosh-Gee 1:10 replica of the Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Its 20'' honey-combed Pirex mirror was one of three blanks cast by Corning in 1929 as an experiment for the 200'' mirror. Under the approved IDEA proposal, an Axiom AX-2 CCD camera with a KAF-1600 Kodak 1536x 1024 array, is used for image acquisition. A filter wheel, motorized focuser, and image processing software are also part of the approved proposal. This paper will discuss the efforts made to reach out to the local educational community in the Portland area and in the State of Oregon in general as indicated in the original IDEA proposal. This will include use of the instrument, electronic dissemination of the information, seminars for local teachers, and projects available for their pupils.

  11. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  12. New PMMA-co-EHA glass-filled composites for biomedical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Poliana; Corbellini, Marcelo; Ferreira, Bárbara Leite; Almeida, Nuno; Fredel, Márcio; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Correia, Rui

    2009-01-01

    A bioactive glass of the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-MgO-SiO(2) system was incorporated as a filler into poly(methylmethacrylate)-co-(ethylhexylacrylate) (PMMA-co-EHA) copolymer. The effect of filler proportion (0, 30, 40 and 50wt.%) on the bending properties was evaluated and a maximum flexural strength of 29MPa coupled with an elastic modulus of 1.1GPa was obtained at an intermediate filler concentration (30wt.%). These values are slightly higher than those usually reported for human cancellous bone. The in vitro bioactivity was assessed by determining the changes in surface morphology and composition after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo solution). Inductively coupled plasma was used to trace the evolution of ionic concentrations in the SBF solution, namely Ca and P. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates on the surface of composites, indicating that the composites are potentially bioactive.

  13. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  14. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  15. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC/RAP Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Savannah River Site on June 9-13 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 9th thru June 13th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy Radiological Assistance Program (DOE RAP) Region-3 participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response exercise at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC, RAP, and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Montgomery, Alabama. The exercise was designed to allowed members of the DOE RAP Region-3 team to collect soil, water, vegetation and air samples from SRS and submit them through an established FRMAC hotline. Once received and processed through the hotline, FRMAC delivered the samples to the EPA MERL for sample preparation and laboratory radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential improvements in each step of the processes. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability between FRMAC and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The observations and lessons-learned from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.

  16. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a--- Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators--- The Four Star Families)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the complete modern Hawaiian navigational full-sky. Over eight years of field notes, observations, and interviews with cultural leaders, historians, and ho`okele wa`a (navigators) were used to construct and validate Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators. In contrast to the various historical sky maps designed by different practitioners and local groups in pre-colonial times, this sky-map depicts the four whole-sky constellations used by present day wayfinders. Designed by a loosely bound group of cultural leaders and navigators as a tool to use in modern non-instrumental navigation, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a is a pragmatic fusion of ancient Hawaiian tradition, traditions of greater Polynesia, and modern-day Indigenous cultural forces. Like a very small number of cultures who use the sky for non-instrumental navigation, the ho`okele wa`a conceive of each season's visible sky as a whole image, using a single constellation that stretches from the northern to the southern horizon as a tool that facilitates direction finding in skies that are often very cloudy, and that chunks the sky into sections that decrease the cognitive load placed on the navigator. Moving through the seasons, beginning in Winter, Na `Ohana Hoku `Eha (The Four Star Families) are Kekaomakali`I (The Bailer), Kaiwikuamo`o (The Backbone), Manaiakalani (The Fishhook), and Kalupekawelo (The Kite). The whole-sky character of each of the four "star families," combines with that star family's mo`olelo (purposeful story) to further facilitate navigation, employing the emotional component of moral and familial associations to enhance memorization and to provide wayfinders with encouragement on their long journeys.

  17. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA): A Statutory and Legal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Relan

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the historical background of educating the handicapped; presents the general features of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, including funding, enforcement remedies, and procedural rights; and discusses issues raised by the law. (MLF)

  18. The EHA and Mainstreaming: Has the Idaho Supreme Court Taken a Step Backward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    The paper examines an Idaho Supreme Court decision (Thornock versus Boise Independent School District) that placement of a severely handicapped student in a regular classroom with the assistance of an aide was preferable to placement in a segregated special education classroom. The paper argues that this decision is contrary to the provisions of…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NLTE corrections for Mg and Ca lines (Merle+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Thevenin, F.; Pichon, B.; Bigot, L.

    2012-05-01

    Non-LTE corrections for Mg and Ca lines in the stellar parameter range Teff=[3500,5250]K, log(g)=[0.5, 2.0], [Fe/H]=[-4.0,0.5] and [α/Fe]=[0.0,0.4]. The W/W* ratio can be applied to the measured equivalent widths to determine NLTE abundance with classical LTE radiative transfer codes. 45 files for 45 lines of MgI, CaI and CaII are given. In each file, 453 rows at max for a grid of 453 model atmospheres. Only models with W>=1mÅ are given. Only models with 0.0

  20. Development of a high strength hot isostatically pressed /HIP/ disk alloy, MERL 76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.; Eng, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A nickel-based powder metal disk alloy developed for use in advanced commercial gas turbines is described. Consideration is given to final alloy chemistry modifications made to achieve a desirable balance between tensile strength and stress rupture life and ductility. The effects of post-consolidation heat treatment are discussed, the preliminary mechanical properties obtained from full-scale turbine disks are presented.

  1. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion on Streamflow, Recharge, Physical Habitat, and Temperature, Na Wai `Eha, Maui, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    The perennial flow provided by Waihe‘e River, Waiehu Stream, ‘Īao Stream, and Waikapū Stream, collectively known as Nā Wai ‘Ehā (“The Four Streams”), made it possible for widespread agricultural activities to flourish in the eastern part of West Maui, Hawai‘i. The streams of the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area flow in their upper reaches even during extended dry-weather conditions because of persistent groundwater discharge to the streams. Overall, the lower reaches of these streams lose water, which may contribute to groundwater recharge. During climate years 1984–2007 (when complete streamflow records were available for Waihe‘e River and ‘Īao Stream), Waihe‘e River had the greatest median flow of the four streams upstream of the uppermost diversion on each stream. The median flows, in million gallons per day, during climate years 1984–2007 were: 34 for Waihe‘e River near an altitude of 605 feet; 25 for ‘Īao Stream near an altitude of 780 feet; and estimated to be 4.3 for Waikapū Stream near an altitude of 1,160 feet; 3.2 for North Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 880 feet; and 3.2 for South Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 870 feet. Existing stream diversions in the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area have a combined capacity exceeding at least 75 million gallons per day and are capable of diverting all or nearly all of the dry-weather flows of these streams, leaving some downstream reaches dry. Hourly photographs collected during 2006–2008 indicate that some stream reaches downstream of diversions are dry more than 50 percent of the time. Many of these reaches would be perennial or nearly perennial in the absence of diversions.

  2. The Fierce Urgency of Now: What, if Any, Lessons Have We Learned about Educating Children Who Were Excluded from Public Schools Prior to EHA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD) is timely and resonates with the theme of the 2009 TASH Conference, "If not Us, Who? If not NOW, When?" The articles grapple with critical issues across a number of dimensions that reflect the complexity of inclusion and exclusion, the importance of…

  3. School-Based Support Teams, 1981-82 and 1982-83. E.H.A. Part B Flow-Through Entitlement. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The report documents the 1981-82 and 1982-83 cycles of School-Based Support Team (SBST) services administered by the New York City Public Schools Division of Special Education. SBSTs include school social workers, psychologists, and educational evaluators as core members and are intended to provide consultation and support to regular education…

  4. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  5. Obvious and Subtle Contributions of Merlin C. Wittrock to Programmatic R&D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; O'Neil, Harry

    2010-01-01

    We describe some of Merl's more subtle contributions that extended beyond his own prodigious scholarly record, his high-quality teaching, and his mentoring of students. The context of our remarks on Programmatic R&D focuses on his contribution to the University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Education. Merl was the first director of…

  6. Development of a hydroxyapatite coating containing silver for the prevention of peri-prosthetic infection.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Yaser; Coathup, Melanie J; Hing, Karin A; Blunn, Gordon W

    2012-03-01

    We hypothesized that the electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (EHA) can be used to incorporate silver (Ag), providing a controlled and sustained release of Ag ions at a bactericidal concentration. Six groups were investigated: electrochemical co-precipitation of HA and Ag (EHA/Ag); EHA pre-coated discs treated in AgN0(3) (EHA/AgN0(3)); plasma sprayed HA (PHA) pre-coated discs treated in AgN0(3) (PHA/AgN0(3)); EHA with 2 "layers" of Ag (EHA/Ag/2 layers); EHA coating only; and PHA coating only. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses quantified coating thickness, calcium/phosphorous ratio, and % atomic silver content, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry quantified the amount of Ag released in phosphate-buffered saline, and zone of inhibition tests on agar plates using a lawn of Staph aureus were quantified in each group. XRD and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Ag in all coatings. EHA coated discs with two layers of Ag and the EHA discs soaked in AgN0(3) showed significantly higher zones of inhibition at all time points when compared with all other groups (except PHA/AgN0(3) on day 0). This study demonstrated that Ag ions can be incorporated into a HA coating using an electrochemical technique.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-02

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings.

  8. Collaborative Case-Based Reasoning for Knowledge Discovery of Elders Health Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Gu, Dong-xiao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The existing Elders Health Assessment (EHA) system based on single-case-library reasoning has low intelligence level, poor coordination, and limited capabilities of assessment decision support. To effectively support knowledge reuse of EHA system, this paper proposes collaborative case reasoning and applies it to the whole knowledge reuse process of EHA system. It proposes a multi-case library reasoning application framework of EHA knowledge reuse system, and studies key techniques such as case representation, case retrieval algorithm, case optimization and correction, and reuse etc.. In the aspect of case representation, XML-based multi-case representation for case organization and storage is applied to facilitate case retrieval and management. In the aspect of retrieval method, Knowledge-Guided Approach with Nearest-Neighbor is proposed. Given the complexity of EHA, Gray Relational Analysis with weighted Euclidean Distance is used to measure the similarity so as to improve case retrieval accuracy. PMID:25337150

  9. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Ko, Jin H; Wahed, Abdus S

    2014-04-30

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis' 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial.

  10. Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-07-31

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context.

  11. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  12. 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA, CAS No. 149-57-5) to conduct testing.

  13. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  14. National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1 (Update 1.1, December 2016)

    SciTech Connect

    Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; O'Connor, Patrick

    2016-09-30

    The National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1, includes geospatial point-level locations and key characteristics of online existing hydropower plants in the United States that are currently licensed, exempt, or awaiting relicensing. These data are a subset extracted from NHAAP’s Existing Hydropower Assets (EHA) internal database, which is a cornerstone of NHAAP’s EHA effort that has supported multiple U.S. hydropower R&D research initiatives related to market acceleration, environmental impact reduction, technology-to-market activities, and climate change impact assessment. Update 1.1 is the latest version of this dataset and updates include plants accounted for based on NHAAP's latest internal EHA data update, a new field representing 8-digit hydrologic unit code drainage areas (or subbasins) associated with each plant, and U.S. states associated with each plant. For more information on NHAAP’s EHA effort, please visit the project web page at: http://nhaap.ornl.gov/existing-hydropower.

  15. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  16. Identification and quantitation of extractables from cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and estimation of their in vivo exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Decheng; Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Beasley, Christopher; Zhao, Zhongxi Zack; Harmon, Paul A; Ballard, John M; Pitzenberger, Steven M; Varga, Sandor L; Reed, Robert A

    2004-06-29

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine potential cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) extractables in a way to meaningfully predict the in vivo exposure resulting from clinical administration. Extractions of CAB-381-20 were performed in several solvent systems, consistently resulting in the detection of three extractables. The extractables have been identified as acetic acid, butyric acid, and E-2-ethyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-EHA) by LC/UV, LC/MS and NMR. Extraction studies of CAB powders in acetonitrile/phosphate buffer demonstrated quantitative extraction in 1 h for acetic acid (approximately 150 microg/g), butyric acid (approximately 200 microg/g), and EHA (approximately 20 microg/g). Subsequently, extraction studies for CAB powders and coated tablets in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were performed to evaluate potential in vivo exposure. Similarly, acetic and butyric acids were quantitatively extracted from CAB-381-20 powder after 24 h exposure in both USP simulated fluids. The amounts of EHA extracted from CAB powder after 24 h were determined to be 2 and 16 microg/g in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. After 24 h exposure in USP simulated fluids, the maximum amount of EHA extracted corresponds to < 0.3 microg of EHA per tablet. Pepsin and pancreatin in USP simulated fluids had no effect on EHA extraction and quantitation.

  17. Design of a Magnetostrictive-Hydraulic Actuator Considering Nonlinear System Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, John Philip

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators (EHAs) utilize fluid rectification via one-way check valves to amplify the small, high-frequency vibrations of certain smart materials into large motions of a hydraulic cylinder. Although the concept has been demonstrated in previously, the operating frequency of smart material EHA systems has been limited to a small fraction of the available bandwidth of the driver materials. The focus of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical performance of a magnetostrictive EHA considering key system components: rectification valves, smart material driver, and fluid-system components, leading to an improved actuator design relative to prior work. The one-way valves were modeled using 3-D finite element analysis, and their behavior was characterized experimentally by static and dynamic experimental measurement. Taking into account the effect of the fluid and mechanical conditions applied to the valves within the pump, the dynamic response of the valve was quantified and applied to determine rectification bandwidth of different valve configurations. A novel miniature reed valve, designed for a frequency response above 10~kHz, was fabricated and tested within a magnetostrictive EHA. The nonlinear response of the magnetostrictive driver, including saturation and hysteresis effects, was modeled using the Jiles-Atherton approach to calculate the magnetization and the resulting magnetostriction based on the applied field calculated within the rod from Maxwell's equations. The dynamic pressure response of the fluid system components (pumping chamber, hydraulic cylinder, and connecting passages) was measured over a range of input frequencies. For the magnetostrictive EHA tested, the peak performance frequency was found to be limited by the fluid resonances within the system. A lumped-parameter modeling approach was applied to model the overall behavior of a magnetostrictive EHA, incorporating models for the reed valve response

  18. Improvement of physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties of PCL/gelatin biocomposites: Effect of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Haydar U.; Beg, M. D. H.

    2015-04-01

    This research was to study the effects of gelatin content variation and gamma radiation after the 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) pre-treatment on the foundamental properties of gelatin film laminated polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposites. PCL/gelatin film (PCL/GF) composites were fabricated by compression molding and their properties were studied by physico-mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and degradation properties. The results from mechanical properties such as tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased with increasing of gelatin content up to 10 wt% and then decreased while the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. EHA monomer (2-8 wt%) was added to the gelatin solution and films were prepared by casting and found to increase the mechanical properties of the PCL/EHA blended gelatin film (PCL/EGF) composites. Treatment of the gelatin film with gamma radiation after the EHA pre-treatment showed the best mechanical properties of the resulting composites. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that the storage modulus of the PCL/EGF and PCL/EHA blended gelatin film with gamma radiation (PCL/GEGF) composites was increased significantly. The degradation properties in water and soil were determined for the non-irradiated and irradiated composites. It was observed that the non-irradiated composite degrades more than that of the irradiated composites.

  19. Modification of humic acid by ether functional group as biosorbent to Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanti, Ika; Winata, Wahyu Fajar; Sudiono, Sri; Triyono

    2017-03-01

    Modification of humic acid on the phenolic functional group with dimethylsulfate (DMS) for adsorption Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) have been conducted. Ash content was analyzed and characterized by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). Determination of Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) was conducted by Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The isolated humic acid has 19.8% ash content and after purification has 0.6% ash content, etherified humic acid (EHAs) has 1.4% ash content. Adsorption percentage of Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) by EHAs decreased until 4.936% and 41.782% respectively. The addition of Sn(II) and Ni(II) as competitors of Au(III) in the Au(III) adsorption by using EHAs, were affect the percentage of Au(III) adsorption.

  20. Evaluation of poly(acrylic acid-co-ethylhexyl acrylate) films for mucoadhesive transbuccal drug delivery: factors affecting the force of mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, A H; Paulson, J; Honary, S

    2000-07-03

    Based on the premise that similar surface properties between the adhesive and the substrate would yield a strong adhesive bond, copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), P(AA-co-EHA), were designed and synthesized for buccal mucoadhesion. A series of linear copolymers with varying feed ratios of the two monomers (AA and EHA) were synthesized through free radical copolymerization at 69+/-0.5 degrees C using azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator. The reactions were carried out in THF under nitrogen for 24 h. The glass transition temperatures, T(g), of the copolymers were determined using DSC. The adhesion studies were conducted to determine the effects of copolymer composition, contact time between the substrate and the adhesive, and crosshead speed on mucoadhesive performance of the copolymer films using a computer interfaced Instron material testing system. The glass transition temperature of the copolymers decreased with increasing EHA content. Wet glass surface as substrate was shown not to be a good substrate model for adhesion determination studies. The copolymer composed of 46:54 mol.% AA:EHA (an almost 1:1 ratio in the repeat units) yielded the highest mucoadhesive force in contact with porcine buccal mucosa which was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (used as positive control). The mucoadhesive force for all copolymers studied was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the negative control (backing material without copolymer film) except for the EHA homopolymer. Crosshead speed increased mucoadhesive force linearly and had a more pronounced effect on the mucoadhesive performance than time of contact between the adhesive and the substrate.

  1. Peace History: The Field and the Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that peace history should be taught as a separate course or part of a larger survey course because of the wealth of scholarly materials. Discusses four historical movements that form the main currents of U.S. peace historiography and states that historian Merle Curti was the most influential peace historian. (CFR)

  2. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  3. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  4. Accountability and Institutional Research: Measuring Results. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (24th, Hartford, Connecticut, November 1-4, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This proceedings document is comprised of the 12 papers, panel presentations, and work shares presented at a 1997 conference on institutional research. The papers are: (1) "What Does Accountability in Higher Education Mean to You?" (William R. Dyson, Andrew G. De Rocco, John R. Doyle, and Merle W. Harris); (2) "The University of Delaware…

  5. A Vote for Election Science as an Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the suggestion of Merle S. King, chairman of the department of computer science and information systems at Kennesaw State University and also a director of Kennesaw State's Center for Elections Systems, which has helped establish a uniform statewide voting system in Georgia. On the last day of the conference sponsored by the…

  6. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition Volume I: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    The authors wish to thank the reviewers Dr. David L. McNicol and Mr. Richard P. Diehl. In addition, we wish to thank the large number of people...throughout IDA who assisted us in the study, some very significantly, include especially (listed alphabetically): Merl Bell, Patricia Bronson , Brent

  7. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Environmental Influences in the Early Education of Migrant and Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Conference papers on early childhood education cover the following topics: individual variation among preschoolers in a cognitive intervention program in low income families presented by Phyllis Levenstein, programmatic research on disadvantaged youth and an ameliorative intervention program by Merle B. Karnes and others, special education and…

  8. Wittrock's Influence on Mathematics Education: Some Personal Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Merlin C. Wittrock was a friend and colleague who influenced me and many other contemporary mathematics educators on how students learn. In this article I summarize my interactions with Merl beginning in 1965, and how over the following half-century he influenced my thinking on student learning for understanding and, in turn, on how to design…

  9. Parents and Litigation: Insights from a Special Education Law Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the mid-1970s, over one million children with disabilities were excluded from the nation's schools. In 1975, as a result of intense litigation and advocacy, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA, P.L. 94-142), now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mandating that public schools…

  10. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  11. Evaluating the External Validity of High-Incidence Special Education Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murr, Natalie Simona

    2015-01-01

    The passing of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) of 1970, as well as subsequent education policy, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004), have been pivotal to ensuring that both the civil and educational rights of students with disabilities continue to be promoted and protected within educational settings. In…

  12. Sorption of humic acids and alpha-endosulfan by clayminerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hengpraprom, S.; Lee, C.M.; Coates, R.T.

    2005-02-18

    Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by kaolinite andmontmorillonite alone and in the presence of sorbed and dissolved humicacid (HA) was investigated (pH 8 and 25oC). Three types of HA, Elliotsoil HA (EHA), Peat HA (PHA), and Summit Hill HA (SHHA), were used torepresent typical humic substances found in soils. For sorption of HA byeither mineral, Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kf) values appeared todecrease in the order of EHA>PHA>SHHA, which followedincreasing polarity (expressed as the O/C atomic ratio) and decreasingpercent-carbon content. For both clays, sorption of alpha-endosulfan bythe HA mineral complex was greater than for sorption by the clay alone.Sorption of alpha-endosulfan by the HA mineral complexes followed thesame order as the Kf of the HAs (EHA>PHA>SHHA). Based on theamount of HA adsorbed by each mineral, organic carbon partitioncoefficients (KOC) were determined for sorption of alpha-endosulfan bytwo of the HA mineral complexes. The value of KOC for alpha-endosulfansorption was greater for kaolinite EHA than kaolinite SHHA. However, theopposite trend was found with the montmorillonite HA complexes.Montmorillonite appeared to sorb alpha-endosulfan and/or HA with higheraffinity than kaolinite, which likely is due to its 2:1 layer structureand higher surface area. Sorption of endosulfan diol, a hydrolysisproduct, by the minerals was much less than the parentpesticide.

  13. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations.

  14. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Litai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Bai; Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Yan, Tianhai; Wang, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF) on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF) in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats. PMID:26445479

  15. Phylogenetic Evidence for H2 based Electron Bifurcation In Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. W.; Boyd, E. S.; Schut, G.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    Energy conservation is a fundamental underpinning of all life and is accomplished by electron transport phosphorylation and/or substrate level phosphorylation. A third mechanism, known as flavin-based electron bifurcation, has recently been established as a mechanism by which life can conserve energy. In this mechanism, a flavin-containing multienzyme complex catalyzes the thermodynamically unfavorable reduction of low potential ferredoxin using electron donors with higher potentials, such as NAD(P)H or H2. Such endergonic reactions are driven forward through the simultaneous oxidation of the electron donor with higher potential acceptors such as NAD+ or heterodisulfide. Membrane associated energy converting [NiFe]hydrogenases (Ech, Eha) link the oxidation of ferredoxin with the production of H2 and in the process conserve energy in the form of an ion (Na+/H+) gradient. Ech/Eha exhibit a modular composition represented by a Na+/H+ antiporter domain and a [NiFe] hydrogenase domain. In addition, Ech/Eha can be accompanied by a formate dehyrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, or an FAD/NAD(P)H module that enables coupling with these substrates. Representatives of Ech/Eha have been identified among anaerobic Archaea and Bacteria, including deeply rooted methanogens, sulfur-reducing Crenarcheota/Euryarchaeota as well as Thermotogae. Ech exhibit extensive homology to a number of subunits within the NADH quinone oxidoreductase or complex I family (Nuo, Fpo). Metabolically, Ech generally couple the oxidation of carbon monooxide, formate or ferredoxin to the production of H2. In contrast, the Eha complex couples the translocation of Na+ and the oxidation of H2 to the reduction of ferredoxin, which is then available for the reduction of CO2 in methanogens. In the case of Eha, the gradient of Na+/H+ produced through translocation coupled to ferredoxin oxidation can in be used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP via an ATP synthase complex, thereby representing one of the

  16. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  17. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  18. Folate Receptor Targeted Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers for Delivery of Orlistat as a Repurposed Drug against Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhethanabotla, Rohith; Mishra, Kaushik; Devulapally, Rammohan; Foygel, Kira; Sekar, Thillai V; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Massoud, Tarik F; Joy, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with no available targeted therapy. Off target effects and poor bioavailability of the FDA approved anti-obesity drug orlistat hinder its clinical translation as a repurposed new drug against TNBC. Here we demonstrate a newly engineered drug formulation for packaging orlistat tailored to TNBC treatment. We synthesized TNBC-specific folate receptor targeted micellar nanoparticles (NPs) carrying orlistat, which improved the solubility (70-80 μg/ml) of this water insoluble drug. The targeted NPs also improved the delivery and bioavailability of orlistat to MDA-MB-231 cells in culture and to tumor xenografts in nude mouse model. We prepared HEA-EHA copolymer micellar NPs by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and 2-ethylhexylacrylate (EHA), and functionalized them with folic acid and an imaging dye. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of TNBC cells indicated a dose dependent increase in apoptotic populations in cells treated with free orlistat, orlistat NPs, and folate-receptor targeted Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs in which Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than free orlistat. In vitro analysis data demonstrated significant apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in cells activated through caspase 3 and PARP inhibition. In vivo analysis demonstrated significant antitumor effects in living mice after targeted treatment of tumors, and confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Moreover, Folate receptor targeted Fol-DyLight747-orlistat NPs treated mice exhibited significantly higher reduction in tumor volume compared to control group. Taken together, these results indicate that orlistat packaged in HEA-b-EHA micellar NPs is a highly promising new drug formulation for TNBC therapy. PMID:26553061

  19. Short-term exercise-heat acclimation enhances skin vasodilation but not hyperthermic hyperpnea in humans exercising in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Koga, Shunsaku; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation (EHA) attenuates hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans exercising in a hot environment. Twenty-one male subjects were divided into the two groups: control (C, n = 11) and EHA (n = 10). Subjects in C performed exercise-heat tests [cycle exercise for ~75 min at 58% [Formula: see text] (37°C, 50% relative humidity)] before and after a 6-day interval with no training, while subjects in EHA performed the tests before and after exercise training in a hot environment (37°C). The training entailed four 20-min bouts of exercise at 50% [Formula: see text] separated by 10 min of rest daily for 6 days. In C, comparison of the variables recorded before and after the no-training period revealed no changes. In EHA, the training increased resting plasma volume, while it reduced esophageal temperature (T (es)), heart rate at rest and during exercise, and arterial blood pressure and oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) during exercise. The training lowered the T (es) threshold for increasing forearm vascular conductance (FVC), while it increased the slope relating FVC to T (es) and the peak FVC during exercise. It also lowered minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]) during exercise, but this effect disappeared after removing the influence of [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text]. The training did not change the slope relating ventilatory variables to T (es). We conclude that short-term EHA lowers ventilation largely by reducing metabolism, but it does not affect the sensitivity of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise in humans.

  20. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. PMID:26819058

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius; Doray, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The increase in available student placements at colleges and universities, the implementation of provincial and federal postsecondary education policies, and the rise of the educational aspirations of families and individuals have all led to the massification of Canadian higher education. Based on Merle's typology of the forms of democratization, this article attempts to revisit the theory of equality of opportunities by critically analyzing the link between massification of higher education and social equity. The results of an analysis of longitudinal data from the (YIT) Youth in Transition Survey show that at the age of 24 in 2008, approximately 77% of young Canadians have pursued studies in a college or university. If access to postsecondary education is now higher, to what extent has it improved social equity? The article shows, in light of the Merle's typology, that mass university education is achieved in part under the seal of a segregative democratization, while college education tends to be egalitarian.

  2. Comparison of transcriptional response to phorbol ester, bryostatin 1, and bryostatin analogs in LNCaP and U937 cancer cell lines provides insight into their differential mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kedei, N; Telek, A; Michalowski, A M; Kraft, M B; Li, W; Poudel, Y B; Rudra, A; Petersen, M E; Keck, G E; Blumberg, P M

    2013-02-01

    Bryostatin 1, like the phorbol esters, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) but paradoxically antagonizes many but not all phorbol ester responses. Previously, we have compared patterns of biological response to bryostatin 1, phorbol ester, and the bryostatin 1 derivative Merle 23 in two human cancer cell lines, LNCaP and U937. Bryostatin 1 fails to induce a typical phorbol ester biological response in either cell line, whereas Merle 23 resembles phorbol ester in the U937 cells and bryostatin 1 in the LNCaP cells. Here, we have compared the pattern of their transcriptional response in both cell lines. We examined by qPCR the transcriptional response as a function of dose and time for a series of genes regulated by PKCs. In both cell lines bryostatin 1 differed primarily from phorbol ester in having a shorter duration of transcriptional modulation. This was not due to bryostatin 1 instability, since bryostatin 1 suppressed the phorbol ester response. In both cell lines Merle 23 induced a pattern of transcription largely like that of phorbol ester although with a modest reduction at later times in the LNCaP cells, suggesting that the difference in biological response of the two cell lines to Merle 23 lies downstream of this transcriptional regulation. For a series of bryostatins and analogs which ranged from bryostatin 1-like to phorbol ester-like in activity on the U937 cells, the duration of transcriptional response correlated with the pattern of biological activity, suggesting that this may provide a robust platform for structure activity analysis.

  3. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  4. Use of Life Cycle Costing in the Development of Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Bringhurst, Mountain Fuel Supply 6. T. Joseph Cardenas, McGraw Hill 7. Sally A. Hooks, EEI 8. Merle F. McBride, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 9. Kenneth D...Stanonik, GAMA 23. Clifford D. Smith, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 24. Chris Thomaidis, Department of Housing & Urban Development 25. Adrian Tuluca, Steven...Professionals, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. 8. Stewart, Rodney D., Cost EstimatinQ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982. 9. Owens Corning , Telephone

  5. Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-13

    CRS-35 26 Lipsey , Robert E., Interpreting Developed Countries’ Foreign Direct Investment. NBER Working Paper 7810. National Bureau of Economic ...Praeger Publishers, 1974. 37 Lipsey , Robert E., and Merle Yahr Weiss. Foreign Production and Exports of Individual Firms. The Review of Economics and... Economics , February 1969. p. 152-162. 40 Stevens, Guy V.G., and Robert E. Lipsey . Interactions Between Domestic and Foreign Investment. Cambridge

  6. Microstructural behavior of interfaces in hot isostatically pressed, dual alloy combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combinations of the nickel-base superalloys MERL 76 and low carbon Astroloy, Rene 95 and low carbon Astroloy, Rene 95 and NASA-TRW-VIA were consolidated from prealloyed powders by hot isostatic pressing. These combinations were exposed to 870 C for 1500 hours, and in a gradient furnance to temperatures up to incipient melting and subjected to microstructural examinations. The only phases found at the interfaces were those which were also present in the component alloys.

  7. Trace-Penalty Minimization for Large-scale Eigenspace Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Spectral Projection Method, LBNL Tech Report , Nov 2012. [2] E. ANDERSON, Z. BAI, J. DONGARRA, A. GREENBAUM, A. MCKENNEY, J. DU CROZ, S. HAM- MERLING...N00014-08-1-1101, and NSF Grant DMS-1115950. 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any

  8. Properties and microstructures for dual alloy combinations of three superalloys with alloy 901

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual alloy combinations have potential for use in aircraft engine components such as turbine disks where a wide range of stress and temperature regimes exists during operation. Such alloy combinations may directly result in the conservation of elements which are costly or not available domestically. Preferably, a uniform heat treatment yielding good properties for both alloys should be used. Dual alloy combinations of iron rich Alloy 901 with nickel base superalloys Rene 95, Astroloy, or MERL 76 were not isostatically pressed from prealloyed powders. Individual alloys, alloy mixtures, and layered alloy combinations were given the heat treatments specified for their use in turbine disks or appropriate for Alloy 901. Selected specimens were overaged for 1500 hr at 650 C. Metallographic examinations revealed the absence of phases not originally present in either alloy of a combination. Mechanical tests showed adequate properties in combinations of Rene 95 or Astroloy with Alloy 901 when given the Alloy 901 heat treatment. Combinations with MERL 76 had better properties when given the MERL 76 heat treatment. The results indicate that these combinations are promising candidates for use in turbine disks.

  9. Preparation of an adhesive in emulsion for maxillofacial prosthetic.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Judith A; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-10-13

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives.

  10. Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

  11. Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

  12. Improvement of the U.S. Army Intermediate Cold Wet Boot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    thermal comfort of the human foot during exposure to cold ambient temperatures. 33-5 Figure 4. Photograph showing human volunteers during the 1990 ICWB...boot indicating that it would provide an increased level of thermal comfort . The then-current U.S. Army Intermediate Cold-Wet Boot, 34 33 32 31 E 30 E...has been recommended that the U.S. Army continue to evaluate future improvements in these materials designed to increase individual thermal comfort and

  13. Prophylaxis therapy in haemophilia A: current situation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lucía, J F; Aznar, J A; Abad-Franch, L; Escuin, R R; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Pérez, R; Batlle, J; Balda, I; Alperovich, G; Parra, R

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Epidemiological Study in Haemophilia carried out in 2006 enrolled 2400 patients [2081-86.7% with haemophilia A (HA) and 319-13.3% with haemophilia B]; 465 of them (19.4%) were on prophylaxis. These rates were higher in patients with severe haemophilia (45.4%) and severe paediatric cases (72.5%). On the basis of information recorded in this study, we analysed the current situation of prophylaxis therapy administered to patients with HA in Spain, as well as their orthopaedic status. Prophylaxis was used in 399 (19.2%) patients with HA; such prophylaxis was primary (PP) in 20.3% and secondary (SP) in 75.9% of cases. Among severe HA patients, 313 (45.9%) were on prophylaxis (22.3% on PP and 74.7% on SP). Taking into account the patients' age, 34.7% of severe HA adults were on prophylaxis (6% PP and 92.1% SP), whereas 71.5% of severe HA paediatric patients (40.5% PP and 55.4% SP) received this kind of treatment. Established haemophilic arthropathy (EHA) was detected in 142 from 313 severe HA patients (45.3%) on prophylaxis, but only in 2.9% of patients under PP vs. 59% of patients receiving SP. There was no EHA in adult severe HA patient on PP, whereas 70.4% on SP had joint damage (P < 0.00001). Among paediatric severe HA patients, EHA was detected in 3.3% under PP and 37.8% under SP (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, our data suggest that an early initiation of prophylaxis avoids EHA in the long-term in patients with severe HA. We should emphasize the early onset of prophylaxis regimens.

  14. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  15. Design and experimental evaluation of a robust position controller for an electrohydrostatic actuator using adaptive antiwindup sliding mode scheme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities.

  16. Application of sonication in combination with vacuum infiltration enhances the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in Indian soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Arun, Muthukrishnan; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Shivanandhan, Ganeshan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Soybean is a recalcitrant crop to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Development of highly efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent transformation protocol is highly desirable for soybean genetic improvement. Hence, an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol has been developed for cultivar PK 416 by evaluating various parameters including Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (LBA4404, EHA101, and EHA105 harboring pCAMBIA1304 plasmid), sonication duration, vacuum infiltration pressure, and vacuum duration using cotyledonary node explants of soybean prepared from 7-day-old seedlings. The transformed plants were successfully developed through direct organogenesis system. Transgene expression was assessed by GUS histochemical and gfp visual assays, and integration was analyzed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Among the different combinations and durations evaluated, a maximum transformation efficiency of 18.6 % was achieved when the cotyledonary node explants of cv. PK 416 were sonicated for 20 s and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 250 mmHg in A. tumefaciens EHA105 suspension. The amenability of the standardized protocol was tested on four more soybean cultivars JS 90-41, Hara Soy, Co 1, and Co 2 in which all the cultivars responded favorably with transformation efficiency ranging from 13.3 to 16.6 %. The transformation protocol developed in the present study would be useful to transform diverse soybean cultivars with desirable traits.

  17. Assessing mismatches between ecosystem structure and function in Jiaozhou Bay by coordination degree algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiwang; Chen, Zhenhua; Yao, Xiaohong; Sun, Peng

    2017-04-01

    A healthy ecosystem depends on the coordination of ecosystem structure and function. The coordination among ecosystem components, however, is seldom taken into account in current ecosystem health assessments (EHA). Neglect of such coordination may lead to large degrees of uncertainty in EHA and fail to support ecosystem management. We propose an approach to quantify the level of dynamic mismatching between ecosystem structure and function and the impact on ecosystem health by incorporating the ecosystem coordination index into EHA. The coordination degree is calculated using variation coefficient of six proxies for ecosystem structure and functions. The ecosystem at Jiaozhou Bay, as a microcosm of China's coast, has been documented to fluctuate from healthy to unhealthy status over the past three decades. The results indicate that there is a 3%-17% lower health level than that calculated by common methods used in the literature, indicating that the health of Jiaozhou Bay has become worse than expected. Habitat change contributes 20%-52% to ecosystem mismatches and is the most uncoordinated factor. Mismatch-related declines account for approximately one-fourth of the total ecological declines. Restoration scenarios that aim to resolve ecosystem mismatches could increase efficiency by about 50% compared to restoration scenarios that do not consider mismatches. This study investigates ecological declines in a coastal bay due to 30 years of rapid economic development. In doing so, this study provides novel insights and enhances our understanding of the reasons for failure in ecological restoration.

  18. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Robust Position Controller for an Electrohydrostatic Actuator Using Adaptive Antiwindup Sliding Mode Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640

  19. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  20. Alexithymia and emotional regulation: A cluster analytical approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alexithymia has been a familiar conception of psychosomatic phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were subtypes of alexithymia associating with different traits of emotional expression and regulation among a group of healthy college students. Methods 1788 healthy college students were administered with the Chinese version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and another set of questionnaires assessing emotion status and regulation. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the three factor scores of the TAS-20. The cluster solution was cross-validated by the corresponding emotional regulation. Results The results indicated there were four subtypes of alexithymia, namely extrovert-high alexithymia (EHA), general-high alexithymia (GHA), introvert-high alexithymia (IHA) and non-alexithymia (NA). The GHA was characterized by general high scores on all three factors, the IHA was characterized by high scores on difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings but low score on externally oriented cognitive style of thinking, the EHA was characterized by high score on externally oriented cognitive style of thinking but normal score on the others, and the NA got low score on all factors. The GHA and IHA were dominant by suppressive character of emotional regulation and expression with worse emotion status as compared to the EHA and NA. Conclusions The current findings suggest there were four subtypes of alexithymia characterized by different emotional regulation manifestations. PMID:21345180

  1. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction.

    PubMed

    Clément, G; Wood, S J; Lathan, C E; Peterka, R J; Reschke, M F

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  2. Effects of body orientation and rotation axis on pitch visual-vestibular interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Lathan, C. E.; Peterka, R. J.; Reschke, M. F.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial transformations of the vestibular-optokinetic system must account for changes in head position with respect to gravity in order to produce compensatory oculomotor responses. The purpose of this experiment was to study the influence of gravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in darkness and on visual-vestibular interaction in the pitch plane in human subjects using two different comparisons: (1) Earth-horizontal axis (EHA) rotation about an upright versus a supine body orientation, and (2) Earth-horizontal versus Earth-vertical (EVA) rotation axes. Visual-vestibular responses (VVR) were evaluated by measuring the slow phase velocity of nystagmus induced during sinusoidal motion of the body in the pitch plane (at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz) combined with a constant-velocity vertical optokinetic stimulation (at +/- 36 degrees/s). The results showed no significant effect on the gain or phase of the VOR in darkness or on the VVR responses at 0.8 Hz between EHA upright and EHA supine body orientations. However, there was a downward shift in the VOR bias in darkness in the supine orientation. There were systematic changes in VOR and VVR between EHA and EVA for 0.2 Hz, including a reduced modulation gain, increased phase lead, and decreased bias during EVA rotation. The same trend was also observed at 0.8 Hz, but at a lesser extent, presumably due to the effects of eccentric rotation in our EVA condition and/or to the different canal input across frequencies. The change in the bias at 0.2 Hz between rotation in darkness and rotation with an optokinetic stimulus was greater than the optokinetic responses without rotation. During EHA, changes in head position relative to gravity preserve graviceptor input to the VVR regardless of body orientation. However, the modifications in VVR gain and phase when the rotation axis is aligned with gravity indicate that this graviceptive information is important for providing compensatory eye movements during visual

  3. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics Held at Tokyo (Japan) on October 6-10 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    a two-dimensional propeller operations. however, there are no (2- s/c cascade theory with a lifting line-D limitations on shaft rotation speed , ship...ANYD MERl4ENT (after -25) Power .x., Cot.) 16000 HP for 2 Propelie-s i t 0 - .870 Shaft Centerline at resign Speed 6.8z ft. j 0- Max. Diameter 5.0 ft_...When using water propellers for the propulsion of high speed vessels inclined 10 propeller shafts are necessary in most wi ptr cases. The cavitation

  4. Vortex collapse for the L2-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G.; Zwiers, I.

    2011-08-01

    The focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions admits vortex solitons, standing wave solutions with spatial structure, Q(m)(r, θ) = eimθR(m)(r). In the case of spin m = 1, we prove there exists a class of data that collapse with the vortex soliton profile at the log-log rate. This extends the work of Merle and Raphaël (the case m = 0) and suggests that the L2 mass that may be concentrated at a point during generic collapse may be unbounded. Difficulties with m ⩾ 2, or when the spin symmetry is broken, are also discussed.

  5. [Coat color in dogs. 2: Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Laukner, A

    1998-04-01

    The meaning of the coat colour of the dog reaches further than only to the field of breeding for beauty. Besides aspects of destination (hunting dogs, herding dogs) the clinical meaning is of particular interest. Some colours can show certain defects. Diseases of allowed colours are the colour dilution alopecia (CDA) in diluted (mostly "blue") pigmentation with its subtype of Black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD) in black pigmentation and congenital deafness in extreme piebalds. Not allowed coat colours, which are connected with defects, are the extreme dapple of the Merle-syndrome and the "grey" Collie with cyclic hematopoesis.

  6. Student Pave Way for First Microgravity Experiments on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Christiane Gumera, right, a student at Stanton College Preparatory High School in Jacksonville, AL, examines a protein sample while preparing an experiment for flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Merle Myers, left, a University of California, Irvine, researcher, prepares to quick-freeze protein samples in nitrogen. The proteins are in a liquid nitrogen Dewar. Aboard the ISS, the nitrogen will be allowed to evaporated so the samples thaw and then slowly crystallize. They will be anlyzed after return to Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  7. High Pressure Gas Permeation and Liquid Diffusion Studies of Coflon and Tefzel Thermoplastics. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The life of fluid-carrying flexible or umbilical pipes during service at elevated temperatures and pressures depends inter alia on their resistance to attack by the fluids present and the rate at which these fluids are absorbed by the pipe lining materials. The consequences of fluid ingress into the thermoplastic lining could mean a) a reduction in its mechanical strength, to increase chances of crack formation and growth and thus a loss of integrity, b) the occurrence of permeation right through the lining material, with pressure build- up in the outer pipe wall construction (of flexible pipes) or chemical attack (from a hostile permeant) on outer layers of reinforcements. Therefore it is important within this project to have relevant permeation data for Coflon and Tefzel thermoplastics: the former is plasticised, the latter is not. A previous report (CAPP/M.2) described experimental equipment and techniques used by MERL when measuring high pressure (up to 5000 psi) gas permeation and liquid diffusion through thermoplastic samples cut from extruded bar or pipe, and provided the basic theory involved. Norsk Hydro are also performing gas permeation tests on pipe sections, at up to 100 bars (1450 psi) pressure or so, and reporting separately. Some comparisons between data from Norsk Hydro and MERL have been made herein. The tests should be considered as complementary, as the Norsk Hydro test has the obvious benefit of using complete pipe sections, whilst MERL can test at much higher pressures, up to 1000 bar if necessary. The sophisticated analytical measuring equipment of Norsk Hydro can distinguish the individual components of mixed gases and hence the various permeation-linked coefficients whereas MERL, in using pressure increase at constant volume to determine permeation rate, is limited to obtaining single gas data, or apparent (or representative) coefficients for a mixed gas as a whole. Except for the initial fluid diffusion data for Tefzel described in CAPP

  8. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  9. Canine deafness.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2012-11-01

    Conductive deafness, caused by outer or middle ear obstruction, may be corrected, whereas sensorineural deafness cannot. Most deafness in dogs is congenital sensorineural hereditary deafness, associated with the genes for white pigment: piebald or merle. The genetic cause has not yet been identified. Dogs with blue eyes have a greater likelihood of hereditary deafness than brown-eyed dogs. Other common forms of sensorineural deafness include presbycusis, ototoxicity, noise-induced hearing loss, otitis interna, and anesthesia. Definitive diagnosis of deafness requires brainstem auditory evoked response testing.

  10. Particle learning for probabilistic deterministic finite automata

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The plpdfa software is a product of an LDRD project at LLNL entitked "Adaptive Sampling for Very High Throughput Data Streams" (tracking number 11-ERD-035). This software was developed by a graduate student summer intern, Chris Challis, who worked under project PI Dan Merl furing the summer of 2011. The software the source code is implementing is a statistical analysis technique for clustering and classification of text-valued data. The method had been previously published by the PI in the open literature.

  11. Replacement of two amino acids of 9R-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sooman, Linda; Wennman, Anneli; Hamberg, Mats; Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

    2016-02-01

    The genome of Aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (EHA25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9S-dioxygenase (DOX)-allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the Fusarium and Colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of Aspergilli, including (DOX)-9R-AOS of Aspergillus terreus. The aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of EHA25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. Recombinant EHA25900 oxidized 18:2n-6 sequentially to 9R-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HPODE) and to a 9R(10)-allene oxide. 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS catalyze abstraction of the pro-R hydrogen at C-11, but the direction of oxygen insertion differs. A comparison between twelve 9-DOX domains of 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS revealed conserved amino acid differences, which could contribute to the chirality of products. The Gly616Ile replacement of 9R-DOX-AOS (A. niger) increased the biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide, whereas the Phe627Leu replacement led to biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide as main products. The double mutant (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) formed over 90% of the 9S stereoisomer of HPODE. 9S-HPODE was formed by antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion, i.e., the original H-abstraction was retained but the product chirality was altered. We conclude that 9R-DOX-AOS can be altered to 9S-DOX-AOS by replacement of two amino acids (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) in the DOX domain.

  12. Proof of a Spectral Property related to the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Merle, Frank; Raphaël, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    We give a proof of a Spectral Property related to the description of the singularity formation for the L2 critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation iut+Δu+u|=0 in dimensions N=2,3,4. Assuming this property, the rigorous mathematical analysis developed in a recent series of papers by Merle and Raphaël provides a complete description of the collapse dynamics for a suitable class of initial data. In particular, this implies in dimension N=2 the existence of a large class of solutions blowing up with the log-log speed |∼√{{log|log(T-t)}/{T-t}} where T>0 is the blow up time. This Spectral Property is equivalent to the coercivity of some Schrödinger type operators. An analytic proof is given in [F. Merle, P. Raphaël, Blow up dynamic and upper bound on the blow up rate for critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Ann. of Math. 161 (1) (2005) 157-222] in dimension N=1 and in this paper, we give a computer assisted proof in dimensions N=2,3,4. We propose in particular a rigorous mathematical frame to reduce the check of this type of coercivity property to accessible and robust numerical results.

  13. Numerical study of blow-up and dispersive shocks in solutions to generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, C.; Peter, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of solutions to general Korteweg-de Vries equations with critical and supercritical nonlinearity, both in the context of dispersive shocks and blow-up. We study the stability of solitons and show that they are unstable against being radiated away and blow-up. In the L2 critical case, the blow-up mechanism by Martel, Merle and Raphaël can be numerically identified. In the limit of small dispersion, it is shown that a dispersive shock always appears before an eventual blow-up. In the latter case, always the first soliton to appear will blow up. It is shown that the same type of blow-up as for the perturbations of the soliton can be observed which indicates that the theory by Martel, Merle and Raphaël is also applicable to initial data with a mass much larger than the soliton mass. We study the scaling of the blow-up time t∗ in dependence of the small dispersion parameter ɛ and find an exponential dependence t∗(ɛ) and that there is a minimal blow-up time t0∗ greater than the critical time of the corresponding Hopf solution for ɛ → 0. To study the cases with blow-up in detail, we apply the first dynamic rescaling for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations. This allows to identify the type of the singularity.

  14. One stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy: surgical technique and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.

  15. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on patients undergoing hip revision prostheses: a randomized prospective double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Dante; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Del Piccolo, Nicolandrea; Stagni, Cesare; Amendola, Luca; Rani, Nicola; Gnudi, Saverio; Giardino, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) was investigated in 30 subjects undergoing hip revision using the Wagner SL stem. The subjects were treated for 6 h/day up to 90 days after revision. Study end points were assessed clinically by the functional scale of Merle D'Aubigné and instrumentally by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the Gruen zones. Subject improvement according to Merle D'Aubigné scale was higher (P < 0.05) in subjects undergoing active stimulation compared to placebo. In analyzing the DXA findings, we subtracted for each area the postoperative bone mineral density (BMD) values from those measured at 90 days and we considered all results above 3.5% as responders. There were no significant differences in the average BMD values at each Gruen zone between the two groups both postoperatively and at 90 days investigation. In Gruen zones 5 and 6, corresponding to the medial cortex, we observed six responders (40%) in both areas in the control group, while in the stimulated group we observed 14 (93%) and 10 (66%) responders, respectively (both P < 0.05). This study showed that PEMF treatment aids clinical recovery and bone stock restoration.

  16. The fracture morphology of nickel-base superalloys tested in fatigue and creep-fatigue at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Miner, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of compact tension specimens from seven nickel-base superalloys fatigue tested at 650 C were studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography to determine the nature and morphology of the crack surface in the region of stable growth. Crack propagation testing was performed as part of an earlier study at 650 C in air using a 0.33 Hz fatigue cycle and a creep-fatigue cycle incorporating a 900 second dwell at maximum load. In fatigue, alloys with a grain size greater than 20 micrometers, HIP Astroloy, Waspaloy, and MERL 76, exhibited transgranular fracture. MERL 76 also displayed numerous fracture sites which were associated with boundaries of prior powder particles. The two high strength, fine grain alloys, IN 100 and NASA IIB-7, exhibited intergranular fracture. Rene 95 and HIP plus forged Astroloy displayed a mixed failure mode that was transgranular in the coarse grains and intergranular in the fine grains. Under creep-fatigue conditions, fracture was found to be predominantly intergranular in all seven alloys.

  17. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ∼25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

  18. Detection of benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of sub-Himalyan region of northern India using different tests.

    PubMed

    Rialch, Ajayta; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2013-12-06

    The present investigation was planned with the objective of studying the status of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats of different agro-climatic zones of sub-Himalyan region of northern India using in vivo faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and in vitro tests namely egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). Out of fourteen flocks, FECRT detected resistance in eight flocks (two sheep flocks and six goat flocks) with FECR% ranging from 54.95 to 90.86. Pre treatment coproculture contained predominantly Haemonchus contortus, followed by Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum and Strongyloides, while post treatment coproculture results showed that only H. contortus survived fenbendazole (FBZ) (in FECRT) or thiabendazole (TBZ) (in LDA) treatment except in three flocks of Tarai region {one sheep flock (Us1), and two goat flocks (Ug1 and Ug5)} where BZ resistant Trichostrongylus were also detected. The GIN of those eight farms which were found resistant by FECRT were also detected resistant by EHA. Arithmetic mean and range of ED50 value of susceptible group was found to be 0.059 μg/ml and 0.037-0.096 μg/ml, respectively, and the same for the resistant group were found to be 0.119 μg/ml and 0.101-0.147 μg/ml, respectively. With LDA, the arithmetic mean and range of LC50 value of susceptible group was found 0.0030 μg/ml and 0.001-0.005 μg/ml, respectively, and those of resistant group was found 0.0105 μg/ml and 0.009-0.012 μg/ml, respectively. The values of Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that negative correlation was found between FECR% and ED50 and between FECR% and LC50 while positive correlation existed between ED50 and LC50 value and the p-values indicated that these correlations were statistically highly significant. In the present study, FECRT and EHA gave comparable results with regard to detection of BZ resistance in GIN in sheep and goats. Although with LDA, the

  19. Visual-vestibular interaction in humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Visual-vestibular interaction using 60 percent constant velocity earth horizontal axis yaw rotation, simulating both the horizontal semicircular canals and the otolith organs, was measured in seven human subjects. Subjects were tested with their eyes open in the dark (EOD) while fixating upon a target rotating with them (FIX), and while observing stationary optokinetic stripes (VVR). Resulting nystagmus slow component velocity (SCV) was analyzed for EOD, FIX, and VVR conditions. It is concluded that the visual-vestibular interactions during EHA differ significantly from those during rotation about the vertical; specifically, there is a nonlinear interaction between linear acceleration and optokinetic nystagmus.

  20. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    PubMed

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  1. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections.

  2. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  3. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces]. Technical progress report, August 1, 1985--July 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  4. [Atomic beam studies of the interaction of hydrogen with transition metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed two experimental facilities during the term of this grant. In the first three years we constructed a helium atom scattering (HAS) facility with both elastic (EHAS) and inelastic (IHAS) scattering measurement capabilities to investigate the structural and dynamical aspects of solid surfaces and thin films. A pioneering surface metastable atom magnetic diffraction (SMAMD) facility was constructed and developed over the past four years, which makes possible the investigation of long-range electron spin-ordering on the surfaces of insulating magnetic crystals. The following were studied: H overlayers and Ag, Cu on Pd(111), reconstructed Au(111), and NiO(100).

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  6. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Co-polymers Based on Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Hexyl Acrylate Containing Naphthopyrans for a Light-Sensitive Contact Lens.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Cláudia R J O D; Heron, B Mark; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Gil, Maria H; Sobral, Abílio J F N

    2011-01-01

    Three different naphthopyrans were incorporated in co-polymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), with and without cross-linking with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), by a free radical polymerization method. The obtained materials were characterised in terms of some of their chemical and physical properties that could be important for the final functional properties of the envisaged application. Despite other important functional properties that should be evaluated in the near future, the system based in the physical entrapment of 3,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-3H-naphtho [2,1-b]pyran presented a good potential for its application as novel light-sensitive contact lenses.

  8. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything. Palliative care enabled 85% of patients and families to spend less on medicines, 31% of patients received free medicines, all patients reduced use of out-patient departments (OPDs), 20% reduced use of inpatient departments (IPDs), and therefore spent less on travel, 8% of patients had started earning again due to improved health, members of 10% of families started earning again, and one hospital educated 171 village headmen and increased by 5% the number of patients and their families receiving government benefits. If only 0.7% of needy adults are receiving palliative care, these benefits could be delivered to 143 times more families, targeted effectively at poverty reduction. Palliative care has great scope to reduce that most desperate poverty in India caused by chronic illness. Context: This article concerns a study by the UK NGO EMMS International and Indian NGO EHA, to assess whether palliative care reduces household poverty. Aims: EHA staff had noticed that many patients spend a lot on ineffective treatment before joining palliative care, many families do not know their entitlement to government healthcare subsidies or

  9. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of plant extracts from Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia F; Costa Junior, Livio M; Lima, Aldilene S; Silva, Carolina R; Ribeiro, Maria N S; Mesquista, José W C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Vilegas, Wagner

    2017-03-15

    Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus. Hydroacetonic (ACT) and hydroalcoholic (ETH) extracts were evaluated using an Egg Hatching Assay (EHA), a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). A second set of incubations was performed using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the anthelmintic effects of EHA and LEIA. Data from each extract were used to calculate inhibition concentrations (IC50). All tested extracts showed activity against at least one life stage of H. contortus. The use of PVPP revealed that the tannins are not the only extracts of secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic effects. The results showed clear in vitro anthelmintic activities against H. contortus at different stages and indicated the potential use of these species as a promising alternative approach to control helminthic infections of small ruminants.

  11. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Sanita; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Wei Wen; Gu, Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHAE) is a malignant vascular tumor derived from endothelial cell often misdiagnosed as Hepatic carcinoma on the basis of radiological features. Till now etiology of this rare curiosity is unknown but it is related with use of oral contraceptives pills (OCP), liver trauma, exposure to vinyl chloride and hepatitis. We herein report on a case which failed to be diagnosed by cytopathology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient was a 46 yr old man presented with abdominal distension for a month. Initial liver function test (LFT) was increased whereas renal function test (RFT) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. His abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules and multiple liver calcifications. Subsequently laparoscopic omental biopsy and Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was done showing the neoplastic cells scattered in fibrous stroma. The immunohistochemistry for endothelial tumor cells stained positive for Vimentin (+++), CD10 (+++), CD34 (++), CD31 (+), Factor VIII antigen (focal) (+) and low proliferative activity for ki-67. Our case is very interesting in which patient admitted with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain and diagnosed to be a Malignant Hepatic EHAE metastasized to the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery. The patient was on thalidomide 50 mg/day and increased to 100 mg/day. 5-Flurouracil (FU) intraperitoneal chemotherapy and other symptomatic and supportive treatment was given to the patient. Our case highlights on the importance of immunohistopathological diagnosis, compare the radiological findings of this disease and discuss the treatment strategy with review of available literature. PMID:26191313

  12. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Screening Test of Ethyl Hydrogen Adipate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chunja; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Han, Kyoung-Goo; Jo, Eunhye; Yoo, Sun-kyoung; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity and safety of ethyl hydrogen adipate (EHA) by determining its effect on the reproductive function and development of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (control), 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day. One male and five females of the 800 mg/kg/day died. Body weight loss was observed in the males of the 800 mg/kg/day and in females of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. In addition, mating indices decreased and pre-implantation loss rates increased in parental animals of the 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The gestation index decreased in the male and female rats of the 800 mg/kg/day. Moreover, the body weight of the pups from the 800 mg/kg/day group decreased on post-parturition day 4. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of EHA for parental males and females was 400 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, and that for pups was 400 mg/kg/day. PMID:27818735

  13. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  14. EDTA assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, P; Sekar, C

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized using EDTA as organic modifier by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application for the selective determination of uric acid (UA) has been demonstrated. Electrochemical behavior of uric acid at HA nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (E-HA/GCE) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and amperometry. The E-HA modified electrode exhibits efficient electrochemical activity towards uric acid sensing without requiring enzyme or electron mediator. Amperometry studies revealed that the fabricated electrode has excellent sensitivity for uric acid with the lowest detection limit of 142 nM over a wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 3 × 10(-5)M. Moreover, the studied E-HA modified GC electrode exhibits a good reproducibility and long-term stability and an admirable selectivity towards the determination of UA even in the presence of potential interferents. The analytical performance of this sensor was evaluated for the detection of uric acid in human urine and blood serum samples.

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  17. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  18. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer. PMID:27351975

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  20. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  1. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  2. The dual-mobility POLARCUP: first results from a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bauchu, Philippe; Bonnard, Olivier; Cyprès, Alain; Fiquet, Arnaud; Girardin, Philippe; Noyer, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Dislocation is a leading cause of revision after total hip arthroplasty (THA). To address this risk, dual-mobility technology was developed, which features a mobile polyethylene liner locked onto a femoral head and articulating in a metallic acetabular shell. This study reports clinical outcome data after implantation of the third-generation POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System (Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics AG, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Primary THA procedures were performed in 150 patients. At 7.1 years, cumulative cup survival according to Kaplan-Meier was 97.4%. The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigne score improved from 8.9 to 17.1 during the investigation. Two cups were revised at 5.4 and 6.4 years because of aseptic loosening. No dislocations were observed during follow-up. The current results confirm excellent early to midterm clinical outcomes for the POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System.

  3. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  4. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    PubMed

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  5. Femoral cement within cement technique in carefully selected aseptic revision arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Lucas; Buttaro, Martin; Comba, Fernando; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results in a group of patients who underwent aseptic revision hip arthroplasty using the cement within cement (CWC) technique. Between 1999 and 2005, 37 aseptic revision hip operations were performed. There were 30 women and five men, with an average age of 68 years. The reasons for revision were femoral stem fracture, cup failure, acetabular protrusion after hemi-arthroplasty and recurrent dislocation. At an average follow-up of 46 months, none of the patients required further femoral revision. The average post-operative Merle D'Aubigne score was 16.6 points (p<0.05). No evidence of radiological stem failure was observed and no femoral component was considered to be at risk for loosening. In this series of patients, the CWC technique provided consistent with high functional outcomes. This valid and effective alternative should be considered in carefully selected aseptic cases.

  6. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  7. Lesion of the hip abductor mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caviglia, Horacio; Cambiaggi, Guillermo; Vattani, Nosrat; Landro, María Eulalia; Galatro, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The disruption of the abductor muscles of the hip after hip revision surgery often causes limping, pain, and instability of the implant. The purpose of our paper is to describe a mesh technique to repair hip abductor mechanism injuries after hip revision. Patients and methods: Forty-six patients with hip abductor damage after prosthetic revision were treated. Inclusion criteria were: patients presenting with prosthetic loosening, complaint of pain, and with a positive Trendelenburg sign due to deficient abductor muscle mechanisms. Thirty-one were women (67.39%) with an average age of 64 years (34–82 years). The number of previous revision surgeries was three (two to seven). The Merle d’Aubigné score and variants before and after treatment were also reported. Results: In the postoperative follow-up after hip revision with the mesh technique, the Merle d’Aubigné score improved and the Trendelenburg sign was negative in 78.3% of the patients (p < 0.001). Also, the Trendelenburg test with the knee flexed was negative in 60.9% (p < 0.001) and the stair-climbing test was negative in 60.9% of cases (p < 0.001). The gluteus medius test in the lateral position was negative in 52.2% of patients, and in the lateral position with the knee flexed it was negative in 47.8% of patients (p < 0.001). Discussion: Repair of the abductor mechanism with the mesh technique has proven effective for both partial and total lesions. PMID:27382925

  8. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Kim, Hee-soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Conclusion Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less. PMID:27536648

  9. Acetabular Fractures in the Elderly: Midterm Outcomes of Column Stabilisation and Primary Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Briones, A.; Smith, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Interest in arthroplasty techniques for periarticular or intra-articular fractures in the elderly/osteoporotic patient continues to rise, including for geriatric acetabular fractures. In line with this, many acetabular fracture surgeons are now undertaking acute total hip arthroplasty in elderly/osteoporotic patients. Little is known however of the outcomes of this procedure, beyond the first year after surgery. Questions/Purposes. We determined the clinical outcomes of a series of elderly osteoporotic patients (mean age at surgery 77.4 years) treated for acetabular fractures with column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty, at a mean of 49 months after surgery. Methods. 24 patients (25 hips) were reviewed at a mean of 49 months after surgery. The surgical technique employed has previously been described. Radiographs were obtained, and clinical outcomes were assessed using Harris Hip Scores and the Merle d'Aubigné score. Results. 14 hips were available for assessment (9 deceased, 2 lost to follow-up). No patient suffered any complications beyond the perioperative period, no acetabular components were loose clinically or on latest radiographs, and the mean Harris Hip Score was 92. All but one patient scored good or excellent on the Merle d'Aubigné score. Conclusions. Column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty are a viable option for complex geriatric acetabular fractures, with encouraging midterm results. We conclude that THR is a viable long-term solution in this situation provided that the acetabular columns are stabilised prior to implantation, but more research is needed to aid in overall management decision making. PMID:28194414

  10. Stability for line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yohei

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the stability for line solitary waves of the two dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL which is one of a high dimensional generalization of Korteweg-de Vries equation, where TL is the torus with the 2 πL period. The orbital and asymptotic stability of the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation on the energy space was proved by Benjamin [2], Pego and Weinstein [41] and Martel and Merle [30]. We regard the one soliton of Korteweg-de Vries equation as a line solitary wave of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation on R ×TL. We prove the stability and the transverse instability of the line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by applying the method of Evans' function and the argument of Rousset and Tzvetkov [44]. Moreover, we prove the asymptotic stability for orbitally stable line solitary waves of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by using the argument of Martel and Merle [30-32] and a Liouville type theorem. If L is the critical period with respect to a line solitary wave, the line solitary wave is orbitally stable. However, since this line solitary wave is a bifurcation point of the stationary equation, the linearized operator of the stationary equation is degenerate. Because of the degeneracy of the linearized operator, we can not show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave by using the usual virial type estimate. To show the Liouville type theorem for the line solitary wave, we modify a virial type estimate.

  11. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P < 0.0001), however, praziquantel did not record any reduction of Fasciola egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P < 0.01). In albendazole, the hatching varied according to the drug concentration. At the highest two concentrations; 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, the hatching percentages were 7.4 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 1.5 (P < 0.01) respectively. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect.

  12. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  13. Proceedings from the 1st Insights in Hematology Symposium, Cluj-Napoca, Romania March 11-12, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bojan, Anca; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Ciurea, S; Dima, Delia; Fuji, Shigeo; Ghiaur, G; Grewal, Ravnit; Mccormack, Emmet; Tanase, Alina; Trifa, A; Tomuleasa, Ciprian

    2016-09-01

    In the March 2016 issue of the Lancet Haematology, the editorial office published a paper stating the roadmap for European research in hematology, based on the European Hematology Association (EHA) consensus document that outlines the directions in hematology for the following years across the continent. The meeting entitled "Insights in hematology" is organized a support for the initiative of a roadmap for European hematologists regarding research, may it be basic research or clinical research, but this consensus should not be focused mainly on European institutions, but rather form the backbone of global research between Europe and the United States, Japan or any other country. This will allow Europeans to learn as well as to share their experience with the rest of the scientific and medical community. And the Cluj-Napoca meeting should be followed by other such meetings all across the EU.

  14. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  15. Plasma-induced polymerization for enhancing paper hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoping; Tang, Jiebin; Li, Junrong; Xiao, Huining

    2013-01-30

    Hydrophobic modification of cellulose fibers was conducted via plasma-induced polymerization in an attempt to graft the hydrophobic polymer chains on paper surface, this increasing the hydrophobicity of paper. Two hydrophobic monomers, butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), were grafted on cellulose fibers, induced by atmospheric cold plasma. Various influencing factors associated with the plasma-induced grafting were investigated. Contact-angle measurement, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the occurrence of the grafting and characterized the changes of the cellulose fiber after modification. The results showed that the hydrophobicity of the modified paper sheet was improved significantly after the plasma-induced grafting. The water contact angle on the paper surface reached up to 130°. The morphological differences between modified and unmodified samples were also revealed by SEM observation. The resulting paper is promising as a green-based packaging material.

  16. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) shoot apex with a fungal phytase gene improves phosphorus acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiying; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xingfen

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important world economic crop plant. It is considered that cotton is recalcitrant to in vitro proliferation. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration has been successful by using hypocotyl, whereas it is highly genotype dependent. Here, a genotype-independent cotton regeneration protocol from shoot apices is presented. Shoot apices from 3- to 5-day-old seedlings of cotton are infected with an Agrobacterium strain, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pC-KSA contained phytase gene (phyA) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), and directly regenerated as shoots in vitro. Rooted shoots can be obtained within 6-8 weeks. Plants that survived by leaf painting kanamycin (kan) were -further analyzed by DNA and RNA blottings. The transgenic plants with increased the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency were obtained following the transformation method.

  18. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  19. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  20. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent, mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% +/- 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1 to 55.3%.

  1. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Behura, Ratikanta; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, Bedabrata; Panda, Manasa Kumar; Dey, Mohitosh; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Alam, Shamsher; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Sugla, Twinkle; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an efficient method for incorporating genes and recovering stable transgenic plants in cowpea because this method offers several advantages such as the defined integration of transgenes, potentially low copy number, and preferential integration into transcriptional active regions of the chromosome. Cotyledonary node explants of cowpea present an attractive target for T-DNA delivery followed by regeneration of shoots via axillary proliferation without involvement of a de novo regeneration pathway. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cowpea variety Pusa Komal. The seedling cotyledonary node explants are used for cocultivation with an Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring standard binary vector, pCAMBIA2301 or pNOV2819, and putative transformed plants are selected using aminoglycoside antibiotic or mannose as sole carbon source, respectively. The entire process includes explant infection to transgenic seed generation in greenhouse.

  2. Long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms in excited states. I. 2 S -1 S interactions and Dirac-δ perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, C. M.; Debierre, V.; Matveev, A.; Kolachevsky, N.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the long-range interaction of metastable excited atomic states with ground-state atoms is analyzed. We show that the long-range interaction is essentially modified when quasidegenerate states are available for virtual transitions. A discrepancy in the literature regarding the van der Waals coefficient C6(2 S ;1 S ) describing the interaction of metastable atomic hydrogen (2 S state) with a ground-state hydrogen atom is resolved. In the the van der Waals range a0≪R ≪a0/α , where a0=ℏ /α m c is the Bohr radius and α is the fine-structure constant, one finds the symmetry-dependent result E2 S ;1 S(R ) ≈(-176.75 ±27.98 ) Eh(a0/R ) 6 (Eh denotes the Hartree energy). In the Casimir-Polder range a0/α ≪R ≪ℏ c /L , where L ≡E (2 S1 /2) -E (2 P1 /2) is the Lamb shift energy, one finds E2 S ;1 S(R ) ≈(-121.50 ±46.61 ) Eh(a0/R ) 6 . In the the Lamb shift range R ≫ℏ c /L , we find an oscillatory tail with a negligible interaction energy below 10-36Hz . Dirac-δ perturbations to the interaction are also evaluated and results are given for all asymptotic distance ranges; these effects describe the hyperfine modification of the interaction or, expressed differently, the shift of the hydrogen 2 S hyperfine frequency due to interactions with neighboring 1 S atoms. The 2 S hyperfine frequency has recently been measured very accurately in atomic beam experiments.

  3. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid.

  4. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  5. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds.

  6. Emulsion templated scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robert; Sherborne, Colin; Paterson, Thomas; Green, Nicola H.; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs) are manufactured via emulsion templating and exhibit a highly interconnected microporosity. These materials are commonly used as thin membranes for 3D cell culture. This study uses emulsion templating in combination with microstereolithography to fabricate PolyHIPE scaffolds with a tightly controlled and reproducible architecture. This combination of methods produces hierarchical structures, where the microstructural properties can be independently controlled from the scaffold macrostructure. PolyHIPEs were fabricated with varying ratios of two acrylate monomers (2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)) and varying nominal porosity to tune mechanical properties. Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elongation at failure were determined for twenty EHA/IBOA compositions. Moduli ranged from 63.01±9.13 to 0.36±0.04 MPa, UTS from 2.03±0.33 to 0.11±0.01 MPa and failure strain from 21.86±2.87% to 2.60±0.61%. Selected compositions were fabricated into macro-porous woodpile structures, plasma treated with air or acrylic acid and seeded with human embryonic stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs). Confocal and two-photon microscopy confirmed cell proliferation and penetration into the micro- and macro-porous architecture. The scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and interestingly, the stiffest IBOA-based scaffolds that were plasma treated with acrylic acid promoted osteogenesis more strongly than the other scaffolds. PMID:26458114

  7. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    PubMed

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  8. Root and shoot parts of strawberry: factories for production of functional human pro-insulin.

    PubMed

    Tavizi, Ashkan; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Mohebodini, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes, a disease caused by excessive blood sugar, is caused by the lack of insulin. For commercial production, insulin is made in bacteria or yeast by protein recombinant technology. The focus of this research is evaluating another resource and producing of recombinant insulin protein in as strawberry as this plant has high potential in production of pharmaceutical proteins. Strawberry is a suitable bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins especially edible vaccines. In this research, human pro-insulin gene was cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector under CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator. Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, EHA101, C58, C58 (pGV2260) and C58 (pGV3101) strains were used for transformation of pro-insulin gene into strawberry cv. Camarosa, Selva, Sarian Hybrid, Pajaro, Paros, Gaviota, Alpine. Additionally, Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599, R1000, A4 and MSU440 strains were utilized for gene transformation into hairy roots. PCR analysis indicated the presence of transformed human pro-insulin gene in the strawberry and hairy roots. Also, its transcription was confirmed using RT-PCR. Furthermore, the analysis of plants, fruits and hairy roots at the level of proteins using dot blot, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and ECL tests re-confirmed the expression of this protein in the transgenic plants as well as hairy roots. Protein purification of human pro-insulin from transgenic tissues was performed using affinity chromatography. Finally, the bioassay of recombinant pro-insulin was performed. The analysis of second generations of transgenic plants (T1) at DNA and protein levels was also performed as a complementary experiment. This study opens a new avenue in molecular farming of human pro-insulin through its mass production in roots and shoots of strawberry.

  9. Selection of Single Domain Antibodies from Immune Libraries Displayed on the Surface of E. coli Cells with Two β-Domains of Opposite Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Arteaga, Rocio; Ruano-Gallego, David; Fraile, Sofía; Margolles, Yago; Teira, Xema; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bodelón, Gustavo; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Screening of antibody (Ab) libraries by direct display on the surface of E. coli cells is hampered by the presence of the outer membrane (OM). In this work we demonstrate that the native β-domains of EhaA autotransporter and intimin, two proteins from enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) with opposite topologies in the OM, are effective systems for the display of immune libraries of single domain Abs (sdAbs) from camelids (nanobodies or VHH) on the surface of E. coli K-12 cells and for the selection of high affinity sdAbs using magnetic cell sorting (MACS). We analyzed the capacity of EhaA and intimin β-domains to display individual sdAbs and sdAb libraries obtained after immunization with the extracellular domain of the translocated intimin receptor from EHEC (TirMEHEC). We demonstrated that both systems displayed functional sdAbs on the surface of E. coli cells with little proteolysis and cellular toxicity, although E. coli cells displaying sdAbs with the β-domain of intimin showed higher antigen-binding capacity. Both E. coli display libraries were screened for TirMEHEC binding clones by MACS. High affinity binders were selected by both display systems, although more efficiently with the intimin β-domain. The specificity of the selected clones against TirMEHEC was demonstrated by flow cytometry of E. coli cells, along with ELISA and surface plasmon resonance with purified sdAbs. Finally, we employed the E. coli cell display systems to provide an estimation of the affinity of the selected sdAb by flow cytometry analysis under equilibrium conditions. PMID:24086454

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2004-12-01

    Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of polyploid cereals. The efficiency of selection and transgene expression in wheat.

    PubMed

    Przetakiewicz, Anna; Karaś, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Three combinations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and vectors were used in the transformation of selected Polish wheat cultivars. The combinations were: two hypervirulent strains, AGL1, containing the pDM805 binary plasmid, and EHA101, containing pGAH; and the common Agro strain LBA4404, harboring the super-binary pTOK233 vector. pDM805 contained bar under the control of Ubi1 promoter, pGAH had nptII under nos, and pTOK233 had hpt under 35S. Additionally, pDM805 and pTOK233 carried the gus reporter gene under the Act1 promoter or 35S promoter, respectively. The highest selection rate was 12.6% and was obtained with EHA101(pGAH) on a kanamycin-containing medium. Sixty-five of the plants grown on that medium were PCR positive. The second best combination was LBA4404(pTOK233) and kanamycin selection, which gave an average transformation rate of 2.3%. Phosphinothricin selection gave 1.0% transformation efficiency, while hygromycin, depending on the strain/vector used, gave from 0.2 to 0.4%. PCR tests in T1 revealed that 67% of the lines showed a 3:1 segregation ratio, and 11% a 15:1 ratio, while in 22%, segregation was non-Mendelian. The high number of T0 transgenic plants containing one copy of the transgene was confirmed via Southern blot analysis. Kanamycin resistance in the T1 generation was very low; in some lines, all the progeny were kanamycin sensitive. GUS expression, only tested in young T1 plants, was in agreement with Mendelian segregation in three out of the twelve tested. The factors influencing the efficiency of selection and transgene expression are discussed in this paper.

  12. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-08-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  13. Outreach geology with the "balades géologiques" project based on smartphone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoroff, Grégoire; de Wever, Patrick; Cornee, Annie

    2014-05-01

    ., Bonnefoy B., Houssaye A., De Wever P. & Merle D. (2008) - Promenade géologique à Etampes. Coll. balades géologiques, SGF-MNHN-BRGM, 30 pages. Egoroff G., De Wever P., Merle D. & Métivier B. (2011) - Promenade géologique à Dourdan. Biotope, Mèze - MNHN, Paris - BRGM, Orléans (Collection Balades géologiques), 38 pages. Nouvellet S., Egoroff G. & De Wever P. (2013) - Virtual Milly-la-Forêt Geological stroll, online. Android app Wikitude, « ID Bio-Balades géologiques » project "Milly-la-Forêt".

  14. Stoppa Approach for Anterior Plate Fixation in Unstable Pelvic Ring Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Suk Kyu; Kim, Jung-Jae; Lee, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. Methods We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. Results The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications

  15. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  16. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  17. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  18. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  19. Acetabular Reconstruction with Human and Bovine Freeze- Dried Bone Grafts and a Reinforcement Device

    PubMed Central

    Rosito, Ricardo; Galia, Carlos Roberto; Macedo, Carlos Alberto Souza; Moreira, Luis Fernando; Quaresma, Lourdes Maria Araújo C.; Palma, Humberto Moreira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND This is a cohort trial (1997–2005) of 49 patients submitted to an acetabular component revision of a total hip arthroplasty, using impacted human and bovine freeze-dried cancellous bone grafts (H&FDBG) and a reinforcement device. OBJECTIVE To compare clinical/radiographic graft incorporation capability between cancellous bone grafts. PATIENTS/METHODS There were two groups: I (n=26) receiving human grafts and II (n=25) receiving bovine grafts. The average follow-up times were 55 and 49 months, respectively. Clinical analysis was based on the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel score, and the radiographic analysis involved an established score based on Conn’s et al. criteria for radiographic bone incorporation. RESULTS No clinical/radiographic differences were found between the groups and both showed an overall rate of 88.5% and 76% of graft incorporation (p=0.424). CONCLUSION The results presented here are comparable to those in the literature with the use of deep-FG. Therefore, cancellous bone grafts can be safely and adequately used in acetabular component revision in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:18719763

  20. The formation and evolution of eccentric binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Observations are revealing a host of post-mass-transfer binary systems in significantly eccentric orbits, most notably Barium stars [1] and subdwarf-B + main-sequence systems [2]. Their formation is very puzzling in light of the fact that tidal forces efficiently circularise the orbit. Using our state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution code BINSTAR [3], we explore the formation and evolution of eccentric binary systems within the framework of the osculating orbital theory. This scheme describes, in a physically realistic manner, the perturbing forces acting on the orbit arising from mass transfer [4]. Results are presented, showing the impact of wind losses and Roche lobe overflow on the orbital separation and eccentricity for a range of initial stellar and binary parameters. As an interesting case study, we also discuss a promising formation channel for the eccentric white dwarf + main-sequence binary IP Eri [5], which invokes a tidally enhanced wind-loss mechanism. Our approach reproduces the observed system parameters remarkably well [6]. [1] Jorissen A., 1999, IAU Symposium, 191, 437 [2] Vos et al., 2013, A&A, 559, 54 [3] Siess L. et al., 2012, A&A, 550, 100 [4] Hadjidemetriou J., 1969, Ap&SS, 3, 330 [5] Merle et al., 2014, A&A, in press (arXiv:1405.4669) [6] Siess L., Davis P. J., Jorissen A., 2014, A&A, 565, A57

  1. Two-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy: good outcome in 35 hips.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, Jarkko; Hirvensalo, Eero

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a 2-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy. This includes both an extraperitoneal and an anterolateral exposure of the pelvic bones allowing an unconstrained approach without dissection of the muscle insertion. 2 plates are used to stabilize the osteotomy and full range motion of the hip is permitted within 2 days of surgery, while weight bearing is restricted for 6 weeks after the operation. We reviewed the complications and technical results in 27 patients (28 hips) after a minimum follow-up of mean 3 (1-5) years. No major surgical complications occurred, but dysfunction of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred frequently (14 patients). The radiographical correction of the femoral head covering was similar to those in previous reports of rotational osteotomy. The range of hip motion was not affected by the operation. A significant increase in the mean Merle D'Aubigné and Harris Hip scores was observed in a subgroup of 20 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. In conclusion, the method we have used is safe and the early results are satisfactory.

  2. Nature, not books: scientists and the origins of the nature-study movement in the 1890s.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Scientists played a key role in the first systematic introduction of nature study into North American public schools in the late nineteenth century. The initiatives of Wilbur Jackman and John Merle Coulter, affiliated with the young University of Chicago, and Liberty Hyde Bailey and Anna Botsford Comstock, at Cornell University, coincided with the "new education" reform movement that found object lessons and experience-based education superior to textbook teaching. Educational psychologists and philosophers of the 1890s, including G. Stanley Hall, related curriculum methods to perceived developmental stages in children, with a focus on immediate experience. Putting these pedagogical ideas--gained in summer institutes, normal schools, and programs at Chicago and Cornell--into practice were administrators and classroom teachers in both urban and rural classrooms. By 1900, a consensus about the value of nature study among scientists, community leaders, and teachers established it as the recognized general method of studying the natural world in public schools across much of the United States.

  3. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  4. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  5. Analysis of K- and L-shell spectra from indirectly driven implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Osterheld, A. L.; Lee, R. W.; Kania, D. R.; Suter, L. J.; Mancini, R. C.; Hooper, C. F., Jr.; Delamater, N. D.

    1994-02-01

    We report on the analysis of K-and L-shell spectra obtained from Ar and Xe dopants seeded into the fuel region of plastic capsules indirectly imploded using the Nova laser. Stark broadening of the Ar Ly-beta and He-beta lines is used to infer fuel electron density, while spatially average fuel electron temperature is deduced from the ratio of Ar Ly-beta to He-beta. A postprocessing code has been developed to simulate experimental spectra by taking into account spatial gradients and line transfer effects. It is shown that correct modeling of the x-ray emission requires a proper treatment of the coupled radiative transfer and kinetics problem. A recently developed diagnostic based on the lineshape of Ar He-beta and its associated dielectronic satellites is shown to provide a simultaneous measure of electron temperature and electron density. Comparisons of TOTAL and MERL line broadening calculations for this case are shown. L-shell Xe spectroscopy is under continuing development as an electron temperature and electron density diagnostic. Density and temperature sensitive ratios of spectral features each consisting of many lines have been identified. Observed Xe spectra from imploded cores show the same qualitative behavior with temperture as predicted by model calculations of Xe emission spectra.

  6. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  8. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  9. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2016-09-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the "karumba group" based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The "karumba group" encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the "karumba group". For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-01-01

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks. PMID:26729123

  11. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes.

  12. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports (plus latest data which will be included in final reports for Phase 1). Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and I-propanol (Fluid 1) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  13. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data for the Environmental Ageing of Tefzel (ETFE). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    In a similar approach to that used for the previously issued correlation report for Coflon (CAPP/M.10), this report aims to identify any correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological changes for Tefzel, using information supplied in other MERL and TRI project reports. Differences identified with Coflon behaviour will be of scientific interest as well as appropriate to project applications, as Tefzel and Coflon are chemical isomers. Owing to the considerable chemical resistance of Tefzel, much of its testing so far has been based on mechanical properties. Where changes have occurred, chemical analysis can now be targeted more effectively. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity, some crack growth resistance measurements, and other observations where significant. Fluids based on methanol and amine (Fluid G), a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases plus an aqueous amine solution (Fluid F), and an aromatic oil mix of heptane, cyclohexane, toluene and 1-propanol (Fluid I) have affected Tefzel to varying degrees, and are discussed in some detail herein.

  14. A Novel Approach for Treatment of Acetabular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zichao; Qin, Hui; Ding, Haoliang; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. Material/Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented. Results Mean operative time was 222±78 minutes. Average blood loss was 993±361 mL. Anatomical reduction was achieved in all patients. Minimum follow-up period was 31 months. Postoperative hypoesthesia in the area of innervation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was reported in one patient, with spontaneous recovery at one month after surgery. No complications were reported during the follow-up period. At the most recent follow up, clinical outcomes were graded as “excellent” in six patients, “good” in eight patients and “fair” in one patient based on the modified Merle d’Aubigné-Postel score. Conclusions PSA appears to be a timesaving and safe approach for treatment of acetabular fractures that affords good visual access and allows for excellent fracture reduction. Our preliminary results revealed a much lower incidence of complications than traditional approaches, suggesting PSA is an alternative for treatment of acetabular fractures. PMID:27734825

  15. [Care for a family carer in Primary Care using the uncertainty theory].

    PubMed

    Vives-Relats, Carme; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Rodero-Sánchez, Virtudes; Cid-Buera, Dolors

    2011-01-01

    This case discussion starts from the Uncertainty Theory of illness of Merle Mishel, who raised the idea that even without a solution to the uncertainty, a person should accept it as a part of their life and reinterpret it as an opportunity to promote a new view of life governed by probability. The author proposes theoretical concepts that allow the phenomena experienced by family caregivers to be approached from the perspective of their experiences and stress. It establishes uncertainty and indecisiveness as contradictions that should not create anxiety permanently. This can be released gradually, if we create lines of flight though the care. Among these lines are located the Problem Solving Method as a strategy useful in primary health care to reduce the uncertainty of the caregivers. This article describes the outcome of Isabel, a 63- year-old female family caregiver of her dependent mother and her daughter with anorexia. The primary care nurse identifies the problem of weariness of the care-givers role and that of conflict of decisions during home visits. It describes the assessment made from the main concepts of the theory and the work with the care-givers by the problem solving method in order to reduce anxiety and help to mobilize internal resources and increase their welfare.

  16. Comparison of 10-year clinical wear of annealed and remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Mashima, Naohiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Kamada, Tomomi; Motomura, Goro; Imai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-06-01

    No previous studies comparing the clinical wear rates of the two different kinds of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (XLPE), annealed and remelted, are available. We compared the creep and steady wear rates of 36 matched pairs (72 hips in total) adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score matching techniques. Zirconia femoral heads with 26-mm diameter were used in all cases. The femoral-head cup penetration was measured digitally on radiographs. Significantly greater creep (p=0.006) was detected in the remelted (0.234mm) than annealed (0.159mm) XLPE. However, no significant difference (p=0.19) was found between the steady wear rates (0.003 and 0.008mm/year, respectively) of the annealed and remelted XLPE. Multiple regression analyses showed that remelted XLPE is significant independent variable (p<0.001) that is positively associated with creep. However, the patient age and body weight, cup size, the liner thickness, cup inclination, follow-up periods, and postoperative Merle d'Aubigné hip score had no significant effects (p>0.05) on the steady wear rates. No patients exhibited above the osteolysis threshold of 0.1mm/year, progressive radiolucencies, osteolysis, or polyethylene fracture. This propensity-matched cohort study document no significant difference in wear resistant performances of annealed and remelted XLPE over an average period of 10 years.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE SEGMENTAL IMPACTION OF FEMORAL HEAD FOLLOWING AN ACETABULAR FRACTURE SURGICALLY MANAGED

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Carina; Daniachi, Daniel; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Riccioli, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Correlate the postoperative radiographic evaluation with variables accompanying acetabular fractures in order to determine the predictive factors for segmental impaction of femoral head. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medial files of patients submitted to open reduction surgery with internal acetabular fixation. Within approximately 35 years, 596 patients were treated for acetabular fractures; 267 were followed up for at least two years. The others were excluded either because their follow up was shorter than the minimum time, or as a result of the lack of sufficient data reported on files, or because they had been submitted to non-surgical treatment. The patients were followed up by one of three surgeons of the group using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel clinical scales as well as radiological studies. Results: Only tow studied variables-age and amount of postoperative reductionshowed statistically significant correlation with femoral head impaction. Conclusions: The quality of reduction-anatomical or with up to 2mm residual deviation-presents a good radiographic evolution, reducing the potential for segmental impaction of the femoral head, a statistically significant finding. PMID:27004191

  18. Changes in the radiological measurements of the tibiofibular syndesmal area in patients with Weber C ankle fractures who were treated with open reduction, internal fixation, and transyndesmal screw.

    PubMed

    Jasqui-Remba, S; Torres-Gómez, A; Salas-Morales, G A; Hernández-Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    The tibiofibular syndesmosis provides stability to the ankle mortise. The ankle syndesmosis is compromised in all Weber C type injuries. The radiographic method described by Merle DAubigné considers the bony relationships as a measure of syndesmotic widening. We sought to investigate whether the patients with a C type ankle fracture treated with ORIF and placement of a transyndesmal screw have an increment of the tibiofibular space and decrease of the tibiofibular overlap after the transyndesmal screw is removed. Our sample included 52 patients with Weber C ankle fractures treated by ORIF and transyndesmal screw at a level II trauma center. We measured the tibiofibular clear space and tibiofibular overlap in each phase of the treatment. The transyndesmal screw was removed at day 55.56 (± 21.83). We found an increase of the tibiofibular overlap of 0.20 mm (± 2.29, p = 0.532); and 0.21 mm (± 0.97, p = 0.146) in the tibiofibular clear space. The changes of 2.38% in the tibiofibular overlap and 5.29% in the tibiofibular clear space between the postoperative and post-removal periods were not statistically significant. After removal of the syndesmal screw, there is a slight radiographic broadening of the syndesmosis; however, it is small and statistically not significant.

  19. Effects of Zoledronate on Mortality and Morbidity after Surgical Treatment of Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Ömer; Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Tunç, Oytun Derya; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, İbrahim; Şen, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of intertrochanteric femoral fractures on mortality, morbidity, and cost of zoledronate treatment in elderly patients treated by osteosynthesis. Based on Evans classification, 114 patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures were treated with osteosynthesis. After the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures, the treatment group (M/F, 24/32; mean age, 76.7 ± SD years) received zoledronate infusion, and the control group (M/F, 20/38; mean age, 80.2 ± SD years) received placebo. Postoperative control visits were performed at 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month time points. Functional level of patients was evaluated by the modified Harris hip score and Merle d'Aubigné hip score. By 12 months, the mean HHS in treatment and control groups was 81.93 and 72.9, respectively. For time of death of the patients, mortality was found to be 57.1% (16/28) on the first 3 months and 92.9% (26/28) on the first six months. The mortality rate in the treatment and control groups was 14.3% (8/56) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. The use of zoledronic acid after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients is a safe treatment modality which helps to reduce mortality, improves functional outcomes, and has less side effects with single dose use per year. PMID:27092280

  20. College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Institute of Technology . Geo-Heat Center; William E. Nork, Inc.

    1986-11-18

    Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy utilization is to cascade the approximately 130/sup 0/F effluent for heating buildings in the industrial park and disposal of the effluent in an existing injection well. An aquifer stress test was performed using the 1500 foot well in the industrial park. Based on the specific capacity, data indicate that the well is capable of accepting an injection rate of at least 700 gpm of the thermal effluent. A plume of degraded water will develop down-gradient of the well. However, the plume is expected to bypass nearby water supply wells and will have no impact on OIT and MWMC space heating wells.

  1. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations.

  2. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates.

    PubMed

    Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2002-12-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  3. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  4. Scenario-based assessment of buildings' damage and population exposure due to earthquake-induced tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt with regards to population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has very important tourist activity. Historical records indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the worst-case credible tsunami scenario analysis (WCTSA). We identify three main seismic sources: the western Hellenic Arc (WHA - reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5), the eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA - reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0) and the Cyprus Arc (CA - hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0), inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out in two sea level conditions (mean sea level and maximum high-tide sea level) by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the framework of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila, over 12 000 (13 400 in the case of maximum high tide) buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could sustain damaging consequences, ranging from critical damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2, resulting in more than 150 000 (165 000 in the case of maximum high

  5. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  6. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  7. Entropy of hydrological systems under small samples: Uncertainty and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dengfeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Wu, Jichun; Singh, Vijay P.; Zeng, Xiankui; Wang, Lachun; Chen, Yuanfang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Entropy theory has been increasingly applied in hydrology in both descriptive and inferential ways. However, little attention has been given to the small-sample condition widespread in hydrological practice, where either hydrological measurements are limited or are even nonexistent. Accordingly, entropy estimated under this condition may incur considerable bias. In this study, small-sample condition is considered and two innovative entropy estimators, the Chao-Shen (CS) estimator and the James-Stein-type shrinkage (JSS) estimator, are introduced. Simulation tests are conducted with common distributions in hydrology, that lead to the best-performing JSS estimator. Then, multi-scale moving entropy-based hydrological analyses (MM-EHA) are applied to indicate the changing patterns of uncertainty of streamflow data collected from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, China. For further investigation into the intrinsic property of entropy applied in hydrological uncertainty analyses, correlations of entropy and other statistics at different time-scales are also calculated, which show connections between the concept of uncertainty and variability.

  8. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  9. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis.

  10. Highly efficient transformation and plant regeneration of tall fescue mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Jin-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ting; Jin, Wei; Lang, Chun-Xiu; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun

    2005-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Two-months-old suspension cultures served as excellent explants for transformation. The explants were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a plasmid pDBA121 containing genes for hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar). The commercial herbicide Basta was used as a selective agent. Inclusion of acetosyringone (ACS) 20 mg/L in the co-culture medium led to an increase in transformation efficiency. The efficiency of transformation was highly dependent on the genotype, the explant, the culture medium and selective agent used. Tall fescue transformation efficiency is 2.85-10.9 plants per gram fresh weight (FW) of suspension cultures. This is much higher than the corresponding values reported before (2-5 plants). So far more than 300 transgenic plants have been obtained, the fertility of some transgenic plants had decreased. Stable integration and high expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization or herbicide Basta spraying test.

  11. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-02-26

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India.

  12. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  13. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) with a rice chitinase gene for improved tolerance to a fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H; Zhu, Yun J

    2008-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is one of the most important crops in the Pacific Islands, however, taro yields have been declining in Hawaii over the past 30 years partly due to diseases caused by oomycete and fungal pathogens. In this study, an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method for taro is first reported. In total, approximately 200 pieces (8 g) of embryogenic calluses were infected with the super-virulent A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pBI121/ricchi11 that contains the rice chitinase gene ricchi11. The presence and expression of the transgene ricchi11 in six independent transgenic lines was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Southern blot analysis of the six independent lines indicated that three out of six (50%) had integrated a single copy of the transgene, and the other three lines had two or three copies of the transgene. Compared to the particle bombardment transformation of taro method, which was used in the previous studies, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method obtained 43-fold higher transformation efficiency. In addition, these six transgenic lines via Agrobacterium may be more effective for transgene expression as a result of single-copy or low-copy insertion of the transgene than the single line with multiple copies of the transgene via particle bombardment. In a laboratory bioassay, all six transgenic lines exhibited increased tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii, ranging from 42 to 63% reduction in lesion expansion.

  14. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jawahar, N.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Sivakumar, K.; Thangadurai, V.

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems. PMID:24790568

  15. Heterologous Expression of an Alkali and Thermotolerant Lipase from Talaromyces thermophilus in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Xueqi; Xia, Liming

    2015-07-01

    To heterologously express a Talaromyces thermophilus lipase gene in Trichoderma reesei, an efficient binary vector pChph-pCBH1sigpro-ttl which includes a newly designed cbh1 promoter and hygromycin-resistant marker was constructed. This plasmid was then transformed into T. reesei via improved Agrobacterium EHA 105-mediated transformation. After modification of co-culture conditions and enzymolysis treatment of conidia, 258 transformants were produced. A two-step screening method based on antibiotic resistance and capacity to utilize lactose and tributyrin was introduced to further select promising candidates, which would be additionally verified by PCR analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and lipase activity assay. Lipase production was carried out in shaking flasks, and the activity reached 241 IU/mL (7415.4 IU/mg) after 84-h fermentation. It was found that this lipase performed high alkali and thermostable tolerance with the optimal pH 9.5 and temperature 60 °C, and it could retain more than 70 % activity after being disposed in pH 11 or 70 °C for 1 h. This study herein would benefit the genetic engineering of T. reesei and the industrial application of this important fungal lipase.

  16. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots.

  17. Transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, M; Ishizaki, T; Sato, H

    2004-03-01

    An efficient procedure is described for the transformation of the monocotyledonous Alstroemeria by Agrobacterium tumefaciens via callus regeneration. Calli derived from ovules were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA101 and LBA4404, which harbored the binary vector plasmids pIG121Hm and pTOK233, respectively. These plasmids contain the beta-glucuronidase gene ( gusA) as a reporter gene and the hygromycin phosphotransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II ( nptII) genes as selective markers. Inoculated calli were first plated for 4 weeks on medium containing cefotaxime to eliminate bacteria, following which time transformed cells were selected on medium that contained 20 mg/l hygromycin. A histochemical assay for GUS activity revealed that hygromycin-based selection was completed after 8 weeks. The integration of the T-DNA of pIG121Hm and pTOK233 into the genome of the cells was confirmed by PCR analysis. Efficient shoot regeneration from the transformed calli was observed on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine after about 5 months of culture. The presence of the gusA and nptII genes in the genomic DNA of regenerated plants was detected by means of PCR and PCR-Southern hybridization, and the expression of these transgenes was verified by reverse transcription-PCR.

  18. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  19. F-18 SRA landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A highly modified F-18B Hornet fighter being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center settles towards the runway at Edwards Air Force Base following another research flight. Known as the Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), the two-seat F-18 is currently engaged in a multi-year project to evaluate a variety of advanced control subsystems and sensors. Among the more than 20 experiments being researched in the joint NASA/DOD/industry program is the Electrical-Powered Actuation Design (EPAD), which is testing prototype aileron actuators which operate independently of the aircraft's hydraulic system. One experimental electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) generates hydraulic force to move the aileron via a compact electric-driven hydraulic pump incorporated in the actuator itself. Another 'smart' actuator uses actuator-mounted electronics while a third electro-mechanical actuator is electrically operated and moves the aileron mechanically. Such actuators could eliminate much of the need for complex central hydraulic systems on future aircraft, with signifigant savings in weight and cost. They are also being evaluated for use on the planned Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  20. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Sailaja, M

    2005-03-01

    A protocol for the transformation of castor embryo axes using the pCAMBIA vector 1304 in disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is presented. Co-cultivated explants were initially subjected to expansion and proliferation on MS medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) TDZ followed by three cycles of selection on medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and increasing concentrations of hygromycin (20-40-60 mg l(-1)). Selected shoot clusters were transferred to medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA for proliferation and 0.2 mg l(-1) BA for shoot elongation. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA. The presence and stable integration of the hpt gene was confirmed through PCR, RT-PCR, PCR-Southern blot, sequence analysis, Southern blot analysis and PCR analysis of progeny. Southern blot analysis of the primary transformants showed single copy integration and progeny analysis revealed monogenic inheritance of the introduced gene. This paper reports the first successful attempt at producing transgenic castor.

  1. Development of antibiotic marker-free creeping bentgrass resistance against herbicides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seog; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass plants (Agrostis stolonifera L.) without antibiotic-resistant markers were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic callus tissues were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, harboring the bar and the CP4-EPSPS genes for bialaphos and glyphosate resistance. Phosphinothricin-resistant calli and plants were selected. Soil-grown plants were obtained at 14-16 weeks after transformation. Genetic transformation of the selected, regenerated plants was validated by PCR. Southern blot analysis revealed that at least one copy of the transgene was integrated into the genome of the transgenic plants. Transgene expression was confirmed by Northern blot. CP4-EPSPS protein was detected by ELISA. Transgenic plants remained green and healthy when sprayed with Basta, containing 0.5% glufosinate ammonium or glyphosate. The optimized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method resulted in an average of 9.4% transgenic plants. The results of the present study suggest that the optimized marker-free technique could be used as an effective and reliable method for routine transformation, which may facilitate the development of varieties of new antibiotic-free grass species.

  2. Establishment of a high efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2009-04-01

    Technologies for transformation of rice have been developed to meet the requirements of functional genomics in order to enable the production of transgenic rice plants with useful agricultural characters. However, many rice varieties are not efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium. We have succeeded in establishing a highly efficient transformation system in rice by co-cultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on three filter papers moistened with enriched N6 or DKN media instead of using solid media. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (EHA101, Agrobacterium concentration of OD600=0.04) were co-cultured on three pieces of filter paper (9cm in diameter) moistened with 5.5mL of N6 or DKN liquid co-cultivation medium supplemented with 2,4-d (2mg/L), proline (10mM), casein hydrolysate (300mg/L), sucrose (30g/L), glucose (5g/L), l-cysteine (100mg/L) and acetosyringone (15mg/L) at 25°C for 3 days in the dark. Compared with the transformation efficiency of calli co-cultivated on solid media, transformation efficiency was increased by about fivefold by using the filter paper method for many varieties of rice, including those that previously yielded much poor transformation rates.

  3. Independent academic Data Monitoring Committees for clinical trials in cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Filippatos, Gerasimos S; de Graeff, Pieter; Bax, Jeroen J; Borg, John-Joseph; Cleland, John G F; Dargie, Henry J; Flather, Marcus; Ford, Ian; Friede, Tim; Greenberg, Barry; Henon-Goburdhun, Cécile; Holcomb, Richard; Horst, Bradley; Lekakis, John; Mueller-Velten, Guenther; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Prasad, Krishna; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Severin, Thomas; Sherman, Warren; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Swedberg, Karl; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Vardas, Panagiotis; Ruschitzka, Frank; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-04-01

    Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) play a crucial role in the conducting of clinical trials to ensure the safety of study participants and to maintain a trial's scientific integrity. Generally accepted standards exist for DMC composition and operational conduct. However, some relevant issues are not specifically addressed in current guidance documents, resulting in uncertainties regarding optimal approaches for communication between the DMC, steering committee, and sponsors, release of information, and liability protection for DMC members. The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in collaboration with the Clinical Trials Unit of the European Heart Agency (EHA) of the ESC convened a meeting of international experts in DMCs for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical trials to identify specific issues and develop steps to resolve challenges faced by DMCs.The main recommendations from the meeting relate to methodological consistency, independence, managing conflicts of interest, liability protection, and training of future DMC members. This paper summarizes the key outcomes from this expert meeting, and describes the core set of activities that might be further developed and ultimately implemented by the ESC, HFA, and other interested ESC constituent bodies. The HFA will continue to work with stakeholders in cardiovascular and cardiometabolic clinical research to promote these goals.

  4. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  5. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    PubMed

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable.

  6. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105.

  7. [Obtaining transgenic rice plants and their progenies using Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Yin, Z C; Yang, F; Xu, Y; Li, B J

    1998-12-01

    Rice (Oriza sativa L.) suspension cells of Taipei 309 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens stran EHA101 harbouring binary vector pBYT2 for 3 days in the presence of vir inducer, 100 mumol/L acetosyringone (AS). After 2 months of continuous selection, 17 stable hygromycin-resistant, GUS-positive calli were recovered from 364 suspension cell clusters co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. 10 putative transgenic R0 plants obtained from 8 tansformed calli and their progenies were analyzed for the integration and expression of foreign genes. Southern blot analysis of R0 and R1 generations indicated that foreign genes had been stably integrated in the genome of transgenic rice and sexually transmitted. One of the transgenic lines showed 5 copies of T-DNA integration, while the others had only one copy. Histochemical staining observation and fluorometric assay of GUS activity in transgenic rice cells and plants showed ubiquitin promoter from maize was highly effective in driving the expression of gus reporter gene in transgenic rice cells. GUS protein and its activity were also investigated through ndPAGE-X-Gluc staining assay, and it was found that the GUS protein in transgenic rice cells was smaller in size than the standard GUS protein (Sigma Co. G0786) but as large as that from E.coli HB101 (pBI121). This study suggested that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant is an efficient and reliable method to introduce foreign genes into rice.

  8. Acrylic AB and ABA block copolymers based on poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Dhruba J; Ata, Souvik; Singha, Nikhil K; Jehnichen, Dieter; Voit, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Acrylic block copolymers have several advantages over conventional styrenic block copolymers, because of the presence of a saturated backbone and polar pendant groups. This investigation reports the preparation and characterization of di- and triblock copolymers (AB and ABA types) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A series of block copolymers, PEHA-block-PMMA(AB diblock) and PMMA-block-PEHA-block-PMMA(ABA triblock) were prepared via ATRP at 90 °C using CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyl diethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligand and acetone as additive. The chemical structure of the macroinitiators and molar composition of block copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR analysis, and molecular weights of the polymers were analyzed by GPC analysis. DSC analysis showed two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), indicating formation of two domains, which was corroborated by AFM analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of AB and ABA block copolymers showed scattering behavior inside the measuring limits indicating nanophase separation. However, SAXS pattern of AB diblock copolymers indicated general phase separation only, whereas for ABA triblock copolymer an ordered or mixed morphology could be deduced, which is assumed to be the reason for the better mechanical properties achieved with ABA block copolymers than with the AB analogues.

  9. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  10. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  11. [Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing three T-DNAs binary vector].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Guo; Qin, Hua

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops. To achieve this point, a binary vector pNB35SVIP1 with three T-DNAs was constructed by using several mediate plasmids, in which one copy of bar gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included. EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform soybean (Glycine max) cotyledon nodes. Through 2 - 3 months regeneration and selection on 3 - 5mg/L glufosinate containing medium, transgenic soybean plants were confirmed to be obtained at 0.83% - 3.16%, and co-transformation efficiency of both gene in the same individual reached up to 86.4%, based on southern blot test. By the analysis of PCR, southern blot and northern blot combining with leaf painting of herbicide in T1 progenies, 41 plants were confirmed to be eliminated of bar gene with the frequency of 7.6% . Among the T1 populations tested, the loss of the alien genes happened in 22.7% lines, the silence of bar gene took place in 27.3% lines, and VIP1 gene silence existed in 37.1% marker-free plants. The result also suggested that the plasmid with three T-DNAs might be an ideal vector to generate maker-free genetic modified organism.

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic plant and somaclone production through direct and indirect regeneration from leaves in Stevia rebaudiana with their glycoside profile.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Shanker, Karuna; Singh, Manju

    2014-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA-105 harboring pCAMBIA 1304)-mediated transgenic plant production via direct regeneration from leaf and elite somaclones generation through indirect regeneration in Stevia rebaudiana is reported. Optimum direct regeneration frequency along with highest transformation frequency was found on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l NAA, while indirect regeneration from callus was obtained on MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 2 mg/l NAA. Successful transfer of GUS-positive (GUS assay and PCR-based confirmation) transgenic as well as four somaclones up to glasshouse acclimatization has been achieved. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of transgenic and somaclonal plants showed a total of 113 bands, out of which 49 were monomorphic (43.36 %) and 64 were polymorphic (56.64 %). Transgenic plant was found to be closer to mother plant, while on the basis of steviol, stevioside, and rebaudioside A profile, somaclone S2 was found to be the best and showed maximum variability in ISSR profiling.

  13. Selectable marker elimination in the T0 generation by Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation involving Mungbean yellow mosaic virus TrAP as a non-conditional negative selectable marker and bar for transient positive selection.

    PubMed

    RamanaRao, Mangu Venkata; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2010-05-01

    Transient selection involving the bar gene and non-conditional negative selection against stable T-DNA integration through the use of the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) transcriptional activator protein gene (TrAP) were used in a novel co-transformation strategy to generate selectable marker gene (SMG)-eliminated transgenic tobacco plants in the T(0) generation itself. Two compatible binary plasmids, pCam-bar-TrAP-gus harbouring bar as an SMG and the MYMV TrAP gene as a non-conditional negative selectable marker, and pGA472 with the nptII gene as an unselected experimental gene of interest (GOI) were placed in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 and used for co-transformation. Transient selection with 5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) for 2-4 weeks and subsequent establishment in a PPT-minus medium yielded 114 plants from 200 leaf discs. The unselected nptII gene was detected by Southern blot analysis in 13 plants, revealing a co-transformation efficiency of 11.5%. Five of these plants harboured only the nptII gene (GOI) and not the bar gene (SMG). Thus, SMG elimination was achieved in the T(0) generation itself in 4.4% (5/114) of plants, which were transiently selected for 2-4 weeks on PPT. MYMV TrAP, a non-conditional negative selectable marker, effectively reduced the recovery of plants with stable integration of the SMG (bar).

  14. Expression of anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch BmK ANEP III in plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Y B; Huang, T T; Lai, L L; Zhou, J; Yang, W Y; Zhang, J H

    2011-01-01

    Anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK ANEP III) has better anti-epileptic and anticonvulsive effects in the test animal models. The present study is aimed at developing transgenic tomato and tobacco lines overproducing the ANEP III protein. Using the molecular cloning technique, the plant expression vector pBI-ANEP III was constructed successfully. The ANEP III expression cassette included a double CaMV 35S promoter with omega enhancers, the ANEP III gene with the Kozak sequence, the ER retention signal and the NOS terminator. Recombinant plasmids were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by freeze-thaw transformation methods. By the Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation method, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) lines were transformed. Transformants were screened and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was demonstrated that the ANEP III gene was successfully expressed in the genomic DNA of transgenic plants. The ANEP III protein was detected by immunofluorescence analysis, and the results confirmed the high amount of ANEP III protein, being 0.81 and 1.08% of total soluble proteins in transgenic tobacco and tomato. The study of plants with high expression levels of ANEP III has an important theoretical and practical significance and provides valuable information for establishing a new, economical and effective system for industrial protein production.

  15. Parametric regression model for survival data: Weibull regression model as an example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Weibull regression model is one of the most popular forms of parametric regression model that it provides estimate of baseline hazard function, as well as coefficients for covariates. Because of technical difficulties, Weibull regression model is seldom used in medical literature as compared to the semi-parametric proportional hazard model. To make clinical investigators familiar with Weibull regression model, this article introduces some basic knowledge on Weibull regression model and then illustrates how to fit the model with R software. The SurvRegCensCov package is useful in converting estimated coefficients to clinical relevant statistics such as hazard ratio (HR) and event time ratio (ETR). Model adequacy can be assessed by inspecting Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by categorical variable. The eha package provides an alternative method to model Weibull regression model. The check.dist() function helps to assess goodness-of-fit of the model. Variable selection is based on the importance of a covariate, which can be tested using anova() function. Alternatively, backward elimination starting from a full model is an efficient way for model development. Visualization of Weibull regression model after model development is interesting that it provides another way to report your findings. PMID:28149846

  16. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  17. N- and C-terminal residues combine in the fusion-pH influenza hemagglutinin HA2 subunit to form an N cap that terminates the triple-stranded coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jue; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a stable recombinant ectodomain of influenza hemagglutinin HA2 subunit, EHA2 (23–185), defined by proteolysis studies of the intact bacterial-expressed ectodomain, was determined to 1.9-Å resolution by using x-ray crystallography. The structure reveals a domain composed of N- and C-terminal residues that form an N cap terminating both the N-terminal α-helix and the central coiled coil. The N cap is formed by a conserved sequence, and part of it is found in the neutral pH conformation of HA. The C-terminal 23 residues of the ectodomain form a 72-Å long nonhelical structure ordered to within 7 residues of the transmembrane anchor. The structure implies that continuous α helices are not required for membrane fusion at either the N or C termini. The difference in stability between recombinant molecules with and without the N cap sequences suggests that additional free energy for membrane fusion may become available after the formation of the central triple-stranded coiled coil and insertion of the fusion peptide into the target membrane. PMID:10430879

  18. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  19. Successful recovery of transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using the 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Saha, Bedabrata; Roy, Nand Kishor; Mishra, Sagarika; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-06-01

    A new method for obtaining transgenic cowpea was developed using positive selection based on the Escherichia coli 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene as the selectable marker and mannose as the selective agent. Only transformed cells were capable of utilizing mannose as a carbon source. Cotyledonary node explants from 4-day-old in vitro-germinated seedlings of cultivar Pusa Komal were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the vector pNOV2819. Regenerating transformed shoots were selected on medium supplemented with a combination of 20 g/l mannose and 5 g/l sucrose as carbon source. The transformed shoots were rooted on medium devoid of mannose. Transformation efficiency based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots was 3.6%. Southern blot analysis on five randomly chosen PCR-positive plants confirmed the integration of the pmi transgene. Qualitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of pmi in T₀ transgenic plants. Chlorophenol red (CPR) assays confirmed the activity of PMI in transgenic plants, and the gene was transmitted to progeny in a Mendelian fashion. The transformation method presented here for cowpea using mannose selection is efficient and reproducible, and could be used to introduce a desirable gene(s) into cowpea for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

  20. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation.

  1. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  2. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented.

  3. Efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, Rubus ideaus L.

    PubMed

    Mathews, H; Wagoner, W; Cohen, C; Kellogg, J; Bestwick, R

    1995-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase), in raspberry cultivars Meeker (MK), Chilliwack (CH) and Canby (CY). Leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pAG1452 or pAG1552, encoding gene sequences for SAMase under the control of the wound and fruit specific tomato E4 promoter. Primary shoot regenerants on selection medium were chimeral containing both transformed and non-transformed cells. Non-chimeral transgenic clones were developed by iterative culture of petiole, node and leaf explants, on selection medium, from successive generations of shoots derived from the primary regenerants. Percent recovery of transformants was higher with the selection marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), than with neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Transformation frequencies of 49.6%, 0.9% and 8.1% were obtained in cultivars Meeker, Chilliwack and Canby respectively from petiole expiants using hygromycin selection. Genomic integration of transgenes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants from a total of 218 independent transformation events (161 MK, 4 CH, 53 CY) have been successfully established in soil.

  4. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care.

  5. Heuristics for multiobjective optimization of two-sided assembly line systems.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, N; Ponnambalam, S G; Sivakumar, K; Thangadurai, V

    2014-01-01

    Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E). Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA) to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.

  6. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    PubMed

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  7. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  8. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  9. Offset fémoral et le fonctionnement de la hanche dans la prothèse totale de la hanche

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Abdelillah; Moncef, Erraji; Najib, Abbassi; Abdeljaouad, Najib; Abdelkarim, Daudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2014-01-01

    L'offset fémoral est l’élément pronostic le plus important dans l'arthroplastie de la hanche. Sa restauration est devenue de plus en plus une obligation. Toute modification de la valeur native de l'offset retenti sur la qualité du fonctionnement clinique de la hanche. Le but de notre travail était d’évaluer le fonctionnement clinique de la hanche en fonction de la valeur de l'offset fémoral après une arthroplastie. C'est une étude rétrospective effectuée entre 2010 et 2013, comportant 27 patients ayant bénéficiés d'une arthroplastie totale de la hanche. Les patients ayant eu un geste chirurgicale antérieur sur la même hanche ou sur la hanche controlatérale ont été exclus. Les mesures ont été effectuées sur des radiographies standards de la hanche en rotation interne d'environ 15°, avec un agrandissement à 100%. Les résultats cliniques étaient évalués au moyen du score de WOMAC qui était en moyenne de 15,2 points, et le score de Merle d'Aubigné-Postel avec une moyenne de 15 points. Deux autres tests ont été évalués dans notre étude qui sont le step et le hop test. Les meilleurs résultats fonctionnels ont été obtenus chez les patients ayant eu une latéralisation de la tige fémoral avec un offset augmenté. PMID:25400835

  10. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2017-01-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the “karumba group” based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The “karumba group” encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the “karumba group”. For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation. PMID:28255262

  11. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. Design The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Results Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months’ follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D’Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months’ follow-up. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program. PMID:27375837

  12. Partial long-stem resection Austin-Moore hip endoprosthesis in the treatment of metastases to the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Chrobok, Adam; Spindel, Jerzy; Mrozek, Tomasz; Miszczyk, Leszek; Koczy, Bogdan; Tomasik, Patryk; Matysiakiewicz, Jacek

    2005-12-30

    Background. The proximal femur is a frequent location of bone metastases, and pathological fractures in this area are common. A pathological fracture and/or pain associated with bone destruction are indications for surgery. Among many methods of surgical treatment, partial resection and subsequent arthroplasty appears to be the most efficient. The low cost of the implant and the relatively simple surgical technique incline us to apply long-stem (305mm) partial Austin-Moore hip prosthesis in these cases. Material and methods. Between June 2003 and February 2005 we operated 31 patients (10 men and 21 women) for pathological fracture or proximal femur metastasis. The average age of these patients was 63.8 years. The most common primary neoplasmatic focus among the women was breast cancer (17 cases, 80%), and among the men, clarocellular renal cancer (3 cases, 34%). Results. In most cases - 21 patients (67%) - we achieved excellent or good outcome according to the Merle d'Aubigne Functional Test, as well as reasonable pain relief. Endoprosthesis dislocation occurred in 2 cases and early postoperative death in 2 other cases. Conclusions. Surgical treatment is needed in cases of actual or impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Resection arthroplasty is the method of choice in bone metastases to proximal femur. This procedure is well tolerated by patients. The use of long-stem partial Austin-Moore hip prosthesis appears to be a good alternative to costly modular implants, while its long stem protects the femoral shaft against fractures in cases where additional metastatic lesions are found there.

  13. Correlation of Chemical and Physical Test Data For the Environment Ageing of Coflon (PVDF). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, G. J.; Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    This report aims to identify correlations between mechanical property changes and chemical/morphological structure changes for Coflon. It is intended both to illustrate the overall methodology and to indicate the testing that needs to be undertaken in order to obtain correlations. Many fluid exposures have now been carried out on Coflon during the project and many data generated as a result. The report summarises the changes observed in mechanical and physical properties and relates these as well as possible to the chemistry thought to be occurring during ageing. For this purpose, data have been collated from already-issued MERL and TRI technical and progress reports. Most of the mechanical testing of aged testpieces has been performed soon after the completion of the exposure; however, there is of necessity a delay in obtaining chemical analysis of the same testpieces, so that more physical than chemical data are shown. Three fluids have so far caused measurable deterioration of Coflon, these being: methanol (Fluid A), a methanol and amine mixture (Fluid G), and a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen sulphide gas plus aqueous amine (Fluid F). Only the effects of these fluids will be dealt with in any detail in this report, although other fluids are assessed to give relevant background information. Relevant test data collated here include: tensile modulus and related properties, mode of sample failure at break, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate and resistance, stress relaxation rate, permeation coefficients, % crystallinity and molecular weight distributions together with changes in fluorine levels, and other observations where appropriate. However, not all of these were obtained for every ageing condition. Because of the wide range of tests employed, and the different ways in which their results are obtained, the following section has been included to serve as a background for making comparisons.

  14. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  15. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination.

  16. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  17. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  18. Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoling; Miyasaka, Susan C; Fitch, Maureen M M; Zhu, Yun J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. The development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-free plantlets. Highly regenerative calluses could be developed from DsMV-free, in vitro plantlets on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L NAA (M5 medium). The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method is reported in this chapter. The highly regenerative calluses were selected and cocultivated with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector PBI121 with either a rice chitinase gene chi11 or a wheat oxalate oxidase gene gf2.8. After cocultivation for 3-4 days, these calluses were transferred to selection medium (M5 medium) containing 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 and grown for 3 months in the dark. Transgenic shoot lines could be induced and selected on the MS medium containing 4 mg/L BA (M15 medium) and 50 mg/L Geneticin G418 for 3 months further in the light. Molecular analyses are used to confirm the stable transformation and expression of the disease resistance gene chi11 or gf2.8. Pathologic bioassays could be used to demonstrate whether the transgenic plants had increased disease resistance to taro pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii or Phytophthora colocasiae.

  19. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  20. Production of marker-free disease-resistant potato using isopentenyl transferase gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The use of antibiotic or herbicide resistant genes as selection markers for production of transgenic plants and their continuous presence in the final transgenics has been a serious problem for their public acceptance and commercialization. MAT (multi-auto-transformation) vector system has been one of the different strategies to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. In the present study, ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene was used as a selection marker gene. A chitinase gene, ChiC (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) was used as a gene of interest. ChiC gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH1 to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The infected tuber discs of potato were cultured on hormone- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Seven of the 35 explants infected with the pMAT21/ChiC produced shoots. The same antibiotic- and hormones-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the shoots (ipt like and normal shoots). Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of gene of interest and excision of the selection marker in 3 of the 7 clones. Expression of ChiC gene was confirmed by Northern blot and western blot analyses. Disease-resistant assay of the marker-free transgenic, in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani (early blight), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt). From these results it could be concluded that ipt gene can be used as a selection marker to produce marker-free disease-resistant transgenic potato plants on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium.

  1. 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions Strongly Enhance Performance of Geminiviral Replicons in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Diamos, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Sun H.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a recombinant protein production system based on a geminivirus replicon that yields high levels of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. The bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) replicon generates massive amounts of DNA copies, which engage the plant transcription machinery. However, we noticed a disparity between transcript level and protein production, suggesting that mRNAs could be more efficiently utilized. In this study, we systematically evaluated genetic elements from human, viral, and plant sources for their potential to improve the BeYDV system. The tobacco extensin terminator enhanced transcript accumulation and protein production compared to other commonly used terminators, indicating that efficient transcript processing plays an important role in recombinant protein production. Evaluation of human-derived 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) indicated that many provided high levels of protein production, supporting their cross-kingdom function. Among the viral 5′ UTRs tested, we found the greatest enhancement with the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. An analysis of the 5′ UTRs from the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotinana benthamiana photosystem I K genes found that they were highly active when truncated to include only the near upstream region, providing a dramatic enhancement of transgene production that exceeded that of the tobacco mosaic virus omega leader. The tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment region inserted downstream from the gene of interest provided significant enhancement, which was correlated with a reduction in plant cell death. Evaluation of Agrobacterium strains found that EHA105 enhanced protein production and reduced cell death compared to LBA4301 and GV3101. We used these improvements to produce Norwalk virus capsid protein at >20% total soluble protein, corresponding to 1.8 mg/g leaf fresh weight, more than twice the highest level ever reported in a plant system. We also produced the monoclonal antibody

  2. How Can a Little Shrimp Do so Much Damage?: Ecosystem Service Losses Associated with Land Cover Change in Mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Bhomia, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves provide a number of ecosystem services including habitats for many species of fish and shellfish, storm protection, influences on water quality, wood, aesthetics, and a source of nutrients and energy for adjacent marine ecosystems. C stocks of mangroves are among the highest of any forest type on Earth. We have measured the ecosystem carbon stocks in mangroves across the world and found them to range from 250 to >2000 Mg C/ha which is a CO2 equivalence of 917 to 7340 Mg/ha. Because the numerous values of mangroves are well known, it is ironic that rates of deforestation largely relating to land use/land cover change are among the highest of any forest type on earth exceeding that of tropical rain forests. Dominant causes of deforestation include conversion to aquaculture (shrimp), agricultural conversion, and coastal development. The carbon emissions arising from conversion of mangroves to other uses is exceptionally high. This is because vulnerability of the soil carbon stocks to losses with conversion. Emissions from conversion of mangrove to shrimp ponds range from about 800 to over 3000 Mg CO2e/ha. This places the carbon footprint of shrimp arising from such ponds as among the highest of any food product available. Of great interest is the potential value of mangroves in carbon marketing strategies and other financial incentives that are derived from the conservation of standing forests. This is because of the combination of high carbon stocks in intact mangroves, the high greenhouse gas emissions arising from their conversion, and the conservation of other valuable ecosystem services provided by intact mangroves.

  3. The genome-wide expression profile of Scrophularia ningpoensis-treated thapsigargin-stimulated U-87MG cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Jeon, Sung-Bae; Lee, Beom-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Yangseok; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2009-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal site for protein synthesis, protein folding, calcium storage, and calcium signaling. Thapsigargin (TG), an inducer of ER stress, inhibits ER-associated Ca(2+)-ATPase and disrupts Ca(2+) homeostasis. ER stress plays an important pathogenetic role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and prion protein diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective mechanisms of Scrophularia ningpoensis (SN) extracts and chemicals on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells. In this study, the recovery activities of E-harpagoside (EHA), harpagide (HA), 8-O-E-p-methoxycinnamoylharpagide (MH), aucubin (AB), cinnamic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (pCA), p-methoxycinnamic acid methyl ester (MME), caffeic acid (CFA), ferulic acid (FA), and (E)-p-methoxycinnamic acid (MA) on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells were evaluated. The results revealed that SN, MME, CFA, and MH showed considerable recovery effects. Therefore, SN, MME, CFA, and MH were selected to evaluate the gene expression profile of U-87MG cells by using microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR. The results of this analysis revealed that cell cycle, proliferation, protein folding, and anti-apoptosis-related genes were up-regulated in SN, MME, CFA, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. In addition, significant decreases in apoptosis, the MAPK signaling pathway, and mitochondria-related gene expressions were observed in SN-, MME-, CFA-, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. Thus, SN, MME, CFA, and MH might affect neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-03-17

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were.

  5. Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests

    PubMed Central

    Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  6. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  7. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  8. Modification of PVC/ENR blend by electron beam irradiation: effect of crosslinking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, C. T.; Zaman, K.

    1999-05-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of PVC/ENR blends, they were irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine with doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy. Changes in mechanical properties of the blends with increasing irradiation dose were investigated. In an attempt to maximize the beneficial effect of irradiation, the influence of multifunctional acrylates (MFA) such as TMPTA, HDDA and EHA on the 70/30 PVC/ENR blend was investigated. The properties studied include hardness, gel fraction, tensile strength, elongation at break and glass transition temperature. The results revealed that all mechanical properties increased with increasing irradiation dose with exception of elongation at break. The enhancement in blend properties was further improved by addition of MFA. This is attributed to the increase in crosslink density. The steady increase in gel fraction with irradiation dose and the shifting of the irradiation those towards a lower value to achieve 70% gel fraction upon addition of MFA has provided evidence for significant increase in crosslink density. Among the MFA employed in this studies, TMPTA was found to render highest mechanical properties to the blend with irradiation. Thus, TMPTA can be useful as an efficient crosslink enhancer to PVC/ENR blends. Results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated radiation-induced crosslinks formed in PVC/ENR blends sensitized by TMPTA. The single glass transition temperature obtained confirms that the blend remains miscible upon irradiation with the presence of TMPTA. The changes in blend properties upon irradiation with the addition of acrylated polyurethene (PU) oligomer are also presented in this paper.

  9. Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE) for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sichwart, Shanna; Tozakidis, Iasson E.P.; Teese, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new optimized system for the surface display and secretion of recombinant proteins is described, termed MATE (maximized autotransporter-mediated expression). It is based on an artificial gene consisting of the coding region for the signal peptide of CtxB, a multiple cloning site for passenger gene insertion, flanked by coding sequences for linear epitopes for monoclonal antibodies and OmpT, and factor Xa protease cleavage sites followed by a codon-optimized DNA sequence of the linker and the β-barrel of the type V autotransporter EhaA from Escherichia coli under control of an IPTG-inducible T5 promoter. The MATE system enabled the continuous secretion of recombinant passenger mCherry via OmpT-mediated cleavage, using native OmpT protease activity in E. coli when grown at 37 °C. It is the first example to show that native OmpT activity is sufficient to facilitate the secretion of a correctly folded target protein in preparative amounts obtaining 240 µg of purified mCherry from 800 mL of crude culture supernatant. Because the release of mCherry was achieved by a simple transfer of the encoding plasmid from an OmpT-negative to an OmpT-positive strain, it bears the option to use surface display for screening purposes and secretion for production of the selected variant. A single plasmid could therefore be used for continuous secretion in OmpT-positive strains or surface display in OmpT-negative strains. In conclusion, the MATE system appears to be a versatile tool for the surface display and for the secretion of target proteins in E. coli. PMID:27904356

  10. Transgenic grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.): factors influencing agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Barik, D P; Mohapatra, U; Chand, P K

    2005-11-01

    A reproducible procedure was developed for genetic transformation of grasspea using epicotyl segment co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Two disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA 105 and LBA 4404, both carrying the binary plasmid p35SGUSINT with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the beta-glucuronidase (gus)-intron, were studied as vector systems. The latter was found to have a higher transforming ability. Several key factors modifying the transformation rate were optimized. The highest transformation rate was achieved using hand-pricked explants for infection with an Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD(600) congruent with 0.6 and diluted to a cell density of 10(9) cells ml(-1) for 10 min, followed by co-cultivation for 4 days in a medium maintained at pH 5.6. Putative transformed explants capable of forming shoots were selected on regeneration medium containing kanamycin (100 mug ml(-1)). We achieved up to 36% transient expression based on the GUS histochemical assay. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA of the kanamycin-resistant GUS-expressive shoots to a gus-intron probe substantiated the integration of the transgene. Transformed shoots were rooted on half-strength MS containing 0.5 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid, acclimated in vermi-compost and established in the experimental field. Germ-line transformation was evident through progeny analysis. Among T(1) seedlings of most transgenic plant lines, kanamycin-resistant and -sensitive plants segregated in a ratio close to 3:1.

  11. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  12. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections.

    PubMed

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario; Harel, Josée

    2015-12-28

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment.

  13. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  14. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  15. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

  16. Les fractures luxations du cotyle: prise en charge et pronostic à long terme; étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Hmouri, Ismail; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du cotyle sont le plus souvent dues à des traumatismes de haute énergie. Elles constituent une urgence thérapeutique, l'association de la luxation à une fracture du cotyle fait apparaître la question du choix thérapeutique entre traitement orthopédique et traitement médical. L'objectif de l’étude est de mettre le point sur l'aspect thérapeutique dans ces lésions mais aussi leurs pronostics à long terme. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas colligés au service d'orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Rabat. Nous avons évalué les résultats de notre prise en charge mais aussi le pronostic à court et à long terme. Dans notre série, vingt cinq patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement orthopédique alors que les quinze restants ont été opérés, la voie d'abord la plus utilisée est la voie postérieure. Les résultats fonctionnels ont été évalués, après un recul de 3 à 8 ans, selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné. Nous avons obtenu 90% de résultats satisfaisants. La comparaison de nos résultats à ceux de la littérature montre que le résultat des traitements orthopédiques et chirurgicaux dépend essentiellement du type de fracture. Le pronostic à long terme reste imprévisible. La survenue des complications tardives telle que la nécrose céphalique et de l'arthrose reste toujours imprévisible, ce qui impose un suivi régulier et prolongé des patients. PMID:25722763

  17. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  18. Analogue modelling of strike-slip fault propagation across a rheological/morphological crustal anisotropy: implications for the morphotectonic evolution of the Gloria Fault - Tore Madeira Rise area in NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe M.; Duarte, João C.; Terrinha, Pedro; Kullberg, Maria C.; Almeida, Jaime; Barata, Frederico; Carvalho, Bruno; Almeida, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    The Gloria Fault (GF) marks the E-W dextral transcurrent plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in NE Atlantic, displaying complying high magnitude (historical and instrumental) seismic activity (e.g. M=7.1 in 1939 and M=8.4 in 1941, Bufforn et al., 1988), and cutting across a NNE-SSW 1000 km long bathymetric ridge: the so called Tore-Madeira Rise - TMR (rising in average 3km above the abyssal plain). The precise origin and tectono-magmatic evolution of the TMR is still not fully understood, although reported wide-angle refraction data points to a rheological configuration comprising an isostatically compensated thickened oceanic crust, possibly formed during a period of high accretion in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Pierce and Barton, 1991). Widespread evidence for volcanic activity has also been recognized, spanning from late Cretaceous to Present (Geldmacher et al. 2006, Merle et al. 2009), noticeably with the most recent volcanism (~500 Ky) occurring as tectonically aligned volcanic plugs, distributed along the E-W tectonic trend of the GF-related structures. To better understand the complex interference at play in this key area between the tectonic structures (essentially determined by the Gloria Fault system), the present and past magmatic activity and the resulting seafloor morphology, a series of dynamically scaled analogue modelling experiments have been conceived and carried out. The main focus of this experimental work was to decipher the potential influence of a rheological vs. morphological anisotropy (accounting for the TMR) on the lateral propagation of a major right-lateral strike-slip fault (representing the GF). The preliminary comparison of the obtained experimental results with the natural morphotectonic pattern in the study area reveals, not only a strong tectonic control of the ongoing volcanism, manifested by the observed preferred directions of aligned volcanic plugs, but also a so far unsuspected deflection/distributed pattern of several

  19. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  20. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  1. [Application of three-dimensional printing personalized acetabular wing-plate in treatment of complex acetabular fractures via lateral-rectus approach].

    PubMed

    Mai, J G; Gu, C; Lin, X Z; Li, T; Huang, W Q; Wang, H; Tan, X Y; Lin, H; Wang, Y M; Yang, Y Q; Jin, D D; Fan, S C

    2017-03-01

    patients had achieved bone union. According to the modified Merle D'Aubigné and Postel scoring system, 5 cases were excellent, 2 cases were good, 1 case was fair. Conclusions: Surgical management of complex acetabular fracture via lateral-rectus approach combine with 3D printing personalized acetabular wing-plate can effectively improve reduction quality and fixation effect. It will be truly accurate, personalized and minimally invasive.

  2. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles and individual ferromagnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    The ultrafast magnetization dynamics of magnetic materials can be investigated using femtosecond laser pulses to perform femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday measurements [1]. In this talk, we will focus on the magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles which are either ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic at room temperature and on the dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots. In the first case (Co nanoparticles), we will demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics preceding the fluctuations over the anisotropy energy barrier is coherent but exhibits a strongly damped precession [2]. These results, which have been obtained with a three dimensional analysis of the magnetization vector [3] will be discussed in the context of the N'eel-Brown models involving the gyromagnetic character of the magnetization. We will also examine the dynamics of self-organized supra-crystals of cobalt nanoparticles [4]. In the second case, we will present the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots (CoPt3, Permalloy, Nickel) made either by e-beam lithography or induced optically on thin films deposited on sapphire and glass substrates. The technique employed is the magneto-optical pump probe imaging (MOPPI) which allows performing time resolved magneto-optical Kerr images with with spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 nm and 150 fs [5]. The study of the demagnetization of the dots for different laser intensities shows that it is possible to write and read ultrafast monodomains on thin films. [3pt] [1] E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 4250 (1996) [0pt] [2] L.H.F. Andrade, A. Laraoui, M. Vomir, D. Muller, J.-P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 127401 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. Vomir, L. H.F. Andrade, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 237601 (2005). [0pt] [4] I. Lisiecki, V. Halt'e, C. Petit, M.-P. Pileni, J.-Y. Bigot Adv. Mater., 20, 4176 (2008

  3. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  4. La pseudarthrose du col fémoral traitée par prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Bassir, Réda Allah; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Saleh Berrada, Mohammed; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    La pseudarthrose du col fémoral est une complication redoutée de la facture du col fémoral, elle est due soit à une négligence thérapeutique, soit à une ostéosynthèse imparfaite. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans sa genèse, l’âge, les caractéristiques de la fracture, l’état de la tête fémorale, et une ostéosynthèse non solide. Le diagnostic des pseudarthroses est essentiellement radiologique. Le traitement reste encore difficile et mal codifié, les limites entre traitement conservateur et arthroplastie de la hanche ne sont pas encore bien définies. Nous rapportons une série de 15 cas de pseudarthrose du col fémoral traités par arthroplastie de la hanche au service de traumato-orthopédie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rabat de 2008 à 2014 soit un recul de 40 mois en moyenne. Nos patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique. L’âge de nos patients varie entre 48 et 81 ans, avec une moyenne de 69,2 ans. 85% d'entre eux sont âgés de plus de 60 ans. Nous avons dans notre série une prédominance féminine, soit 8 femmes pour 7 hommes. La négligence thérapeutique est la cause de la majorité des pseudarthroses du col du fémur traitées dans notre série. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilisé exclusivement la voie d'abord postéro externe de Moore. Nous avons mis en place une prothèse totale de couple polyéthylène-métal chez tous les patients, ces prothèses étaient cimentées chez 12 patients. Le résultat fonctionnel a été coté selon la classification de Merle d'Aubigné. Nos résultats ont été jugés bons selon cette cotation. L'arthroplastie totale de la hanche a une place importante dans le traitement des pseudarthroses du col fémoral et peut donner des résultats satisfaisants en permettant de récupérer une hanche mobile et indolore. PMID:25667720

  5. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  6. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (< 3 m) were relatively high due to the presence of carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions

  7. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  8. In vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of two tannin rich plants.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in the in vitro susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins using respective egg hatch assays (EHA) with acetone:water extracts of two tannin containing plants, chimay (Acacia pennatula) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Fresh eggs were incubated in PBS with different concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400, 3600, 5000 and 8000 μg/ml PBS). Additional concentrations were tested for O. viciifolia (75, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml PBS). Effective concentrations 50% (EC50), with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI), were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated to compare the isolates, using the most susceptible isolate for each extract as the respective reference. A second set of incubations were made using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) (0, 5000 μg/ml, 5000 μg/ml+PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the AH effect. The proportion of morulated eggs, eggs with L1 larvae failing eclosion (%LFE), and emerged larvae were estimated at different extract concentrations. Data of each isolate was used to calculate the effective concentration 50% (EC50) for each extract. The EC50 of each isolate was used to determine resistance ratio (RR) for the different isolates. For the 2 extracts, a susceptibility variation in egg hatching was observed for the different H. contortus isolates. The EC50 values for A. pennatula ranged from 2203 to 14106 μg (RR from 2.01 to 6.40). The O. viciifolia extract showed higher variability with EC50 values ranging from 104 to 4783 μg (RR from 3.66 to 45.74). The main AH effects of the two extracts tested on the ten isolates consisted in blocking the emergence of L1 larvae (higher% LFE). Additional observations on emerged larvae showed that extract exposure caused alterations in the internal structure, separating the cuticle from the pharynx, bulb and intestinal

  9. From Farm to Table: Follow-Up of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Throughout the Pork Production Chain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colello, Rocío; Cáceres, María E.; Ruiz, María J.; Sanz, Marcelo; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Padola, Nora L.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are important reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The entrance of these strains into the food chain implies a risk to consumers because of the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC throughout the pork production chain. From 764 samples, 31 (4.05%) were stx positive by PCR screening. At farms, 2.86% of samples were stx positive; at slaughter, 4.08% of carcasses were stx positive and at boning rooms, 6% of samples were stx positive. These percentages decreased in pork meat ready for sale at sales markets (4.59%). From positive samples, 50 isolates could be characterized. At farms 37.5% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2 genes, 37.5% possessed stx2e and 25%, carried only stx2. At slaughter we detected 50% of isolates positive for stx2, 33% for stx2e, and 16% for stx1/stx2. At boning rooms 59% of the isolates carried stx1/stx2, 14% stx2e, and 5% stx1/stx2/stx2e. At retail markets 66% of isolates were positive for stx2, 17% stx2e, and 17% stx1/stx2. For the other virulence factors, ehxA and saa were not detected and eae gene was detected in 12% of the isolates. Concerning putative adhesins, agn43 was detected in 72%, ehaA in 26%, aida in 8%, and iha in 6% of isolates. The strains were typed into 14 E. coli O groups (O1, O2, O8, O15, O20, O35, O69, O78, O91, O121, O138, O142, O157, O180) and 10 H groups (H9, H10, H16, H21, H26, H29, H30, H32, H45, H46). This study reports the prevalence and characterization of STEC strains through the chain pork suggesting the vertical transmission. STEC contamination originates in the farms and is transferred from pigs to carcasses in the slaughter process and increase in meat pork at boning rooms and sales markets. These results highlight the need to implement an integrated STEC control system based on good management practices on the farm and critical control point systems in the food chain. PMID:26903972

  10. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface

  11. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  12. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Kay. Other crewmembers included flight engineer Rex Cook, X-1A crew chief Richard Payne, launch crewmwmbers Jack Moise and Charles Littleton, and scanners Merle Woods and Richard DeMore. Joe Walker entered the X-1A and began launch preparations. At an altitude of 22,000 feet, a sudden explosion rocked the X-1A. Walker egressed the craft unhurt although it was extensively damaged. Unsuccessful attempts were made to jettison the rocket plane's fuel, and it was found that the X-1A's landing gear had deployed and locked. Landing the mated configuration would therfore be unsafe. It was then decided to drop the unmanned X-1A onto the Edwards AFB bombing range. The X-1A was jettisoned from an altitude of 6,500 feet. It was completely destroyed on impact.

  13. A review on the patterns of river material fluxes, coastal plume dispersal, shelf sediment facies, and anthropogenic impacts of the Tropical Land-Sea Interface, Sergipe/Alagoas, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppers, B.; Medeiros, P. R. P.; de Souza, W. F. L.; Oliveira, E. N.; Fontes, L. C. da S.; do Carmo, M. S.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva, M. C.; Brandini, N.; Carneiro, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    plume lost its original turbidity and unimodal seasonal pattern of pulsation upon the shelf as indicated by In Situ sampling and Satellite imagery series (LANDSAT TM 2-5 and MODIS). The coastal plume is largely fed with suspended matter from resupension processes and coastal erosion. C- The Japaratuba river fan. The inner-mid shelf harbors relict muddy and sandy siliclastic sediments and the shelf margin biodetritic carbonates. Riverine inputs have become insignificant. D- The southern shelf of Sergipe. The muddy, sandy and carbonate Merl sediments are heterogeneously distributed,and the coast is affected by diffuse small riverine inputs and wash out by the SEC. Sedimentation rates (210Pbex chronology with the CRS model) of Domains B and C ranged between 0.7 and 0.1 cm year-1, being similar to those of the eastern Brazilian shelf.

  14. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  15. Modelling of the impact of the Rhone River N:P ratios over the NW Mediterranean planktonic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Carlotti, François

    2016-04-01

    , Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  16. Modeling of the impact of Rhone River nutrient inputs on the dynamics of planktonic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Garreau, Pierre; Guyennon, Arnaud; Carlotti, François

    2014-05-01

    future research. Report of the Workshop «Variability of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean circulation and termohaline properties : similarities and differences ». Rome, 7-9 November, 2011, 48 pp. Parsons, T. R., and Lalli, C. M. (2002) Jellyfish population explosions: Revisiting a hypothesis of possible causes. La Mer 40: 111-121. Pujo-Pay, M., Conan, P., Oriol L., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Falco, C., Ghiglione, J.-F., Goyet, C., Moutin, T. and Prieur, L. (2011) Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P) from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea, Biogeoscciences, 8, 883-899. The MerMex Group, Durrieu de Madron X, Guieu C, Sempéré R, Conan P, Cossa D, D'Ortenzio F, Estournel C, Gazeau F, Rabouille C, Stemmann L, Bonnet S, Diaz F, Koubbi P, Radakovitch O, Babin M, Baklouti M, Bancon-Montigny C, Belviso S, Bensoussan N, Bonsang B, Bouloubassi I, Brunet C, Cadiou J-F, Carlotti F, Chami M, Charmasson S, Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  17. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    : "The Changing Atmosphere: A Global Challenge" (1990), and, with his wife Judith Jacobsen "The Crowded Greenhouse: Population, Climate Change and Creating a Sustainable World" (2002). After ASP, he continued his focus on environmental issues as a member of the Environmental and Societal Impacts group at NCAR. John retired from NCAR in 2005. John had many active pursuits beyond his professional work. He was an accomplished pilot, with licenses for flying single and multiengine aircraft, sailplanes, and balloons. He piloted a sailplane in at least one meteorological field program. He also was an avid river rafter. John faced the disease that took his life as he did all events in his life, with grace and dignity. He endured the loss of two spouses to cancer, Merle Jenkins Firor in 1979, and Judith Jacobsen in 2004. John is survived by his four children with his first wife, Daniel Firor of Seattle, Washington; Kay Firor of Cove, Oregon; James Firor of Hotchkiss, Colorado, and Susan Firor of Moscow, Idaho; a sister; a brother; and three grandchildren. His children and his many friends in Boulder and elsewhere gave him loving support during his days battling Alzheimer's. John used to define a 'southern gentleman' as a man dressed in white linen suit on a hot dusty summer day in a small Georgia town who could cross the street without breaking a sweat. John and his intellect and his management ability were like that; he could deal gracefully and successfully with almost anything that came his way. A man of great accomplishment, he rarely showed an ego to match. In the darkest days following the JEC Report, he almost single-handedly invented a new NCAR scientific appointment system. He chose the first cadre of 'senior scientists' to populate the top rank. There were about eighteen members in this group, but there was one name conspicuously absent - his own. This 'error' was quietly corrected by the UCAR Board.

  18. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Astronomer Royal in 1956, but soon left England for greater opportunities in the United States. He spent two years (1957-58) at Harvard, first as a professor and then as the Robert Wheeler Willson Professor of Applied Astronomy before accepting positions as chairman of astronomy and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University in 1959. He took great pride in the astronomy department that blossomed into greatness under his leadership. The department, which only had one other faculty member when he was appointed, reflected Tommy's strengths, ranging from radio astronomy and the Arecibo dish, to infrared, theoretical and planetary astronomy. His many distinguished hires included Carl Sagan. At Cornell, he was Assistant Vice President for Research from 1969-71 and the John L.Wetherill Professor from 1971 until his retirement in 1987. His many honors included Fellow of the Royal Society (London); Member of the National Academy of Sciences (US); Gold Medal and George Darwin Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, London; and Honorary Doctor of Science, Cambridge University. He also served on the US President's Science Advisory Committee, although he came to be a strong critic of NASA and the Shuttle program. Tommy was a handsome, charming and generous man and a loyal colleague who formed many long-lasting friendships. A witty and articulate speaker, he was regarded by some as a scientific maverick who delighted in controversy. In reality, he was an iconoclast whose strength was in penetrating analysis of the assumptions on which some of our most important theories are based. He is survived by his second wife, Carvel (nee Beyer) Gold of Ithaca whom he married in 1972, and by the couple's daughter, Lauren Gold of West Palm Beach, Florida, as well as by three daughters from his first marriage to Merle Eleanor Tuberg in 1947: Lindy Bryant of Philadelphia, Lucy Gold of Ithaca and Tanya Vanesse of Carmel, N.Y., and by six grandchildren. He was

  19. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  20. Control of the geomorphic evolution of an active crater: Popocatpetl (Mexico) 1994-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, N.; Zamorano, J. J.; Palacios, D.; Macias, J. L.; Sanjosé, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    . References.- Cruz-Reyna, S. de la; Meli, R.; Macías, J.L.; Castillo, F.; & Cabrera, B., 1998. Cyclical dome extrusions that by late 1997 filled one-third of crater capacity, In Smithsonian-GVP Monthly Reports, Popocatépetl, Smithsonian Institution. Bull. Glob. Volcanism Netw, (GVN) 23 (2), 2 - 4. Donnadieu, F.; Kelfoun, K.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Decchi, E.; & Merle, O., 2003. Digital photogrammetry as a tool in analogue modelling: applications to volcano instability, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123 (1-2), 161-180. Macías, J.L. & Siebe, C., 2005. Popocatépetl crater filled to the brim: significance for hazard evaluation, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (141) 327-330. Martín-Del Pozzo, A.L.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, F.; Correa, I.; & Mendiola, I.F., 2003. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research ,125, 107-120. Matiella, M.A.; Watson, I.M.; Delgado, H.; Rose, W.I.; , Cárdenas, L.; & Realmuro, V.J., 2008, Volcanic emissions from Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, quantified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared data: A case study of the December 2000-January 2001 emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 170, 1-2, 76-85. Procter, J.N.; Platz, T.; & Cronin, S.J., 2006. A remnant summit lava dome and its influence on future eruptive hazards, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 10211. Schilling, S.P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Messerich, J.A.; & Thompson, R.A., 2006. Map: Rebuilding Mount St. Helens. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2928. Tanarro, L. M.; Zamorano, J.J.; & Palacios, D., 2005. Glacier degradation and lahar formation on the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) during the last eruptive period (1994-2003), Zeitschrift Geomorphologie (140) 73-92. Zamorano, J.J., Gómez, A. 1996 "Análisis geomorfoloógico a detalle,1:10 000 del cráter del volcán Popocatépetl (1989-1996)" IV Reuni