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Sample records for mesenterium radiologische anatomie

  1. [Two sudden deaths of children with mesenterium commune -- a case report].

    PubMed

    Grusová, Kateřina; Votava, Milan; Zeman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the digestive system represent a complicated topic concerning many medical specializations. The goal of this article is to describe two cases of children with mesenterium commune. First was an infant (5.5 months old female) who died shortly after being admitted to hospital with acute bronchitis, vomiting and diarrhoea. The autopsy revealed the cause of death--volvulus of the entire small intestine and the first portion of the large intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall in an infant with congenital anomaly of intestinal fixation--mesenterium commune. Second case was a 2.5 years old female after two heart surgeries, with pulmonary hypertension, who died suddenly at home. The cause of death was volvulus of a portion of the small intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall and also mesenterium commune. Congenital malpositions of the intestine originate due to malrotation and malfixation of the intestine during prenatal and early postnatal period. This wide range of the individuals developmental disorders always result in a condition where the topographical findings in the abdominal cavity are not as commonly found. Abnormally positioned intestines cannot develop a normal mesentery and are prone to volvulus, which represents the most serious complication with acute abdominal symptoms and when diagnosed late, it can lead to sudden death. Whilst performing autopsies such cases are rarely seen. However in forensic medicine and also in clinical practice it is important to consider intestinal malposition as a cause of acute abdomen.

  2. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  3. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  4. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  5. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  6. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1350x1200 View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows ...

  7. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  8. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  9. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  10. Anatomy atlases.

    PubMed

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  11. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  13. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... español An Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The Heart Valves The Heartbeat Vasculature of the Arm Vasculature of the Head Vasculature of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso ...

  15. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  16. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  17. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  18. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  19. [Forbidden anatomy].

    PubMed

    Holck, Per

    2004-12-16

    Since centuries anatomists have used any course of action in order to get hold of material for dissections, and at the same time avoid prosecution for grave robbery, at times the only way to get hold of cadavers. Stealing newly dead people from the churchyards and offering them for sale to anatomical institutions was not uncommon in the 19th century. "Resurrectionists"--as these thieves were called, as they made the dead "alive"--were seen as necessary for the teaching of anatomy in Victorian Britain. In the 1820s a scandal was revealed in Scotland, when it was discovered that some people even committed murder to make money from supplying anatomists with human cadavers. Two men, William Burke and William Hare, became particularly notorious because of their "business" with the celebrated anatomist Robert Knox in Edinburgh.

  20. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  1. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1575 View Download Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

  3. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W

    2014-07-01

    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  5. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  6. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  7. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists.

  8. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  9. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  10. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art.

  11. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    PubMed

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  12. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Observations on the macroscopic anatomy of the intestinal tract and its mesenteric folds in the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Clauss, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-08-01

    We described the macroscopic anatomy of the intestines and their peritoneal folds of five adult pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid species considered to ingest a high proportion of grass in its natural diet. The mean (+/-SD) body weight was 17 (+/-2) kg. The small intestine and the caecocolon measured 495 (+/-37) cm and 237 (+/-24) cm in length, respectively, with an average ratio (small intestine:caecocolon) of 1.9 (+/-0.1). The ascending colon had two and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and two centrifugal gyri. The spiral ansa, which was similar to an ellipse, was fixed to the whole left face of the mesenterium. Apart from the peritoneal folds described in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, three additional, hitherto not described folds were found: a fold that fixed the caecum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon, one that joined the terminal part of the proximal ansa to the last centrifugal gyrus of the spiral ansa of the ascending colon, and one that linked the ascending duodenum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon. When compared with published data from other cervids of different feeding niches, it appears that, among cervids, the ratio of small intestine to the caecocolon length does not reflect the natural diet.

  14. [Viennese school of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Angetter, D C

    1999-10-01

    Anatomical science played a minor role in Vienna for centuries until Gerard van Swieten, in the 18th century, recognized the importance of anatomy for medical education. In the 19th century the anatomical school at the University of Vienna development to its height. A new building and a collection of preparations attracted a large number of students. Finally, a second department of anatomy was established. Political ideologies started to affect this institution in the beginning of the 20th century. Anti-Semitism emerged and caused uproars and fights among the students of the two departments. In 1938 both were united under Eduard Pernkopf, a dedicated Nazi and chairman of the department of anatomy, Decan of the medical faculty (1938-1943) and later on President of the University of Vienna (1943-1945). He was suspected of using cadavers of executed persons for the purpose of research and education.

  15. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  17. Anatomy for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen W; Robb, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that were of particular interest to them. Following completion of all the dissections, the students presented what they had learned to the entire class in the anatomy laboratory. This course has fulfilled an important need for our students.

  18. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  20. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  1. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  2. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  3. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  4. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  5. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  6. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  7. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  8. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  9. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as how we function in our environment. The diagrams below show brain anatomy, or the various parts of the brain, from two different angles. Side View of the Brain Cross View of the Brain Learning about the various parts of the brain and ...

  10. Interactive anatomical teaching: Integrating radiological anatomy within topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abed Rabbo, F; Garrigues, F; Lefèvre, C; Seizeur, R

    2016-03-01

    Hours attributed to teaching anatomy have been reduced in medical curricula through out the world. In consequence, changes in anatomical curriculum as well as in teaching methods are becoming necessary. New methods of teaching are being evaluated. We present in the following paper an example of interactive anatomical teaching associating topographic anatomy with ultrasonographic radiological anatomy. The aim was to explicitly show anatomical structures of the knee and the ankle through dissection and ultrasonography. One cadaver was used as an ultrasonographic model and the other was dissected. Anatomy of the knee and ankle articulations was studied through dissection and ultrasonography. The students were able to simultaneously assimilate both anatomical aspects of radiological and topographic anatomy. They found the teaching very helpful and practical. This body of work provides example of a teaching method combining two important aspects of anatomy to help the students understand both aspects simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomy of female continence.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O

    1998-03-01

    Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.

  12. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  13. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  14. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  16. Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Thomas Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals. A final request for edits or on-site feedback from anatomy professionals is made. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  17. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  18. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  19. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority.

  20. [Benchmarking in pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Dalla, Palma P; Chisté, K; Guarrera, M G; Gardini, G; Gelli, M C; Coccolini, M; Egarter Vigl, E; Girardi, F; Vineis, C; Casassa, F; Gangemi, P; Quaceci, A

    2003-06-01

    Data from five different Institution of Pathological Anatomy Hospital Services are presented in order to show one (the benchmark) of the multiple existing ways to approach the budget problem and the macroeconomic management of our Services. The aim of this work is not to show the "best" way to work in terms of cost-efficacy but only a methods to compare our results with others. Nevertheless from this study is possible also to make some considerations about medical and technical workload in different services with different habits.

  1. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  2. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  3. The quail anatomy portal.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  4. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  5. The quail anatomy portal

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Avnika A.; Simkin, Johanna E.; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F.; Martins, Gabriel G.; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. Database URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123) PMID:24715219

  6. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Developmental anatomy of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Admiraal, Jeroen; Wright, Glenda M

    2010-02-01

    Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals.

  8. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  9. The anatomy of anatomy: a review for its modernization.

    PubMed

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience. Moreover, modern medical curricula are giving less importance to anatomy education and to the acknowledged value of dissection. Universities have even abandoned dissection completely in favor of user-friendly multimedia, alternative teaching approaches, and newly defined priorities in clinical practice. Anatomy curriculum is undergoing international reformation but the current framework lacks uniformity among institutions. Optimal learning content can be categorized into the following modalities: (1) dissection/prosection, (2) interactive multimedia, (3) procedural anatomy, (4) surface and clinical anatomy, and (5) imaging. The importance of multimodal teaching, with examples suggested in this article, has been widely recognized and assessed. Nevertheless, there are still ongoing limitations in anatomy teaching. Substantial problems consist of diminished allotted dissection time and the number of qualified anatomy instructors, which will eventually deteriorate the quality of education. Alternative resources and strategies are discussed in an attempt to tackle these genuine concerns. The challenges are to reinstate more effective teaching and learning tools while maintaining the beneficial values of orthodox dissection. The UK has a reputable medical education but its quality could be improved by observing international frameworks. The heavy penalty of not concentrating on sufficient anatomy education will inevitably lead to incompetent anatomists and healthcare professionals, leaving patients to face dire repercussions. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Clinical anatomy of the hand.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A

    This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy.

  11. The anatomy of the mermaid.

    PubMed

    Heppell, D

    Investigation of the anatomy of the mermaid and of mermaid lore has revealed a tangled web of stories, sightings and specimens of the most diverse nature, extending worldwide into the realms of folklore and legend, zoology and cryptozoology, anatomy, physiology, radiography and folk medicine, ethnography, social history and the history of science. The stereotype we know as the mermaid is surely a fit subject for further serious study

  12. General anatomy of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Oezcelik, Arzu; DeMeester, Steven R

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the embryology and general anatomy of the esophagus, including the topography and relationships of the esophagus to surrounding structures. The esophagus is the only internal organ that traverses 3 body cavities, and a complete understanding of the anatomy and anatomic relationships of the esophagus in each area is essential for surgeons who address esophageal disorders. Details regarding the normal histology and basic function of the esophagus are also provided. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  14. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  15. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  16. Anatomy of trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a <10% chance of survival beyond one year of life. However, this prognosis has been challenged by the introduction of aggressive interventional therapies for patients born with trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. [History of anatomy in Lyon].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, A

    1978-06-01

    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  20. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  1. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  2. Neurovascular anatomy: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Bell, Randy; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A

    2009-07-01

    Students of cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology tend to model their learning based on normal patterns of blood flow. As such, the focus tends toward arterial physiology and pathology with less than adequate understanding of the significance of the venous system. This article presents a different approach to neurovascular anatomy, starting with the venous system and demonstrating both normal and pathologic states. It reviews the cerebral circulation with attention to the microsurgical relationships, angiographic patterns, and fusion of dual-volume imaging. The importance of bony, sulcal, and ventricular anatomy is presented as it relates to the angiographic representation of pathologic lesions. Examples are given of anatomic variants seen with the operating microscope, biplanar angiography, and three-dimensional rotational angiography." Note that in the synopsis and throughout the article, first person usage has been changed to third person per journal style.

  3. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  4. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  5. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  6. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  7. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  9. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Glenn C.; Chopp, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.” Data Synthesis: We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint. Conclusions/Recommendations: Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury. PMID:16558636

  10. Orbital anatomy for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Timothy A; Golden, Brent A

    2012-11-01

    An anatomic description of the orbit and its contents and the eyelids directed toward surgeons is the focus of this article. The bone and soft tissue anatomic nuances for surgery are highlighted, including a section on osteology, muscles, and the orbital suspensory system. Innervation and vascular anatomy are also addressed.

  11. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  12. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Treesearch

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  15. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  16. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  17. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  18. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  19. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  20. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  1. Anatomy of a Bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  2. Anatomy adventure: a board game for enhancing understanding of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Emeka G

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy Adventure, a board game on anatomy was designed to reduce some of these pressures, emphasize student centered and collaborative learning styles, and add fun to the process of learning while promoting understanding and retention of the subject. To assess these objectives, 95 out of over 150 medical and dental students who expressed willingness to be part of the study were recruited and divided into a Game group and a Non-game group. A pretest written examination was given to both groups, participants in the Game group were allowed to play the game for ten days, after which a post-test examination was also given. A 20-item questionnaire rated on a three-point scale to access student's perception of the game was given to the game group. The post-test scores of the game group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the non-game counterparts. Also the post-test score of the game based group was significantly better (P < 0.05) than their pretest. The students in their feedback noted in very high proportions that the game was interesting, highly informative, encouraged team work, improved their attitude, and perception to gross anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Ruch, P.; Geissbuhler, A.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:12463780

  4. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  5. Vulvar anatomy and labia minoraplasty.

    PubMed

    Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin A; Miranne, Jeannine M; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-06-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery is performed for aesthetic reasons as well as for medical and functional indications, such as congenital labia minora hypertrophy. The purpose of this video is to teach vulvar anatomy and review labia minorplasty techniques. We demonstrate one technique in this video. There are a variety of different techniques for labia minorplasty. When deciding the most appropriate technique to use, the patient's goals must be considered.

  6. Surgical anatomy of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Destrieux, C; Bourry, D; Velut, S

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampectomy is an efficient procedure for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Nevertheless, hippocampus anatomy is complex, due to a deep location, and a complex structure. In this didactic paper, we propose a description of the hippocampus that should help neurosurgeons to feel at ease in this region. Embryological data was obtained from the literature, whereas adult anatomy was described after dissecting 8 human hemispheres (with and without vascular injection) and slicing 3 additional ones. The hippocampus is C-shaped and made of 2 rolled-up laminae, the cornu Ammonis and the gyrus dentatus. Its ventricular aspect is covered by the choroid plexus of the inferior horn excepted at the head level. Its cisternal aspect faces the mesencephalon from which it is limited by the transverse fissure. Its rostral part (head) curves dorso-caudally to form the uncus, located at the medial aspect of the temporal lobe. Its caudal part (tail) splits into the fimbria and the gyrus fasciolaris that respectively run ventral and dorsal to the corpus callosum, to become the fornix and indusium griseum. Consequences of this complex anatomy are presented, and the authors stress the need for a subpial resection. Important landmarks are provided to avoid lesions of the surrounding structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  8. Hip: Anatomy and US technique

    PubMed Central

    Molini, L.; Precerutti, M.; Gervasio, A.; Draghi, F.; Bianchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s position is important, as it varies according to the area requiring examination. For the study of the anterior structures, the patient should be in the supine position; for the medial structures, the leg should be abducted and rotated outward with the knee flexed; for the lateral structures, the patient should be in the controlateral decubitus position; for the posterior structures the patient must be in the prone position. US study of the hip includes assessment of the soft tissues, tendons, ligaments and muscles, and also of the bone structures, joint space and serous bursae. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the hip as well as the US anatomy of this joint. PMID:23397030

  9. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  11. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  12. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  13. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  14. Gross anatomy of network security.

    PubMed

    Siu, Thomas J

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  15. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  16. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  17. Anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is performed more and more nowadays. The anatomy of these procedures is totally different from traditional open procedures because they are performed from different direction and in different space. The important anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair will be discussed in this article.

  18. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  19. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  20. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  1. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  2. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  3. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  4. Anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is performed more and more nowadays. The anatomy of these procedures is totally different from traditional open procedures because they are performed from different direction and in different space. The important anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair will be discussed in this article. PMID:27826575

  5. The surgical anatomy of the perineum.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, V; Chandak, P

    2013-03-01

    The anatomy of the perineum and pelvis is complex. Those outside the specialist fields of colorectal surgery, urology and gynaecological surgery often have a less-than-complete understanding of the anatomical details of this region. The recent increase in complicated pelvic and perineal injuries caused by the detonation of Improvised Explosive Devices has brought into sharp focus, the importance of this area of surgical anatomy. The following article describes, in a systematic and detailed manner, the anatomy of the urogenital and anal regions of the perineum. The terminology in relation to the fascial layers and structures encountered in the perineum is elucidated. In addition, the surgical anatomy of the scrotum and its contents and the ligamentous support of the penis are described, with clear illustrations throughout. It is intended that this article will go some way towards clarifying the anatomy underlying the surgical management of complex perineal/pelvic injuries, and benefit both the specialist and non-specialist military surgeon.

  6. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  7. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  8. Ulnar intrinsic anatomy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul C; Sforzo, Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Normal hand function is a balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic musculature. Although individually the intrinsics are small muscles in diameter, collectively they represent a large muscle that contributes approximately 50% of grip strength. Dysfunction of the intrinsics consequently leads to impaired grip and pinch strength as well recognized deformities. Low ulnar nerve palsy preserves ulnar innervated extrinsics resulting in sensory loss, digital clawing, thumb deformity, abduction of the small finger, and asynchronous finger motion. High ulnar nerve palsy is characterized by the above plus paralysis of the ulnar profundi and the flexor carpi ulnaris. Understanding the normal anatomy allows the clinician to identify the site of the lesion and plan appropriate surgical intervention. This article revisits the classic work of Richard J. Smith on ulnar nerve palsy with contemporary perspective.

  9. Surgical anatomy of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, G; Lichtenegger, R

    1997-09-01

    Modern functionally oriented surgery of the larynx increasingly requires exact knowledge of the anatomy and landmarks of the endolaryngeal structures in relation to the laryngeal skeleton. Review of the literature reveals several opposing statements and controversial anatomical definitions regarding several clinically critical points. In order to obtain basic anatomical data morphological measurements were performed on a total of 50 laryngeal specimens. Measurements were taken on whole organs and on cuts in the horizontal and in the frontal plane, as well. The data were evaluated statistically, which resulted in the determination of average configurations and dimensions of cartilages and soft tissues of the larynx. In particular, the projection of the deeper structures on the surface and the distances and angles between the different structures were taken into consideration. In order to make these data clinically applicable a scale model has been developed that will allow a direct correlation and application for individual surgery.

  10. Facial anatomy of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; Romero, R; Staudach, A; Hobbins, J C

    1986-11-01

    Real-time ultrasonography was used in this study to demonstrate details of the anatomy of the face and neck of the fetus. Details such as the ocular globe, vitreous body, lens, anterior chamber, rectus muscles, optic nerve and disc, and the ophthalmic artery are visible at the level of the eye. The helix, scaphoid fossa, triangular fossa, concha, antihelix, antitragus, intertragic incisure, and lobule can be seen at the level of the ear. The tip of the nose, the alae nasi, and the columna are also seen. The epiglottis is visible in the vestibulum of the larynx. The fetal face is an important structure that can provide invaluable information in the search for congenital malformations, and possibly also in fetal behavior.

  11. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging.

  12. In praise of tedious anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is fundamentally a tool for mapping function to structure, and its success consequently requires neuroanatomical precision and accuracy. Here we review the various means by which functional activation can be localized to neuroanatomy and suggest that the gold standard should be localization to the individual’s or group’s own anatomy through the use of neuroanatomical knowledge and atlases of neuroanatomy. While automated means of localization may be useful, they cannot provide the necessary accuracy, given variability between individuals. We also suggest that the field of functional neuroimaging needs to converge on a common set of methods for reporting functional localization including a common “standard” space and criteria for what constitutes sufficient evidence to report activation in terms of Brodmann’s areas. PMID:17870621

  13. Patient specific physical anatomy models.

    PubMed

    Cameron, B M; Holmes, D R; Rettmann, M E; Robb, R A

    2008-01-01

    The advent of small footprint stereo-lithographic printers and the ready availability of segmentation and surface modeling software provide a unique opportunity to create patient-specific physical models of anatomy, validation of image guided intervention applications against phantoms that exhibit naturally occurring anatomic variation. Because these models can incorporate all structures relevant to a procedure, this allows validation to occur under realistic conditions using the same or similar techniques as would be used in a clinical application. This in turn reduces the number of trials and time spent performing in-vivo validation experiments. In this paper, we describe our general approach for the creation of both non-tissue and tissue-mimicking patient-specific models as part of a general-purpose patient emulation system used to validate image guided intervention applications.

  14. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration.

  15. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    PubMed

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  17. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    PubMed

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  19. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  20. Applied anatomy for the aesthetic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Rog; Priel, Ayelet; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2010-09-01

    With the expanding view of the oculofacial surgeon as experts in the realm of aesthetic surgery, familiarity with facial anatomy is essential. The purpose of this review is to present an update on the relevant facial anatomy and its application on rejuvenation. Numerous studies have redefined facial morphology and variations in facial features, which are important when treating all aesthetic patients. This particularly becomes valuable when patients of differing ethnic origins present for evaluation. Enhanced surgical options are now available that have expounded on previous work on skeletal and fascial attachments of the face that occur with aging. Additionally, an improved understanding of facial anatomy has led to safer and more effective surgical procedures to anatomically restore youth to the aging face. Anatomic and anthropomorphic knowledge is constantly improving in the realm of oculofacial plastic surgery. Newer insights into the treatment of facial aging have resulted from the application of an ever-expanding understanding of facial anatomy.

  1. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  3. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  4. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  5. Anatomy and physiology of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Soybel, David I

    2005-10-01

    In this article, key concepts in gastric anatomy and physiology are reviewed. Attention is given to historical development of concepts of acid secretion, to the role of stomach in digestion, and to the mechanisms that protect gastric mucosa from acid and hostile luminal conditions. Evolving ideas that may influence understand-ing of the physiologic consequences of emerging therapeutics, and procedures that target anatomy or function of the stomach are also reviewed.

  6. A novel 3D stereoscopic anatomy tutorial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip M; Hamilton, Neil M; Denison, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Advancement in technology is an important driver for the evolution of the medical curriculum. With continued criticism of medical students' knowledge of anatomy, further investigation into adjuncts for anatomy teaching seems appropriate. This project sought to create an interactive 3D stereoscopic tutorial to bridge the teaching of anatomy and pathology. Anonymised computed tomography (CT) scans were collected of a normal aorta and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. These scans were rendered into 3D stereoscopic images using open-source software. These images were then annotated with interactive labels and buttons to access information on normal aortic anatomy and the clinical details of abdominal aortic aneurysms. A total of 183 first-year medical students viewed the tutorial, and 160 gave feedback (87%). The students found the 3D system aided their understanding of anatomy and pathology (93 versus 3%), and provided an advantage when compared with current anatomy classes (93 versus 1%). The students highlighted the musculoskeletal system and cerebral vasculature as areas for future 3D visualisation. Of the responders, 96 per cent felt that the curriculum would benefit from further 3D stereoscopic anatomy/pathology tutorials. This technology has the exciting potential to use the radiographic libraries in hospitals for medical education. The computer software, however, has some limitations at present. It is not able to effectively distinguish between tissues of similar densities. Furthermore, not all tissues are amenable to CT scanning of a high enough resolution for presentation. Despite these limitations, the software continues to advance and is capable of producing very high quality anatomy images. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  7. Hair anatomy for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L C

    1991-07-01

    The rational evaluation of hair disorders requires familiarity with follicular anatomy. Hair structure can be easily examined by studying clipped hair shafts, entire hairs gently pulled or forcibly plucked from the scalp, and scalp biopsies (sectioned vertically or transversely). Anatomic features will be different depending on whether a given hair is in the anagen, catagen, or telogen phase. Follicle size will also vary, from the minute vellus hair to the long, thick terminal hair. Each follicle can be divided into distinct regions--bulb, suprabulbar zone, isthmus, and infundibulum. Activity growing (anagen) hairs are characterized by a hair matrix surrounding a dermal papilla; inner and outer root sheaths are present and well developed. A catagen hair can be identified by its markedly thickened vitreous layer and fibrous root sheath, which surrounds an epithelial column; above this column, the presumptive club forms. A telogen hair is distinguished by its fully keratinized club, which is surrounded by an epithelial sac. Below this lies the secondary hair germ and condensed dermal papilla, waiting for the mysterious signal that initiates a new life cycle.

  8. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    PubMed

    Potter, Andrew S; Potter, S Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  9. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional anatomy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies. Cervical vertebrae rotate and translate in the sagittal plane, and rotate in the manner of an inverted cone, across an oblique coronal plane. The cervical zygapophysial joints are the most common source of chronic neck pain. By contrast, lumbar discs are well designed to sustain compression loads, but rely on posterior elements to limit axial rotation. Internal disc disruption is the most common basis for chronic low-back pain. Spinal muscles are arranged systematically in prevertebral and postvertebral groups. The intrinsic elements of the spine are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, and by the sinuvertebral nerves. Little modern research has been conducted into the structure of the thoracic spine, or the causes of thoracic spinal pain.

  11. Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series. Results Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods. Conclusions Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed. PMID:23050723

  12. Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory: A Valid Tool to Measure the Anatomy Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan@Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment,…

  13. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herling, Patrick J.; Mohseni, B. Tanya; Hill, Derek C.; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A.; Leo, Jonathan T.; Langley, Natalie R.

    2017-01-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group…

  14. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser’s functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license. PMID:28396633

  15. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases.

    PubMed

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser's functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  16. Frank Netter's legacy: Interprofessional anatomy instruction.

    PubMed

    Niekrash, Christine E; Copes, Lynn E; Gonzalez, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories: long-term, informal visits by pathologists' assistant students who work with the medical students to identify potential donor pathologies, and a short-term, formal visit by fourth-year dental students who teach craniofacial anatomy during the oral cavity dissection laboratory. A survey of attitudes of participants was analyzed and suggest the interprofessional experiences were mutually beneficial for all involved, and indicate that implementing multiple, contrasting interprofessional interactions with different goals within a single course is feasible. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. The first analysis examined attitudes of medical students towards a pathologists' assistant role in a health care team. The question addressing a pathologists' assistant involvement in the anatomy laboratory was most significant. The second analysis examined attitudes of medical students towards the importance of a good foundation in craniofacial anatomy for clinical practice. This perceived importance is influenced by the presence of dental students in the anatomy laboratory. In both instances, the peer interprofessional interactions in the anatomy laboratory resulted in an overall positive attitude of medical students towards pathologists' assistant and dental students. The consequences of these interactions led to better understanding, appreciation and respect of the different professionals that contribute to a health care team. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Anatomy of the ward round.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient's narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient's right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  18. Surgical anatomy of selected physes.

    PubMed

    Birch, J G; Herring, J A; Wenger, D R

    1984-03-01

    Recent advances have allowed successful resection of partial physeal arrest in children whose physes have been damaged by trauma, infection, irradiation, and other causes. Underlying physeal anatomy and the relationship of overlying structures to the physis are vital in preparing for precise surgical excision of the bony bar. The cadaver of a 5-year-old child was dissected with special emphasis on the surgical accessibility of the physes and adjacent metaphyses of the distal radius, distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal tibia and fibula. The physis of the distal radius was found to be completely extracapsular. The synovial reflection of the suprapatellar pouch obscured portions of the anterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the distal femur. The capsular attachment extended to the level of the physis anteriorly and posteriorly. The capsular attachment to the medial distal femur was more distal and peripheral than to the lateral. The insertion of the adductor magnus tendon medially and the intermuscular septum laterally served as landmarks to the level of the physis. The physis of the proximal tibia was completely extracapsular. The posterior aspects of the physis and the metaphysis were obscured in the midline by the popliteus muscle, and this posterolateral region was the least surgically accessible of any of the regions studied. The distal tibial physis was entirely extracapsular. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments inserted across the anterolateral and posterolateral aspects of the physis of the distal fibula. This physis on its medial aspect lay intraarticularly at the level of the articular cartilage of the distal tibia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  20. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  2. Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Unstable Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel; Cuéllar, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To review the anatomy of the shoulder joint and of the physiology of glenohumeral stability is essential to manage correctly shoulder instability. Methods: It was reviewed a large number of recently published research studies related to the shoulder instability that received a higher Level of Evidence grade. Results: It is reviewed the bony anatomy, the anatomy and function of the ligaments that act on this joint, the physiology and physiopathology of glenohumeral instability and the therapeutic implications of the injured structures. Conclusion: This knowledge allows the surgeon to evaluate the possible causes of instability, to assess which are the structures that must be reconstructed and to decide which surgical technique must be performed. PMID:28979600

  3. Laparoscopy: learning a new surgical anatomy?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Angel Martin; Aguilar, Jose-Francisco Noguera

    2009-01-01

    Operative laparoscopy has progressed rapidly in recent years, and this alternative to the conventional approach for abdominal surgery has allowed the description of new planes, spaces, and anatomic references as a result of the artificial rupture of the "anatomical continuum." Magnified laparoscopic views and the ability to deeply explore anatomic features better demonstrate the basic anatomy. Therefore, even as laparoscopy requires a more profound knowledge of basic anatomy, it enhances our understanding of this anatomy. Current technology for recording and editing video-taped sequences facilitates presentation on screen and can detail all aspects of interest, making such videos high value educational material for learners. Likewise, the experimental surgical laboratory is an indispensable setting for the development of these and other new technologies, transmission of their knowledge, and surgical progress.

  4. A powerful way of teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2013-05-01

    I read the article entitled "A plea for the use of drawing in human anatomy teaching", by Clavert et al. with great interest. I was glad to read that, in France, anatomy is initially taught by building each structure or region on a blackboard with colored chalk. I find this method quite efficient for this purpose. I believe that drawing is a powerful way of teaching anatomy and therefore the blackboard deserves its rightful place beside other 'high-tech' media. I agree with the authors that the blackboard and the chalk constitute wonderful and powerful educational media, and that appropriate simplification and transposing (of anatomical information) in daily practice are necessary for a sufficient educational result. Among other 'modern' media, movies of surgical procedures could easily attract the students' attention.

  5. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  6. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  7. Anatomy of the ethmoid: CT, endoscopic, and macroscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.

  8. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1)

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet.

    Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.

    Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1.

    The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped.

    The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris

  9. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1)

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet.

    Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.

    Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1.

    The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped.

    The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris

  10. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  11. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  13. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Babu V; Rajesh, Pala B

    2010-11-01

    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An understanding of chest wall kinematics might help define the loss of function after resection and the effects of various chest wall substitutes. Therefore, this article is not an exhaustive anatomic description but a focused summary and discussion.

  14. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  15. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility.

    PubMed

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  16. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  17. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  18. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  19. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  20. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  1. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  2. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  3. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  4. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  5. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  6. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  7. Spatial Abilities and Anatomy Knowledge Assessment: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A…

  8. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  9. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  10. Innovative Strategies for Teaching Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritt, Laura; Stewart, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of new teaching strategies in an anatomy and physiology laboratory at Burlington County College (New Jersey) based on laser disc technology, computers with multimedia capabilities, and appropriate software. Lab activities are described and results of a survey of former students are reported, including a comparison of lab…

  11. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  12. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  13. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  14. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  15. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  17. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    PubMed

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  20. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  1. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  2. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  3. [The importance of bronchoscopic anatomy for anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Hoşten, Tülay; Topçu, Salih

    2011-01-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a sine qua non of thoracic surgery and requires knowledge and talent. Close familiarity with equipments used for OLV as well as bronchoscopy and respiratory tract anatomy is important for successful OLV. We aim to outline the bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and OLV equipment for anesthetists and thoracic surgeons in this review. The recorded preoperative and intraoperative bronchoscopic applications of the patients hospitalized in our Thoracic Surgery clinic for diagnosis and treatment have been evaluated from an anesthetist's perspective. Anatomic landmarks were identified in the bronchoscopic evaluation. Optimal and misplacement images of double-lumen tubes (DLT) and bronchial blockers (BB) used for OLV in our clinic were obtained via fiber optic bronchoscopy. While left lung isolation can be made more safely due to the anatomy of the left main bronchus, placement of both DLTs and BBs to the right main bronchus requires greater care. Success in OLV procedures would increase with anesthetists being well informed about the fiber optic bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and in close cooperation with the surgical team.

  4. Anatomy of a Minicourse. Audiovisual Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rex

    This kit explains the use of minicourses at Macquarie University in New South Wales, Australia, which were designed for the inservice training of teachers. The kit contains the script of the audio commentary, a cassette tape, color slides, and a booklet entitled "Anatomy of the Minicourse." The tape briefly describes the minicourses in general and…

  5. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  6. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  7. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  8. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  9. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance.

  10. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J

    1981-11-01

    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  11. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  12. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  13. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  14. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  15. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  16. Basic anatomy and physiology of pain pathways.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Sarah; Machado, Andre G; Nagel, Sean J

    2014-10-01

    This article provides an integrated review of the basic anatomy and physiology of the pain processing pathways. The transmission and parcellation of noxious stimuli from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system is discussed. In addition, the inhibitory and excitatory systems that regulate pain along with the consequences of dysfunction are considered.

  17. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  18. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  19. Teres minor muscle and related anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chafik, Dara; Galatz, Leesa M; Keener, Jay D; Kim, H Mike; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the complex anatomy surrounding the teres minor muscle. Thirty-one cadaveric human shoulders were dissected. Qualitative fascial and neurovascular anatomy were described. Location of motor nerves to teres minor were measured in reference to local anatomy. Fascial anatomy of the posterior shoulder had 2 distinct and equally common variants, 1 of which demonstrated a stout, inflexible fascial compartment enveloping the teres minor muscle. The other had a continuous fascia enveloping both the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. In both variants, the primary nerve to teres minor traveled around a fascial sling, becoming sub-fascial at an average of 44 mm (range, 25-68) medial to the teres minor's insertion. The nerve took its most angulated course as it entered the fascial sling. Smaller accessory innervation of teres minor began, on average, 30 mm (range, 15-48) medial to the muscle's lateral insertion. None of the accessory motor nerves coursed deep to the fascial sling nor to the distinct teres minor fascial compartment. A stout fascial sling may be the potential site of greatest compression and tethering of the primary motor nerve to teres minor. Additional lateral accessory motor nerves to teres minor remained extra-fascial and took a less angulated path. Half of the shoulders demonstrated a separate teres minor fascial compartment. An improved understanding of the fascial anatomy and innervation pattern of the teres minor muscle may help clinicians who treat patients with symptomatic isolated teres minor muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  1. The history of anatomy in Persia

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  2. Designing anatomy program in modern medical curriculum: matter of balance.

    PubMed

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Kosta, Vana; Poljicanin, Ana; Carić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman rho test. The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman rho=0.83, P=0.015) and TA (Spearman rho=0.73, P=0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence.

  3. Sonographic anatomy of the gastrohepatic ligament.

    PubMed

    Desai, Gaurav; Filly, Roy A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate anatomic and pathologic features of the gastrohepatic ligament (GHL) and to show its usefulness for precise localization of abnormalities, particularly in relation to the lesser peritoneal cavity and diseases occurring within the confines of the ligament itself. Cases were selected that illustrate the objectives above. Illustrations show various anatomic and pathologic features meant to enhance interpretation of left upper quadrant sonograms. Illustrations seen in the sonographic literature vaguely interpret the relationships of the GHL. Misunderstanding has led not only to improper nomenclature but also to the use of inappropriate indicators of lesser omental diseases. With a clear understanding of the anatomy of the GHL and its use as a pivotal marker for structures around and within it, one can avoid these pitfalls and better evaluate adult and pediatric lesser omental anatomy.

  4. Management of Elbow Trauma: Anatomy and Exposures.

    PubMed

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2015-11-01

    The elbow is a complex joint from the anatomic and biomechanical point of view. A thorough understanding of elbow anatomy greatly aids the surgeon in dealing with elbow trauma. The close vicinity of neurovascular structures should always be kept in mind when selecting a surgical approach. Any approach to the elbow needs to be safe and versatile. Knowledge of the attachment and orientation of elbow ligaments reduces the risk of inadvertent intraoperative injury and/or postoperative instability. Surgeons dealing with elbow trauma should have a good working understanding of elbow anatomy and the available approaches to effectively and efficiently conduct the surgical procedure to maximize outcomes and minimize complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pelvic anatomy relative to lumbosacral instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Miller, F; Moseley, C; Koreska, J

    1990-06-01

    Anatomical study of 72 pelves revealed that the most substantial area of bone that could best support a rod for surgical fixation is the body of the ilium, with the best part of the bone being the area above the sciatic notch. Placement of the rods into the body of the ilium provides good fixation but requires complex bending of the rods and a good three-dimensional perception of the osseous anatomy of the pelvis. This study was undertaken to define the intraosseous anatomy and the range of anatomical variation of the ilium. The results of this study are useful in developing a prebent spinal fixation rod, providing a better understanding of this anatomical area from a three-dimensional perspective and providing better lumbosacral spinal instrumentation.

  6. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  7. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Otitis: anatomy every practitioner should know.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Craig

    2009-11-01

    Chronic otitis externa is a difficult, frustrating problem. Four etiologic components must be considered: primary and secondary causes and perpetuating and predisposing factors.1 Usually, these cases are complex and involve more than one component. Perpetuating factors are changes in the anatomy and physiology of the ear that occur in response to inflammation in the ear canal and the perpetuating factors already present. They are self-perpetuating, are not disease specific, and include failure of self-cleaning mechanisms and proliferative changes that create folds and stenosis of the lumen of the ear canal. Elimination of perpetuating factors often requires aggressive cleaning of the ear and long-term therapy. It is important to avoid damaging key structures while aggressively cleaning the ear. Therefore, to adequately diagnose and manage perpetuating factors, veterinarians must recognize normal ear anatomy and physiology.

  9. Microsurgical anatomy of the trigeminal nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Mizokami, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review surgical anatomy of the trigeminal nerve. We also demonstrate some pictures involving the trigeminal nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures. Ten adult cadaveric heads were studied, using a magnification ranging from 3× to 40×, after perfusion of the arteries and veins with colored latex. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the cranial nerves. It serves as a major conduit of sensory input from the face and provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. Because of its size and complexity, it is essential to have thorough knowledge of the nerve before diagnoses and treatment of the pathologic processes in the orofacial, temporomandibular, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine areas. The trigeminal nerve is encountered with imaging or surgery of the skull base surgery. Thus, a comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the trigeminal nerve is crucial for performing the surgical procedures without significant complication.

  10. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  11. The transcaruncular approach: surgical anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Robert A; Mancini, Ronald; Demer, Joseph L

    2007-01-01

    With a detailed understanding of the pertinent surgical anatomy, the transcaruncular approach provides safe access and excellent exposure of the medial orbit and orbital apex. We herein describe our technique of the transcaruncular approach and delineate the pertinent associated surgical anatomy via dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic examination. The isolated transcaruncular approach provides exposure of the medial orbital floor from the region of the maxilloethmoidal strut to the orbital roof area superior to the frontoethmoidal suture. When combined with an inferior fornix incision, the transcaruncular approach allows for continuous exposure from the frontozygomatic suture laterally to the frontoethmoidal suture medially. Attention to anatomical details promotes creation of an effective and safe caruncular incision. The conjunctival incision should be ample. The orbital septum should be carefully dissected from the posterior surface of the Horner muscle to minimize fat spillage, and the periosteum should be opened widely at the beginning of surgery.

  12. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology.

  13. Structure and Anatomy of the Human Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E Rene; Tan, Carmela D

    The normal gross anatomy and light microscopy of the human pericardium are presented in detail that allows easy correlation with current cardiac imaging modalities. The anatomical structures of the parietal pericardium are shown from its mediastinal surface, including its ligaments to the sternum, diaphragm and vertebral column. The attachments of the parietal pericardium to the great vessels showing the intrapericardial location of the root of the aorta and pulmonary artery are documented. Also the attachments of the parietal pericardium to the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins are illustrated in detail. The internal anatomy of the parietal pericardium emphasizing the oblique and transverse sinuses is explained. The microscopic differences between the structures of the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium (epicardium) are shown as the basis that allows understanding the spectrum of adaptation of the pericardium to diverse pathologic processes. However, the pathology of the pericardium is not discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-10-01

    The trochlear nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest intracranial course, but also the thinnest. It is the only nerve that arises from the dorsal surface of the brainstem and decussates in the superior medullary velum. After leaving the dorsal surface of the brainstem, it courses anterolaterally around the lateral surface of the brainstem and then passes anteriorly just beneath the free edge of the tentorium. It passes forward to enter the cavernous sinus, traverses the superior orbital fissure and terminates in the superior oblique muscle in the orbit. Because of its small diameter and its long course, the trochlear nerve can easily be injured during surgical procedures. Therefore, precise knowledge of its surgical anatomy and its neurovascular relationships is essential for approaching and removing complex lesions of the orbit and the middle and posterior fossae safely. This review describes the microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve and is illustrated with pictures involving the nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures.

  15. The emerging discipline of Computational Functional Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Qiu, Anqi

    2010-01-01

    Computational Functional Anatomy (CFA) is the study of functional and physiological response variables in anatomical coordinates. For this we focus on two things: (i) the construction of bijections (via diffeomorphisms) between the coordinatized manifolds of human anatomy, and (ii) the transfer (group action and parallel transport) of functional information into anatomical atlases via these bijections. We review advances in the unification of the bijective comparison of anatomical submanifolds via point-sets including points, curves and surface triangulations as well as dense imagery. We examine the transfer via these bijections of functional response variables into anatomical coordinates via group action on scalars and matrices in DTI as well as parallel transport of metric information across multiple templates which preserves the inner product. PMID:19103297

  16. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anatomy and ethics: an exploration of some ethical dimensions of contemporary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G

    1998-01-01

    Anatomy and ethics have traditionally been viewed as inhabiting different conceptual worlds on the assumption that the practice of anatomy is ethically neutral. This assumption is challenged by critiquing the nature of anatomy and by demonstrating that ethical issues pervade anatomical study. This should come as no surprise since anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and it is the human body and human tissues that are central to bioethical questions concerning human life in both health and disease, at its beginning and end and in research and clinical practice. Furthermore, many issues of interest to anatomists, such as the mechanisms of organ and fetal tissue transplantation, the neurological bases of aging and dementia, and definitions of brain death, are best tackled by venturing into questions usually dealt with in a clinical context. By the same token, a number of clinical issues can be approached helpfully from starting points provided by anatomy, although they too have ethical dimensions. To illustrate the close interrelationship between anatomical and ethical issues, two topic areas are discussed: research on archeological human remains and the notion of the pre-embryo.

  18. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups.

  19. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    PubMed

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  1. Normal anatomy and biomechanics of the knee.

    PubMed

    Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.

  2. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  3. Coronary artery anatomy of the goat.

    PubMed

    Lipovetsky, G; Fenoglio, J J; Gieger, M; Srinivasan, M R; Dobelle, W H

    1983-05-01

    The coronary arteries of the goat heart were studied using angiographic techniques and molds of the coronary vessel trees. Blood supplies to the left and right ventricles, interventricular septum, atrioventricular node, and apex of the caprine heart were studied. The goat possesses a left dominant pattern of coronary supply with relatively uniform coronary anatomy and may provide a good large animal model for testing cardiovascular assist devices.

  4. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  6. Arthroscopy in cattle: technique and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Arthroscopy has all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in cattle. Specialized equipment and knowledge of normal joint anatomy of cattle are mandatory for successful arthroscopy. The surgical technique is different in cattle compared with the horse. Thick skin and joint capsules complicate movement of the arthroscope within the joints. In cattle, septic arthritis and osteochondrosis are the most frequent disorders suitable for arthroscopic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.

  8. Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one’s knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

  9. Evolution in the concept of erection anatomy.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ayman; Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Droupy, Stéphane; Benoît, Gérard

    2011-05-01

    To review and to summarize the literature on anatomy and physiology of erection in the past three decades, especially the work done in our institution. A search of the PubMed database was performed using keywords erection, anatomy and erectile dysfunction (ED). Relevant articles were reviewed, analyzed and summarized. Penile vascularisation and innervation vary substantially. Internal pudendal artery is the major source of penile blood supply, but a supralevator accessory pudendal artery that may originate from inferior vesical or obturator or external iliac arteries is not uncommon. Section of this artery during radical prostatectomy (RP) may adversely affect postoperative potency. Anastomoses between the supra and the infralevator arterial pathways are frequent. The cavernous nerves (CNs) contain parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers and these nerves lie within leaves of the lateral endopelvic fascia. Anastomoses between the CNs and the dorsal nerve of the penis are common. Nitric oxide released from noradrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission of the CN and from the endothelium is the principal neurotransmitter-mediating penile erection. Interactions between pro-erectile and anti-erectile neurotransmitters are not completely defined. Finally, medial preoptic area and paraventricular nucleus are the key structures in the central control of sexual function and penile erection. The surgical and functional anatomy of erection is complex. Precise knowledge of penile vascularisation and innervation facilitates treatment of ED especially after RP.

  10. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  11. Robert Knox and the anatomy of beauty.

    PubMed

    Neher, Allister

    2011-06-01

    Robert Knox (1791-1862) is typically remembered as the Edinburgh anatomist to whom the murderers Burke and Hare sold the bodies of their victims. This association brought Knox infamy and damaged his life and career. Before the Burke and Hare scandal, Knox was one of the most famous, original and influential anatomists in Britain. He was also something of a dandy with a sophisticated appreciation of the visual arts. His most significant writings on artistic subjects were his books A Manual of Artistic Anatomy and Great Artists and Great Anatomists: A Biographical and Philosophical Study. Knox's interesting and independently minded opinions on the central artistic questions of his day were taken seriously by his contemporaries. His demotion in the official history of anatomy following his involvement with Burke and Hare, however, also removed him from the history of art theory in 19th century Britain. Knox was such a magnetic and impressive figure, though, that he has to be brought back to his era and his era is not complete without him. This paper discusses how Knox's writings on anatomy and biology shaped his contributions to art theory. It is a first step towards returning Knox, the art theorist, to the cultural life of 19th century Britain.

  12. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group’s anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process. Database URL: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hao/2012-07-18/arthropod-mappings.obo PMID:23303300

  13. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  14. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    PubMed

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X(2)  = 415.67, P < 0.001, ChiSq/df = 1.63, RMSEA = 0.045, GFI = 0.905, CFI = 0.937, NFI = 0.854, TLI = 0.926). Hence, AEEMI was proven to have good psychometric properties, and thus could be used to measure the anatomy education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Online learning resources in anatomy: What do students think?

    PubMed

    Johnson, I P; Palmer, E; Burton, J; Brockhouse, M

    2013-07-01

    An interventional cohort comparison study with pretesting and post-testing in semesters 1 and 2 was undertaken of 159 medical students in year 3 of the MMBS course at the University of Adelaide in 2010. The intervention comprised the provision of a number of additional online resources in semester 2. Students' views on online anatomy were also sought by a questionnaire delivered at the end of semesters 1 and 2 and via a small focus group at the end of the study. Anatomy assessment results after the introduction of online anatomy were compared with a total of three control semesters in 2009 and 2010. There was >90% broad agreement before the intervention that wet specimens, tutors and discussions with other students helped students learn anatomy. After the intervention, these views remained, but there was additionally >90% broad agreement that text books helped them learn anatomy, that they had good access to anatomical specimens, and there was less agreement that lectures helped. The intervention left students' views on online anatomy largely unchanged and made no significant difference to summative assessment scores. Focus group discussions revealed that students want anatomy tutors to help direct them to reputable and relevant sites. The provision of more online resources in anatomy did not affect student views or learning outcomes. While students may need help from tutors in selecting appropriate online resources, wet specimens, textbooks, and discussions with tutors and other students remain the preferred means of learning anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Veronica; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education. Doctors without anatomy are like moles.They work in the dark and the work of their hands are mounds. Friedrich TiedemannThe foundation of the study of the art of operating must be laid in the dissecting room. Robert Liston PMID:24367240

  18. Anatomy in occupational therapy program curriculum: practitioners' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition to demographics, the survey asked questions on the value of a standalone anatomy course, integration of anatomical content in other coursework, practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge, course content, teaching media recommendations, and their opinions regarding whether graduates have adequate anatomy knowledge for competent practice. Surveys were distributed to OT practitioners in the state of Arizona (n = 107). Response rate was 51% on electronic surveys, 29% on mailed surveys. All respondents recommended an anatomy course in OT curricula; 97% as a standalone course with integration of course content throughout the curriculum. The most recommended teaching method was cadaver dissection. Content areas identified as important to cover included skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Regions recommended were the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included joint range of motion and strengthening treatment interventions, goniometry, muscle strength testing, assessing muscle tone, wheelchair assessment/prescription, orthotics, physical agent modalities, and activity adaptation. Eighty-one percent felt that entry-level practitioners had adequate knowledge for competent practice. This study supports inclusion of a separate anatomy course in OT curricula, continued use of cadavers, and the importance of including input from practicing clinicians when determining anatomy course content.

  19. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  20. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, G.; Mintz, M.C.; Crelin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations.

  1. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  2. The zebrafish anatomy and stage ontologies: representing the anatomy and development of Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Zebrafish Anatomy Ontology (ZFA) is an OBO Foundry ontology that is used in conjunction with the Zebrafish Stage Ontology (ZFS) to describe the gross and cellular anatomy and development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, from single cell zygote to adult. The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) uses the ZFA and ZFS to annotate phenotype and gene expression data from the primary literature and from contributed data sets. Results The ZFA models anatomy and development with a subclass hierarchy, a partonomy, and a developmental hierarchy and with relationships to the ZFS that define the stages during which each anatomical entity exists. The ZFA and ZFS are developed utilizing OBO Foundry principles to ensure orthogonality, accessibility, and interoperability. The ZFA has 2860 classes representing a diversity of anatomical structures from different anatomical systems and from different stages of development. Conclusions The ZFA describes zebrafish anatomy and development semantically for the purposes of annotating gene expression and anatomical phenotypes. The ontology and the data have been used by other resources to perform cross-species queries of gene expression and phenotype data, providing insights into genetic relationships, morphological evolution, and models of human disease. PMID:24568621

  3. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darda, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  4. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  5. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made…

  6. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  7. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darda, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  8. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made…

  9. Interactive Pelvic Anatomy Model: A Tool for Teaching Basic Pelvic Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Advolodkina, Polina; Chahine, E Britton

    2017-10-01

    A knowledge deficit of pelvic anatomy has been noted in obstetrics and gynecology residents. In this article, we introduce an innovative anatomic model that uses readily accessible and reusable materials to simulate and teach anatomic relationships in the female pelvis. Our anatomic model is a reusable and cost-effective modification of an existing pelvic model. We used felt fabric pieces with hook-and-loop fasteners to simulate the pelvic floor, perineum, and surrounding musculature as they attach to corresponding sites on a standard bony pelvis. Our design incorporates the relationship of the ureter and major blood vessels in the pelvis by using yarn and ribbon. By allowing the student to build the anatomy of the pelvis piece by piece, the model provides the student a hands-on illustration of anatomic relationships in three dimensions. At our institution, both learners and faculty have positively evaluated our model. We have used it to teach residents and fourth-year medical students surgically relevant anatomy. It is currently being evaluated as an addition to standard anatomy lectures in medical student clerkships. Our model introduces an innovative design that uses inexpensive and reusable materials. Residents, faculty, and student learners at our institution have positively received the model.

  10. The integrated anatomy practical paper: A robust assessment method for anatomy education today.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire F; McManus, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Assessing anatomy in a way that tests higher cognitive domains and clinical application is not always straightforward. The old "spotter" examination has been criticized for only testing low level "identify" knowledge, whereas other assessment modalities such as multiple choice questions do not reflect the three dimensional and application nature of clinical anatomy. Medical curricula are frequently integrated and subject specific examinations do not reflect the case based, spiral, integrative nature of the curricula. The integrated anatomy practical paper (IAPP) is a hybrid of the old "spotter" and an objective structured clinical examination but it demonstrates how higher levels of taxonomy can be assessed, together with clinical features and integrates well with other disciplines. Importantly, the IAPP has shown to be reliable and practical to administer. Data gathered from the Bachelor of Medicine five-year program over two academic years for four IAPP examinations, each being 40 minutes with (K = 60 items) based on 440 students revealed consistently strong reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of up to 0.923. Applying Blooms taxonomy to questions has shown a marked shift resulting in an increase in the complexity level being tested; between 2009 and 2013 a reduction of 26% in the number of low level "remember knowledge" domain questions was noted with up to an increase of 15% in "understanding" domain and 12% increase in the "applying" knowledge domain. Our findings highlight that it is possible to test, based in a laboratory, anatomy knowledge and application that is integrated and fit for practice.

  11. An ontology of human developmental anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Amy; Kaufman, Matthew H; McKay, Angus; Baldock, Richard; Simmen, Martin W; Bard, Jonathan B L

    2003-01-01

    Human developmental anatomy has been organized as structured lists of the major constituent tissues present during each of Carnegie stages 1–20 (E1–E50, ∼8500 anatomically defined tissue items). For each of these stages, the tissues have been organized as a hierarchy in which an individual tissue is catalogued as part of a larger tissue. Such a formal representation of knowledge is known as an ontology and this anatomical ontology can be used in databases to store, organize and search for data associated with the tissues present at each developmental stage. The anatomical data for compiling these hierarchies comes from the literature, from observations on embryos in the Patten Collection (Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and from comparisons with mouse tissues at similar stages of development. The ontology is available in three versions. The first gives hierarchies of the named tissues present at each Carnegie stage (http://www.ana.ed.ac.uk/anatomy/database/humat/) and is intended to help analyse both normal and abnormal human embryos; it carries hyperlinked notes on some ambiguities in the literature that have been clarified through analysing sectioned material. The second contains many additional subsidiary tissue domains and is intended for handling tissue-associated data (e.g. gene-expression) in a database. This version is available at the humat site and at http://genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Resources/intro.html/), and has been designed to be interoperable with the ontology for mouse developmental anatomy, also available at the genex site. The third gives the second version in GO ontology syntax (with standard IDs for each tissue) and can be downloaded from both the genex and the Open Biological Ontology sites (http://obo.sourceforge.net/) PMID:14620375

  12. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  13. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal.

  15. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

  16. Anatomy and physiology of the senses.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the sensory systems of the body. Sensory organs may be categorised as general or special. Sensory systems enabling sight, hearing, smell and taste may be classified as special. Sensory systems enabling proprioception, touch, and thermal and pain perception may be classified as general. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of the sensory systems, examining structures associated with vision and hearing, equilibrium and sensation. Common disorders of vision and hearing are also considered, including glaucoma, cataract, age-related hearing impairment and conductive hearing impairment.

  17. Anatomy and physiology of the perionychium.

    PubMed

    Zook, Elvin G

    2002-11-01

    Only primates have a perionychium on the dorsal distal portion of each finger and each toe. The flat nail on the end of the human finger allows for increased sensory perception in the pad of the finger and for efficient and accurate picking up of small objects. It also serves as a guard to protect the very sensate fingertip, and functions as a temperature regulator. Nail loss or deformity can be not only an aesthetic but also a functional problem. This article details the anatomy and physiology of the perionychium, knowledge that is essential to providing optimum care for these specialized structures.

  18. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  19. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  20. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  1. Perceptions of Anatomy: Critical Components in the Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Leong, Shou Ling; Kauffman, Gordon L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in undergraduate medical school curricula has significantly impacted anatomy education. This study investigated the perceived role of clinical anatomy and evaluated perceptions of medical students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to enhance anatomical educational…

  2. Perceptions of Anatomy: Critical Components in the Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Leong, Shou Ling; Kauffman, Gordon L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in undergraduate medical school curricula has significantly impacted anatomy education. This study investigated the perceived role of clinical anatomy and evaluated perceptions of medical students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to enhance anatomical educational…

  3. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  4. The Use of Creative Projects in a Gross Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent; Mourra, Sarah; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung; Leonard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students often describe the gross anatomy course as both stressful and a rite of passage. Research differs as to whether the stress it engenders is significant or transitory. This qualitative study of first year anatomy student reports on the use of optional creative projects to promote reflection and reduce stress. Methods:…

  5. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures.

  6. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  7. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes discussions…

  8. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  9. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  10. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  11. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  12. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  13. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  14. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  15. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  16. Student-Directed Fresh Tissue Anatomy Course for Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers in all areas and levels of education depend on their knowledge of anatomy for daily practice. As educators, we are challenged with teaching the anatomical sciences in creative, integrated ways and often within a condensed time frame. This article describes the organization of a clinical anatomy course with a peer taught…

  17. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  18. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  19. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational…

  1. A Minimally Invasive Approach to Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Madani, Hardi; Paraskeva, Paraskevas A.; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the cornerstones of medical education. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence has accumulated to suggest a worldwide decline in the resources and time allocated to its teaching. Integration of anatomy with clinical medicine has been frequently advocated as the solution to this academic crisis. Consequently, new ways of harnessing…

  2. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  3. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  4. A Minimally Invasive Approach to Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Madani, Hardi; Paraskeva, Paraskevas A.; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the cornerstones of medical education. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence has accumulated to suggest a worldwide decline in the resources and time allocated to its teaching. Integration of anatomy with clinical medicine has been frequently advocated as the solution to this academic crisis. Consequently, new ways of harnessing…

  5. Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational…

  6. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  7. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  8. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  9. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  10. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  11. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  12. Student-Directed Fresh Tissue Anatomy Course for Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers in all areas and levels of education depend on their knowledge of anatomy for daily practice. As educators, we are challenged with teaching the anatomical sciences in creative, integrated ways and often within a condensed time frame. This article describes the organization of a clinical anatomy course with a peer taught…

  13. Anatomy "Steeplechase" Online: Necessity Sometimes Is the Catalyst for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz…

  14. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  15. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and learn a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes…

  16. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  17. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  18. Surgical exposure and anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Charles S; Gehrich, Alan; Bakaya, Sonal

    2008-04-01

    Female pelvic anatomy encompasses the reproductive, urologic, and gastrointestinal systems. Knowledge of the inherent relations between these organ systems, as well as the ability to develop pelvic spaces, will enable the surgeon to approach pelvic pathology confidently. This article highlights basic anatomy of the female pelvis and emphasizes points of caution during pelvic surgery, as well as reviews the essential principles of pelvic support.

  19. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  20. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  1. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  2. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  3. Anatomy "Steeplechase" Online: Necessity Sometimes Is the Catalyst for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz…

  4. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  5. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  6. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  7. Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S; Mercer, S; Bogduk, N

    2008-02-01

    Various actions on the lumbar spine have been attributed to quadratus lumborum, but they have not been substantiated by quantitative data. The present study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of forces and moments that quadratus lumborum could exert on the lumbar spine. The fascicular anatomy of quadratus lumborum was studied in six embalmed cadavers. For each fascicle, the sites of attachment, orientation, and physiological cross-sectional area were determined. The fascicular anatomy varied considerably, between sides and between specimens, with respect to the number of fascicles, their prevalence, and their sizes. Approximately half of the fascicles act on the twelfth rib, and the rest act on the lumbar spine. The more consistently present fascicles were incorporated, as force-equivalents, into a model of quadratus lumborum in order to determine its possible actions. The magnitudes of the compression forces exerted by quadratus lumborum on the lumbar spine, the extensor moment, and the lateral bending moment, were each no greater than 10 per cent of those exerted by erector spinae and multifidus. These data indicate that quadratus lumborum has no more than a modest action on the lumbar spine, in quantitative terms. Its actual role in spinal biomechanics has still to be determined.

  8. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  9. Obscuring surface anatomy in volumetric imaging data.

    PubMed

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Marcus, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The identifying or sensitive anatomical features in MR and CT images used in research raise patient privacy concerns when such data are shared. In order to protect human subject privacy, we developed a method of anatomical surface modification and investigated the effects of such modification on image statistics and common neuroimaging processing tools. Common approaches to obscuring facial features typically remove large portions of the voxels. The approach described here focuses on blurring the anatomical surface instead, to avoid impinging on areas of interest and hard edges that can confuse processing tools. The algorithm proceeds by extracting a thin boundary layer containing surface anatomy from a region of interest. This layer is then "stretched" and "flattened" to fit into a thin "box" volume. After smoothing along a plane roughly parallel to anatomy surface, this volume is transformed back onto the boundary layer of the original data. The above method, named normalized anterior filtering, was coded in MATLAB and applied on a number of high resolution MR and CT scans. To test its effect on automated tools, we compared the output of selected common skull stripping and MR gain field correction methods used on unmodified and obscured data. With this paper, we hope to improve the understanding of the effect of surface deformation approaches on the quality of de-identified data and to provide a useful de-identification tool for MR and CT acquisitions.

  10. The anatomy of the vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Highstein, Stephen M; Holstein, Gay R

    2006-01-01

    The vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve informs the brain about the linear and angular movements of the head in space and the position of the head with respect to gravity. The termination sites of these eighth nerve afferents define the territory of the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. (There is also a subset of afferents that project directly to the cerebellum.) This chapter reviews the anatomical organization of the vestibular nuclei, and the anatomy of the pathways from the nuclei to various target areas in the brain. The cytoarchitectonics of the vestibular brainstem are discussed, since these features have been used to distinguish the individual nuclei. The neurochemical phenotype of vestibular neurons and pathways are also summarized because the chemical anatomy of the system contributes to its signal-processing capabilities. Similarly, the morphologic features of short-axon local circuit neurons and long-axon cells with extrinsic projections are described in detail, since these structural attributes of the neurons are critical to their functional potential. Finally, the composition and hodology of the afferent and efferent pathways of the vestibular nuclei are discussed. In sum, this chapter reviews the morphology, chemoanatomy, connectivity, and synaptology of the vestibular nuclei.

  11. The anatomy of the extrathoracic intercostobrachial nerve.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, M G; Tang, T S; Allison, S I; Wood, W

    1999-12-01

    In the past decade surgeons have become increasingly aware of the morbidity caused by the division of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) during axillary dissection. To prevent this problem and also to explain its variable occurrence, a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the nerve is required. Twenty-eight axillary dissections were performed demonstrating the anatomy of the ICBN. In all dissections the nerve originated from the second intercostal space, with contributions from the first and third intercostal nerve each on one occasion. The posterior axillary branch was constant but may branch early, simulating a second nerve. The ICBN had a variable relationship to the lateral thoracic vein: anterior, posterior or wrapping around it. In 36% there was a connection to the medial cord of the brachial plexus in the axilla. In the upper arm the nerve lies in the subcutaneous fat; in the majority it supplied at least the proximal half of the arm, and in one-third it reached the level of the elbow joint. In 18% there was a connection to the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm. The ICBN and its main branch (the posterior axillary nerve) were constant in all dissections. But its origin, size, connection to the brachial plexus and medial cutaneous nerve of the arm were variable, as was its ultimate destination in the arm.

  12. Hemispheric asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojian; Herron, Timothy J; Ettlinger, Marc; Woods, David L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have reported many hemispherical asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy, but only a subset of findings is consistent across studies. Here, we used improved Freesurfer-based automated methods to analyse the properties of the cortex and seven subcortical structures in 138 young adult subjects. Male and female subjects showed similar hemispheric asymmetries in gyral and sulcal structures, with many areas associated with language processing enlarged in the left hemisphere (LH) and a number of areas associated with visuospatial processing enlarged in the right hemisphere (RH). In addition, we found greater (non-directional) cortical asymmetries in subjects with larger brains. Asymmetries in subcortical structures included larger LH volumes of thalamus, putamen and globus pallidus and larger RH volumes of the cerebellum and the amygdala. We also found significant correlations between the subcortical structural volumes, particularly of the thalamus and cerebellum, with cortical area. These results help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in previous studies of hemispheric asymmetries in brain anatomy.

  13. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Animating functional anatomy for the web.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    2000-04-15

    The instructor sometimes has a complex task in explaining the concepts of functional anatomy and embryology to health professional students. However, animations can easily illustrate functional anatomy, clinical procedures, or the developing embryo. Web animation increases the accessibility of this information and makes it much more useful for independent student learning. A modified version of the animation can also be used for patient education. This article defines animation, provides a brief history of animation, discusses the principles of animation, illustrates and evaluates some of the video-editing or movie-making computer software programs, and shows examples of two of the author's animations. These two animations are the inferior alveolar nerve block from the mandibular nerve anesthetics unit and normal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function from the muscles of the mastication and the TMJ function unit. The software discussed are the industry leaders and have made the job of producing computer-based animations much easier. The programs are Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Apple QuickTime and Macromedia Flash .

  15. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. Results: We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. Availability: http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology Contact: rh497@cam.ac.uk PMID:20971987

  16. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    PubMed

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  17. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  18. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  19. Clinical relevance of distal biceps insertional and footprint anatomy.

    PubMed

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Kodde, Izaäk F; Aster, Asir; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review was to present an overview, based on a literature search, of surgical anatomy for distal biceps tendon repairs, based on the current literature. A narrative review was performed using Pubmed/Medline using key words: Search terms were distal biceps, insertional, and anatomy. Last decade, the interest in both reconstruction techniques, as well as surgical anatomy of the distal biceps tendon, has increased. The insights into various aspects of distal biceps tendon anatomy (two tendons, bicipital tuberosity, lacertus fibrosis, bicipital-radial bursa, posterior interosseous nerve, and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve) have evolved significantly in the last years. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the surgeon in order to understand the biomechanics of rupture and reconstruction of the distal biceps tendon and to avoid injuries of the nerves. Some tips and tricks are provided, and some pitfalls were described to avoid complications and optimize surgical outcome. IV.

  20. Snapshot of anatomy teaching in physician assistant education.

    PubMed

    Hegmann, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Cadaver dissection has been a defining part of the culture of medical education for centuries. Currently there is an active debate regarding the advantages of dissection versus other forms of teaching anatomy. De-identified data from the 2010 Curriculum Survey were obtained from the Physician Assistant Education Association, with 82 PA programs responding to anatomy curriculum questions. SPSS 21 was used for descriptive statistics, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney tests. Programs reported a mean of 102.4 and median of 91 contact hours in anatomy (range 4-270). The "average" PA program anatomy course used 57.4% lecture, 4.6% simulation, 25.9% dissection, and 12.1% prosection. Private programs had significantly fewer total and lab contact-hours than public programs. Teaching anatomy through cadaver dissection poses many challenges for health professions educators. Based on the results presented, PA programs are addressing this challenge in a variety of ways in their curricula.

  1. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    PubMed Central

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  2. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  3. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  4. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  5. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  6. Anatomy: a must for teaching the next generation.

    PubMed

    Older, J

    2004-04-01

    Teaching anatomy to both undergraduate medical students and medical graduates is in the midst of a downward spiral. The traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught by didactic lectures and complete dissection of the body with personal tuition, has been replaced by a multiple range of special study modules, problem-based workshops, computers, plastic models and many other teaching tools. In some centres, dissected cadaver-based anatomy is no longer taught. Changing the undergraduate medical curriculum in the UK has taken place without any research into the key aspects of knowledge necessary or comparing methods of teaching. There is no agreement on a common national core curriculum and as a result, numerous new curricula have been introduced. No external audit or validation is carried out, so medical schools have been free to teach and assess their own work themselves. There is a great divergence in medical schools across the UK and Ireland in teaching medicine in general and anatomy in particular. Published data on the impact of these changes is scant. The reduction in undergraduate teaching and knowledge of anatomy has caused great concern, not only for undergraduates but also to postgraduate students, especially in surgery. This, together with a change in basic surgical training, a marked reduction in demonstrator posts and a change in examination standards, has set up a system that is allowing young men and women with a poor knowledge of anatomy to become surgeons. There should be a full public debate at every level; the Royal Colleges, specialist associations, the Universities, Government, both health and education. This debate should highlight areas of concern, explore in depth and define a minimal core curriculum for anatomy. Teaching must be enhanced with a critical look at both teachers and methods. The dominance of research must be reassessed to establish an equitable cohabitation with teaching. The place of basic science

  7. Arterial anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Manske, Mary Claire; McKeon, Kathleen E; Johnson, Jeffrey E; McCormick, Jeremy J; Klein, Sandra E

    2015-04-01

    Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction is a common disorder leading to pain, deformity, and disability, although its pathogenesis is unclear. A vascular etiology has been proposed, but there is controversy regarding the existence of a hypovascular region that may render the tendon vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the arterial anatomy supplying the tibialis posterior tendon. Sixty adult cadaveric lower extremities were obtained from a university-affiliated body donation program. Thirty specimens obtained within 72 hours of death were used for microscopic analysis. Thirty specimens were previously frozen and used for macroscopic analysis. The tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, and peroneal arteries were injected with India Ink and Ward's Blue Latex. The specimens used for macroscopic analysis were debrided with sodium hypochlorite to expose the extratendinous anatomy. For the microscopic analysis, the tendon was cleared using a modified Spälteholz technique to expose the intratendinous vascular anatomy. Macroscopically, an average of 2.5 ± 0.7 vessels entered the tendon proximal to the navicular insertion. In all, 28/30 (93.3%) specimens had a vessel entering 4.1 ± 0.6 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and 24/30 (80.0%) specimens had a vessel entering 1.7 ± 0.9 cm distal to the medial malleolus. Microscopically, an average of 1.9 ± 0.3 vessels entered each tendon proximal to the navicular insertion. In total, 27/30 (90%) specimens had a vessel entering the tendon 4.8 ± 0.8 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and 30/30 (100%) specimens had a vessel entering the tendon 1.9 ± 0.8 cm distal to the medial malleolus. In all specimens, a hypovascular region was observed, starting 2.2 ± 0.8 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and ending 0.6 ± 0.6 cm proximal to the medial malleolus with an average length of 1.5 ± 1.0 cm. The insertion of the tendon was well vascularized both on microscopic and macroscopic specimens. The

  8. Practical anatomy of the carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Rotman, Mitchell B; Donovan, James P

    2002-05-01

    The carpal tunnel is most narrow at the level of the hook of the hamate. The median nerve is the most superficial structure. It has specific relationships to surrounding structures within the carpal tunnel to the ulnar bursa, flexor tendons, and endoscopic devices placed inside the canal. The importance of the ring finger axis is stressed. Knowledge of topographical landmarks that mark the borders of the carpal tunnel, the hook of the hamate, superficial arch, and thenar branch of the median nerve ensure appropriate incision placement for endoscopic as well as open carpal tunnel release surgery. Anatomy of the transverse carpal ligament, its layers and relationships to adjacent structures including the fad pad, Guyon's canal, palmar fascia, and thenar muscles has been discussed. Fibers derived primarily from thenar muscle fascia with connections to the hypothenar muscle fascia and dorsal fascia of the palmaris brevis form a separate fascial layer directly palmar to the TCL and can be retained. This helps to preserve postoperative pinch strength. The fat pad in line with the ring finger axis overlaps the deep surface of the distal edge of the TCL and must be retracted in order to visualize the distal end of the ligament. Whereas the ulnar artery within Guyon's canal is frequently located radial to the hook of the hamate, injury to this structure has not been a problem during ECTR surgery. Variations of the median nerve and its branches, as well as the palmar cutaneous nerve distribution, have been reviewed. A rare ulnar-sided thenar branch from the median nerve, interconnecting branches between the ulnar and median nerves located just distal to the end of the TCL, and transverse ulnar-based cutaneous nerves can be injured during open or ECTR surgery. Anomalous muscles, tendons or interconnections, and the lumbricals during finger flexion may be seen within the carpal tunnel. These structures can be the cause of compression of the median nerve. The anatomy of the

  9. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  10. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course.

    PubMed

    Herling, Patrick J; Mohseni, B Tanya; Hill, Derek C; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Leo, Jonathan T; Langley, Natalie R

    2017-06-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school. No grade is assigned for the course, therefore participants can study without the fear of potentially affecting grades. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the LMU-DCOM ABC course using data from four consecutive summers. Independent two-sample t-tests were used to compare ABC to non-ABC students for the following variables: incoming grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, MGA written and laboratory practical examination grades, and final MGA course grade. Additionally, a 26-question survey was administered to 2012-2014 boot camp participants. There were no significant differences in incoming GPA and MCAT scores. However, boot campers scored significantly higher on the first two lecture and laboratory examinations (P < 0.05) for each year of the study. Thereafter scores varied less, suggesting a faster head start for boot camp participants. Mean MGA final grade was on average 3% higher for the boot camp cohort. The survey feedback supports that the ABC course assists with the academic and social transition into medical school. Anat Sci Educ 10: 215-223. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Anatomy of the Internal Iliac Vein: Implications for Uterine Transplant.

    PubMed

    Beran, Benjamin; Shockley, Marie; Arnolds, Katrin; Sprague, Michael L; Zimberg, Stephen; Tzakis, Andreas; Falcone, Tommaso

    2017-06-29

    Uterine transplantation has proven feasible since the first live birth reported in 2014. To enable attachment of the uterus in the recipient, long vascular pedicles of the uterine and internal iliac vessels were obtained during donor hysterectomy, which required a prolonged laparotomy to the living donors. To assist further attempts at uterine transplantation, our video serves to review literature reports of internal iliac vein anatomy and demonstrate a laparoscopic dissection of cadaver pelvic vascular anatomy. Observational (Canadian Task Force Classification III). Academic anatomic laboratory. Institutional Review Board ruled that approval was not required for this study. Literature review and laparoscopic dissection of cadaveric pelvic vasculature, focusing on the internal iliac vein. Although the internal iliac artery tends to have minimal anatomic variation, its counterpart, the internal iliac vein, shows much variation in published studies [1,2]. Relative to the internal iliac artery, the vein can lie medially or laterally. Normal anatomy is defined as some by meeting 2 criteria: bilateral common iliac vein formed by ipsilateral external and internal iliac vein at a low position and bilateral common iliac vein joining to form a right-sided inferior vena cava [2]. Reports show 79.1% of people have normal internal iliac vein anatomy by these criteria [2]. The cadaver dissection revealed internal iliac vein anatomy meeting criteria for normal anatomy. Understanding the complexity and variations of internal iliac vein anatomy can assist future trials of uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  13. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2016-10-12

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  15. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Cervical carotid and circle of willis arterial anatomy of macaque monkeys: a comparative anatomy study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Lee, John J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2009-07-01

    Macaque monkeys are used in many research applications, including cerebrovascular investigations. However, detailed catalogs of the relevant vascular anatomy are scarce. We present our experience with macaque vessel patterns as determined by digital subtraction angiography of 34 different monkeys. We retrospectively analyzed digital subtraction angiograms obtained during experimental internal carotid artery (ICA) catheterization and subsequent injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Results were catalogued according to vascular distribution and variants observed. Macaque monkeys have a bovine aortic arch. The carotid vessels generally bifurcate, but are occasionally observed to divide into three vessels. The external carotid gives rise primarily to two trunks: an occipital branch and a common vessel that subsequently gives off the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid arteries. The internal maxillary artery may be present as a terminal branch of the external carotid or as a branch of the occipital artery. The ICA is similar in course to that of the human. The anterior circle of Willis was intact in all monkeys in our study. Its primary difference from that of the human is the union of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries as a single (azygous) median vessel. Macaque cervical carotid and circle of Willis arterial anatomy differs from humans in a couple of specific patterns. Knowledge of these differences and similarities between human and macaque anatomy is important in developing endovascular macaque models of human diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  17. Observations by a university anatomy teacher and a suggestion for curricular change: integrative anatomy for undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Darda, David M

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most medical and dental schools, has resulted in many biology majors who have little or no exposure to the anatomical sciences. This is a disservice to our students who need to understand organismal form and function to better connect our rapidly expanding knowledge of life at the cell and molecular level to our understanding of the role of organisms in ecosystems and as the primary target of natural selection in evolutionary change. Undergraduate anatomical courses can also serve as an extension of the anatomy curriculum in professional healthcare programs, where anatomical sciences are also experiencing a reduced allocation of instructional time. Given the importance of anatomical knowledge along with the many demands and constraints on biology curricula, what can we do? One suggestion, a course in integrative anatomy for undergraduates, is proposed and discussed. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. An ontology for Xenopus anatomy and development

    PubMed Central

    Segerdell, Erik; Bowes, Jeff B; Pollet, Nicolas; Vize, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    Background The frogs Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis are model systems that have produced a wealth of genetic, genomic, and developmental information. Xenbase is a model organism database that provides centralized access to this information, including gene function data from high-throughput screens and the scientific literature. A controlled, structured vocabulary for Xenopus anatomy and development is essential for organizing these data. Results We have constructed a Xenopus anatomical ontology that represents the lineage of tissues and the timing of their development. We have classified many anatomical features in a common framework that has been adopted by several model organism database communities. The ontology is available for download at the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry . Conclusion The Xenopus Anatomical Ontology will be used to annotate Xenopus gene expression patterns and mutant and morphant phenotypes. Its robust developmental map will enable powerful database searches and data analyses. We encourage community recommendations for updates and improvements to the ontology. PMID:18817563

  19. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint (I).

    PubMed

    Sava, Anca; Scutariu, Mihaela Monica

    2012-01-01

    Jaw movement is analyzed as the action between two rigid components jointed together in a particular way, the movable mandible against the stabilized cranium. Jaw articulation distinguishes form most other synovial joints of the body by the coincidence of certain characteristic features. Its articular surfaces are not covered by hyaline cartilage as elsewhere. The two jointed components carry teeth the shape, position and occlusion of which having a unique influence on specific positions and movements within the joint. A fibrocartilaginous disc is interposed between upper and lower articular surfaces; this disc compensates for the incongruities in opposing parts and allows sliding, pivoting, and rotating movements between the bony components. These are the reasons for our review of the functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint.

  1. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  2. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration.

    PubMed

    Toma, Naoki

    2016-10-15

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures.

  3. The functional anatomy of the cricothyroid joint.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Gunther; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Friedrich, Gerhard; Anderhuber, Friedrich

    2010-02-01

    Postoperative long-term treatment problems of male-to-female transsexuals can be caused by the underestimated mobility of the cricothyroid joint. One hundred cadaveric larynges were analysed to reveal the morphological and functional anatomy of the CTJ focusing on possible horizontal and vertical gliding movements. Furthermore, the distance of the cricothyroid space for rotational movements was measured. The articular surface of the cricothyroid joint showed three different possibilities: a well-defined facet (Type 1 61%), no definable facet (Type 2 22%) or a flat surface with or without a tiny protuberance (Type 3 17%). Side different statements and intraindividual differences between male and female specimens were included. These different types affect horizontal and vertical gliding movements, besides rotational movements. The mobility between Type 1 and the others was highly significant (P < 0.001). Regarding different motions in the cricothyroid joint, rotational movements caused significant elongation of the vocal folds, which should be taken into consideration for phonosurgical methods.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Le, Phuong; Natori, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2004-04-01

    We studied the surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) and its adjacent structures in cadaver heads. We paid special attention to the anatomical relationships between the ACP and adjacent structures to determine the surgical landmarks for safe anterior clinoidectomy. Thirty-five cadaver heads were dissected and the ACP regions were examined in 55 skull sides. We observed that in eight sides the ACP had been pneumatized from the sphenoid sinus. The caroticoclinoid foramen was revealed in only eight sides. The extra-ocular nerves ran forward to the superior orbital fissure at the inferolateral aspect of the ACP, with the oculomotor nerve being closest. The posterolateral area of the carotico-oculomotor membrane was thin and incomplete in nine sides. The study clarified the anatomical relationship between the ACP and its surrounding structures, and identified the major variations experienced. We used these to identify anatomical landmarks to assist the surgeon in the planning of a safe and effective anterior clinoidectomy.

  5. Guyon Canal: The Evolution of Clinical Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Maroukis, Brianna L.; Ogawa, Takeshi; Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The eponym “Guyon canal” refers to the ulnar tunnel at the wrist that was named after the French surgeon Jean Casimir Félix Guyon who first described this space in 1861. After Guyon’s discovery, clinicians have focused their interest on symptoms caused by compression of structures occupying this canal (later named ulnar tunnel syndrome, or Guyon syndrome). However disagreement and confusion persisted over the correct anatomical boundaries and terminology used to describe the ulnar tunnel. Through anatomical investigation and evolving clinical case studies, the current understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar tunnel was established. This article examines the evolution of the anatomical description of the ulnar tunnel and its relevant clinical associations, and casts light on the life and contributions of Jean Casimir Félix Guyon. PMID:25446410

  6. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Zollo, Fabiana; Del Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-03-21

    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages "like" each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns.

  7. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anatomy of an Elementary Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1998-09-01

    The alchemists of old sought the knowledge to transform one material to another-for example, base metals into gold-as a path to the elixir of life. As chemists have concerned themselves with the transformation from compound to compound, so they have become involved in trying to uncover the structures of molecules and the pathways that reactions follow. Classically, the study of reaction mechanisms in chemistry encompasses reaction kinetics, the study of velocities or rates of reactions, and reaction dynamics, the study of the nanoscopic motion and rearrangement of atoms during a reactive event. An essential aim of this article is to bring the reader to a favorable vantage point with a brief introduction to reactive dynamics, and from there to describe some examples of recent strategies that have been employed to promote a fundamental understanding of the anatomy of elementary chemical reactions. In the final section we ponder future directions for this rapidly evolving field of research.

  9. [Anatomy and pathophysiology of deglutition disorders].

    PubMed

    Rabischong, P

    1995-10-01

    In the nervous system there are many automatized functions that require multilevel control. Some of them are more important because of their link with some vital functions. Only two are crucial to survival: respiration and the pumping of the heart. Swallowing is integrated within the respiratory system, explaining the need for great reliability and justifying the complexity of the organization described. The progress of medical imaging techniques has created new conditions for practicing radiologists, who need to know much more anatomy than in the past. Therefore, it is easier to learn anatomical details if there details are understood as part of an intelligent construction. We hope to have been able to demonstrate that swallowing is one good example of the real competency of the constructor of this system.

  10. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1999-02-01

    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  11. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.L.; Kimbrough, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    A gross anatomy laboratory for medical students was evaluated for formaldehyde levels throughout its eight-week term. Results indicated that exposures for students and instructors were below the 3-ppm permissible exposure limit (assuming a maximum of five hours of daily exposure) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. However, about one third of the eight-hour time-weighted-average exposures were greater than 1 ppm under the same assumptions. Exposure levels for students and instructors did not differ. Exposures tended to decrease over the term unless internal cadaver cavities were being dissected. These exposures are significant in light of the recent implication of formaldehyde as an animal carcinogen and the trend to reduce permissible levels to 1 ppm or lower.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jamie L

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  13. Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail†

    PubMed Central

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae λ has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with λ with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with λ and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures. PMID:16707689

  14. Anatomy of a lactococcal phage tail.

    PubMed

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F M L; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Vogensen, Finn K; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-06-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae lambda has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with lambda with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with lambda and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures.

  15. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  16. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    PubMed

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance.

  17. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Del Vicario, Michela; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages “like” each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns. PMID:28265082

  18. Medical student perceptions of radiology use in anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Maher, Michael M; Cryan, John F; O'Connor, Owen J

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on students' abilities to correctly identify imaging modalities and anatomical structures on radiological images. First-year medical students completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the first academic year that incorporated ten hours of radiologic anatomy teaching in the anatomy curriculum. Questions used a combination of Likert scales, rankings, and binary options. Students were tested on their ability to identify radiology modalities and anatomical structures on radiology images. Preresponse and postresponse rates were 93% (157/168) and 85% (136/160), respectively. Postmodule, 96.3% of students wanted the same or more radiology integration. Furthermore, 92.4% premodule and 96.2% postmodule agreed that "Radiology is important in medical undergraduate teaching." Modality and structure identification scores significantly increased from 59.8% to 64.3% (P < 0.001) and from 47.4% to 71.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. The top three preferred teaching formats premodule and postmodule were (1) anatomy laboratory instruction, (2) interactive sessions combining radiology with anatomy, and (3) anatomy lectures. Postmodule, 38.3% of students were comfortable reviewing radiology images. Students were positive about integrating radiology into anatomy teaching and most students wanted at least the same level of assimilation but that it is used as an adjunct rather than primary method of teaching anatomy.

  19. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  20. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  1. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Duque Orozco, M; Record, N C; Rogers, K J; Bober, M B; Mackenzie, W G; Atanda, A

    2017-06-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported.

  2. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    PubMed Central

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  3. Multiple-choice testing in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Nnodim, J O

    1992-07-01

    An analysis of 596 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) on human anatomy given at three First Professional Examinations for medical students is reported. The MCQ paper at each examination was 200 items long and consisted of three item-types: A, K and T/F. Each A-type item comprised a stem and five options, only one of the latter being the correct or best answer. Items of the K-type consisted of a stem and four responses, any number of which may be correct. The T/F items were of the three-response kind, the available options being 'true', 'false' and 'don't know'. Test reliability was computed by internal analysis, using the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula. Measures of concurrent validity were obtained by correlating the scores in the MCQ papers with the overall outcome of the First Professional Examination. Indices of item facility, discrimination and abstention were calculated. The effects of item-type and the availability of the 'don't know' option on examinee performance were also determined. Reliability (alpha) and concurrent validity (Pearson r) coefficients in the ranges of 0.71-0.85 and 0.80-0.93 (P less than 0.05) respectively were recorded. Regression analysis revealed the MCQ papers to be less sensitive predictors of the aggregate performance than the essay papers. The proportion of highly discriminatory and excessively difficult items was highest for the K-type. When the same K-type questions were re-exhibited in the indeterminate format, the examinees performed significantly better. Higher scores were also recorded when candidates were required to respond to all the questions than when they were offered the 'don't know' option and the percentage gain was higher for the low-scoring examinees. The appropriateness of multiple-choice testing as a tool for assessing student achievement in human anatomy is discussed.

  4. Climate drives vein anatomy in Proteaceae.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gregory J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Blackman, Christopher J; Weston, Peter H

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms by which plants tolerate water deficit are only just becoming clear. One key factor in drought tolerance is the ability to maintain the capacity to conduct water through the leaves in conditions of water stress. Recent work has shown that a simple feature of the leaf xylem cells, the cube of the thickness of cell walls divided by the lumen width (t/b)(3), is strongly correlated with this ability. Using ecologically, phylogenetically, and anatomically diverse members of Proteaceae, we tested the relationships between (t/b)(3) and climate, leaf mass per unit area, leaf area, and vein density. To test relationships at high phylogenetic levels (mostly genus), we used phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic single and multiple regressions based on data from 50 species. We also used 14 within-genus species pairs to test for relationships at lower phylogenetic levels. All analyses revealed that climate, especially mean annual precipitation, was the best predictor of (t/b)(3). The variation in (t/b)(3) was driven by variation in both lumen diameter and wall thickness, implying active control of these dimensions. Total vein density was weakly related to (t/b)(3) but unrelated to either leaf area or climate. We conclude that xylem reinforcement is a fundamental adaptation for water stress tolerance and, among evergreen woody plants, drives a strong association between rainfall and xylem anatomy. The strong association between (t/b)(3) and climate cannot be explained by autocorrelation with other aspects of leaf form and anatomy that vary along precipitation gradients.

  5. What is normal bladder neck anatomy?

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Ortiz, Cristina; Shek, Ka Lai; Martin, Andrew James; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2016-06-01

    Functional anatomy of the bladder neck and proximal urethra has been studied extensively because of the belief that it is important for urinary continence. The aim of this study was to explore the limits of normality for pelvic floor ultrasound parameters of bladder neck and urethral mobility associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). A retrospective study was conducted on 589 women seen for urodynamic testing in a tertiary urogynaecology clinic. All women were assessed following a protocol including interview, clinical examination, flowmetry, urodynamic testing and 4D pelvic floor ultrasound. Volume data sets were analysed offline to assess for bladder neck descent (BND), urethral rotation and the retrovesical angle (RVA) on maximal Valsalva. After excluding women with previous incontinence or prolapse surgery, 429 datasets were available. SI was significantly associated with the RVA (p = 0.033) and BND (p = 0.036); USI was associated with urethral rotation (p = 0.021) and BND (p < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounders including age, BMI, parity, previous hysterectomy and maximal urethral pressure, the association between SUI and BND remained significant (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.01 to 1.51; p = 0.043), as did the association between USI and BND (OR [per 10 mm] = 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.3 to 1.91; p < 0.001). ROC statistics for BND suggested a cut-off of 25 mm in describing the limit of normality. Measures of functional bladder neck anatomy are weakly associated with SUI and USI (with association between BND and USI being the strongest). It is suggested that a BND of 25 mm or higher be defined as abnormal ("hypermobile") on the basis of its association with USI.

  6. Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    V, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

  7. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    PubMed

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  9. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  10. Pediatric skull base surgery. 1. Embryology and developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David P; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the pediatric cranial base is uncommon, but in affected children, traditional operative techniques and management philosophies predominate. While the creation of multidisciplinary skull base teams synergistically pools the talents of individual specialties, a better understanding of the developmental anatomy of the cranial base becomes essential in order for such teams to safely implement these approaches in children. The extant neurosurgical literature lacks a comprehensive review of this anatomy. This report discusses the developmental anatomy and embryology of the cranial base within the context of specific surgical approaches. Detailed development of the calvaria, midface skeleton and orbit is excluded. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical anatomy of the bronchial tree and pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Eric; Deslauriers, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Sleeve lobectomy is an excellent procedure in the surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer located in proximal lobal bronchi. The surgeon undertaking these procedures has, however, the responsibility of understanding the particular anatomy applicable to the technique. Good knowledge of the topographic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and of its blood supply is necessary to reduce the operative morbidity, whereas that of the oncological anatomy of lung cancer forms the theoretical basis for the operation and improves the potential for better long-term results.

  13. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Rana A; Darling, Gail E

    2007-11-01

    A thorough knowledge of thoracic anatomy is of fundamental importance to the thoracic surgeon. Surface anatomy is an often-neglected component of traditional topographic anatomic teaching, but a proper understanding of the relationship of surface features to deeper structures is invaluable in the clinical assessment of a patient and in the interpretation of radiologic imaging. Familiarity with thoracic surgical landmarks is a prerequisite for the successful placing of a thoracic incision. Knowledge of the intrathoracic anatomy and level of the diaphragm based on surface landmarks is useful for interventional procedures, such as tube thoracostomy. Knowledge of the chest wall musculature is essential in the use of muscle flaps for reconstruction.

  14. Guidelines for standard photography in gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers are supposed to demonstrate the required information clearly. Thus, photographs should be taken with certain techniques in order to obtain high quality and standardization. Camera, lens, lighting, background, and certain photographic techniques are among the factors to achieve precise images. A set of suggested guidelines for accomplishing these standards are given for anatomists.

  15. Variant adrenal venous anatomy in 546 laparoscopic adrenalectomies.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Anouk; Cisco, Robin M; Vriens, Menno R; Shen, Wen T; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Knowing the types and frequency of adrenal vein variants would help surgeons identify and control the adrenal vein during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. To establish the surgical anatomy of the main vein and its variants for laparoscopic adrenalectomy and to analyze the relationship between variant adrenal venous anatomy and tumor size, pathologic diagnosis, and operative outcomes. In a retrospective review of patients at a tertiary referral hospital, 506 patients underwent 546 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies between April 22, 1993, and October 21, 2011. Patients with variant adrenal venous anatomy were compared with patients with normal adrenal venous anatomy regarding preoperative variables (patient and tumor characteristics [size and location] and clinical diagnosis), intraoperative variables (details on the main adrenal venous drainage, any variant venous anatomy, duration of operation, rate of conversion to hand-assisted or open procedure, and estimated blood loss), and postoperative variables (transfusion requirement, reoperation for bleeding, duration of hospital stay, and histologic diagnosis). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Prevalence of variant adrenal venous anatomy and its relationship to tumor characteristics, pathologic diagnosis, and operative outcomes. Variant venous anatomy was encountered in 70 of 546 adrenalectomies (13%). Variants included no main adrenal vein identifiable (n = 18), 1 main adrenal vein with additional small veins (n = 11), 2 adrenal veins (n = 20), more than 2 adrenal veins (n = 14), and variants of the adrenal vein drainage to the inferior vena cava and hepatic vein or of the inferior phrenic vein (n = 7). Variants occurred more often on the right side than on the left side (42 of 250 glands [17%] vs. 28 of 296 glands [9%], respectively; P = .02). Patients with variant anatomy compared with those with normal anatomy had larger tumors (mean, 5.1 vs 3.3 cm, respectively; P < .001), more pheochromocytomas (24 of 70 [35%] vs

  16. Retroperitoneal anatomy during excision of pelvic side wall endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Gingold, Julian A.; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Surgical management of endometriosis has been shown to improve dysmenorrhea at all disease stages and is recommended in severe disease for treatment of infertility. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) produces thick inflammatory tissue that precludes visualization of anatomical landmarks and distorts normal anatomy. Excision of DIE poses several technical and surgical challenges that mandate a clear understanding of the anatomy of the pelvic sidewall. This review details relevant surgical anatomy and addresses the principles of safe retroperitoneal entry, ureterolysis and excision of endometriotic lesions. Proper use of these techniques should facilitate safe and successful surgery for management of DIE. PMID:27642583

  17. Virtual reality anatomy: is it comparable with traditional methods in the teaching of human forearm musculoskeletal anatomy?

    PubMed

    Codd, Anthony M; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy was produced using the open source 3D imaging program "Blender." The aim was to evaluate the use of 3D virtual reality when compared with traditional anatomy teaching methods. Three groups were identified from the University of Manchester second year Human Anatomy Research Skills Module class: a "control" group (no prior knowledge of forearm anatomy), a "traditional methods" group (taught using dissection and textbooks), and a "model" group (taught solely using e-resource). The groups were assessed on anatomy of the forearm by a ten question practical examination. ANOVA analysis showed the model group mean test score to be significantly higher than the control group (mean 7.25 vs. 1.46, P < 0.001) and not significantly different to the traditional methods group (mean 6.87, P > 0.5). Feedback from all users of the e-resource was positive. Virtual reality anatomy learning can be used to compliment traditional teaching methods effectively.

  18. Anatomy in a new curriculum: facilitating the learning of gross anatomy using web access streaming dissection videos.

    PubMed

    DiLullo, Camille; Coughlin, Patrick; D'Angelo, Marina; McGuinness, Michael; Bandle, Jesse; Slotkin, Eric M; Shainker, Scott A; Wenger, Christopher; Berray, Scott J

    2006-09-01

    As anatomy course hours have decreased, it has become increasingly important to provide tools that facilitate laboratory task efficiency. Digital video clips were created to present dissection guidance to medical students. The video clips communicate challenging aspects of the dissection process with succinct visual demonstrations easily accessed via an online course site. Students were asked to complete a survey designed to assess the quality and utility of the videos. Survey respondents indicated that the videos enhanced the quality of the anatomy course as well as their individual performances. This teaching tool enhances student competencies in human gross anatomy.

  19. Teaching of clinical anatomy in rheumatology: a review of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Torralba, Karina D; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Evelyn, Christine M; Koolaee, R Michelle; Kalish, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Clinical anatomy may be defined as anatomy that is applied to the care of the patient. It is the foundation of a well-informed physical examination that is so important in rheumatologic practice. Unfortunately, there is both documented and observed evidence of a significant deficiency in the teaching and performance of a competent musculoskeletal examination at multiple levels of medical education including in rheumatology trainees. At the Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston, MA, that took place in November 2014, a Clinical Anatomy Study Group met to share techniques of teaching clinical anatomy to rheumatology fellows, residents, and students. Techniques that were reviewed included traditional anatomic diagrams, hands-on cross-examination, cadaver study, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. The proceedings of the Study Group section are described in this review.

  20. How-To-Do-It: Pig Foot Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula M.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an activity used to introduce the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems. A teacher conducted, video enhanced demonstration and a student activity are discussed. Included is a sample student laboratory paper. (CW)

  1. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  2. Shoulder ultrasound imaging-integrating anatomy, biomechanics and disease processes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gina M

    2008-10-01

    This article brings together the anatomy, biomechanics and the imaging of shoulder disease using ultrasound to enable a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound when imaging the shoulder.

  3. Directed Case Studies in Baccalaureate Nursing Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Marianne; Albrecht, Susan; Hines, Tina; Hodgson, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    Problem-based learning was implemented through clinical case studies in anatomy and physiology classes for 92 nursing students. The majority found the case studies helpful in learning concepts and applying them to clinical situations. (SK)

  4. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  5. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  6. Anatomy for nurses: providing students with the best learning experience.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Amy N B

    2010-07-01

    A good understanding of human anatomy is clinically relevant for many health care professionals. A detailed knowledge of where, as well as how, to palpate, percuss or auscultate is essential for adequate assessment, provision of treatment and ongoing care of patients. Thus, the linking of human anatomy and clinical assessment is essential. However, Australian nursing students are often excluded from experiences, such as exposure to cadaveric material, which might enable them to gain a good working knowledge of internal human anatomy. Herein systematic student feedback from nursing students who were provided with a single exposure to prosected human anatomical material and were able to manipulate and interact with that material is presented, in the context of the integrative educational aims and goals of this learning and teaching activity. Thus, this study aims to add to the literature informing ongoing dialog regarding the best set of tools to teach anatomy to students of nursing.

  7. Anatomy, development, and physiology of the visual system.

    PubMed

    Edward, Deepak P; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article serves to familiarize the reader with the normal anatomy, embryology, and physiology of the visual system. Other articles in this issue introduce examination techniques and the pathology of the eyes of pediatric patients.

  8. How-To-Do-It: Pig Foot Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula M.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an activity used to introduce the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems. A teacher conducted, video enhanced demonstration and a student activity are discussed. Included is a sample student laboratory paper. (CW)

  9. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  10. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  11. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  12. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations.

    PubMed

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  13. Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

    1994-09-01

    Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

  14. Anatomy of the triceps surae: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Dalmau-Pastor, Miquel; Fargues-Polo, Betlem; Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Vega, Jordi; Golanó, Pau

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius contracture has recently gained relevance owing to its suggested relationship with foot disorders such as metatarsalgia, plantar fasciopathy, hallux valgus, and others. Consequently this has induced a renewed interest in surgical lengthening techniques, including proximal gastrocnemius release, to resolve gastrocnemius contracture in patients with foot disorders. This article describes and discusses the general anatomy of the triceps surae and the surgical anatomy of the gastrocnemius. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Teleost Anatomy Ontology: Anatomical Representation for the Genomics Age

    PubMed Central

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Lundberg, John G.; Midford, Peter E.; Balhoff, James P.; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  16. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  17. Superficial Head and Neck Anatomy for Dermatologic Surgery: Critical Concepts.

    PubMed

    Chow, Steven; Bennett, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Thorough understanding of head and neck anatomy is useful and necessary for dermatologic surgery. To highlight pertinent head and neck anatomic structures that are encountered during dermatologic surgery and correlate these with common surgical problems. Important anatomic structures and regional cutaneous anatomy are discussed and illustrated. Several important anatomic structures exist within the head and neck that can influence surgical outcomes. Anatomic knowledge is helpful to the dermatologic surgeon to optimize reconstructive outcomes.

  18. Building a Cell and Anatomy Ontology of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    We are endowed with a rich knowledge about Caenorhabditis elegans. Its stereotyped anatomy and development has stimulated research and resulted in the accumulation of cell-based information concerning gene expression, and the role of specific cells in developmental signalling and behavioural circuits. To make the information more accessible to sophisticated queries and automated retrieval systems, WormBase has begun to construct a C. elegans cell and anatomy ontology. Here we present our strategies and progress. PMID:18629098

  19. Fascial Anatomy and Its Relevance in Safe Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Shailesh P; Puntambekar, Seema P; Gadkari, Yamini; Naval, Suyash

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate the importance of being familiar with the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia as seen by laparoscopy to perform safe laparoscopic hysterectomies. Combination of surgical videos and design diagrams. Compiled high-definition surgical videos from the Galaxy Care Laparoscopy Institute, Pune, India. These videos clearly demonstrate the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and describe tips to avoid damage to the major structures, including the major vessels, ureter, bowel, bladder, and endopelvic fascia. The laparoscopic view of the anatomy with the current camera system is an excellent tool to demonstrate and teach pelvic anatomy, which can be applied to surgical principles in difficult benign and oncological cases. We used a total laparoscopic approach to demonstrate the fasciae that were seen during various types of hysterectomies. The video shows the following: (1) the posterior leaf of the broad ligament was opened until it reached the apex of the uterosacral ligament; (2) the anterior leaf of broad ligament was opened until it reached the vesico-uterine peritoneal reflection; (3) the principles of bladder dissection; (4) the pubocervico-vesical fascia and its relevance to bladder dissection; (5) the relevance of the anatomy of the uterine artery, vein, and ureter with endopelvic fascia within the leaves of the broad ligament; (6) Denonvillier's fascia dissection technique for dissection of the rectum away from the vagina; (7) the anatomy of the vesicocervical ligaments, forming the ureteric tunnel; (8) the dissection principles of lateralizing the ureter in the retrovesical region; (9) the endopelvic fascia reflection, which continued caudally, covering the pelvic floor; and (10) the relevance of the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and the stress urinary incontinence treatment technique. Understanding the anatomy of the fasciae of the pelvis helps to create avascular planes and is crucial for performing safe hysterectomies. Copyright © 2015 AAGL

  20. Anatomy and physiology of the female pelvis: MR imaging revisited.

    PubMed

    Togashi, K; Nakai, A; Sugimura, K

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy of the female pelvis and focuses on uterine physiology, presenting the kinematics of the uterus that can be identified on ultra-fast MR imaging. It also discusses the many facets of the junctional zone on MR imaging. Ultra-fast MR imaging seems to be a powerful tool for evaluating normal anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the uterus. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:842-849.

  1. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography. PMID:28260355

  2. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum.

  3. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXV. Ragala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Sapoticeas da Amazonia . Acta Amazonica 4(3):15-16. 7.1C TAB f• icatio By-- - Table 1.--Ragala: Specimens examined and their selected parameters-I Wood Species... WOOD ANATOMY OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACEAE / XXV. RAGALA RESEARCH PAPER FPL 396 FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY FOREST SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF... wood anatomy supports the separation of Ecclinusa and Rmagala as well as their removal from Chrysophyllum. Ragala is a silica-accumulating genus

  4. Cadaveric surgery: a novel approach to teaching clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Nutt, James; Mehdian, Roshana; Parkin, Ian; Dent, John; Kellett, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Anatomy is an essential basic science for safe and effective medical practice. In 2006 the UK Anatomy Act was changed to allow the use of surgical procedures on cadavers. This has unlocked opportunities for new methods of teaching clinically relevant anatomy. This study explores how surgical procedures may provide a purposeful and memorable way for undergraduates to learn anatomy, compared with conventional teaching methods. Under supervision, a group of third-year medical students prepared for and then performed a shoulder hemi-arthroplasty after identifying key anatomical structures and surgical objectives. The procedure was performed in a simulated theatre environment. A focus group was used to collect qualitative data based on the learning experience. The surgical approach and implant insertion were successfully completed, and the educational objectives of identifying and learning surrounding structures were met. The focus group found that the exercise presented a relaxed introduction to surgery, enabled learning by association, and provided a learning experience that was both purposeful and complete. The preparation and completion of the procedure enabled the students to focus on the anatomy of the shoulder, by identifying and forming associations with surrounding structures. Uniquely, the surgical nature of this project also allowed undergraduate students to practice key surgical skills and principles. The authors believe that learning anatomy via a surgical approach provides a relevant, in-depth, purposeful and enjoyable learning experience. This technique also provided a valuable insight into surgery. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  5. Interprofessional approach for teaching functional knee joint anatomy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jakob J; Obmann, Markus M; Gießler, Marianne; Schuldis, Dominik; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Strohm, Peter C; Sandeck, Florian; Spittau, Björn

    2017-03-01

    Profound knowledge in functional and clinical anatomy is a prerequisite for efficient diagnosis in medical practice. However, anatomy teaching does not always consider functional and clinical aspects. Here we introduce a new interprofessional approach to effectively teach the anatomy of the knee joint. The presented teaching approach involves anatomists, orthopaedists and physical therapists to teach anatomy of the knee joint in small groups under functional and clinical aspects. The knee joint courses were implemented during early stages of the medical curriculum and medical students were grouped with students of physical therapy to sensitize students to the importance of interprofessional work. Evaluation results clearly demonstrate that medical students and physical therapy students appreciated this teaching approach. First evaluations of following curricular anatomy exams suggest a benefit of course participants in knee-related multiple choice questions. Together, the interprofessional approach presented here proves to be a suitable approach to teach functional and clinical anatomy of the knee joint and further trains interprofessional work between prospective physicians and physical therapists as a basis for successful healthcare management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  7. The anatomy of the distal vagina: towards unity.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Helen E; Eizenberg, Norm; Rahman, Marzia; Cleeve, Joan

    2008-08-01

    Factual presentations of sexual anatomy are required for educational purposes, for clinical and more general communication about sexual matters. To date, unambiguous, accurate and objective images with appropriate labeling to enhance specificity in communication have been lacking. The aim of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive overview of anatomy of the distal vagina. We aim to simplify the anatomy to reduce the confusion of historical descriptions. In doing so, we aim to avoid sacrificing any of the specific detail. This would aid communication between clinicians, researchers, and the nonclinician regarding this anatomy. OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS: This article reviews the historical and current anatomical literature. Systematic dissection and photography, histological study, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used as the basis for this presentation. Digital technology has been used to label, color, and highlight photography to provide clarity and permit diagramatization of photography. No distortion has otherwise been used in presenting images from cadavers or anatomical research. The anatomy of the distal vagina and surrounding structures is shown and described in detailed. The distal vagina, clitoris, and urethra form an integrated entity covered superficially by the vulval skin and its epithelial features. These parts have a shared vasculature and nerve supply and during sexual stimulation respond as a unit though the responses are not uniform. Significant progress has been made in the field of female sexual anatomy and its pictorial representation. This may facilitate further progress in the related fields of female sexual health and education.

  8. Design principles for developing an efficient clinical anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J; Stewart, William B; O'Brien, Michael; Haims, Andrew; Rando, William; Abrahams, James; Dunne, Shane; Wang, Silas; Aden, Marcus

    2006-03-01

    The exponential growth of medical knowledge presents a challenge for the medical school curriculum. Because anatomy is traditionally a long course, it is an attractive target to reduce course hours, yet designing courses that produce students with less understanding of human anatomy is not a viable option. Faced with the challenge of teaching more anatomy with less time, we set out to understand how students employ instructional media to learn anatomy inside and outside of the classroom. We developed a series of pilot programs to explore how students learn anatomy and, in particular, how they combine instructional technology with more traditional classroom and laboratory-based learning. We then integrated what we learned with principles of effective instruction to design a course that makes the most efficient use of students' in-class and out-of-class learning. Overall, we concluded that our new anatomy course needed to focus on transforming how medical students think, reason, and learn. We are currently testing the hypothesis that this novel approach will enhance the ability of students to recall and expand their base of anatomical knowledge throughout their medical school training and beyond.

  9. A sculpture masterpiece for the teaching of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    DUMITRASCU, DINU IULIU; CRIVII, CARMEN BIANCA; OPINCARU, IULIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The study of anatomy remains the backbone of medical education in the first years. There is a constant need for educational materials that enable the assimilation of knowledge by students. The casts after human bodies have not lost the value, even in the era of virtual education. We present in this paper a museal item destined to improve the anatomy teaching. Methods Given the existence in the department of anatomy from Cluj –Napoca of an item of exceptional artistic and scientific value, we intensively searched Pubmed and Scopus, as well as by manual search of printed only documents, for all papers related to the muscle man by Brancusi created for educational purposes of anatomy students. Results This paper presents summary data from the biography of the creators of this item, the world famous sculptor Constantin Brancusi and the professor of anatomy and surgery from Bucharest Dimitrie Gerota. We also describe this item and the conditions which generated it Conclusion Teaching anatomy relies on the quality of the didactic support. The muscle man by Brancusi is a very realistic reproduction of a man, very useful for anatomical training and teaching. PMID:27152086

  10. Surgical anatomy in obstetrics and gynaecology: the trainees' perspective.

    PubMed

    Sgroi, Joseph; Abbott, Jason

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) Integrated and Elective Training Program is to ensure trainees have both clinical and surgical competence. The capacity to recognise important anatomical structures underpins this aim; however, quantification of RANZCOG trainees' anatomical knowledge and their training and assessment is not available. To survey trainees at all levels relating to applied anatomy, training and assessment within the RANZCOG training program. All accredited RANZCOG trainees were invited to participate in an online survey relating to anatomy knowledge, application, assessment and means of improving anatomical training. At the commencement of training, 11% of trainees perceived their anatomical knowledge as adequate and this increased to 77% by the final year of training. For final-year trainees, 78% perceived their anatomy knowledge as sufficient to perform a total abdominal hysterectomy and 87% an ovarian cystectomy or salpingectomy. Eighty-four per cent of trainees perceived the RANZCOG training programme as providing inadequate anatomy teaching. 100% of respondents supported a RANZCOG approved anatomy training course. This is a survey-based study and therefore subjective. Consequently, accurate determination of anatomical knowledge for RANZCOG trainees is inexact. Trainees perceive limitations in their anatomical knowledge. A formalised RANZCOG anatomy course would be of value in providing structured education and assessment of trainees' knowledge and establishing whether there are improvements in surgical competencies. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.

  13. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2017-07-18

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Functional anatomy of the alar ligaments.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Panjabi, M M

    1987-03-01

    Nineteen upper cervical spine specimens were dissected to examine the macroscopic and functional anatomy of alar ligaments. They are on both sides, symmetrically placed, approximately 10-13 mm long and elliptical in cross-section 3 X 6 mm in diameter. The fiber orientation is dependent on the height of dens axis, mostly in the cranial caudal direction. In 12 specimens there was a ligamentous connection between dens and lateral mass of the atlas as a part of the alar ligament. In 2 specimens anterior atlanto-dental ligament was identified. The computerized tomographic (CT) images can clearly show alar ligaments in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. The ligaments limit the axial rotation in the occipito-atlanto-axial complex (to the right by left alar and vice versa) as well as in side bending. The ligament is most stretched, and consequently most vulnerable, when the head is rotated and in addition flexed. This mechanism, common in whiplash injuries, could lead to irreversible overstretching or rupture of the ligaments especially as the ligaments consist of mainly collagen fibers.

  15. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  16. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Hao; Liu, En-Zhong; Lin, You-Zhi; Zhao, Shi-Guang; Jing, Guo-Hua

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to provide anatomic data to help surgeons avoid damage to the ocular motor nerves during intraorbital operations. The microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves was studied in 50 adult cadaveric heads (100 orbits). Dissections were performed with a microscope. The nerves were exposed and the neural and muscular relationships of each portion of the nerve were examined and measured. The superior division of the oculomotor nerve coursed between the optic nerve and the superior rectus muscle after it left the annular tendon, and its branches entered into the superior rectus muscle and levator muscle. A mean of five fibers (range 3-7) innervated the superior rectus muscle, and a mean of one fiber (range 1-2) followed a medial direction (84%) or went straight through the superior rectus muscle (16%). The inferior division of the oculomotor nerve branched into the medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The trochlear nerve ended on the orbital side of the posterior one-third of the superior oblique muscle in 76 specimens. The abducens nerve ended on the posterior one-third of the lateral rectus muscle in 86 specimens. If the belly of the lateral rectus muscle was divided into three superior-inferior parts, the nerve commonly entered into the middle one-third in 74 specimens. Based on the observed data, microanatomical relationships of the orbital contents were revised.

  18. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  19. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  20. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  1. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  2. Detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Shin, Sun Young

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia (CPF) and capsulopalpebral head (CPH), and their relationships to the inferior rectus muscle (IRM). In this cohort study, 40 eyes from 20 cadavers were observed macroscopically. Dissection was carried out from the CPF origin to its insertion, and the CPF origin pattern was photographed in each specimen. The width, length, and tensile strength of the CPF were measured. The CPF originated 25.07 ± 1.07 mm laterally and 24.86 ± 1.10 mm medially from the origin of the IRM and extended to the lower border of the inferior oblique muscle, and it firmly adhered to the IRM surface and formed into the CPH. The CPH was 4.31 ± 0.86 mm laterally and 6.18 ± 1.94 mm medially in length and 7.47 ± 0.81 mm in width. The CPF originated from the total width or 3/4 temporal part of the IRM in 32 (80%) of 40 faces. There was asymmetry in the pattern of the CPF origin between the left and right eyes in 4 of 20 paired specimens (20%). The tensile strength of the posterior layer was 19.12 ± 11.22 N, which was significantly higher than that of the anterior layer (8.59 ± 3.88 N) (P = 0.001). This study provided a good understanding of the CPF structures conducive to performing IRM surgery.

  3. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  4. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    PubMed Central

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the ‘time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition – the ‘anatomy' – of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either insufficient transportation speed or service frequency, but the key parameter controlling their global efficiency is the total number of stop events per hour for all modes. This analysis suggests the need for better optimization strategies, adapted to short, long unimodal or multimodal trips. PMID:25371238

  5. US anatomy of the shoulder: Pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Precerutti, M.; Garioni, E.; Madonia, L.; Draghi, F.

    2010-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the shoulder is essential for the assessment of its condition. The purpose of this article is to provide a useful tool for the ultrasound (US) study of this joint. The shoulder girdle and upper arm are made up of a number of muscles and tendons: rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis), humeral biceps, deltoid and pectoral muscles, which can all be evaluated at US examination. Various and complex capsular ligamentous structures contribute to the stability of the shoulder, but only a few can be adequately evaluated by US and will therefore receive particular attention. Numerous serous bursae are situated among muscles, skin, subcutaneous tissues, joint capsule structures and bones to prevent friction and they can be evaluated by US only in the presence of pathologies. Subacromial-subdeltoid and subcoracoid bursa are most frequently involved and will therefore be described in detail. There are furthermore nerves and vessels providing the various components of the shoulder with innervation and vascularization, and they can also be studied by US. The shoulder girdle (humerus, scapula, clavicle and sternal manubrium) is situated in the deep layers; only the cortex of the bone can be seen at US as a continuous hyperechoic line. For a better understanding of the location and relationship between the structures which can be studied by US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be carried out as this method provides a wider and more complete view of the structures. PMID:23396832

  6. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  7. The anatomy of a deep intracontinental orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Tom; Collins, Alan S.; Hand, Martin; Walker-Hallam, Althea; Smithies, R. Hugh; Evins, Paul M.; Howard, Heather M.

    2010-08-01

    The crustal architecture of central Australia has been profoundly affected by protracted periods of intracontinental deformation. In the northwestern Musgrave Block, the Ediacaran-Cambrian (600-530 Ma) Petermann Orogeny resulted in pervasive mylonitic reworking of Mesoproterozoic granites and granitic gneisses at deep crustal levels (P = 10-14 kbar and T = 700-800°C). SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS dating of zircon indicate that peak metamorphic conditions were attained at circa 570 Ma, followed by slow cooling to ˜600-660°C at circa 540 Ma driven by exhumation along the Woodroffe Thrust. Strong links between regional kinematic partitioning, pervasive high shear strains and partial melting in the orogenic core, and an anomalous lobate thrust trace geometry suggest that north vergent shortening was accompanied by the gravitational collapse and lateral escape of a broad thrust sheet. Like the present-day Himalayan-Tibetan system, the macroscopic structural, metamorphic, and kinematic architecture of the Petermann Orogen appears to be dominantly shaped by large-scale ductile flow of lower crustal material. We thus argue that the anatomy of this deep intracontinental orogen is comparable to collisional orogens, suggesting that the deformational response of continental crust is remarkably similar in different tectonic settings.

  8. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  9. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Ennio; Nota, Alessandro; Ehsani, Shideh; Gatto, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a) studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b) studies performed with CBCT images; (c) studies on human subjects; (d) studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e) studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years). Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted. PMID:28261607

  10. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  11. The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Stern, J T; Susman, R L

    1983-03-01

    The postcranial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, and the footprints from the Laetoli Beds of northern Tanzania, are analyzed with the goal of determining (1) the extent to which this ancient hominid practiced forms of locomotion other than terrestrial bipedality, and (2) whether or not the terrestrial bipedalism of A. afarensis was notably different from that of modern humans. It is demonstrated that A. afarensis possessed anatomic characteristics that indicate a significant adaptation for movement in the trees. Other structural features point to a mode of terrestrial bipedality that involved less extension at the hip and knee than occurs in modern humans, and only limited transfer of weight onto the medial part of the ball of the foot, but such conclusions remain more tentative than that asserting substantive arboreality. A comparison of the specimens representing smaller individuals, presumably female, to those of larger individuals, presumably male, suggests sexual differences in locomotor behavior linked to marked size dimorphism. The males were probably less arboreal and engaged more frequently in terrestrial bipedalism. In our opinion, A. afarensis from Hadar is very close to what can be called a "missing link." We speculate that earlier representatives of the A. afarensis lineage will present not a combination of arboreal and bipedal traits, but rather the anatomy of a generalized ape.

  12. US anatomy of the shoulder: Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Precerutti, M; Garioni, E; Madonia, L; Draghi, F

    2010-12-01

    A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the shoulder is essential for the assessment of its condition. The purpose of this article is to provide a useful tool for the ultrasound (US) study of this joint. The shoulder girdle and upper arm are made up of a number of muscles and tendons: rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis), humeral biceps, deltoid and pectoral muscles, which can all be evaluated at US examination. Various and complex capsular ligamentous structures contribute to the stability of the shoulder, but only a few can be adequately evaluated by US and will therefore receive particular attention. Numerous serous bursae are situated among muscles, skin, subcutaneous tissues, joint capsule structures and bones to prevent friction and they can be evaluated by US only in the presence of pathologies. Subacromial-subdeltoid and subcoracoid bursa are most frequently involved and will therefore be described in detail. There are furthermore nerves and vessels providing the various components of the shoulder with innervation and vascularization, and they can also be studied by US. The shoulder girdle (humerus, scapula, clavicle and sternal manubrium) is situated in the deep layers; only the cortex of the bone can be seen at US as a continuous hyperechoic line. For a better understanding of the location and relationship between the structures which can be studied by US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be carried out as this method provides a wider and more complete view of the structures.

  13. [Flexor tendon pulley system: anatomy, pathology, treatment].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F

    2003-02-01

    Flexor tendon pulley has been very early noticed and described. Terminology usually accepted recognizes 6 arcifom pulleys (A0 to A5) and 3 cruciform pulleys (C1 to C3). Anatomy and physiology of this flexor tendon gliding and reflection system at the level of the digital sheet are exposed. The integrity necessity of this system became obvious regarding the flexor tendons repair. Four main pathologies may be concerned: the trigger finger congenital or progressive, due to a chondroid metaplasia of the A1 pulley; tenosynovial ganglions arising at the weak point between A1 and A2 pulley; lesions of the flexor tendon sheet during traumatic lacerations or surgical repairs; quite experimental lesions creating isolated ruptures of one or several pulleys which occur during sport practice, especially high level rock climbing. The repair techniques are exposed to allow to graduate and hierarchy the reparation technique regarding the pathology. A2 and A4 repair is always indicated. The best reconstruction material is an extensor retinaculum graft. But its poor surface available often draws to use conventional palmaris longus free graft.

  14. Chin Ptosis: Classification, Anatomy, and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, Evan S.; Zide, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    For years, the notion of chin ptosis was somehow integrated with the concept of witch's chin. That was a mistake on many levels because chin droop has four major causes, all different and with some overlap. With this article, the surgeon can quickly diagnose which type and which therapeutic modality would work best. In some cases the problem is a simple fix, in others the droop can only be stabilized, and in the final two, definite corrective procedures are available. Of note, in certain situations two types of chin ptosis may overlap because both the patient and the surgeon may each contribute to the problems. For example, in dynamic ptosis, a droop that occurs with smile in the unoperated patient can be exacerbated and further produced by certain surgical methods also. This paper classifies the variations of the problems and explains the anatomy with the final emphasis on long-term surgical correction, well described herein. This article is the ninth on this subject and a review of them all would be helpful (greatly) for understanding the enigmas of the lower face. PMID:22110784

  15. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  16. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D

    1988-07-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.

  17. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed.

  18. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Drake, R L

    1998-02-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed.

  19. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  20. Anatomy of the Cervicomental Region: Insights From an Anatomy Laboratory and Roundtable Discussion.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Jones, Derek H; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for reduction of submental fat. Use of a pharmacologic/injectable therapy within the submental region requires a thorough understanding of cervicomental anatomy to ensure proper injection technique and safe administration. To this end, an anatomy laboratory was conducted to review key external landmarks and important internal anatomic structures that characterize the lower face and anterior neck. External landmarks that define the boundaries of the cervicomental and submental regions were identified including the inferior mandibular border, the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the antegonial notch, the submental crease, the thyroid notch, and the hyoid bone. Relevant internal anatomic structures, including preplatysmal submental fat (the target tissue for ATX-101) and the platysma muscle as well as critical neurovascular and glandular tissues were revealed by dissection. Of particular interest was the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve because it typically courses along the inferior mandibular border near the proposed treatment area for ATX-101.

  1. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    PubMed

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. The anatomy room: a positive learning experience for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mc Garvey, A; Hickey, A; Conroy, R

    2015-01-01

    Management of death and dying is an important aspect of nursing practice. Many nursing students have not been exposed to death prior to their commencement in nurse education and typically do not encounter dying and death until their clinical experience begins. To examine the effects and impact of exposure of nursing students to an anatomy room for anatomy teaching compared with students taught anatomy in a laboratory using plastic anatomical specimens. Two groups of first year nursing students were surveyed; one group received tuition in anatomy using plastic specimens and the second group used dissected cadavers. Questionnaires were administered before and immediately after the first teaching experience and again 9 weeks later. Students studying anatomy using cadaveric specimens were more apprehensive of subsequent visits to the anatomy room. However, after 9 weeks there was no significant difference when compared to students using plastic specimens. The students using cadavers felt significantly more stressed and reported significantly more symptoms than those using plastic specimens after their first lesson. There was no significant difference in stress levels and symptom reporting between the groups after 9 weeks. While a large proportion of the students using both cadavers (97%) and plastic specimens (88%) found their learning experiences positive, 43% of the respondents using cadavers stated that as a result of this experience they felt more prepared to deal with death in a hospital and that they were happy to see death in a stress free environment. The responses from the group using plastic specimens were positive as essentially they had found the theory easier to learn. The results suggest that learning anatomy using cadavers is a beneficial learning experience and could be a valuable way to encounter death for the first time in a protected environment rather than in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral anatomy laboratory examinations in a physical therapy program.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days. During the time that a tagged examination is being created, student productivity may be reduced as the anatomy laboratory is inaccessible to students. Further, the type of questions that can be asked in a tagged laboratory examination may limit student assessment to lower level cognitive abilities and may limit the instructors' ability to assess the students' understanding of anatomical and clinical concepts. Anatomy is a foundational science in the Physical Therapy curriculum and a thorough understanding of anatomy is necessary to progress through the subsequent clinical courses. Physical therapy curricula have evolved to reflect the changing role of physical therapists to primary caregivers by introducing a greater scope of clinical courses earlier in the curriculum. Physical therapy students must have a thorough understanding of clinical anatomy early in the education process. However, traditional anatomy examination methods may not be reflective of the clinical thought processes required of physical therapy students. Traditional laboratory examination methods also reduce student productivity by limiting access during examination set-up and breakdown. To provide a greater complexity of questions and reduced overall laboratory time required for examinations, the Physical Therapy Program at Mercer University has introduced oral laboratory examinations for the gross anatomy course series. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P < 0.001) mean confidence ratings in five US skills (pre-course versus post-course mean): obtaining scans (3.13 ±1.04 versus 4.03 ±0.78), optimizing images (2.78 ±1.07 versus 3.75 ±0.92), recognizing artifacts (2.94 ±0.95 versus 3.97 ±0.69), distinguishing tissue types (2.88 ±0.98 versus 4.09 ±0.69), and identifying structures (2.97 ±0.86 versus 4.03 ±0.59), demonstrating the success of the ACUS curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ 10: 348-362. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Webb, J Taylor; Ferguson, Michael A; Nielsen, Jared A; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project) to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group), as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  6. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  7. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  8. Automatic anatomy recognition via fuzzy object models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; Miranda, Paulo A. V.; Matsumoto, Monica; Grevera, George J.; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A.

    2012-02-01

    To make Quantitative Radiology a reality in routine radiological practice, computerized automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) during radiological image reading becomes essential. As part of this larger goal, last year at this conference we presented a fuzzy strategy for building body-wide group-wise anatomic models. In the present paper, we describe the further advances made in fuzzy modeling and the algorithms and results achieved for AAR by using the fuzzy models. The proposed AAR approach consists of three distinct steps: (a) Building fuzzy object models (FOMs) for each population group G. (b) By using the FOMs to recognize the individual objects in any given patient image I under group G. (c) To delineate the recognized objects in I. This paper will focus mostly on (b). FOMs are built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. The hierarchical pose relationships from the parent to offspring are codified in the FOMs. Several approaches are being explored currently, grouped under two strategies, both being hierarchical: (ra1) those using search strategies; (ra2) those strategizing a one-shot approach by which the model pose is directly estimated without searching. Based on 32 patient CT data sets each from the thorax and abdomen and 25 objects modeled, our analysis indicates that objects do not all scale uniformly with patient size. Even the simplest among the (ra2) strategies of recognizing the root object and then placing all other descendants as per the learned parent-to-offspring pose relationship bring the models on an average within about 18 mm of the true locations.

  9. Automatic anatomy recognition of sparse objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Wang, Huiqian; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    A general body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology was proposed in our previous work based on hierarchical fuzzy models of multitudes of objects which was not tied to any specific organ system, body region, or image modality. That work revealed the challenges encountered in modeling, recognizing, and delineating sparse objects throughout the body (compared to their non-sparse counterparts) if the models are based on the object's exact geometric representations. The challenges stem mainly from the variation in sparse objects in their shape, topology, geographic layout, and relationship to other objects. That led to the idea of modeling sparse objects not from the precise geometric representations of their samples but by using a properly designed optimal super form. This paper presents the underlying improved methodology which includes 5 steps: (a) Collecting image data from a specific population group G and body region Β and delineating in these images the objects in Β to be modeled; (b) Building a super form, S-form, for each object O in Β; (c) Refining the S-form of O to construct an optimal (minimal) super form, S*-form, which constitutes the (fuzzy) model of O; (d) Recognizing objects in Β using the S*-form; (e) Defining confounding and background objects in each S*-form for each object and performing optimal delineation. Our evaluations based on 50 3D computed tomography (CT) image sets in the thorax on four sparse objects indicate that substantially improved performance (FPVF~2%, FNVF~10%, and success where the previous approach failed) can be achieved using the new approach.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  11. BOLD Granger Causality Reflects Vascular Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Webb, J. Taylor; Ferguson, Michael A.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project) to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7–40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain’s functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group), as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response. PMID:24349569

  12. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  13. A systems biology representation of developmental anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of any tissue involves differentiation, cell dynamics and interactions with adjacent tissues. This paper suggests that the complexity of the system as a whole can be represented as a mathematical graph, that is, a set of connected triples of the general form [term] [term]. Computationally, such graphs are widely used for modeling data; visually, they form hierarchies and networks. For morphogenesis, the triples are of the general structure , where nouns cover tissues, molecules and networks and verbs describe processes such as moves, differentiates, grows and apoptoses. The paper considers the general formalism of graphs, where graphs are already used in biology, and how developmental anatomy may be described using this format. Representing morphogenesis as a visual graph is complicated as the formalism has to incorporate tissue types, molecular signals, networks, dynamic processes and some aspects, at least, of tissue geometry. The formation of a capillary sprout is chosen as an example of how this complexity can be represented graphically, with colour used to distinguish tissues and molecules. There are three key benefits, beyond its compactness, in using the graph formalism of morphogenesis to complement experimentation. First, it emphasizes the distributed nature of causality in morphogenesis. Secondly, producing all the triples for the visual graph requires explicit formalization of each aspect of the process, and this, in turn, often exposes gaps in knowledge and so suggests new experiments. Thirdly, once the graph has been formalized, triples can be annotated with associated information or IDs (e.g. cell types, publications, gene-expression data) that link to external online resources that may be regularly updated. Such annotations allow the graph to be viewed as a self-maintaining review. The graph approach sees dynamic processes as the drivers of developmental momentum and, because the same processes are

  14. Towards an Elastographic Atlas of Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fehlner, Andreas; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa), the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa), the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa) and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa). φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172), TH (1.037±0.173), CN (0.906±0.257) and WM (0.854±0.169). The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE. PMID:23977148

  15. A systems biology representation of developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bard, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    The formation of any tissue involves differentiation, cell dynamics and interactions with adjacent tissues. This paper suggests that the complexity of the system as a whole can be represented as a mathematical graph, that is, a set of connected triples of the general form [term] [term]. Computationally, such graphs are widely used for modeling data; visually, they form hierarchies and networks. For morphogenesis, the triples are of the general structure , where nouns cover tissues, molecules and networks and verbs describe processes such as moves, differentiates, grows and apoptoses. The paper considers the general formalism of graphs, where graphs are already used in biology, and how developmental anatomy may be described using this format. Representing morphogenesis as a visual graph is complicated as the formalism has to incorporate tissue types, molecular signals, networks, dynamic processes and some aspects, at least, of tissue geometry. The formation of a capillary sprout is chosen as an example of how this complexity can be represented graphically, with colour used to distinguish tissues and molecules. There are three key benefits, beyond its compactness, in using the graph formalism of morphogenesis to complement experimentation. First, it emphasizes the distributed nature of causality in morphogenesis. Secondly, producing all the triples for the visual graph requires explicit formalization of each aspect of the process, and this, in turn, often exposes gaps in knowledge and so suggests new experiments. Thirdly, once the graph has been formalized, triples can be annotated with associated information or IDs (e.g. cell types, publications, gene-expression data) that link to external online resources that may be regularly updated. Such annotations allow the graph to be viewed as a self-maintaining review. The graph approach sees dynamic processes as the drivers of developmental momentum and, because the same processes are

  16. Comparison of three aids for teaching lumbar surgical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Mitchell, P

    2013-08-01

    Reduced surgeons' training time has resulted in a need to increase the speed of learning. Currently, anatomy education involves traditional (textbooks, physical models, cadaveric dissection/prosection) and recent (electronic) techniques. As yet there are no available data comparing their performance. The performance of three anatomical training aids at teaching the surgical anatomy of the lumbar spinal was compared. The aids used were paper-based images, a three-dimensional plastic model and a semitransparent computer model. Fifty one study subjects were recruited from a population of junior doctors, nurses, medical and nursing students. Three study groups were created which differed in the order of presenting the aids. For each subject, spinal anatomy was revised by the investigator, teaching them the anatomy using each aid. They were specifically taught the locations of the intervertebral disc, pedicles and nerve roots in the lateral recesses. They then drew these structures on a response sheet (three response sheets per subject). The computer model was the best at allowing subjects accurately to determine structure location followed by the paper-based images, the plastic model was the worst. Accuracy improved with successive models used but this trend was not significant. Subjects were not versed in spinal anatomy beforehand, so meaningful baseline measures were not available. The educational performance of surgical anatomical training aids can be measured and compared. A computer generated 3 dimensional model gave the best results with paper-based images second and the plastic model third.

  17. The Performance of First Trimester Anatomy Scan: A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Wood, S. Lindsay; Jenkins, Sheri M.; Owen, John; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction First trimester ultrasound (US) for anatomy assessment may improve anomaly detection but may also increase overall US utilization. We sought to assess the utility of first trimester US for evaluation of fetal anatomy. Materials and Methods A decision analytic model was created to compare first plus second trimester anatomy scans to second trimester anatomy scan alone in 4 populations: general, normal weight women, obese women, and diabetics. Probability estimates were obtained from the literature. Outcomes considered were number of: major structural anomalies detected, number of US performed, and false positive US. Multivariable sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the consistency of the model with varying assumptions. Results A strategy of first trimester US detected the highest number of anomalies but required more US examinations per anomaly detected. The addition of a first trimester anatomy US was associated with a small increase in false positive US (<10/10,000). In populations with higher anomaly prevalence and lower second trimester US sensitivity (i.e. diabetes, obese), the number of additional US performed per anomaly detected with the first trimester US was fewer than 60. Discussion In high-risk populations, a first trimester US in addition to a second trimester US may be a beneficial approach to detecting anomalies. PMID:27105290

  18. Papilian’s anatomy - celebrating six decades –

    PubMed Central

    DUMITRAŞCU, DINU IULIU; CRIVII, CARMEN BIANCA; OPINCARIU, IULIAN

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers’ Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra. PMID:28246506

  19. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p < 0.001) better than the average of all evaluated courses in the respective term (grade 2.8). The course improved the anatomical comprehension (90 %) and the students stated that the topics were relevant for their future medical education (90 %). Furthermore, interest in the subject's anatomy and radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Detailed anatomy knowledge: first step to approach petroclival meningiomas through the petrous apex. Anatomy lab experience and surgical series.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Roberto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Pacca, Paolo; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Garbossa, Diego; Ducati, Alessandro; Zenga, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Petroclival meningiomas are a challenge for neurosurgeons due to the complex anatomy of the region that is rich of vessels and nerves. A perfect and detailed knowledge of the anatomy is very demanding in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery. The authors describe the microsurgical anatomy to perform an anterior petrosectomy based on their anatomical and surgical experience and perform a literature review. The temporal bone is the most complex and fascinating bone of skull base. The apex is located in the angle between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the occipital bone. Removing the petrous apex exposes the clivus. The approach directed through the temporal bone in this anatomical area is referred to as an anterior petrosectomy. The area that must be drilled is the rhomboid fossa that is defined by the Kawase, premeatal, and postmeatal triangles. In Division of Neurosurgery - University of Turin, 130 patients, from August 2013 to September 2015, underwent surgical resection of intracranial meningiomas. In this group, we have operated 7 PCMs and 5 of these were approached performing an anterior petrosectomy with good results. In our conclusions, we feel that this surgery require an advanced knowledge of human anatomy and a specialized training in interpretation of radiological and microsurgical anatomy both in the dissection lab and in the operating room.

  1. New insights into the surgical anatomy of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ruurda, Jelle P.; Luyer, Michael D. P.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bleys, Ronaldus L. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of (robot assisted) minimally invasive esophagectomy and increased knowledge of the relation between the autonomic nervous system and the immune response have led to new insights regarding the surgical anatomy of the esophagus. First, two layers of connective tissue were identified; the aorto-esophageal and aorto-pleural ligaments that separate the peri-esophageal compartment, containing vagus nerves, carinal lymph nodes and trachea, from the para-aortic compartment; containing thoracic duct and azygos vein. Second the surgical anatomy of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches has been described in detail. Based on the hypothesis that sparing the vagal nerve branches may be important a method to spare the pulmonary branches of the vagus nerve during thoracoscopic esophagectomy was validated in a cadaver study. Further studies will now investigate the impact of these new insights in the surgical anatomy of the esophagus in clinical practice. PMID:28815062

  2. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  3. Surgical anatomy of the minimally invasive lateral lumbar approach.

    PubMed

    Bina, Robert W; Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Baaj, Ali A

    2015-03-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion approach (LLIF), which encompasses the extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion techniques, has gained popularity as an alternative to traditional posterior approaches. With rapidly expanding applications, this minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach is now utilized in basic degenerative pathologies as well as complex lumbar degenerative deformities and tumors. Given the intimate relationship of the psoas muscle, and hence the lumbar plexus, to this MIS approach, several authors have examined the surgical anatomy of this approach. Understanding this regional neural anatomy is imperative given the potential for serious injuries to both the motor and sensory nerves of the lumbar plexus. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss all published studies detailing the surgical anatomy of the lateral lumbar approach with respect to the MIS LLIF techniques. This is a timely review given the rapidly growing number of surgeons utilizing this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical anatomy of the chorda tympani: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McManus, L J; Dawes, P J D; Stringer, M D

    2011-11-01

    The chorda tympani is at risk of iatrogenic injury throughout its course. This paper reviews the clinical anatomy of the nerve in adults. Systematic literature review. Relevant English-language articles were identified using five electronic databases and one search engine. Data from approximately 70 scientific papers were supplemented with information from selected reference texts. The anatomy of the chorda tympani differs from standard descriptions, particularly regarding its exit from the middle ear and area of lingual innervation. Whilst it is known to convey taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, the chorda tympani probably has additional sensory and secretomotor functions. A detailed understanding of the anatomy of the chorda tympani may help to reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury during head, neck and middle-ear surgery, and to explain the variable consequences of such injury.

  5. Gross anatomy of the elbow capsule: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Lee M; Morales, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The elbow is an inherently stable joint because of its bony articulation and surrounding capsuloligamentous structures. Anatomic and biomechanical studies have focused on the medial and lateral collateral ligamentous contributions to stability. In 1918, Gray provided a qualitative description of the elbow capsule and its fibers. Our study was performed to detail the gross anatomy of the elbow capsule. We evaluated the elbow capsule of 6 paired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens to detail gross capsular anatomy. We identified 3 distinct bands within the anterior capsule and 3 distinct bands within the posterior capsule. Further study is needed to delineate the functional meaning of these anatomic findings. Greater understanding of elbow capsule gross anatomy may lead to improved understanding of acute and chronic elbow pathoanatomy and treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  7. Anatomy and biomechanics of the lateral side of the knee.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anthony R; Sugalski, Matthew T; LaPrade, Robert F

    2006-03-01

    The posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee is a critical element for a functional lower extremity. It consists of an array of complex ligamentous and musculotendinous structures. The primary function of the PLC is to resist varus and external rotation and posterior translation of the tibia. Injuries to these structures can cause significant disability and compromise activities of daily living and work, recreational, and sporting activities. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the PLC will aid the clinician in this challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The first section of this paper describes the anatomy of the PLC of the knee focusing on the intricate insertion sites of the individual structures. The second section discusses how the anatomy influences the biomechanics of the PLC.

  8. Upper Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Cotofana, Sebastian; Trevidic, Patrick; Solish, Nowell; Carruthers, Jean; Carruthers, Alastair; Moradi, Amir; Swift, Arthur; Massry, Guy G; Lambros, Val; Remington, B Kent

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has been rapidly increased as the range of injectable products and indications continues to expand. Complications may arise from improper placement or technique. This article highlights the importance of anatomic knowledge when using injectable fillers in the face. A detailed review of the clinical anatomy of the upper face is performed. Regional approaches are described using the applied anatomy to efficiently and safely augment the different subunits of the upper face. Key aspects of safe and successful injection of fillers in the upper face include a thorough knowledge of the location of fat compartments and neurovascular structures. Awareness of these structures enables the practitioner to maximize injections, while avoiding damage to important nerves and vessels. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and properties of the product is paramount to maximize the efficacy while minimizing the risk of complications.

  9. Novel application of rapid prototyping for simulation of bronchoscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Sergio; Bose, Somnath; Bishop, Paul; Klatte, Ryan; Norris, Frederick

    2014-08-01

    The authors used rapid prototyping (RP) technology to create anatomically congruent models of tracheo-bronchial tree for teaching relevant bronchoscopic anatomy. Pilot study. A single level tertiary academic medical center. Two 3 dimensional (3D) models of tracheo-bronchial tree (one showing normal anatomy and another with an early take off of right apical bronchus) were recreated from Computed Tomographic images using RP technology. These images were then attached to mannequins and examined with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (FFB). These images were then compared with the actual FFB images obtained during lung isolation. The images obtained through the 3D models were found to be congruent to actual patient anatomy. RP can be successfully used to create anatomically accurate models from imaging studies. There is potential for RP to become a valuable educational tool in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns.

    PubMed

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V

    1996-04-01

    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  11. [Leaf anatomy study in Solanaceae of Venezuela. V. leaf anatomy of eleven species of Cestrum L] .

    PubMed

    Jáuregul, D; Rodriguez, N; Benítez, C E

    2000-01-01

    Leaf anatomy of the following eleven species: C. buxifolium Kunth, C. humboldtii Francey, C. lindenii Dunal, C. mariquitense Kunth, C. megalophyllum Dunal, C. olivaceum Francey, C. pariense Steyerm., C petiolare Kunth, C. scandans Vahl, C. strigilatum Ruiz et Pavón and C. tomentosum L.f. is described. Transverse sectioning, bruise and clearing according to the classical methods for optical microscopy were made. The species studied show dissimilitude in relation to a) fohar blade: thickness and sinuosity of epidermal cell walls; type, density and presence of trichornes, leaf type according the position of the stomata, thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchy-ma, number of spongy parenchyma layers, occurrence or not of paranchymatous sheath and sclerifled cells in mesophyll, tmbeculae or projection walls b) Midvein: degree of development and arrangement of the parenchyma and collenchyma, c) Petiole: size and form in transverse section, presence of ornamented cuticle, peridermis and degree of development of the sclerenctiyma next to vascular bundles.

  12. The integration of an anatomy massive open online course (MOOC) into a medical anatomy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Swinnerton, Bronwen J; Morris, Neil P; Hotchkiss, Stephanie; Pickering, James D

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are designed as stand-alone courses which can be accessed by any learner around the globe with only an internet-enabled electronic device required. Although much research has focused on the enrolment and demographics of MOOCs, their impact on undergraduate campus-based students is still unclear. This article explores the impact of integrating an anatomy MOOC in to the anatomy curriculum of a year 1 medical degree program at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The course did not replace any teaching that was already being delivered, and was used to supplement this teaching to support the students' consolidation and revision. Analysis of student feedback indicates a high level of usage, with evidence to suggest that female learners may have approached the course in a more personalized manner. Although the video based resources and quizzes were greatly appreciated as learning tools, significant evidence suggests the students did not engage, or were inclined to engage, with the discussion fora. Furthermore, a significant majority of students did not want the MOOC to replace the existing teaching they received. Given the feedback provided, this research suggests that although the student population believe there to be value in having access to MOOC material, their role as replacements to campus-based teaching is not supported. Details regarding the enrolment and engagement of the general public with the MOOC during the two runs are also documented, with the suggestion that graduates employed in the healthcare sector were the primary users of the course. Anat Sci Educ 10: 53-67. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. TEP and Lichtenstein anatomy: does simulation accelerate acquisition among interns?

    PubMed

    Rowse, P G; Ruparel, R K; Abdelsattar, J M; AlJamal, Y N; Dy, B M; Farley, D R

    2016-06-01

    The anatomy of the inguinal region is notoriously challenging to master. We sought to teach open inguinal hernia (OIH) and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) anatomy with simulation models among general surgery (GS) interns. Low-fidelity OIH and TEP models were constructed out of cardboard, plastic bins, fabric, and yarn. GS interns (n = 30) participated in a 3-h hernia session including a pretest, anatomy lecture, simulated OIH and TEP hernia repair, and posttest. Pre- and posttest scores were based on a difficult 30-point exam which included didactic questions (10 points), drawing relevant TEP (10 points), and OIH (10 points) anatomy. Participants were surveyed following the session. Median pretest scores were 13 % (range 0-60 %). Median posttest scores improved to 47 % (range 20-93 %, p < 0.001). Median number of structures drawn in the TEP image improved from 2 (range 0-14) to 11 (range 1-21, p < 0.001). Median number of structures drawn in the OIH image improved from 3 (range 0-15) to 7 (range 1-19, p < 0.001). 67 % (12/18) demonstrated improvement in knowledge of abdominal wall layers. 23 % (7/30) knew the triangles of pain/doom on the pretest vs. 77 % (23/30) on the posttest. Mean Likert scores favored session enjoyability (4.5), not a waste of training time (4.4), and improved understanding of OIH and TEP anatomy (4.4, 4.2). Low-fidelity simulators can be used to teach and assess knowledge of TEP and OIH anatomy. While enjoyable and useful, one 3-h session does not create master hernia surgeons or expert anatomists out of novice trainees.

  14. YouTube: An emerging tool in anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this resource, as well as the effectiveness of YouTube videos within a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. The study was conducted on 91 second-year medical students for whom video links were suggested throughout the academic year. In addition, the Human Anatomy Education (HAE) Channel was launched on YouTube to support classroom teaching with videos that emphasized applied aspects of anatomy. The results demonstrated that 98% of the students used YouTube as an online information resource, albeit in different frequencies. Out of the 86% who have been to the HAE Channel, 92% agreed/strongly agreed that the channel helped them learn anatomy. The study also reports the popularity of and awareness about using YouTube as a social network as well as in learning. Based on these findings, YouTube can be considered as an effective tool to enhance anatomy instruction if the videos are scrutinized, diversified, and aimed toward course objectives. Faculty of average computer literacy should be enabled to produce videos on their own YouTube channels to support independent learning and integration in a PBL curriculum. The methods described for capturing and editing the videos can be used as a prototype.

  15. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  16. Anatomy of a subtropical intrathermocline eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló-Llull, Bàrbara; Sangrà, Pablo; Pallàs-Sanz, Enric; Barton, Eric D.; Estrada-Allis, Sheila N.; Martínez-Marrero, Antonio; Aguiar-González, Borja; Grisolía, Diana; Gordo, Carmen; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Arístegui, Javier

    2017-06-01

    An interdisciplinary survey of a subtropical intrathermocline eddy was conducted within the Canary Eddy Corridor in September 2014. The anatomy of the eddy is investigated using near submesoscale fine resolution two-dimensional data and coarser resolution three-dimensional data. The eddy was four months old, with a vertical extension of 500 m and 46 km radius. It may be viewed as a propagating negative anomaly of potential vorticity (PV), 95% below ambient PV. We observed two cores of low PV, one in the upper layers centered at 85 m, and another broader anomaly located between 175 m and the maximum sampled depth in the three-dimensional dataset (325 m). The upper core was where the maximum absolute values of normalized relative vorticity (or Rossby number), |Ro| =0.6, and azimuthal velocity, U=0.5 m s-1, were reached and was defined as the eddy dynamical core. The typical biconvex isopleth shape for intrathermocline eddies induces a decrease of static stability, which causes the low PV of the upper core. The deeper low PV core was related to the occurrence of a pycnostad layer of subtropical mode water that was embedded within the eddy. The eddy core, of 30 km radius, was in near solid body rotation with period of 4 days. It was encircled by a thin outer ring that was rotating more slowly. The kinetic energy (KE) content exceeded that of available potential energy (APE), KE/APE=1.58; this was associated with a low aspect ratio and a relatively intense rate of spin as indicated by the relatively high value of Ro. Inferred available heat and salt content anomalies were AHA=2.9×1018 J and ASA=14.3×1010 kg, respectively. The eddy AHA and ASA contents per unit volume largely exceed those corresponding to Pacific Ocean intrathermocline eddies. This suggests that intrathermocline eddies may play a significant role in the zonal conduit of heat and salt along the Canary Eddy Corridor.

  17. Functional anatomy and imaging of the foot.

    PubMed

    Ridola, C; Palma, A

    2001-01-01

    ) suspending the arch from a cable above the level of the bridge. In this manner, we obtain a "functional unit" with two important aims: to support the body weight (static foot), and to serve as a lever to propel the bodies forward in walking and running (dinamic foot). Imaging techniques are able to provide further data on functional anatomy of the foot; in particular, these techniques show the bones structures, ligaments, muscles and tendons, taking part to the arch setting. Routine x-ray examinations precise information about the bone-shape and their relationship. The short and long ligaments, the tendons and the suspending the arch from above are instead successfully valuable using ultrasonography, CT and MR.

  18. Anatomy and imaging of the lesser peritoneal sac

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, W.J.; Foley, W.D.; Lawson, T.L.; Stewart, E.T.; Taylor, A.

    1985-03-01

    The development of high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) imaging has substantially improved the radiologic examination of the lesser peritoneal sac (LPS). The fact that LPS anatomy remains obscure and difficult to remember often causes problems in the interpretation of CT as well as conventional radiologic examinations of the upper abdomen. This report reviews the embryologic development of the LPS, introduces a useful method for remembering three-dimensional LPS anatomy, and discusses LPS abnormalities on imaging examinations, with a special emphasis on the CT findings.

  19. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  20. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.