Inokuma, Yasuhide; Osuka, Atsuhiro
2008-05-21
Subporphyrin is a ring-contracted porphyrin congener consisting of three pyrrolic subunits domed in a C3 symmetric bowl arrangement. Subporphyrin had long been elusive until the first synthesis of tribenzosubporphine in 2006. Shortly after, synthetic protocols of subpyriporphyrin, meso-aryl-substituted subporphyrins, and meso-aryl substituted subchlorins were developed. Subporphyrins display interesting properties including distinct aromaticity arising from 14pi-electronic conjugation, green fluorescence, and strong influences of meso-aryl substituents on the electronic network of the macrocycle. Besides the rational synthetic routes, an unexpected route to a specific subporphyrin from a [32]heptaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1.1) was discovered via a thermal extrusion reaction upon Cu(II)-B(III) cooperative metallation. In this Perspective, we review recent progress on subporphyrin chemistry and unprecedented ring-splitting reactions of medium size expanded porphyrins that are triggered upon metallation.
β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin Dimers Capturing Fullerenes with Large Association Constants.
Yoshida, Kota; Osuka, Atsuhiro
2016-06-27
β,β-(1,4-Dithiino)subporphyrin dimers 7-syn and 7-anti were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of 2-bromo-3-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)subporphyrin 4 with 2,3-dimercaptosubporphyrin 5 under basic conditions followed by axial arylation. Additions of C60 or C70 to a dilute solution of 7-anti (ca. 10(-6) m) in toluene did not cause appreciable UV/Vis spectral changes, while similar additions to a concentrated solution (ca. 10(-3) m) resulted in precipitation of complexes. In contrast, dimer 7-syn captured C60 and C70 in different complexation stoichiometries in toluene; a 1:1 manner and a 2:1 manner, respectively, with large association constants; Ka =(1.9±0.2)×10(6) m(-1) for C60 @7-syn, and K1 =(1.6±0.5)×10(6) and K2 =(1.8±0.9)×10(5) m(-1) for C70 @(7-syn)2 . These association constants are the largest for fullerenes-capture by bowl-shaped molecules reported so far. The structures of C60 @7-anti, C70 @7-anti, C60 @7-syn, and C70 @7-syn have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.
2010-11-16
A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.
2014-11-10
case potassium- rubidium (KRb) and related molecules; (2) opto-electrically trapped symmetric top molecules soon to reach quantum degeneracy and... rubidium ; (C) a correction of phase diagrams for dipolar gases necessary to understand experimental measurements and build accurate quantum simulators
Rotational ratchets with dipolar interactions.
Jäger, Sebastian; Klapp, Sabine H L
2012-12-01
We report results from a computer simulation study on the rotational ratchet effect in systems of magnetic particles interacting via dipolar interactions. The ratchet effect consists of directed rotations of the particles in an oscillating magnetic field, which lacks a net rotating component. Our investigations are based on Brownian dynamics simulations of such many-particle systems. We investigate the influence of both the random and deterministic contributions to the equations of motion on the ratchet effect. As a main result, we show that dipolar interactions can have an enhancing as well as a dampening effect on the ratchet behavior depending on the dipolar coupling strength of the system under consideration. The enhancement is shown to be caused by an increase in the effective field on a particle generated by neighboring magnetic particles, while the dampening is due to restricted rotational motion in the effective field. Moreover, we find a nontrivial influence of the short-range, repulsive interaction between the particles.
Ion acceleration in dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
2014-12-01
The electric field associated with flow bursts and dipolarization fronts has been shown to be an efficient mechanism for producing energetic ions and electrons. Using an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection, flow bursts and dipolarization, we investigate the acceleration of test particles to suprathermal energies. Particular emphasis of this presentation is on spatial, temporal, and angular variations of the modeled energetic ion fluxes. The test particle simulations reproduce characteristic features of observed injection events, such as a fast rise of energetic particle fluxes, limitations in energy, and demonstrate the large variability of energetic ion features.
Energetic ions in dipolarization events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.
2015-09-01
We investigate ion acceleration in dipolarization events in the magnetotail, using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. The simulation results are compared with "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" observations. We provide quantitative answers to the relative importance of source regions and source energies. Flux decreases at proton energies up to 10-20 keV are found to be due to sources of lobe or plasma sheet boundary layer particles that enter the near tail via reconnection. Flux increases result from both thermal and suprathermal ion sources. Comparable numbers of accelerated protons enter the acceleration region via cross-tail drift from the dawn flanks of the near-tail plasma sheet and via reconnection of field lines extending into the more distant tail. We also demonstrate the presence of earthward plasma flow and accelerated suprathermal ions ahead of a dipolarization front. The flow acceleration stems from a net Lorentz force, resulting from reduced pressure gradients within a pressure pile-up region ahead of the front. Suprathermal precursor ions result from, typically multiple reflections at the front. Low-energy ions also become accelerated due to inertial drift in the direction of the small precursor electric field.
Studying electric fields in dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerak, Ernie
2014-11-01
In Earth's magnetotail, sharp increases in the magnetic field known as dipolarization fronts are associated with high-speed plasma flows that connect Earth's ionosphere via electric currents. Some aspects of these dipolarization fronts have puzzled scientists; in particular, the dip in magnetic field that occurs just ahead of the dipolarization front layer is not well understood. Sun et al. analyze observations made using the Cluster satellites to elucidate the details of electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts. The study shows that a type of electric current known as a Hall current dominates in the dipolarization front region and in the region where the magnetic field dips, but this current flows in opposite directions in these two regions.
Control of dipolar relaxation in external fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquiou, B.; Bismut, G.; Beaufils, Q.; Crubellier, A.; Maréchal, E.; Pedri, P.; Vernac, L.; Gorceix, O.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.
2010-04-01
We study dipolar relaxation in both ultracold thermal and Bose-condensed Cr atom gases. We show three different ways to control dipolar relaxation, making use of either a static magnetic field, an oscillatory magnetic field, or an optical lattice to reduce the dimensionality of the gas from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D). Although dipolar relaxation generally increases as a function of a static magnetic-field intensity, we find a range of nonzero magnetic-field intensities where dipolar relaxation is strongly reduced. We use this resonant reduction to accurately determine the S=6 scattering length of Cr atoms: a6=103±4a0. We compare this new measurement to another new determination of a6, which we perform by analyzing the precise spectroscopy of a Feshbach resonance in d-wave collisions, yielding a6=102.5±0.4a0. These two measurements provide, by far, the most precise determination of a6 to date. We then show that, although dipolar interactions are long-range interactions, dipolar relaxation only involves the incoming partial wave l=0 for large enough magnetic-field intensities, which has interesting consequences on the stability of dipolar Fermi gases. We then study ultracold Cr gases in a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice resulting in a collection of independent 2D gases. We show that dipolar relaxation is modified when the atoms collide in reduced dimensionality at low magnetic-field intensities, and that the corresponding dipolar relaxation rate parameter is reduced by a factor up to 7 compared to the 3D case. Finally, we study dipolar relaxation in the presence of rf oscillating magnetic fields, and we show that both the output channel energy and the transition amplitude can be controlled by means of the rf frequency and Rabi frequency.
Reorientation of a dipolar monolayer and dipolar solvent.
Yi, Taeil; Lichter, Seth
2014-06-01
The reliable persistence of an adhered monolayer film on a substrate is critical for film function. The process by which monolayers degrade or disperse remains unclear. Our study investigates the properties and dynamics of a solute of dipolar molecules initially adhered as a monolayer on a substrate in a water-like Stockmayer solvent. We find that for a rigid solute, both the solute and solvent show qualitatively different dynamics than for a flexible solute and its solvent. For the rigid solute, spreading is hindered and solvent orientation is more pronounced. We formulate a simple kinetic model that shows qualitatively similar results to the molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of the monolayer. Simple kinetics of molecules on substrates is a starting point for understanding important industrial monolayer applications and complex interactions on membranes.
Reorientation of a dipolar monolayer and dipolar solvent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Taeil; Lichter, Seth
2014-06-01
The reliable persistence of an adhered monolayer film on a substrate is critical for film function. The process by which monolayers degrade or disperse remains unclear. Our study investigates the properties and dynamics of a solute of dipolar molecules initially adhered as a monolayer on a substrate in a water-like Stockmayer solvent. We find that for a rigid solute, both the solute and solvent show qualitatively different dynamics than for a flexible solute and its solvent. For the rigid solute, spreading is hindered and solvent orientation is more pronounced. We formulate a simple kinetic model that shows qualitatively similar results to the molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of the monolayer. Simple kinetics of molecules on substrates is a starting point for understanding important industrial monolayer applications and complex interactions on membranes.
Dipolar fluids near a dielectric surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ziwei; Luijten, Erik
The behavior of dipolar fluids near an interface is of fundamental importance in a broad variety of fields, including colloid chemistry, electrochemistry, biochemistry and surface science. The structural properties of such a fluid are affected not only by the presence of surface charge, but also by a dielectric mismatch across the interface. Using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that explicitly take into account dielectric effects, we investigate a prototypical dipolar fluid. In addition to the organization of the fluid, characterized through the dipolar orientations and spatial correlations, we also calculate the surface tension by employing simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble.
Dipolar excitation in the third stability region.
Konenkov, Nikolai V; Chernyak, Eugenii Ya; Stepanov, Vladimir A
2016-01-01
Dipole resonant excitation of ions creates instability bands which follow iso-β lines where β is the characteristic exponent (stability parameter). Instability bands are exited most effectively on the fundamental frequency π= βΩ/2. Here π is the angle resonance frequency of the dipolar voltage applied to x or y pair rods of the analyzer, and Ω is the angle frequency of the main drive voltage. Our goal is to study the mass peak shape in the third stability region with dipolar resonance excitation of the instability band with respect to the resonance frequency π and the dipolar potential amplitude. Numerical integration of the ion motion equations with a given ion source emittance is used to investigate peak shapes and ion transmission. We show that it is possible to vary the resolution power at any part of the third stability region. A change of the dipolar potential phase leads to a periodical variation of the resolution with period π.The most effective dipolar excitation in the y direction is along βy near the stability boundary. The mass peak shape is calculated also for a quadrupole with round rods. The best peak shape (small tails and high resolution) takes place for the rod set with r/r0=1.130. Dipolar excitation increases the transmission by approximately 5-10% at a given resolution.
Independent EEG Sources Are Dipolar
Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott
2012-01-01
Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition ‘dipolarity’ defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308
Dipolar correlations in liquid water
Zhang, Cui; Galli, Giulia
2014-08-28
We present an analysis of the dipolar correlations in water as a function of temperature and density and in the presence of simple ionic solutes, carried out using molecular dynamics simulations and empirical potentials. We show that the dipole-dipole correlation function of the liquid exhibits sizable oscillations over nanodomains of about 1.5 nm radius, with several isosbestic points as a function of temperature; the size of the nanodomains is nearly independent on temperature and density, between 240 and 400 K and 0.9 and 1.3 g/cm{sup 3}, but it is substantially affected by the presence of solvated ions. In the same range of thermodynamic conditions, the decay time (τ) of the system dipole moment varies by a factor of about 30 and 1.5, as a function of temperature and density, respectively. At 300 K, we observed a maximum in τ as a function of density, and a corresponding shallow maximum in the tetrahedral order parameter, in a range where the diffusion coefficient, the pressure and the dielectric constant increase monotonically.
Dipolarization front and current disruption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lui, A. T. Y.
2016-10-01
The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.
Planar dipolar polymer brush: field theoretical investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahalik, Jyoti; Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby
2015-03-01
Physical properties of polymer brushes bearing monomers with permanent dipole moments and immersed in a polar solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). It is found that mismatch between the permanent dipole moments of the monomer and the solvent plays a significant role in determining the height of the polymer brush. Sign as well as magnitude of the mismatch determines the extent of collapse of the polymer brush. The mismatch in the dipole moments also affects the force-distance relations and interpenetration of polymers in opposing planar brushes. In particular, an attractive force between the opposing dipolar brushes is predicted for stronger mismatch parameter. Furthermore, effects of added monovalent salt on the structure of dipolar brushes will also be presented. This investigation highlights the significance of dipolar interactions in affecting the physical properties of polymer brushes. Csmd division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.
Second virial coefficients of dipolar hard spheres.
Philipse, Albert P; Kuipers, Bonny W M
2010-08-18
An asymptotic formula is reported for the second virial coefficient B(2) of a dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, in zero external field, for strongly coupled dipolar interactions. This simple formula, together with the one for the weak-coupling B(2), provides an accurate prediction of the second virial coefficient for a wide range of dipole moments, including those that are experimentally accessible in magnetite ferrofluids. The weak-coupling B(2) also yields an estimate of the magnetic moment minimally needed for isotropic gas-liquid phase-separation, if any, in the DHS fluid.
Micromechanics of Dipolar Chains Using Optical Tweezers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Furst, Eric M.; Gast, Alice P.
1999-01-01
Here we present our initial study of the micromechanical properties of dipolar chains and columns in a magnetorheological (MR) suspension. Using dual-trap optical tweezers, we are able to directly measure the deformation of the dipolar chains parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. We observe the field dependence of the mechanical properties such as resistance to deformation, chain reorganization, and rupturing of the chains. These forms of energy dissipation are important for understanding and tuning the yield stress and rheological behavior of an MR suspension.
Concertedness of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haque, M. Serajul
1984-01-01
There are two conflicting views about the mechanism of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to multibonds. To reconcile these viewpoints a concerted, spin-paired, diradical mechanism, based on valence bond theory, is proposed. Each of these three mechanisms is discussed. (JN)
A statistical and event study of magnetotail dipolarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, Daniel; Volwerk, Martin; Nakamura, Rumi; Heyn, Martin
A statistical study of 5 years of Cluster data has been performed on dipolarizations of the Earth's magnetotail. The dipolarization events are selected automatically using criteria in plasma beta and magnetic field configuration. In the data set both events with and without high-speed flows are included. We have performed super-posed epoch analysis to obtain the temporal profile of the dipolarization. It was found that the temporal scale of the dipolarization is anticorrilated with the plasma flows. The relationship between the flows and the spatial scale of the dipolarization will be discussed. We also study the radial evolution of the dipolarization by comparing characteristics at 19 Re (from years 2001/2/3) and with observations at 14 Re (from years 2006/7). For selected events with strong negative Bz turnings before dipolarization, we will perform a detailed event study.
A statiscital and event study of magnetotail dipolarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, Daniel; Volwerk, Martin; Nakamura, Rumi; Heyn, Martin
2010-05-01
A statistical study of 5 years of Cluster data has been performed on dipolarizations of the Earth's magnetotail. The dipolarization events are selected automatically using criteria in plasma beta and magnetic field configuration. In the data set both events with and without high-speed flows are included. We have performed super-posed epoch analysis to obtain the temporal profile of the dipolarization. It was found that the temporal scale of the dipolarization is anticorrilated with the plasma flows. The relationship between the flows and the spatial scale of the dipolarization will be discussed. We also study the radial evolution of the dipolarization by comparing characteristics at 19 Re (from years 2001/2/3) with observations at 14 Re (from years 2006/7). For selected events with strong negative Bz turnings before dipolarization, we will perform an a detailed event study.
Toroidal dipolar responses in a planar metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Linyan; Li, Minhua; Yang, Helin; Huang, Xiaojun; Wu, Song
2014-10-01
Both the magnetic toroidal dipolar (MTD) response and electric toroidal dipolar (ETD) response have been achieved and studied in the microwave region by designing a feasible planar metamaterial. By changing the polarized direction of a normally incident wave, two different coupling modes are observed, and therefore MTD and ETD responses can be achieved accordingly. It is also confirmed by scattered powers for various multipole moments and field distributions that they dominate over other traditional multipole responses at 5.69 GHz and 11.69 GHz, respectively. In view of the design feasibility of planar metamaterial, these resonance-enhanced MTD and ETD responses could provide an avenue for various interesting phenomena associated with the elusive toroidal moments.
Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Abanin, Dmitry A.
2017-07-01
We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017), 10.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.
Dimensional crossover in dipolar magnetic layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulenda, M.; Täuber, U. C.; Schwabl, F.
2000-01-01
We investigate the static critical behaviour of a uniaxial magnetic layer, with finite thickness L in one direction, yet infinitely extended in the remaining d dimensions. The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction is taken into account. We apply a variant of Wilson's momentum shell renormalization group approach to describe the crossover between the critical behaviour of the 3D Ising, 2D Ising, 3D uniaxial dipolar, and the 2D uniaxial dipolar universality classes. The corresponding renormalization group fixed points are in addition to different effective dimensionalities characterized by distinct analytic structures of the propagator, and are consequently associated with varying upper critical dimensions. While the limiting cases can be discussed by means of dimensional icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> expansions with respect to the appropriate upper critical dimensions, respectively, the crossover features must be addressed in terms of the renormalization group flow trajectories at fixed dimensionality d .
Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases
Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L.
2010-03-15
We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.
Magnetic relaxation in dipolar magnetic nanoparticle clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hovorka, Ondrej; Barker, Joe; Chantrell, Roy; Friedman, Gary; York-Drexel Collaboration
2013-03-01
Understanding the role of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems is of fundamental importance in magnetic recording, for optimizing the hysteresis heating contribution in the hyperthermia cancer treatment in biomedicine, or for biological and chemical sensing, for example. In this talk, we discuss our related efforts to quantify the influence of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in small clusters of MNPs. Setting up the master equation and solving the associated eigenvalue problem, we identify the observable relaxation time scale spectra for various types of MNP clusters, and demonstrate qualitatively different spectral characteristics depending on the point group of symmetries of the particle arrangement within the cluster - being solely a dipolar interaction effect. Our findings provide insight into open questions related to magnetic relaxation in bulk MNP systems, and may prove to be also of practical relevance, e.g., for improving robustness of methodologies in biological and chemical sensing. OH gratefully acknowledges support from a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme under grant agreement PIEF-GA-2010-273014
Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons.
Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen
2016-06-08
The possible phases and the nanoscale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma, is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature Tc ≈ 4.8 K, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting condensed dark ground state.
Theory of substorm onset and dipolarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, C. Z.; Zaharia, S.
2003-04-01
We present a theory of substorm onset and dipolarization. At the end of the substorm growth phase, the plasma pressure profile steepens and a thin current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet around the local midnight with a finite radial and azimuthal domain. In the current sheet the plasma beta becomes about 50 or larger and magnetic field curvature is enhanced, and the kinetic ballooning instability (KBI) is excited with amplitude localized at the maximum plasma beta region. The KBI explains the low frequency (about 1 min period) instability observed by AMPTE/CCE with period on the order of 1 min is observed about 2-3 minutes before the substorm onset [Cheng and Lui, GRL, 1998]. The KBI is responsible for substorm onset because as it grows to a large amplitude with Δ B/B > 01, it causes an enhanced westward ion drift during the explosive growth phase that lasts about 30 sec. The KBI then excites higher frequency instabilities, and the plasma and magnetic field become strongly turbulent. The plasma transport in both radial and azimuthal direction caused by the turbulence relaxes the steep plasma pressure profile during the expansion phase. As the plasma pressure profile relaxes, the magnetic field configuration dipolarizes and returns to the pre-substorm more dipole-like geometry. Theories of current sheet formation, KBI mechanism and dipolarization will be presented along with numerical solutions of 3D magnetospheric structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhi-De; Liang, J.-Q.; Shen, Shun-Qing
2002-09-01
Renormalized tunnel splitting with a finite distribution in the biaxial spin model for molecular magnets is obtained by taking into account the dipolar interaction of enviromental spins. Oscillation of the resonant tunnel splitting with a transverse magnetic field along the hard axis is smeared by the finite distribution, which subsequently affects the quantum steps of the hysteresis curve evaluated in terms of the modified Landau-Zener model of spin flipping induced by the sweeping field. We conclude that the dipolar-dipolar interaction drives decoherence of quantum tunneling in the molecular magnet Fe8, which explains why the quenching points of tunnel splitting between odd and even resonant tunneling predicted theoretically were not observed experimentally.
A statistical and event study of magnetotail dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, D.; Volwerk, M.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Heyn, M.
2011-09-01
A study of dipolarization fronts of the Earth's magnetotail has been performed using seven years (2001-2007) of Cluster data. Events both with and without high-speed earthward flows are included. A superposed epoch analysis of the data shows that the dipolarization is preceeded by a decrease of Bz before the increase. The duration of the dipolarization tends to be decreasing with increasing velocity of the plasma flows. The thickness of the dipolarization front is on average 1.8 plasma inertial lengths, independent of the plasma velocity. We find that the events fall into two categories: Earthward and tailward moving dipolarizations. The dipolarization fronts can be assumed to be tangential discontinuities and the currents on the front have mainly a perpendicular component.
Low-Density Fluid Phase of Dipolar Hard Spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sear, Richard P.
1996-03-01
Unexpectedly, recent computer simulation studies [Weis and Levesque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2729 (1993); Leeuwen and Smit, ibid. 71, 3991 (1993)] failed to find a liquid phase for dipolar hard spheres. We argue that the liquid was not observed because the dipolar spheres form long chains which interact only weakly. To support this argument we derive a simple theory for noninteracting chains of dipolar spheres and show that it provides a reasonable description of the low-density fluid phase.
Ultracold Dipolar Molecules Composed of Strongly Magnetic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Aikawa, K.; Baier, S.; Grimm, R.; Petrov, A.; Kotochigova, S.; Quéméner, G.; Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Ferlaino, F.
2015-11-01
In a combined experimental and theoretical effort, we demonstrate a novel type of dipolar system made of ultracold bosonic dipolar molecules with large magnetic dipole moments. Our dipolar molecules are formed in weakly bound Feshbach molecular states from a sample of strongly magnetic bosonic erbium atoms. We show that the ultracold magnetic molecules can carry very large dipole moments and we demonstrate how to create and characterize them, and how to change their orientation. Finally, we confirm that the relaxation rates of molecules in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry can be reduced by using the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction and that this reduction follows a universal dipolar behavior.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas.
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
Anisotropic Superfluidity in a Dipolar Bose Gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
Two dipolar atoms in a harmonic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ołdziejewski, Rafał; Górecki, Wojciech; Rzążewski, Kazimierz
2016-05-01
Two identical dipolar atoms moving in a harmonic trap without an external magnetic field are investigated. Using the algebra of angular momentum we reduce the problem to a simple numerics. We show that the internal spin-spin interactions between the atoms couple to the orbital angular momentum causing an analogue of the Einstein-de Haas effect. We show a possibility of adiabatically pumping our system from the s-wave to the d-wave relative motion. The effective spin-orbit coupling occurs at anti-crossings of the energy levels.
Aging solitons in photorefractive dipolar glasses.
Parravicini, J; Pierangeli, D; Di Mei, F; Conti, C; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E
2013-12-16
We study experimentally the aging of optical spatial solitons in a dipolar glass hosted by a nanodisordered sample of photorefractive potassium-sodium-tantalate-niobate (KNTN). As the system ages, the waves erratically explore varying strengths of the nonlinear response, causing them to break up and scatter. We show that this process can still lead to solitons, but in a generalized form for which the changing response is compensated by changing the normalized wave size and intensity so as to maintain fixed the optical waveform.
Influence of dipolar interactions on hyperthermia properties of ferromagnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serantes, D.; Baldomir, D.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Simeonidis, K.; Angelakeris, M.; Natividad, E.; Castro, M.; Mediano, A.; Chen, D.-X.; Sanchez, A.; Balcells, LI.; Martínez, B.
2010-10-01
We show both experimental evidences and Monte Carlo modeling of the effects of interparticle dipolar interactions on the hysteresis losses. Results indicate that an increase in the intensity of dipolar interactions produce a decrease in the magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis losses, thus diminishing the hyperthermia output. These findings may have important clinical implications for cancer treatment.
Current system associated with small dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palin, Laurianne; Jacquey, Christian; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Connors, Martin; Sergeev, Victor; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Nakamura, Rumi; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Singer, Howard; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Turc, Lucile
2015-04-01
We present a case study of eight successive Plasma Sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as « Bursty Bulk Flows » or « Dipolarisation Fronts ») associated with small individual BZGSM increases on 31 March 2009 (0200 - 0900 UT). This series of events happens during generally very quiet SW conditions, over a period of 7 hours preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few (1 or 2) Rapid Flux Transfer events (Eh > 2mV/m), whereas the large amplitude ones engulf many more RFT events. All PS activations are associated with a small and localised current wedge(« wedgelet ») which seems to be the consequence of RFT arrival in the near tail. Ground magnetic perturbations affect a larger part of the contracted auroral oval for the events with more RTF event embedded (> 5). Dipolarisation Fronts with very low amplitude, a type usually not included in statistical studies, are of particular interest because we found them associated with clear wedgelets and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. This exceptional dataset highlights the role of flow bursts in the magnetotail and brings up the question: are we in this case observing the smallest form of a substorm ?
Attraction between Opposing Planar Dipolar Polymer Brushes
Mahalik, J. P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev
2017-08-01
In this paper, we use a field theory approach to study the effects of permanent dipoles on interpenetration and free energy changes as a function of distance between two identical planar polymer brushes. Melts (i.e., solvent-free) and solvated brushes made up of polymers grafted on nonadsorbing substrates are studied. In particular, the weak coupling limit of the dipolar interactions is considered, which leads to concentration-dependent pairwise interactions, and the effects of orientational order are neglected. It is predicted that a gradual increase in the dipole moment of the polymer segments can lead to attractive interactions between the brushes at intermediatemore » separation distances. Finally, because classical theory of polymer brushes based on the strong stretching limit (SSL) and the standard self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulations using the Flory’s χ parameter always predicts repulsive interactions at all separations, our work highlights the importance of dipolar interactions in tailoring and accurately predicting forces between polar polymeric interfaces in contact with each other.« less
Critical Time Crystals in Dipolar Systems.
Ho, Wen Wei; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail D; Abanin, Dmitry A
2017-07-07
We analyze the quantum dynamics of periodically driven, disordered systems in the presence of long-range interactions. Focusing on the stability of discrete time crystalline (DTC) order in such systems, we use a perturbative procedure to evaluate its lifetime. For 3D systems with dipolar interactions, we show that the corresponding decay is parametrically slow, implying that robust, long-lived DTC order can be obtained. We further predict a sharp crossover from the stable DTC regime into a regime where DTC order is lost, reminiscent of a phase transition. These results are in good agreement with the recent experiments utilizing a dense, dipolar spin ensemble in diamond [Nature (London) 543, 221 (2017)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21426]. They demonstrate the existence of a novel, critical DTC regime that is stabilized not by many-body localization but rather by slow, critical dynamics. Our analysis shows that the DTC response can be used as a sensitive probe of nonequilibrium quantum matter.
Particle energization by a substorm dipolarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabin, K.; Kalugin, G.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.
2017-01-01
Magnetotail dipolarizations, often associated with substorms, produce significant energetic particle enhancements in the nighttime magnetosphere. In this paper, we apply our recently developed magnetotail dipolarization model to the problem of energizing electrons and ions. Our model is two-dimensional in the meridional plane and is characterized by the ability to precisely control the location of the transition from the dipole-like to tail-like magnetic fields. Both magnetic and electric fields are calculated, self-consistently, as the transition zone retreats farther into the tail and the area around the Earth occupied by dipole-like lines increases in size. These fields are used to calculate the motion of electrons and ions and changes in their energies. We consider the energizing effects of the fields restricted to ±15° and ±30° sectors around the midnight meridian, as well the axisymmetric case. Energies of some electrons increase by a factor of 25, which is more than enough to produce observable ionospheric signatures. Electrons are treated using the Guiding Center approximation, while protons and heavier particles generally require description based on the Lorentz equations.
Specific heat anomaly in relaxor ferroelectrics and dipolar glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.
2017-03-01
The temperature and electric field dependence of the specific heat of relaxor ferroelectrics and dipolar glasses is investigated by means of a Landau-type theoretical model. It is shown that the dipolar specific heat, which is due to the randomly interacting polar nanoregions in relaxors and electric dipoles in dipolar glasses, is negative in a temperature region below the permittivity maximum. Also, it follows that for sufficiently low values of the field, where the induced polarization shows a quasi linear field dependence, the dipolar specific heat is proportional to the second temperature derivative of the dielectric polarization. This quantity can be extracted from the experimental temperature profile of the polarization, thus enabling an indirect experimental estimate of the negative specific heat, which is demonstrated for a set of representative relaxor and dipolar glass systems.
Two fundamentally different drivers of dipolarizations at Saturn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Z. H.; Grodent, D.; Ray, L. C.; Rae, I. J.; Coates, A. J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Lui, A. T.; Radioti, A.; Waite, J. H.; Jones, G. H.; Guo, R. L.; Dunn, W. R.
2017-04-01
Solar wind energy is transferred to planetary magnetospheres via magnetopause reconnection, driving magnetospheric dynamics. At giant planets like Saturn, rapid rotation and internal plasma sources from geologically active moons also drive magnetospheric dynamics. In both cases, magnetic energy is regularly released via magnetospheric current redistributions that usually result in a change of the global magnetic field topology (named substorm dipolarization at Earth). Besides this substorm dipolarization, the front boundary of the reconnection outflow can also lead to a strong but localized magnetic dipolarization, named a reconnection front. The enhancement of the north-south magnetic component is usually adopted as the indicator of magnetic dipolarization. However, this field increase alone cannot distinguish between the two fundamentally different mechanisms. Using measurements from Cassini, we present multiple cases whereby we identify the two distinct types of dipolarization at Saturn. A comparison between Earth and Saturn provides new insight to revealing the energy dissipation in planetary magnetospheres.
Orientational structure of dipolar hard-spherical colloids.
Alarcón-Waess, O; Diaz-Herrera, E; Gil-Villegas, A
2002-03-01
We have studied the orientational structure of a dipolar hard-spherical colloid on a homogeneous isotropic phase. The results are expressed as a function of the dipolar strength mu and volume fraction phi of dipolar colloids, and the refractive index of the scattering medium, n(s). The study is based on the self-correlation of the orientation density of the dipolar colloids, which is the static orientational structure factor [F(q)], where q is the wave vector. The importance of this quantity is that for very low phi values, it can be probed in a depolarized light scattering experiment. We have found that the structure of the suspension is better observed for high n(s). F(q) presents a different behavior for dilute and dense concentrations, it is also observed that the position of its minimum depends on phi. The response of a dipolar colloid due to its collective orientational behavior is also studied, using as an "ordering parameter" the static orientational structure factor at q=0[F(q=0)]. The study is performed for isochores as a function of mu. We have divided the analysis into five regimes, from very low to very high phi; values, i.e., phi=0.005 24, 0.1, 0.2, 0.35, and 0.45. Our analysis suggests that the dipolar colloid evolves to an orientationally ordered phase when the dipolar strength is increased, for all concentrations except for the lowest value case, phi=0.005 24. When phi=0.1 the dipolar colloid reaches the transition suddenly, whereas for the very low regime, the slope of F(q=0) first increases as if the dipolar colloid would evolve to an orientationally ordered phase; but near the transition the slope is inverted, resulting in a no global orientational order. Thus, our results suggest that in the very low regime a dipolar colloid may have a reentrant transition.
Dielectric metamaterials with toroidal dipolar response
Basharin, Alexey A.; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.; ...
2015-03-27
Toroidal multipoles are the terms missing in the standard multipole expansion; they are usually overlooked due to their relatively weak coupling to the electromagnetic fields. Here, we propose and theoretically study all-dielectric metamaterials of a special class that represent a simple electromagnetic system supporting toroidal dipolar excitations in the THz part of the spectrum. In addition, we show that resonant transmission and reflection of such metamaterials is dominated by toroidal dipole scattering, the neglect of which would result in a misunderstanding interpretation of the metamaterials’ macroscopic response. Due to the unique field configuration of the toroidal mode, the proposed metamaterialsmore » could serve as a platform for sensing or enhancement of light absorption and optical nonlinearities.« less
Dipolar extracellular potentials generated by axonal projections
Liu, Ji; Kuokkanen, Paula Tuulia; Carr, Catherine Emily; Wagner, Hermann
2017-01-01
Extracellular field potentials (EFPs) are an important source of information in neuroscience, but their physiological basis is in many cases still a matter of debate. Axonal sources are typically discounted in modeling and data analysis because their contributions are assumed to be negligible. Here, we established experimentally and theoretically that contributions of axons to EFPs can be significant. Modeling action potentials propagating along axons, we showed that EFPs were prominent in the presence of terminal zones where axons branch and terminate in close succession, as found in many brain regions. Our models predicted a dipolar far field and a polarity reversal at the center of the terminal zone. We confirmed these predictions using EFPs from the barn owl auditory brainstem where we recorded in nucleus laminaris using a multielectrode array. These results demonstrate that axonal terminal zones can produce EFPs with considerable amplitude and spatial reach. PMID:28871959
Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.
2009-03-01
Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T < Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.
Fragmented-condensate solid of dipolar excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, S. V.
2017-05-01
We discuss a possible link between the recently observed macroscopic ordering of ultracold dipolar excitons (MOES) and the phenomenon of supersolidity. In the dilute limit we predict a stable supersolid state for a quasi-one-dimensional system of bosonic dipoles characterized by two- and three-body contact repulsion. We phenomenologically extend our theory to the strongly-correlated regime and find a critical value of the contact interaction parameter at which the supersolid exhibits a quantum phase transition to a fragmented state. The wavelength of the fragmented-condensate solid is defined by the balance between the quantum pressure and the entropy due to fluctuations of the relative phases between the fragments. Our model appears to be in good agreement with the relevant experimental data, including the very recent results on commensurability effect and wavelength of the MOES.
Dielectric Metamaterials with Toroidal Dipolar Response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basharin, Alexey A.; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Savinov, Vassili; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2015-01-01
Toroidal multipoles are the terms missing in the standard multipole expansion; they are usually overlooked due to their relatively weak coupling to the electromagnetic fields. Here, we propose and theoretically study all-dielectric metamaterials of a special class that represent a simple electromagnetic system supporting toroidal dipolar excitations in the THz part of the spectrum. We show that resonant transmission and reflection of such metamaterials is dominated by toroidal dipole scattering, the neglect of which would result in a misunderstanding interpretation of the metamaterials' macroscopic response. Because of the unique field configuration of the toroidal mode, the proposed metamaterials could serve as a platform for sensing or enhancement of light absorption and optical nonlinearities.
Self-replicating devices with dipolar colloids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dempster, Joshua; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica
2014-03-01
Ubiquitous in nature, self-replication on the nano-scale has been challenging to produce in the laboratory. Recent efforts with DNA tiles have shown great success in correctly replicating tile-sequence templates but require frequent manipulation by the experimenter. We propose a scheme for achieving self-replication with dipolar colloids. Dimers in these systems replicate exponentially over millisecond time scales with no intervention other than periodic energy pulses supplied by external fields. We develop a general formalism governing the rate of self-replication as a function of the interval between pulses. Results from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement with the growth rates predicted by simple models of the replication process. We thank the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for their support under Award FA9550-10-1-0167.
Mixed parity pairing in a dipolar gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruun, G. M.; Hainzl, C.; Laux, M.
2016-10-01
We show that fermionic dipoles in a two-layer geometry form Cooper pairs with both singlet and triplet components when they are tilted with respect to the normal of the planes. The mixed parity pairing arises because the interaction between dipoles in the two different layers is not inversion symmetric. We use an efficient eigenvalue approach to calculate the zero-temperature phase diagram of the system as a function of the dipole orientation and the layer distance. The phase diagram contains purely triplet as well as mixed singlet and triplet superfluid phases. We show in detail how the pair wave function for dipoles residing in different layers smoothly changes from singlet to triplet symmetry as the orientation of the dipoles is changed. Our results indicate that dipolar quantum gases can be used to unambiguously observe mixed parity pairing.
Droplets of Trapped Quantum Dipolar Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macia, A.; Sánchez-Baena, J.; Boronat, J.; Mazzanti, F.
2016-11-01
Strongly interacting systems of dipolar bosons in three dimensions confined by harmonic traps are analyzed using the exact path integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. By adding a repulsive two-body potential, we find a narrow window of interaction parameters leading to stable ground-state configurations of droplets in a crystalline arrangement. We find that this effect is entirely due to the interaction present in the Hamiltonian without resorting to additional stabilizing mechanisms or specific three-body forces. We analyze the number of droplets formed in terms of the Hamiltonian parameters, relate them to the corresponding s -wave scattering length, and discuss a simple scaling model for the density profiles. Our results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments showing a quantum Rosensweig instability in trapped Dy atoms.
Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wei-Jie; Fu, Suiyan; Parks, George K.; Pu, Zuyin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Jiang; Yao, Zhonghua; Fu, Huishan; Shi, Quanqi
2014-07-01
Electric fields associated with dipolarization fronts (DFs) have been investigated in the magnetotail plasma sheet using Cluster observations. We have studied each term in the generalized Ohm's law using data obtained from the multispacecraft Cluster. Our results show that in the plasma flow frame, electric fields are directed normal to the DF in the magnetic dip region ahead of the DF as well as in the DF layer but in opposite directions. Case and statistical studies show that the Hall electric field is important while the electron pressure gradient term is much smaller. The ions decouple from the magnetic field in the DF layer and dip region (E + Vi×B ≠ 0), whereas electrons remain frozen-in (E + Ve×B=∇pe/nee).
Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer.
Guo, Dong; Knight, Troy E; McCusker, James K
2011-12-23
Conservation of angular momentum is a familiar tenet in science but has seldom been invoked to understand (or predict) chemical processes. We have developed a general formalism based on Wigner's original ideas concerning angular momentum conservation to interpret the photo-induced reactivity of two molecular donor-acceptor assemblies with physical properties synthetically tailored to facilitate intramolecular energy transfer. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data establishing excited-state energy transfer from a rhenium(I)-based charge-transfer state to a chromium(III) acceptor can be fully accounted for by Förster theory, whereas the corresponding cobalt(III) adduct does not undergo an analogous reaction despite having a larger cross-section for dipolar coupling. Because this pronounced difference in reactivity is easily explained within the context of the angular momentum conservation model, this relatively simple construct may provide a means for systematizing a broad range of chemical reactions.
Energetic electron acceleration during dipolarization events in Mercury's magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Baker, D. N.; Raines, J. M.; Lawrence, D. J.
2016-12-01
Energetic particle bursts in association with dipolarization events within Mercury's magnetotail have been a source of curiosity and controversy since Mariner 10. Mariner 10 observed particle events analogous to injection and dipolarization events at Earth, but instrumental effects prevented an unambiguous determination of species, flux, and energy spectrum. At Earth, such energetic particle events closely correlate with sudden increases in the northward component of the near-tail magnetic field, termed dipolarization events, typically near substorm onset. Results from the Energetic Particle Spectrometer aboard MESSENGER have shown that energetic particle bursts at Mercury are composed entirely of electrons with energies from 30 - 300 keV. Here we use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) high time resolution (10 ms) energetic electron (>50 keV) measurements and the Magnetometer data to discover the relationship between energetic electron bursts and dipolarizations of the magnetic field in Mercury's magnetotail. From March 2013 to April 2015, we identified 472 electron burst events within the magnetotail, of which 150 were closely associated with dipolarization. The dipolarizations were detected on the basis of their rapid ( 1 s) increase in the northward tail field (ΔBz 30 nT), which persist for 10 s. The GRS energetic electron bursts are typically coincident with the leading edge of the dipolarization event and last for 5 s. Surprisingly, these events display a strong dawn-dusk asymmetry with more events on the dawn side of the magnetotail.
Heating and acceleration of charged particles during magnetic dipolarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorenko, E. E.; Kronberg, E. A.; Daly, P. W.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we analyzed the thermal and energy characteristics of the plasma components observed during the magnetic dipolarizations in the near tail by the Cluster satellites. It was previously found that the first dipolarization the ratio of proton and electron temperatures ( T p/ T e) was 6-7. At the time of the observation of the first dipolarization front T p/ T e decreases by up to 3-4. The minimum value T p/ T e ( 2.0) is observed behind the front during the turbulent dipolarization phase. Decreases in T p/ T e observed at this time are associated with an increase in T e, whereas the proton temperature either decreases or remains unchanged. Decreases of the value T p/ T e during the magnetic dipolarizations coincide with increase in wave activity in the wide frequency band up to electron gyrofrequency f ce. High-frequency modes can resonantly interact with electrons causing their heating. The acceleration of ions with different masses up to energies of several hundred kiloelectron-volts is also observed during dipolarizations. In this case, the index of the energy spectrum decreases (a fraction of energetic ions increases) during the enhancement of low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations at frequencies that correspond to the gyrofrequency of this ion component. Thus, we can conclude that the processes of the interaction between waves and particles play an important role in increasing the energy of plasma particles during magnetic dipolarizations.
Vortex Lattices in Rotating Atomic Bose Gases with Dipolar Interactions
Cooper, N.R.; Rezayi, E.H.; Simon, S.H.
2005-11-11
We show that dipolar interactions have dramatic effects on the ground states of rotating atomic Bose gases in the weak-interaction limit. With increasing dipolar interaction (relative to the net contact interaction), the mean field, or high filling factor, ground state undergoes a series of transitions between vortex lattices of different symmetries: triangular, square, 'stripe', and 'bubble' phases. We also study the effects of dipolar interactions on the quantum fluids at low filling factors. We show that the incompressible Laughlin state at filling factor {nu}=1/2 is replaced by compressible stripe and bubble phases.
Heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 NQR pulsed spin locking.
Malone, M W; Sauer, K L
2014-01-01
We investigate theoretically and experimentally the role of broadening due to heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 nuclear quadrupole resonance pulsed spin locking. We find the experimental conditions where heteronuclear dipolar coupling is refocused by a standard multipulse sequence. This experimental condition allows us to extend our previously reported ability to measure the homonuclear dipolar coupling of powder samples to include substances that have heteronuclear coupling. These results are useful for designing substance detection algorithms, and for performing sample characterization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar excitons in quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timofeev, V. B.; Gorbunov, A. V.
2009-02-01
The experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dipolar (spatially-indirect) excitons in the lateral traps in GaAs/AlGaAs Schottky-diode heterostructures with double and single quantum wells are presented. The condensed part of dipolar excitons under detection in the far zone is placed in k-space in the range which is almost two orders of magnitude less than thermal exciton wave vector. BEC occurs spontaneously in a reservoir of thermalized excitons. Luminescence images of Bose-condensate of dipolar excitons exhibit along perimeter of circular trap axially symmetrical spatial structures of equidistant bright spots which strongly depend on excitation power and temperature. By means of two-beam interference experiments with the use of cw and pulsed photoexcitation it was found that the state of dipolar exciton Bose-condensate is spatially coherent and the whole patterned luminescence configuration in real space is described by a common wave function.
Did the Moon have a dipolar field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutin, D.; Arkani-Hamed, J.
2012-12-01
Did the Moon have a dipolar core field? Daniel Boutin1 (dboutin003@sympatico.ca) Jafar Arkani-Hamed2 (jafar@physics.utoronto.ca) 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A-2A7, Canada 2Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada The lack of a global scale magnetic field at present and the observed strong magnetic anomalies of the Moon suggest that the magnetic source bodies have been magnetized in the past. The origin of the magnetizing field is poorly understood. Several scenarios have been proposed including a strong core dynamo [1] and the external origin due to giant impacts such as the enhancement of an existing weak field by impact-generated plasmas or a transient field possibly generated during the impacts [2,3]. It is also possible that the existing field was not very strong but the source bodies are highly magnetic [4]. Here we test the hypothesis that the magnetizing field was of internal origin using two sets of data: the 150 degree spherical harmonic representation of the lunar crustal field by Purucker [5] and the raw magnetic data acquired by the Lunar Prospector magnetometer. Although 17 isolated magnetic anomalies are easily identified on the basis of the spherical harmonic representation, we model only 10 anomalies because of the lack of sufficient raw data over others. The isolated magnetic anomalies allow us to model each anomaly by a simple uniformly magnetized elliptical source body. We model the radial component of the magnetic field following the procedure adopted by Boutin and Arkani-Hamed [6] for the martian magnetic anomalies, and determine the three components of the magnetization vector. Seven out of 10 anomalies result in consistent source bodies obtained using the two sets of data. Assuming that each of the source bodies is magnetized by a dipole core field, the paleomagnetic pole of the Moon is determined on the basis of the corresponding magnetization vector. The resulting paleomagnetic pole
Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas
2016-05-11
A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 453 Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas by Midshipman 1/C Michael A. Woulfe...approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. U.S.N.A. --- Trident Scholar project report; no. 453 (2016) THEORY OF A...YYYY) 05-11-2016 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas 5a
Artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets: a frozen dipolar spin ice.
Rougemaille, N; Montaigne, F; Canals, B; Duluard, A; Lacour, D; Hehn, M; Belkhou, R; Fruchart, O; El Moussaoui, S; Bendounan, A; Maccherozzi, F
2011-02-04
Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.
Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids.
Dempster, Joshua M; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2015-10-01
Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.
Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dempster, Joshua M.; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2015-10-01
Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.
Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity
Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: laviniah@kth.se
2015-12-01
Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.
Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity
Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2015-12-14
Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.
Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical.
Stuhl, Benjamin K; Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L; Ye, Jun
2012-12-20
Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling, which led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. More recently, substantial progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases. Their permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate systems with varied and controllable phases, dynamics and chemistry. However, although advances have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far. This is due to unfavourable ratios of elastic to inelastic scattering and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. Here we report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH(•)) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least one order of magnitude in temperature, and a corresponding increase in phase-space density by three orders of magnitude, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and a sufficiently large initial population, much colder temperatures are possible; even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical (or anything else it can sympathetically cool) may be within reach.
A generalization of the dipolar force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostol, Marian; Ilie, Stelian; Petrut, Aurel; Savu, Marcel; Toba, Stefan
2012-07-01
The static dipolar force is generalized to time-dependent classical distributions of dipoles and electromagnetic fields. This force may exhibit a remarkable resonance character for induced dipoles, related to the pole structure of the polarizabilities. The resonance phenomenon is illustrated for two macroscopic polarizable bodies, with mutually induced polarizations, using the well-known Lorentz-Drude model for the dielectric response with optical dispersion and a characteristic (resonance) frequency. Specifically, the calculations are performed for distances much longer than the dimension of the bodies ("point-like" bodies), but shorter than the characteristic wavelength (sub-wavelength, stationary, near-field regime). The polarizations are induced via a localized external field acting upon only one body. The force is practically vanishing for distinct substances and acquires a non-vanishing value for identical substances. It falls off as the 7-th power of the distance, being reminiscent of the van der Waals-London force. The conditions of validity of this resonance phenomenon are emphasized. Particular cases corresponding to independent external fields or two isolated, interacting bodies (closed system) are also analyzed, with similar conclusions regarding the resonance character of the force.
Current Density Reduction Ahead of Dipolarization Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, S.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Liu, J.
2016-12-01
During their earthward propagation, dipolarization fronts (DFs) interact with the ambient plasma sheet on kinetic scales. The interaction region is important to the front's structure, propagation, and regional closure of the current system. However, the physics in this region, especially of its current system, is poorly understood. We present Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations of the interaction region between DFs and the ambient plasma sheet at x - 12 RE downtail; these observations show that the current density ahead of the DFs is significantly reduced near the neutral plane. We use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell model to simulate the current density reduction ahead of DFs and investigate the physical mechanism that causes it: Ion reflection and acceleration at the front cause positive charge density to build up. The resultant electrostatic field, Ez, is directed away from the neutral plane. The positive cross-tail Ez × Bx drift of electrons (which remain magnetized) does not affect demagnetized ions. This electron-ion decoupling results in a dawnward cross-field current carried by electrons that reduces the cross-tail current ahead of the approaching front.
Pal, Tamisra; Biswas, Ranjit
2014-10-28
A semi-molecular theory for studying composition dependent Stokes shift dynamics of a dipolar solute in binary mixtures of (non-dipolar ionic liquid + common dipolar solvent) is developed here. The theory provides microscopic expressions for solvation response functions in terms of static and dynamic structure factors of the mixture components and solute-solvent static correlations. In addition, the theory provides a framework for examining the interrelationship between the time dependent solvation response in and frequency dependent dielectric relaxation of a binary mixture containing electrolyte. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to predict ionic liquid (IL) mole fraction dependent dynamic Stokes shift magnitude and solvation energy relaxation for a dipolar solute, C153, in binary mixtures of an ionic liquid, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride ([P(14,666)][Cl]) with a common dipolar solvent, methanol (MeOH). In the absence of suitable experimental data, necessary input parameters have been obtained from approximate methods. Dynamic shifts calculated for these mixtures exhibit a linear increase with IL mole fraction for the most part of the mixture composition, stressing the importance of solute-IL dipole-ion interaction. Average solvation rates, on the other hand, show a nonlinear IL mole fraction dependence which is qualitatively similar to what has been observed for such binary mixtures with imidazolium (dipolar) ILs. These predictions should be re-examined in suitable experiments.
Observations and Effects of Dipolarization Fronts Observed in Earth's Magnetotail
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
Dipolarization fronts in Earth's magnetotail are characterized by sharp jumps in magnetic field, a drop in density, and often follow earthward fast plasma flow. They are commonly detected near the equatorial plane of Earth s tail plasma sheet. Sometimes, but not always, dipolarization fronts are associated with global substorms and auroral brightenings. Both Cluster, THEMIS, and other spacecraft have detected dipolarization fronts in a variety of locations in the magnetotail. Using multi-spacecraft analyses together with simulations, we have investigated the propagation and evolution of some dipolarization events. We have also investigated the acceleration of electrons and ions that results from such magnetic-field changes. In some situations, the velocities of fast earthward flows are comparable to the Alfven speed, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multi-spacecraft timing analysis, dipolarization fronts are found to propagate mainly earthward at 160-335 km/s and have thicknesses of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Following the passage of dipolarization fronts, significant fluctuations are observed in the x and y components of the magnetic field. These peaks in the magnetic field come approximately 1-2 minutes after passage of the dipolarization front. These Bx and By fluctuations propagate primarily dawnward and earthward. Field-aligned electron beams are observed coincident with those magnetic field fluctuations. Non-Maxwellian electron and ion distributions are observed that are associated with the dipolarization that may be unstable to a range of electrostatic and/or whistler instabilities. Enhanced electrostatic broadband noise at frequencies below and near the lower-hybrid frequency is also observed at or very close to these fronts. This broadband noise is thought to play a role in further energizing the particles
Significant substitution effects in dipolar and non-dipolar supercritical fluids.
Kajiya, Daisuke; Saitow, Ken-ichi
2011-06-21
Vibrational Raman spectra of C=C stretching modes of ethylene derivates (cis-C(2)H(2)Cl(2), cis-stilbene, and trans-stilbene) were measured in supercritical fluids along an isotherm as functions of their densities. The substitution effect of the Raman shift is so significant that a difference among three solutes can be 20 times and is observed similarly in dipolar (CHF(3)) and non-dipolar (CO(2)) fluids. In particular, the shifts of trans-stilbene were enormously large among all systems for studies of vibrational spectroscopies of supercritical fluids and were equivalent to those of typical hydrogen-bonded fluids. Such large shifts arising from the significant attractive energy between solute and solvent molecules were attributed to a site-selective solvation around a phenyl group, which was driven by a dispersion force in the absence of steric hindrance. We found that the absence of steric hindrance causes the significant local density augmentation. To the best of our knowledge, Raman experiments and their theoretical analysis are the first ones quantifying how the difference of steric hindrance produces solvation structures in solution as well as supercritical solutions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackman, C. M.; Badman, S. V.; Achilleos, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pryor, W.
2012-04-01
Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations can be initially identified in magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the field-current relationship. We show an example of a dipolarization identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to constrain the ionospheric current density that would arise for this example and the implications for auroral electron acceleration in regions of upward directed field-aligned current. We then present a separate example of data from the Cassini UVIS instrument where we observe small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval; features thought to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. In the example shown, such auroral spots are the precursor to more intense activity associated with recurrent energisation via particle injections from the tail following reconnection. We conclude that dipolarizations in Saturn's magnetotail have an observable auroral counterpart, opening up the possibility to search for further examples and to use this auroral property as a remote proxy for tail reconnection.
OBSERVATION OF DIPOLAR FERROMAGNETISM BY TEM TECHNIQUES.
BELEGGIA, M.ZHU,Y.TANDON,S.ET AL.
2004-08-01
Magnetostatic interactions play a central role in determining the magnetic response of an array of patterned magnetic elements or magnetized nanoparticles of given shape. The Fourier space approach recently introduced for the analytical computation of the demagnetizing tensor, field and energy for particles of arbitrary shape [1], has been recently extended to cover interactions between elements [2]. The main achievement has been the definition of a generalized dipole-dipole interaction for cylindrical objects, which takes into account the influence of shape anisotropy without resorting to,any kind of approximations [3]. Once the interaction energy is available, it becomes possible to evaluate the minimum energy state of the system for a given set of external parameters (such as applied field, aspect ratio, distance between elements). It turns out that, below a critical combination of aspect ratios and distances, the system undergoes a phase transition, changing abruptly from a closure domain state, with zero net magnetization, to a dipolar ferromagnetic state with a net magnetization which depends on the interaction strength between the elements. In order to observe this phenomenon by TEM, it is necessary to estimate the feasibility of the experiment by a series of simulations. Figure 1 shows the electron optical phase shifts for the system of three weakly (a-c) and strongly (d) interacting disks. The elements have a radius of 50 nm, a thickness of 5 nm (aspect ratio 1/20), and are uniformly magnetized at 2 T. By comparing Fig.1 (c) and (d), it can be seen that the fingerprint of the transition is the presence of fringing fields around the elements, revealed by the cosine fringes which resemble a dipole-like field in (d). When the system is in the closure-domain state, as in (a-c), no fringing field can be observed on a large scale. Figure 2 shows a set of Fresnel images, calculated for the same configurations as in Fig.1. As the Fresnel technique is scarcely
Cluster Observations of Multiple Dipolarization Fronts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lee, E.; Pickett, J. S.
2011-01-01
We present Cluster observations of a series of dipolarization fronts (DF 1 to 6) at the central current sheet in Earth's magnetotail. The velocities of fast earthward flow following behind each DF 1.3 are comparable to the Alfven velocity, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multispacecraft timing analysis, DF normals are found to propagate mainly earthward at 160.335 km/s with a thickness of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Each DF is followed by significant fluctuations in the x and y components of the magnetic field whose peaks are found 1.2 min after the DF passage. These (B(sub x), B(sub y)) fluctuations propagate dawnward (mainly) and earthward. Strongly enhanced field-aligned beams are observed coincidently with (B(sub x), B(sub y)) fluctuations, while an enhancement of cross-tail currents is associated with the DFs. From the observed pressure imbalance and flux tube entropy changes between the two regions separated by the DF, we speculate that interchange instability destabilizes the DFs and causes the deformation of the midtail magnetic topology. This process generates significant field-aligned currents and might power the auroral brightening in the ionosphere. However, this event is associated with neither the main substorm auroral breakup nor the poleward expansion, which might indicate that the observed multiple DFs have been dissipated before they reach the inner plasma sheet boundary.
Cluster Observations of Multiple Dipolarization Fronts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Kyoung-Joo; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lee, Ensang; Pickett, Jolene S.
2011-01-01
We present Cluster observations of a series of dipolarization fronts (DF 1 to 6) at the central current sheet in Earth's magnetotail. The velocities of fast earthward flow following behind each DF 1-3, are comparable to the Alfven velocity, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multi-spacecraft timing analysis, DF normals are found to propagate mainly earthward at $160-335$ km/s with a thickness of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Each DF is followed by significant fluctuations in the $x$ and $y$ components of the magnetic field whose peaks are found 1-2 minutes after the DF passage. These $(B_{x},B_{y} )$-fluctuations propagate dawnward (mainly) and earthward. Strongly enhanced field-aligned beams are observed coincidently with $(B_{x},B_{y})$ fluctuations, while an enhancement of cross-tail currents is associated with the DFs. From the observed pressure imbalance and flux-tube entropy changes between the two regions separated by the DF, we speculate that interchange instability destabilizes the DFs and causes the deformation of the mid-tail magnetic topology. This process generates significant field-aligned currents, and might power the auroral brightening in the ionosphere. However, this event is neither associated with the main substorm auroral breakup nor the poleward expansion, which might indicate that the observed multiple DFs have been dissipated before they reach the inner plasma sheet boundary.
Cluster Observations of Multiple Dipolarization Fronts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lee, E.; Pickett, J. S.
2011-01-01
We present Cluster observations of a series of dipolarization fronts (DF 1 to 6) at the central current sheet in Earth's magnetotail. The velocities of fast earthward flow following behind each DF 1.3 are comparable to the Alfven velocity, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multispacecraft timing analysis, DF normals are found to propagate mainly earthward at 160.335 km/s with a thickness of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Each DF is followed by significant fluctuations in the x and y components of the magnetic field whose peaks are found 1.2 min after the DF passage. These (B(sub x), B(sub y)) fluctuations propagate dawnward (mainly) and earthward. Strongly enhanced field-aligned beams are observed coincidently with (B(sub x), B(sub y)) fluctuations, while an enhancement of cross-tail currents is associated with the DFs. From the observed pressure imbalance and flux tube entropy changes between the two regions separated by the DF, we speculate that interchange instability destabilizes the DFs and causes the deformation of the midtail magnetic topology. This process generates significant field-aligned currents and might power the auroral brightening in the ionosphere. However, this event is associated with neither the main substorm auroral breakup nor the poleward expansion, which might indicate that the observed multiple DFs have been dissipated before they reach the inner plasma sheet boundary.
Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow
Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC
2011-08-12
A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.
The dynamics and structure of current systems during dipolarization events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepko, L.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C.; Birn, J.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.
2016-12-01
During MMS Phase 1x, the MMS tetrahedron passed through the nightside transition region at slightly off-equatorial locations. This orbit was well suited to study the field-aligned currents generated by both the large-scale reconfiguration of the magnetic field during substorms (dipolarization) and the smaller scale, transient reconfigurations directly associated with flow bursts (dipolarization fronts). In this paper, we present the results of a survey of these two types of dipolarization events. While the substorm current wedge (SCW) is able to represent the large scale characteristics of these current systems, it represents an integration of many small scale current systems. The relationship between small-scale, filamented currents observed in the magnetosphere and the larger current system is not well understood. Using the 4-point magnetic field measurements of MMS to calculate the local current densities for dipolarizations and dipolarization fronts, we compare the in situ observations with MHD model results, AMPERE measurements, and ground magnetometer data, to yield new insight into the dynamics and structure of transition region current systems.
NMR second moment imaging using Jeener-Broekaert dipolar signals.
Matsui, S; Saito, S; Hashimoto, T; Inouye, T
2003-01-01
It is demonstrated that imaging of the 1H NMR second moment can be achieved by using the Jeener-Broekaert (JB) dipolar signal instead of the Zeeman FID signal commonly employed. The JB dipolar signal can be induced by applying a JB pulse sequence, 90 degrees (x)-tau-45 degrees (y)-tau(')-45 degrees (y), which is followed by the time-suspension magic echo sequence, TREV-16TS, for imaging detection. Scanning the imaging detection to cover the whole evolution of the JB dipolar signal finally results in producing spatially resolved JB dipolar signals. The local value of the quantity called the "JB second moment," M(2(JB)), is then estimated from the initial slope of each resolved JB dipolar signal. The M(2(JB)) can be regarded as the "weighted" powder average of the usual second moment. The "weighting" effect due to the JB sequence leads to the tau dependent M(2(JB)) value. The tau dependence is potentially useful for characterizing the second moment distribution resulting from the crystal orientation dependence: For example, in addition to the usual powder average, an approximate distribution range can be deduced by a simple analysis of the tau dependence, serving as a new contrast for materials imaging. This is illustrated by preliminary experiments performed on test samples.
Magnetization behavior of ferrofluids with cryogenically imaged dipolar chains.
Klokkenburg, M; Erné, B H; Mendelev, V; Ivanov, A O
2008-05-21
Theories and simulations have demonstrated that field-induced dipolar chains affect the static magnetic properties of ferrofluids. Experimental verification, however, has been complicated by the high polydispersity of the available ferrofluids, and the morphology of the dipolar chains was left to the imagination. We now present the concentration- and field-dependent magnetization of particularly well-defined ferrofluids, with a low polydispersity, three different average particle sizes, and with dipolar chains that were imaged with and without magnetic field using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. At low concentrations, the magnetization curves obey the Langevin equation for noninteracting dipoles. Magnetization curves for the largest particles strongly deviate from the Langevin equation but quantitatively agree with a recently developed mean-field model that incorporates the field-dependent formation and alignment of flexible dipolar chains. The combination of magnetic results and in situ electron microscopy images provides original new evidence for the effect of dipolar chains on the field-dependent magnetization of ferrofluids.
Wavefront manipulation with a dipolar metasurface under coherent control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Ming; Wang, Hui-Tian; Zhu, Weiren
2017-07-01
Full phase manipulation with equal amplitude is critical for optical wavefront engineering in various systems. Here we theoretically explore a general approach for optical wavefront manipulation using dipolar metasurfaces under the coherent control. From the microscopic perspective, we theoretically show that the dispersion of a dipolar metasurface under the coherent control can provide the phase manipulation within a full range of [0, 2π] and retain an equal amplitude simultaneously. As an example, such a dipolar metasurface can be constructed by compensatory H-shaped unit resonators to avoid polarization conversion. Specifically, we confirm the feasibility of designed metasurfaces for achieving the beam bending and the vortex-phase beam by the full-wave simulation. The proposed approach enriches the well-established wavefront engineering for extending the functionality of metasurface under the coherent control.
Second virial coefficient for the dipolar hard sphere fluid.
Henderson, Douglas
2011-07-28
The dipolar hard sphere fluid is a useful model for a polar fluid. Some years ago, the second virial coefficient, B(2), of this fluid was obtained as a series expansion in the inverse temperature or (dipole strength) by Keesom. Little work on this problem seems to have been done since that time. Using a result of Chan and Henderson for the spherical average of the Boltzmann factor of this fluid, more complete results are obtained for B(2). The more complete results are more negative than the Keesom series, as one would expect, but his expansion is remarkably accurate. This method can be used to obtain the second virial coefficient of the dipolar Lennard-Jones (Stockmayer) or dipolar Yukawa fluids.
Quantum phases of dipolar soft-core bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimmer, D.; Safavi-Naini, A.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Söyler, Ş. G.
2014-10-01
We study the phase diagram of a system of soft-core dipolar bosons confined to a two-dimensional optical lattice layer. We assume that dipoles are aligned perpendicular to the layer such that the dipolar interactions are purely repulsive and isotropic. We consider the full dipolar interaction and perform path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations using the worm algorithm. Besides a superfluid phase, we find various solid and supersolid phases. We show that, unlike what was found previously for the case of nearest-neighbor interaction, supersolid phases are stabilized by doping the solids not only with particles but with holes as well. We further study the stability of these quantum phases against thermal fluctuations. Finally, we discuss pair formation and the stability of the pair checkerboard phase formed in a bilayer geometry, and we suggest experimental conditions under which the pair checkerboard phase can be observed.
Characterization of slow conformational dynamics in solids: dipolar CODEX.
Li, Wenbo; McDermott, Ann E
2009-09-01
A solid state NMR experiment is introduced for probing relatively slow conformational exchange, based on dephasing and refocusing dipolar couplings. The method is closely related to the previously described Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange or CODEX experiment. The use of dipolar couplings for this application is advantageous because their values are known a priori from molecular structures, and their orientations and reorientations relate in a simple way to molecular geometry and motion. Furthermore the use of dipolar couplings in conjunction with selective isotopic enrichment schemes is consistent with selection for unique sites in complex biopolymers. We used this experiment to probe the correlation time for the motion of (13)C, (15)N enriched urea molecules within their crystalline lattice.
Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas
Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping
2016-01-01
Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves. PMID:27581766
Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas.
Tang, Y; Sykes, A G; Burdick, N Q; DiSciacca, J M; Petrov, D S; Lev, B L
2016-10-07
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.
Engineering bright matter-wave solitons of dipolar condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmonds, M. J.; Bland, T.; Doran, R.; Parker, N. G.
2017-02-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the form and interaction of dipolar bright solitons across the full parameter space afforded by dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, revealing the rich behavior introduced by the non-local nonlinearity. Working within an effective one-dimensional description, we map out the existence of the soliton solutions and show three collisional regimes: free collisions, bound state formation and soliton fusion. Finally, we examine the solitons in their full three-dimensional form through a variational approach; along with regimes of instability to collapse and runaway expansion, we identify regimes of stability which are accessible to current experiments.
Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Y.; Sykes, A. G.; Burdick, N. Q.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Petrov, D. S.; Lev, B. L.
2016-10-01
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.
Strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional dipolar fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babadi, Mehrtash; Skinner, Brian; Fogler, Michael; Demler, Eugene
2013-03-01
We study the collective oscillations of strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional dipolar fermions at zero temperature. The correlation energy of the quasi-two-dimensional gas is obtained using a novel variational method based on the fixed-node diffusion Monte-Carlo analysis of strictly two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas. As an application, we predict the dependence of the Wigner crystal transition point on the thickness of the layer, as well as the shift of the monopole oscillation frequency in harmonic traps.
Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping
2016-09-01
Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves.
Infrared Behavior of Dipolar Bose Systems at Low Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastukhov, Volodymyr
2017-01-01
We rigorously discuss the infrared behavior of the uniform three-dimensional dipolar Bose systems. In particular, it is shown that low-temperature physics of the system is controlled by two parameters, namely isothermal compressibility and intensity of the dipole-dipole interaction. By using a hydrodynamic approach, we calculate the spectrum and damping of low-lying excitations and analyze the infrared behavior of the one-particle Green's function. The low-temperature corrections to the anisotropic superfluid density as well as condensate depletion are found. Additionally, we derive equations of the two-fluid hydrodynamics for dipolar Bose systems and calculate velocities of first and second sound.
Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.
Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey
2014-07-16
We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2010-11-04
A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane
Stability of solid phases in the dipolar hard sphere system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levesque, D.; Weis, J.-J.
2011-12-01
Free energy differences between solid phases of dipolar hard spheres are estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using a nonequilibrium work method. These calculations allow one to determine which of the considered phases has the minimum free energy. The phase diagram which we obtain is confirmed by simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble over a wide region of the density and temperature domain.
Two-dimensional dipolar scattering with a tilt
Ticknor, Christopher
2011-09-15
We study two-body dipolar scattering in two dimensions with a tilted polarization axis. This tilt reintroduces the anisotropic interaction in a controllable manner. As a function of this polarization angle, we present the scattering rates in both the threshold and semiclassical regimes. Additionally, we study the properties of the molecular bound states as a function of the polarization angle.
Fermionized Dipolar Bosons Trapped in a Harmonic Trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kościk, Przemysław
2017-03-01
We explore entanglement properties of systems of identical dipolar bosons confined in a 1D harmonic trap by using explicitly correlated Jastrow-type wavefunctions. Results for the linear entropy in dependence on the dimensionless coupling and the number of particles are provided and discussed.
Temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy from pseudo-dipolar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizuka, Hiroaki
2017-05-01
Magnetic anisotropy of spin models with pseudo-dipolar interactions is theoretically studied in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase. Using the high-temperature expansion, we show that the pseudo-dipolar interaction gives rise to a magnetic anisotropy which shows ∝T-5 temperature dependence. This phenomenon arises from the pseudo-dipolar interaction and is distinct from the orbital effect, such as Van Vleck susceptibility. By an explicit calculation, it is shown that the second order in the high-temperature expansion prefers to point the spins along the bond direction. The theory is applied to the Heisenberg-Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice and a cubic lattice model which is potentially relevant to perovskite oxides. The leading order for the magnetic anisotropy arises from the second order in high-temperature expansion, which contribute to a fourth-order anisotropic term in Landau theory. The result shows that the anisotropy from the pseudo-dipolar interaction gives rise to <100 > magnetic anisotropy. These results are potentially relevant to heavy-transition-metal oxides such as iridates. Experimental observation of the magnitude of anisotropic interactions using magnetic torque measurement is also discussed.
Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowden, G. J.; Stenning, G. B. G.; van der Laan, G.
2016-10-01
A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1)2. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field Bloc(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy.
Dipolar Vortices and Dark Solitons in Quantum Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Nick; Bland, Thomas; Edmonds, Matthew; Proukakis, Nick; Martin, Andrew; O'Dell, Duncan
2016-05-01
The experimental achievement of Bose-condensed gases of atoms with large magnetic dipole moments has realized a quantum ferrofluid, which combines both superfluid and ferrofluid properties. Here the conventional isotropic and short-range atom-atom interactions become supplemented by long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions, enriching the physical properties of the system. Here we discuss how the dipolar interactions modify quantized vortices, the fundamental nonlinear excitations of superfluids in two and three dimensions. As well as distorting the vortex profile, the dipolar interactions cause each vortex to approximate a macroscopic dipole; the vortex-vortex interaction then develops a novel anisotropic and long-range contribution. This is shown to significantly modify the two-vortex dynamics, and has implications for multi-vortex states. We also extend our analysis to dark solitons, the one-dimensional analogs of vortices, where dipolar interactions support unconventional dark soliton bound states. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK (Grant No. EP/M005127/1).
Empirical rate formula for ion-dipolar molecule reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Shin
2017-04-01
New empirical rate formula for the low temperature reactions is proposed. The formula proposed previously has been simplified by using incomplete gamma function. A few examples of temperature dependence of rate constants for the reactions of ions with dipolar molecules and that for the reaction F +H2 →HF +H are demonstrated by using new rate formula.
Non-dipolar Wilson Links for Parton Densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hsiang-nan
We propose a new definition of a transverse-momentum-dependent wave function with simpler soft subtraction. The unsubtracted wave function involves two pieces of non-light-like Wilson links oriented in different directions, so that the rapidity singularity appearing in usual kT factorization is regularized, and the pinched singularity from Wilson-link self-energy corrections is alleviated to a logarithmic one. We show explicitly at one-loop level that the simpler definition with the non-dipolar Wilson links exhibits the same infrared behavior as the one with the dipolar Wilson links. The non-dipolar Wilson links are also introduced to the quasi-parton distribution function (QPDF) with an equal-time correlator in the large momentum limit, which can remove the involved linear divergence, and allow perturbative matching to the standard light-cone parton distribution function. The latter can then be extracted reliably from Euclidean lattice data for the QPDF with the non-dipolar Wilson links.
Tuning ultracold collisions of excited rotational dipolar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéméner, Goulven
2015-05-01
Ultracold molecular dipolar gases often suffer from losses due to chemical reactions (or eventual sticky collisions for non-reactive molecules). Loss suppression for both bosonic and fermionic dipolar species can be obtained in a one-dimensional optical lattice but this requires usually strong confinements to get into a pure two-dimensional collision regime. An alternative way can be found without confinement using rotationally excited molecules. In this talk I will explore the ultracold collisions of rotationally excited dipolar molecules in free space. I will focus on electric dipolar molecules of KRb and electric and magnetic dipolar molecules of RbSr. I will show that we can sharply tune the elastic, inelastic and reactive rate coefficients of lossy molecular collisions when a second rotationally excited colliding channel crosses the threshold of the initial colliding channel, with the help of an applied electric field. We can increase or decrease the loss processes whether the second channel is above or below the initial channel. This could lead to favorable conditions for evaporative cooling. Additionally, we include the electric quadrupole and octopole moment to the dipole moment in the expression of the long-range multipole-multipole interaction. For processes mediated by the incident channel like elastic and loss collisions, the inclusion of quadrupole and octopole moments are not important at ultralow energies. They are important for processes mediated by state-to-state transitions like inelastic collisions. I acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
Deflagration, fronts of tunneling, and dipolar ordering in molecular magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garanin, Dmitry
2011-03-01
Although there is no exchange interaction in crystals of molecular magnets characterized by a giant effective spin S (S = 10 for Mn 12 , and Fe 8) , magnetic field B (D) generated by magnetic moments g μ B S of magnetic molecules creates energy bias W (D) = 2 Sg μ BB (D) on a molecule that largely exceeds the tunnelling splitting Δ of matching quantum states on different sides of the anisotropy barrier. Thus the dipolar field has a profound influence on the processes of tunnelling and relaxation in molecular magnets. Both theoretical and experimental works showed a slow non-exponential relaxation of the magnetization in both initially ordered and completely disordered states since most of the spins are off tunneling resonance at any time. Recently a new mode of relaxation via tunneling has been found, the so-called fronts of tunneling, in which (within a 1 d theoretical model) dipolar field adjusts so that spins are on resonance within the broad front core. In this ``laminar'' regime fronts of tunnelling are moving fast at speeds that can exceed that of the temperature-driven magnetic deflagration, if a sufficiently strong transverse field is applied. However, a ``non-laminar'' regime has also been found in which instability causes spins to go off resonance and the front speed drops. In a combination with magnetic deflagration, the laminar regime becomes more stable and exists in the whole dipolar window 0 <= W <=W (D) on the external bias W , where the deflagration speed strongly increases. Another dipolar effect in molecular magnets is dipolar ordering below 1 K that has recently been shown to be non-uniform because of formation of magnetic domains. An object of current research is possible non-uniformity of magnetic deflagration and tunneling fronts via domain instability that could influence their speed.
Vidadala, Srinivasa Rao; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Waldmann, Herbert
2015-01-07
Enantioselective catalytic intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are powerful methods for the synthesis of heterocycles. In contrast, intramolecular enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are virtually unexplored. A highly enantioselective synthesis of natural-product-inspired pyrrolidino-piperidines by means of an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with azomethine ylides is now reported. The method has a wide scope and yields the desired cycloadducts with four tertiary stereogenic centers with up to 99% ee. Combining the enantioselective catalytic intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a subsequent diastereoselective intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition yielded complex piperidino-pyrrolizidines with very high stereoselectivity in a one-pot tandem reaction.
Modulated magnetization depth profile in dipolarly coupled magnetic multilayers
Bedanta, S.; Petracic, O.; Kleemann, W.; Kentzinger, E.; Ruecker, U.; Brueckel, Th.; Paul, A.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.
2006-08-01
Polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR) and magnetometry studies have been performed on the metal-insulator multilayer [Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}(1.6 nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3 nm)]{sub 9} which exhibits dominant dipolar coupling between the ferromagnetic layers. Our PNR measurements at the coercive field reveal a novel and unexpected magnetization state of the sample, exhibiting an oscillating magnetization depth profile from CoFe layer to CoFe layer with a period of five bilayers along the multilayer stack. With the help of micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate that competition between long- and short-ranged dipolar interactions apparently gives rise to this unprecedented phenomenon.
Demixing in binary mixtures of apolar and dipolar hard spheres.
Almarza, N G; Lomba, E; Martín, C; Gallardo, A
2008-12-21
We study the demixing transition of mixtures of equal size hard spheres and dipolar hard spheres using computer simulation and integral equation theories. Calculations are carried out at constant pressure, and it is found that there is a strong correlation between the total density and the composition. The critical temperature and the critical total density are found to increase with pressure. The critical mole fraction of the dipolar component on the contrary decreases as pressure is augmented. These qualitative trends are reproduced by the theoretical approaches that on the other hand overestimate by far the value of the critical temperature. Interestingly, the critical parameters for the liquid-vapor equilibrium extrapolated from the mixture results in the limit of vanishing neutral hard sphere concentration agree rather well with recent estimates based on the extrapolation of charged hard dumbbell phase equilibria when dumbbell elongation shrinks to zero [G. Ganzenmuller and P. J. Camp, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191104 (2007)].
Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice
Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.
2014-05-07
Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and √3 × √3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional √3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.
Spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb as a dipolar gas
Swislocki, Tomasz; Gajda, Mariusz; RzaPzewski, Kazimierz
2010-03-15
We consider a spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms in the F=1 hyperfine state confined in an optical dipole trap. Putting initially all atoms in the m{sub F}=0 component, we find that the system evolves toward a state of thermal equilibrium with kinetic energy equally distributed among all magnetic components. We show that this process is dominated by the dipolar interaction of magnetic spins rather than spin-mixing contact potential. Our results show that because of a dynamical separation of magnetic components, the spin-mixing dynamics in the {sup 87}Rb condensate is governed by the dipolar interaction which plays no role in a single-component rubidium system in a magnetic trap.
Monte Carlo simulations of kagome lattices with magnetic dipolar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plumer, Martin; Holden, Mark; Way, Andrew; Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Southern, Byron
Monte Carlo simulations of classical spins on the two-dimensional kagome lattice with only dipolar interactions are presented. In addition to revealing the sixfold-degenerate ground state, the nature of the finite-temperature phase transition to long-range magnetic order is discussed. Low-temperature states consisting of mixtures of degenerate ground-state configurations separated by domain walls can be explained as a result of competing exchange-like and shape-anisotropy-like terms in the dipolar coupling. Fluctuations between pairs of degenerate spin configurations are found to persist well into the ordered state as the temperature is lowered until locking in to a low-energy state. Results suggest that the system undergoes a continuous phase transition at T ~ 0 . 43 in agreement with previous MC simulations but the nature of the ordering process differs. Preliminary results which extend this analysis to the 3D fcc ABC-stacked kagome systems will be presented.
Triplet superfluidity on a triangular ladder with dipolar fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Bradraj; Pati, Swapan K.
2017-02-01
Motivated by recent experimental progress in the field of dipolar-Fermi gases, we investigate the quantum phases of dipolar fermions on a triangular ladder at half filling. Using density matrix renormalization group method, in the presence of onsite repulsion and intersite attractive interaction, we find an exotic spin-triplet superfluid phase in addition to the usual spin-density and charge-density waves. We examine the stability of the spin-triplet superfluid phase by varying hopping along the rungs of the triangle. The possibility of fermionic supersolidity has also been discussed, by considering three-body interaction in the Hamiltonian. We also study the effect of spin-dependent hopping on the stability of the spin-triplet superfluid phase.
Characteristics of High Latitude Precursor Flows Ahead of Dipolarization Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. Z.; Zhou, X.; Angelopoulos, V.; Liu, J.; Runov, A.; Pan, D.; Zong, Q.
2016-12-01
Dipolarization fronts (DFs), earthward-propagating structures in the magnetotail current sheet characterized by sharp enhancements of northward magnetic field, are capable of converting electromagnetic energy into particles' kinetic energy. The accelerated and heated ions form plasma flows ahead of DFs, which have been identified as DF precursor flows in both high- and low-latitude plasma sheet. Statistics from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) observations have shown that the particle and energy fluxes towards the Earth are remarkably larger in high latitude than in low latitude. Moreover, the high-latitude particle and energy fluxes at the DF dawnside are remarkably greater than those at the duskside, which is opposite to the dawn-dusk asymmetries near the equatorial region. These latitude-dependent characteristics of DF precursor flows are reproduced by a simple Liouville-mapping simulation, which provides new understandings of ion dynamics associated with dipolarization fronts.
Asseleration of ions in turbulent electromagnetic field during dipolarization events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukova, Elena; Popov, Victor
2017-04-01
In spite of the long time interest for the acceleration of hight energetic ions in the Earth's magnetotail, considerable uncertainty remains as to the quantitative influence of different acceleration mechanism and their modifications. Both theoretical and numerical studies predict a hardening of the energy spectra of the particles wandering into the current sheet. Such energetic ion fluxes in the near-Earth tail were usually observed during magnetic dipolarizations or presence of turbulent electromagnetic field in the central region of current sheet that can effectively interact with the charged particles and energize them. The results demonstrate particle acceleration by separate two mechanisms and by their joint action. Both acceleration mechanisms lead to the formation of powered tails in proton distribution functions. Generally acceleration on magnetic dipolarization can be more effective in comparison with turbulent electromagnetic field.
Manipulating microwaves with magnetic-dipolar-mode vortices
Kamenetskii, E. O.; Sigalov, M.; Shavit, R.
2010-05-15
There has been a surge of interest in the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields. It is well known that, in optics, subwavelength confinement can be obtained from surface plasmon (quasielectrostatic) oscillations. In this article, we propose to realize subwavelength confinement in microwaves by using dipolar-mode (quasimagnetostatic) magnon oscillations in ferrite particles. Our studies of interactions between microwave electromagnetic fields and small ferrite particles with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations show strong localization of electromagnetic energy. MDM oscillations in a ferrite disk are at the origin of topological singularities resulting in Poynting vector vortices and symmetry breakings of the microwave near fields. We show that new subwavelength microwave structures can be realized based on a system of interacting MDM ferrite disks. Wave propagation of electromagnetic signals in such structures is characterized by topological phase variations. Interactions of microwave fields with an MDM ferrite disk and MDM-disk arrays open a perspective for creating engineered electromagnetic fields with unique symmetry properties.
Noncommutative geometry and the primordial dipolar imaginary power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Pankaj; Rath, Pranati K.
2015-03-01
We argue that noncommutative space-times lead to an anisotropic dipolar imaginary primordial power spectrum. We define a new product rule, which allows us to consistently extract the power spectrum in such space-times. The precise nature of the power spectrum depends on the model of noncommutative geometry. We assume a simple dipolar model which has a power dependence on the wave number, , with a spectral index, . We show that such a spectrum provides a good description of the observed dipole modulation in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) data with . We extract the parameters of this model from the data. The dipole modulation is related to the observed hemispherical anisotropy in the CMBR data, which might represent the first signature of quantum gravity.
Thermal entanglement and teleportation in a dipolar interacting system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, C. S.; Duarte, O. S.; Pires, D. P.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Reis, M. S.
2016-04-01
Quantum teleportation, which depends on entangled states, is a fascinating subject and an important branch of quantum information processing. The present work reports the use of a dipolar spin thermal system as a noisy quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation. Non-locality, tested by violation of Bell's inequality and thermal entanglement, measured by negativity, shows that for the present model all entangled states, even those that do not violate Bell's inequality, are useful for teleportation.
Properties of strongly dipolar Bose gases beyond the Born approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ołdziejewski, Rafał; Jachymski, Krzysztof
2016-12-01
Strongly dipolar Bose gases can form liquid droplets stabilized by quantum fluctuations. In a theoretical description of this phenomenon, the low-energy scattering amplitude is utilized as an effective potential. We show that for magnetic atoms, corrections with respect to the Born approximation arise, and we derive a modified pseudopotential using a realistic interaction model. We discuss the resulting changes in collective mode frequencies and droplet stability diagrams. Our results are relevant to recent experiments with erbium and dysprosium atoms.
Random acoustic metamaterial with a subwavelength dipolar resonance.
Duranteau, Mickaël; Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Wunenburger, Régis
2016-06-01
The effective velocity and attenuation of longitudinal waves through random dispersions of rigid, tungsten-carbide beads in an elastic matrix made of epoxy resin in the range of beads volume fraction 2%-10% are determined experimentally. The multiple scattering model proposed by Luppé, Conoir, and Norris [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(2), 1113-1120 (2012)], which fully takes into account the elastic nature of the matrix and the associated mode conversions, accurately describes the measurements. Theoretical calculations show that the rigid particles display a local, dipolar resonance which shares several features with Minnaert resonance of bubbly liquids and with the dipolar resonance of core-shell particles. Moreover, for the samples under study, the main cause of smoothing of the dipolar resonance of the scatterers and the associated variations of the effective mass density of the dispersions is elastic relaxation, i.e., the finite time required for the shear stresses associated to the translational motion of the scatterers to propagate through the matrix. It is shown that its influence is governed solely by the value of the particle to matrix mass density contrast.
Phase diagram of split 2D dipolar spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roscilde, Tommaso; Henry, Louis-Paul
2013-03-01
Long-ranged dipolar interactions, which are very natural in artificial square-lattice spin ice, can mask some of the most relevant aspects of spin-ice physics, as they remove the extensive degeneracy of the ground state manifold to give a unique ground state, and they bind monopole pairs into localized spin flips. Following an earlier idea of G. Möller and R. Moessner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237202 (2006)] we investigate how adding a third direction to square ice allows to recover fundamental traits of spin-ice physics even in the presence of dipolar interactions. Using Monte Carlo simulations based on a generalized loop algorithm, we explore the phase diagram of square dipolar spin ice in which horizontal and vertical dipoles are spatially separated in a third direction (split 2D spin ice). As a function of the splitting we recover a two-fold degenerate staggered state for coplanar dipoles, and a four-fold degenerate ``Manhattan'' state for strongly split dipoles, separated by a first order transition. The competition between the two states at intermediate splitting leads to a strong suppression of the ordering transition temperatures, and makes space for the observation of a hallmark of spin-ice physics in the paramagnetic phase: pinch points in the static structure factor.
Anisotropic dynamics of dipolar liquids in narrow slit pores.
Froltsov, Vladimir A; Klapp, Sabine H L
2006-04-07
We report molecular dynamics simulation results for Stockmayer fluids confined to narrow slitlike pores with structureless, nonconducting walls. The translational and rotational dynamics of the dipolar particles have been investigated by calculating autocorrelation functions, diffusion coefficients, and relaxation times for various pore widths (five or less particle diameters) and directions parallel and perpendicular to the walls. The dynamic properties of the confined systems are compared to bulk properties, where corresponding bulk and pore states at the same temperature and chemical potential are determined in parallel grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the dynamic behavior inside the pore depends on the distance from the walls and can be strongly anisotropic even in globally isotropic systems. This concerns especially the particles in the surface layers close to the walls, where the single particle and collective dipolar relaxation resemble that of true two-dimensional dipolar fluids with different in-plane and out-of-plane relaxations. On the other hand, bulklike relaxation is observed in the pore center of sufficiently wide pores.
Near-Earth plasma sheet boundary dynamics during substorm dipolarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Birn, Joachim; Sergeev, Victor A.; Le Contel, Olivier; Varsani, Ali; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Takuma; Apatenkov, Sergey; Artemyev, Anton; Ergun, Robert E.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Giles, Barbara J.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Magnes, Werner; Mauk, Barry; Russell, Christopher T.; Singer, Howard J.; Stawarz, Julia; Strangeway, Robert J.; Anderson, Brian; Bromund, Ken R.; Fischer, David; Kepko, Laurence; Le, Guan; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Slavin, James A.; Cohen, Ian; Jaynes, Allison; Turner, Drew L.
2017-09-01
We report on the large-scale evolution of dipolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet during an intense (AL -1000 nT) substorm on August 10, 2016, when multiple spacecraft at radial distances between 4 and 15 R E were present in the night-side magnetosphere. This global dipolarization consisted of multiple short-timescale (a couple of minutes) B z disturbances detected by spacecraft distributed over 9 MLT, consistent with the large-scale substorm current wedge observed by ground-based magnetometers. The four spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale were located in the southern hemisphere plasma sheet and observed fast flow disturbances associated with this dipolarization. The high-time-resolution measurements from MMS enable us to detect the rapid motion of the field structures and flow disturbances separately. A distinct pattern of the flow and field disturbance near the plasma boundaries was found. We suggest that a vortex motion created around the localized flows resulted in another field-aligned current system at the off-equatorial side of the BBF-associated R1/R2 systems, as was predicted by the MHD simulation of a localized reconnection jet. The observations by GOES and Geotail, which were located in the opposite hemisphere and local time, support this view. We demonstrate that the processes of both Earthward flow braking and of accumulated magnetic flux evolving tailward also control the dynamics in the boundary region of the near-Earth plasma sheet.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Silicon quantum computation based on magnetic dipolar coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Sousa, Rogerio; Delgado, J. D.; Das Sarma, S.
2004-03-01
A dipolar gate alternative to the Kane quantum computer is proposed where the qubits are electron spins of shallow group V donors in silicon [1]. An optimal qubit separation of the order of 250 Åallows implementation of two-qubit gates using the spin-spin dipolar interaction with residual exchange treated as gate error amenable to quantum error correction. Such a scheme does not have the stringent requirements on donor positioning characteristic of all silicon exchange-based implementations [B. Koiller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 027903 (2002)]. In addition it allows quality factors of 10^4 with simplified lithography. We show that bismuth donors lead to faster gates than any other group V element. Contrary to common speculation, such a scheme is scalable with no overhead in gating time even though it is based on long-range dipolar inter-qubit coupling.This work is supported by ARDA, LPS, US-ONR, and NSF. [1] Rogerio de Sousa, J. D. Delgado, and S. Das Sarma, LANL preprint cond-mat/0311403.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikawa, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Shuichi; Kimura, Masao
1981-06-01
Another form of the sum rule for dipolar absorptions has been derived by means of quantum statistics. The difference between this and usually used form results from a quantum effect on the molecular rotational motion. By the joint use of the two forms, average rotational kinetic energies of water molec in the liquid and solid phases and some dipolar molecules in solutions have been estimated. It has been shown that the average rotational kinetic energ larger than the value expected from the classical equipartition rule, with an increase in the hindering potential for the rotational motion of the mole The dipole moments of water molecules in liquid and solid water have been estimated. These are considerably smaller than the gas-phase value.
Analytical polarization and coherence transfer functions for three dipolar coupled spins 12.
Luy, B; Glaser, S J
2000-02-01
Analytical polarization and coherence transfer functions are presented for a spin system consisting of three dipolar coupled homonuclear spins 12 under energy matched conditions. Based on these transfer functions, optimal durations of Hartmann-Hahn mixing periods can be determined for arbitrary dipolar coupling constants D(12), D(13), and D(23). In addition, the dependence of the transfer efficiency on the relative size of the dipolar coupling constants is illustrated.
Magnetic Reversal of an Artificial Square Ice: Dipolar Correlation and Charge Ordering
Stein A.; Morgan J.P.; Langridge S.; Marrows C.H.
2011-10-13
Magnetic reversal of an artificial square ice pattern subject to a sequence of magnetic fields applied slightly off the diagonal axis is investigated via magnetic force microscopy of the remanent states that result. Sublattice independent reversal is observed via correlated incrementally pinned flip cascades along parallel dipolar chains, as evident from analysis of vertex populations and dipolar correlation functions. Weak dipolar interactions between adjacent chains favour antialignment and give rise to weak charge ordering of 'monopole' vertices during the reversal process.
Propagation of collective modes in non-overlapping dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallemi, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.
2014-04-01
We investigate long-range effects of the dipolar interaction in Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the time-dependent 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We study the propagation of excitations between non-overlapping condensates when a collective mode is excited in one of the condensates. We obtain the frequency shifts due to the long-range character of the dipolar coupling for the bilayer and also the trilayer system when the dipolar mode is excited in one condensate. The propagation of the monopolar and quadrupolar modes are also investigated. The coupled-pendulum model is proposed to qualitatively explain the long range effects of the dipolar coupling.
Magnetic hysteresis based on dipolar interactions in granular magnetic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allia, Paolo; Coisson, Marco; Knobel, Marcelo; Tiberto, Paola; Vinai, Franco
1999-11-01
The magnetic hysteresis of granular magnetic systems is investigated in the high-temperature limit (T>> blocking temperature of magnetic nanoparticles). Measurements of magnetization curves have been performed at room temperature on various samples of granular bimetallic alloys of the family Cu100-xCox (x=5-20 at. %) obtained in ribbon form by planar flow casting in a controlled atmosphere, and submitted to different thermal treatments. The loop amplitude and shape, which are functions of sample composition and thermal history, are studied taking advantage of a novel method of graphical representation, particularly apt to emphasize the features of thin, elongated loops. The hysteresis is explained in terms of the effect of magnetic interactions of the dipolar type among magnetic-metal particles, acting to hinder the response of the system of moments to isothermal changes of the applied field. Such a property is accounted for in a mean-field scheme, by introducing a memory term in the argument of the Langevin function which describes the anhysteretic behavior of an assembly of noninteracting superparamagnetic particles. The rms field arising from the cumulative effect of dipolar interactions is linked by the theory to a measurable quantity, the reduced remanence of a major symmetric hysteresis loop. The theory's self-consistence and adequacy have been properly tested at room temperature on all examined systems. The agreement with experimental results is always striking, indicating that at high temperatures the magnetic hysteresis of granular systems is dominated by interparticle, rather than single-particle, effects. Dipolar interactions seem to fully determine the magnetic hysteresis in the high-temperature limit for low Co content (x<=10). For higher concentrations of magnetic metal, the experimental results indicate that additional hysteretic mechanisms have to be introduced.
Characterization of ionic, dipolar and molecular mobility in polymer systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhenrong
Changes in the ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in a polymer system are the basis for the changes in the dielectric mechanical properties of polymer materials. Frequency Dependent Dielectric Measurements (FDEMS) and Ion Time-of-Flight (ITOF) are two important techniques to investigate ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in polymer systems. The results can be related to the macro- and molecular dielectric, electrical and dynamic properties of polymeric materials. The combination of these two methods provides a full view of electric, dielectric and dynamic behavior for the systems as they undergo chemical and/or physical changes during polymerization crystallization, vitrification, and/or phase separation. The research on microscopic mass mobility in polymer systems was done on three aspects: (1) ion mobility in an epoxy-amine reaction system; (2) dipolar mobility and relaxation during dimethacrylate resin cure and (3) dye molecule migration and diffusion in polymer films. In the ion mobility study, we separately monitor the changes in the ion mobility and the number of charge carriers during the epoxy-amine polymerization with FDEMS and ITOF measurements. The isolation of the number of carriers and their mobility allows significant improvement in monitoring changes in the state and structure of a material as it cures. For the dipolar mobility and relaxation study, FDEMS measurements were used to detect structural evolution and spatial heterogeneity formation during the polymerization process of dimethacrylate resins. The dielectric spectra, glass transition (Tg) profiles and dynamic mechanical measurements were used to investigate the existence of two cooperative regions of sufficient size to create two alpha-relaxation processes representing oligomer rich and polymer microgel regions during the polymerization. For the dye migration research, we tried to develop a visually color changing paper (VCP) due to dye molecule migration in polymer films. The mobility
Stochastic Dipolar Recoupling in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids
Tycko, Robert
2007-11-02
I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body system000.
Exact second virial coefficient for dipolar hard spheres.
Virga, Epifanio G
2013-11-20
The second virial coefficient B2 for a fluid of dipolar hard spheres has been given several approximate forms valid in the limits of weak and strong interactions. They have been formulated as asymptotic expressions in a dimensionless interaction parameter λ. In this paper, B2 is determined exactly for all values of λ in both the three-dimensional case, where spheres may access the whole space and their dipole moments may be oriented in all directions, and in the quasi-two-dimensional case, where spheres have their centres bound to glide on a plane, while their dipole moments are still freely orientable in space.
Stochastic dipolar recoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids.
Tycko, Robert
2007-11-02
I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems.
Soliton-soliton scattering in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Nath, R.; Santos, L.; Pedri, P.
2007-07-15
We analyze the scattering of bright solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates placed in unconnected layers. Whereas for short-range interactions unconnected layers are independent, a remarkable consequence of the dipole interaction is the appearance of nonlocal interlayer effects. In particular, we show that both for one- and two-dimensional solitons the interlayer interaction leads to an effective molecular potential between disconnected solitons, which induces a complex scattering physics between them, that includes inelastic fusion into soliton molecules, and strong inelastic resonances. In addition, contrary to the short-range interacting case, a two-dimensional soliton scattering is possible, in which inelastic spiraling occurs, resembling phenomena in photorefractive materials.
Compensation of dipolar-exciton spin splitting in magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.
2013-03-01
Magnetoluminescence of spatially indirect dipolar excitons in 25 nm GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well collected within a lateral potential trap has been studied in Faraday geometry. The paramagnetic spin splitting of the luminescence line of the heavy-hole excitons in the trap centre is completely compensated at magnetic field below critical value ≈2 Т. The effect of spin splitting compensation is caused by the exchange interaction in dense exciton Bose gas which is in qualitative agreement with the existing theoretical concepts.
Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions
Chen, Hao-Hsuan Wu, Jong-Ching Horng, Lance; Lee, Ching-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ray Chang, Jui-Hang
2014-04-07
In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory.
Phases of dipolar bosons in a bilayer geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cinti, Fabio; Wang, Daw-Wei; Boninsegni, Massimo
2017-02-01
We study, by first-principles computer simulations, the low-temperature phase diagram of bosonic dipolar gases in a bilayer geometry as a function of the two control parameters, i.e., the in-plane density and the interlayer distance. We observe four distinct phases, namely, paired and decoupled superfluids, as well as a crystal of dimers and one consisting of two aligned crystalline layers. A direct quantum phase transition from a dimer crystal to two independent superfluids is observed in a relatively wide range of parameters. No supersolid phase is predicted for this system.
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory.
Stochastic dipolar recoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids
Tycko, Robert
2008-01-01
I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. PMID:17995438
Dipolar Rings of Microscopic Ellipsoids: Magnetic Manipulation and Cell Entrapment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro
2016-09-01
We study the formation and the dynamics of dipolar rings composed by microscopic ferromagnetic ellipsoids, which self-assemble in water by switching the direction of the applied field. We show how to manipulate these fragile structures and control their shape via the application of external static and oscillating magnetic fields. We introduce a theoretical framework which describes the ring deformation under an applied field, allowing us to understand the underlying physical mechanism. Our microscopic rings are finally used to capture, entrap, and later release a biological cell via a magnetic command, i.e., performing a simple operation which can be implemented in other microfluidic devices which make use of ferromagnetic particles.
Model independence in two dimensions and polarized cold dipolar molecules.
Volosniev, A G; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S; Zinner, N T
2011-06-24
We calculate the energy and wave functions of two particles confined to two spatial dimensions interacting via arbitrary anisotropic potentials with negative or zero net volume. The general rigorous analytic expressions are given in the weak coupling limit where universality or model independence are approached. The monopole part of anisotropic potentials is crucial in the universal limit. We illustrate the universality with a system of two arbitrarily polarized cold dipolar molecules in a bilayer. We discuss the transition to universality as a function of polarization and binding energy and compare analytic and numerical results obtained by the stochastic variational method. The universal limit is essentially reached for experimentally accessible strengths.
Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons
Repp, J.; Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E.; Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W.; and others
2014-12-15
We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.
Field-induced layer formation in dipolar nanofilms.
Jordanovic, Jelena; Klapp, Sabine H L
2008-07-18
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the layering of confined colloidal particles with dipolar interactions, such as ferrofluids, in slablike geometries can be controlled by homogeneous external fields. For suitable surface separations, strong fields directed perpendicular to the film plane do not only align the particles but create additional layers in the system. The reverse effect occurs with an in-plane field which can induce a collapse of layers. Both effects are accompanied by pronounced particle rearrangements in lateral directions. Our simulation results are consistent with recent experiments of ferrofluids at surfaces.
Nonequilibrium quantum magnetism in a dipolar lattice gas.
de Paz, A; Sharma, A; Chotia, A; Maréchal, E; Huckans, J H; Pedri, P; Santos, L; Gorceix, O; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2013-11-01
We report on the realization of quantum magnetism using a degenerate dipolar gas in an optical lattice. Our system implements a lattice model resembling the celebrated t-J model. It is characterized by a nonequilibrium spinor dynamics resulting from intersite Heisenberg-like spin-spin interactions provided by nonlocal dipole-dipole interactions. Moreover, due to its large spin, our chromium lattice gases constitute an excellent environment for the study of quantum magnetism of high-spin systems, as illustrated by the complex spin dynamics observed for doubly occupied sites.
Stability spectroscopy of rotons in a dipolar Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John P.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2013-05-01
We study the stability of a quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate that is perturbed by a weak lattice potential along its axis. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that systems exhibiting a roton-maxon structure destabilize readily when the lattice wavelength equals either half the roton wavelength or a low roton subharmonic. We apply perturbation theory to the Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to illustrate the mechanisms behind the instability threshold. The features of our stability diagram may be used as a direct measurement of the roton wavelength for quasi-one-dimensional geometries.
Stability Spectroscopy of Rotons in a Dipolar Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John; Wilson, Ryan; Bohn, John
2013-05-01
We study the stability of a quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate that is perturbed by a weak lattice potential along its axis. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that systems exhibiting a roton-maxon structure destabilize readily when the lattice wavelength equals either half the roton wavelength or a low roton subharmonic. We apply perturbation theory to the Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov de Gennes equations to illustrate the mechanisms behind the instability threshold. The features of our stability diagram are a novel signature of roton physics, and their experimental observation would constitute a direct measurement of the roton wavelength for quasi-one-dimensional geometries.
Long-range correction for dipolar fluids at planar interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werth, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans
2015-12-01
A slab-based long-range correction for dipolar interactions in molecular dynamics simulation of systems with a planar geometry is presented and applied to simulate vapour-liquid interfaces. The present approach is validated with respect to the saturated liquid density and the surface tension of the Stockmayer fluid and a molecular model for ethylene oxide. The simulation results exhibit no dependence on the cut-off radius for radii down to 1 nm, proving that the long-range correction accurately captures the influence of the dipole moment on the intermolecular interaction energies and forces as well as the virial and the surface tension.
Classical Fractals and Quantum Chaos in Ultracold Dipolar Collisions.
Yang, B C; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Robicheaux, F
2017-04-14
We examine a dipolar-gas model to address fundamental issues regarding the correspondence between classical chaos and quantum observations in ultracold dipolar collisions. The theoretical model consists of a short-range Lennard-Jones potential well with an anisotropic, long-range dipole-dipole interaction between two atoms. Both the classical and quantum dynamics are explored for the same Hamiltonian of the system. The classical chaotic scattering is revealed by the fractals developed in the scattering function (defined as the final atom separation as a function of initial conditions), while the quantum chaotic features lead to the repulsion of the eigenphases from the corresponding quantum S matrix. The nearest-eigenphase-spacing statistics have an intermediate behavior between the Poisson and the Wigner-Dyson distributions. The character of the distribution can be controlled by changing an effective Planck constant or the dipole moment. The degree of quantum chaos shows a good correspondence with the overall average of the classical scattering function. The results presented here also provide helpful insights for understanding the role of the inherent dipole-dipole interaction in the currently ongoing experiments on ultracold collisions of highly magnetic atoms.
Dipolar clusters and ferroelectricity in high Tc superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusmartsev, F. V.; Saarela, M.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we show that doping of hole charge carriers induces formation of resonance plaquettes (RPs) having electric dipolar moments and fluctuating stripes in cuprates. A single RP is created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion or a charge fluctuation outside and holes inside the CuO plane. In such a process, Coulomb interacting holes in the CuO plane are self-organized into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopants or polarons located in the spacer layer between CuO planes. Such RPs have ordered and disordered phases. They are ordered into charge density waves (CDW) or stripes only at certain conditions. The lowest energy of the ordered phase corresponds to a local antiferroelectric ordering. The RPs mobility is very low at low temperatures and they are bound into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with RPs electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it, the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar RP clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW reveal a series of new phenomena such as ferroelectricity, strong light and microwave absorption and the field induced superconductivity.
Transfer of dipolar gas through the discrete localized mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui
2013-12-01
By considering the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with dipole-dipole interactions for dipolar condensate, the existence, the types, the stability, and the dynamics of the localized modes in a nonlinear lattice are discussed. It is found that the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions play important roles in determining the existence, the type, and the stability of the localized modes. Because of the coupled effects of the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions, rich localized modes and their stability nature can exist: when the contact interaction is larger and the dipole-dipole interactions is smaller, a discrete bright breather occurs. In this case, while the on-site interaction can stabilize the discrete breather, the dipole-dipole interactions will destabilize the discrete breather; when both the contact interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions are larger, a discrete kink appears. In this case, both the on-site interaction and the dipole-dipole interactions can stabilize the discrete kink, but the discrete kink is more unstable than the ordinary discrete breather. The predicted results provide a deep insight into the dynamics of blocking, filtering, and transfer of the norm in nonlinear lattices for dipolar condensates.
Field-induced ordering in dipolar spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Wen-Han; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Kao, Ying-Jer
2016-05-01
We present numerical studies of dipolar spin ice in the presence of a magnetic field slightly tilted away from the [111] axis. We find a first-order transition from a kagome ice to a q =X state when the external field is tilted toward the [11 2 ¯] direction. This is consistent with the anomalous critical scattering previously observed in the neutron scattering experiment on the spin ice material Ho2Ti2O7 in a tilted field [T. Fennell et al., Nat. Phys. 3, 566 (2007), 10.1038/nphys632]. We show that this ordering originates from the antiferromagnetic alignment of spin chains on the kagome planes. The residual entropy of the kagome ice is fully recovered. Our result captures the features observed in the experiments and points to the importance of the dipolar interaction in determining ordered states in the spin ice materials. We place our results in the context of recent susceptibility measurements on Dy2Ti2O7 , showing two features for a [111] field.
Superfluidity in density imbalanced bilayers of dipolar fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazloom, Azadeh; Abedinpour, Saeed H.
2017-08-01
We study the zero temperature phase diagram of an imbalanced bilayer of dipolar fermions. We consider perpendicularly aligned identical dipoles in two layers and investigate the effect of population imbalance on the ground state phase at different layer spacings and average densities. The attractive part of the interlayer interaction could lead to the BEC-BCS crossover and the Fermi surface mismatch between two layers results in interesting uniform and nonuniform superfluid phases, which we have investigated here using the BCS mean-field theory together with the superfluid-mass density criterion. The density imbalance reduces the pairing gap. At low densities, where the system is on the BEC side of the crossover, this reduction is quite smooth while a dense system rapidly becomes normal at intermediate density polarizations. Stable homogeneous superfluidity is predicted to appear on the phase diagram when the dipolar length exceeds both the layer spacing and the average intralayer distance between dipoles, a regime which should be readily accessible experimentally. This homogeneous superfluid phase becomes unstable at intermediate densities and layer spacings. We have also examined that these uniform and inhomogeneous superfluid phases survive when the effects of intralayer screenings are also incorporated in the formalism.
Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations
Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur
2016-01-01
Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded. PMID:27680399
Columnar domains and anisotropic growth laws in dipolar systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bupathy, Arunkumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay
2017-06-01
Magnetic and dielectric solids are well-represented by the Ising model with dipolar interactions (IM+DI). The latter are long-ranged, fluctuating in sign, and anisotropic. Equilibrium studies have revealed novel consequences of these complicated interactions, but their effect on nonequilibrium behavior is not explored. We perform a deep temperature quench to study the kinetics of domain growth in the d =3 IM+DI. Our main observations are (i) the emergence of columnar domains along the z axis (Ising axis) with a transient periodicity in the x y plane; (ii) anisotropic growth laws: ℓρ(t ) ˜tϕ ; ℓz(t ) ˜tψ , where ρ ⃗=(x ,y ) and ℓ is the characteristic length scale; (iii) generalized dynamical scaling for the correlation function: C (ρ ,z ;t ) =g (ρ /ℓρ,z /ℓz) ; and (iv) an asymptotic Porod tail in the corresponding structure factor: S (kρ,0 ;t ) ˜kρ-3 ; S (0 ,kz;t ) ˜kz-2 . Our results explain the experimentally observed columnar morphologies in a wide range of dipolar systems, and they have important technological implications.
Dissipative effects in dipolar, quantum many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-03-01
We use Quantum Monte Carlo simulations, by the Worm algorithm, to study the ground state phase diagram of two-dimensional, dipolar lattice bosons where each site is coupled, via density operators, to an external reservoir. A recent related study of the XXZ model with ohmic coupling to an external reservoir reported the existence of a bath-induced Bose metal phase in the ground state phase diagram away from half filling, and a Luttinger liquid and a charge density wave at half-filling. Our work extends this methodology to higher dimensional systems with long-range interactions. In the case of hard-core bosons, our method can be applied to experimental systems featuring dipolar fermionic molecules in the presence of losses. This work utilized the Janus supercomputer, which is supported by the NSF (award number CNS-0821794) and the University of Colorado Boulder, and is a joint effort with the University of Colorado Denver and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, as well as OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research (OSCER) at the University of Oklahoma. NIST, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, NSF-PHY11-25915, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Vertical shift register using dipolar interaction in magnetic multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Shin-Liang; Fernández-Pacheco, Amalio; Petit, Dorothée C. M. C.; Cowburn, Russell P.
2015-12-01
A vertical shift register consisting of multi-layered ferromagnetic bars with in-plane magnetization is investigated numerically using macrospin simulations. These layers are anti-ferromagnetically coupled via dipolar interactions and their in-plane aspect ratio determines their anisotropy. A single data bit is represented by a magnetic kink soliton, which forms at the boundary of two anti-parallel domains with opposite phases. It can be propagated bi-directionally using an externally applied rotating magnetic field. The soliton propagation is dependent on the applied field strength, the magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layers, and the dipolar coupling energies. For the device investigated here, the largest field range for soliton propagation is found to be from 35 Oe to 235 Oe at a lateral aspect ratio of 1.33. The soliton is also subjected to edge effects where it can be either pinned or reflected rather than being expelled from the stack. It is found that by reducing the thickness of the edge layer, these effects can be reduced substantially. By reducing the thickness of the edge layer by 20%, the field range in which the soliton is expelled increases by more than a factor of two.
Dynamical simulation of dipolar Janus colloids: Dynamical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagy, Matthew C.; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2013-05-01
The dynamical properties of dipolar Janus particles are studied through simulation using our previously-developed detailed pointwise (PW) model and an isotropically coarse-grained (CG) model [M. C. Hagy and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044505 (2012), 10.1063/1.4737432]. The CG model is found to have accelerated dynamics relative to the PW model over a range of conditions for which both models have near identical static equilibrium properties. Physically, this suggests dipolar Janus particles have slower transport properties (such as diffusion) in comparison to isotropically attractive particles. Time rescaling and damping with Langevin friction are explored to map the dynamics of the CG model to that of the PW model. Both methods map the diffusion constant successfully and improve the velocity autocorrelation function and the mean squared displacement of the CG model. Neither method improves the distribution of reversible bond durations f(tb) observed in the CG model, which is found to lack the longer duration reversible bonds observed in the PW model. We attribute these differences in f(tb) to changes in the energetics of multiple rearrangement mechanisms. This suggests a need for new methods that map the coarse-grained dynamics of such systems to the true time scale.
Quantum Fluctuations in Quasi-One-Dimensional Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edler, D.; Mishra, C.; Wächtler, F.; Nath, R.; Sinha, S.; Santos, L.
2017-08-01
Recent experiments have revealed that beyond-mean-field corrections are much more relevant in weakly interacting dipolar condensates than in their nondipolar counterparts. We show that in quasi-one-dimensional geometries quantum corrections in dipolar and nondipolar condensates are strikingly different due to the peculiar momentum dependence of the dipolar interactions. The energy correction of the condensate presents not only a modified density dependence, but it may even change from attractive to repulsive at a critical density due to the surprising role played by the transversal directions. The anomalous quantum correction translates into a strongly modified physics for quantum-stabilized droplets and dipolar solitons. Moreover, and for similar reasons, quantum corrections of three-body correlations, and hence of three-body losses, are strongly modified by the dipolar interactions. This intriguing physics can be readily probed in current experiments with magnetic atoms.
Tang, Chaojun; Yan, Bo; Wang, Qiugu; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zhendong; Liu, Fanxin; Chen, Naibo; Sui, Chenghua
2017-04-03
We have investigated numerically toroidal dipolar excitation at optical frequency in metamaterials whose unit cell consists of three identical Ag nanodisks and a SiO2 spacer on Ag substrate. The near-field plasmon hybridization between individual Ag nanodisks and substrate forms three magnetic dipolar resonances, at normal incidence of plane electromagnetic waves. The strong coupling among three magnetic dipolar resonances leads to the toroidal dipolar excitation, when space-inversion symmetry is broke along the polarization direction of incident light. The influences of some geometrical parameters on the resonance frequency and the excitation strength of toroidal dipolar mode are studied in detail. The radiated power from toroidal dipole is also compared with that from conventional electric and magnetic multipoles.
Optical force and torque on dipolar dual chiral particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahimzadegan, A.; Fruhnert, M.; Alaee, R.; Fernandez-Corbaton, I.; Rockstuhl, C.
2016-09-01
On the one hand, electromagnetic dual particles preserve the helicity of light upon interaction. On the other hand, chiral particles respond differently to light of opposite helicity. These two properties on their own constitute a source of fascination. Their combined action, however, is less explored. Here, we study on analytical grounds the force and torque as well as the optical cross sections of dual chiral particles in the dipolar approximation exerted by a particular wave of well-defined helicity: A circularly polarized plane wave. We put emphasis on particles that possess a maximally electromagnetic chiral and hence dual response. Besides the analytical insights, we also investigate the exerted optical force and torque on a real particle using the example of a metallic helix that is designed to approach the maximal electromagnetic chirality condition. Various applications in the context of optical sorting but also nanorobotics can be foreseen considering the particles studied in this contribution.
Plasmonic Toroidal Dipolar Response under Radially Polarized Excitation
Bao, Yanjun; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu
2015-01-01
Plasmonic toroidal resonance has attracted growing interests because of its low loss electromagnetic properties and potential high sensitive nanophotonic applications. However, the realization in a metamaterial requires three-dimensional complicated structural design so far. In this paper, we design a simple metal-dielectric-metal (MIM) sandwich nanostructure, which exhibits a strong toroidal dipolar resonance under radially polarized excitation. The toroidal dipole moment as the dominant contribution for the scattering is demonstrated by the mirror-image method and further analyzed by Lagrangian hybridization model. The proposed toroidal configuration also shows a highly tolerant for misalignment between the structure center and the incident light focus. Our study proves the way for the toroidal plasmonic application with the cylindrical vector beams. PMID:26114966
Toroidal dipolar excitation and macroscopic electromagnetic properties of metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savinov, V.; Fedotov, V. A.; Zheludev, N. I.
2014-05-01
The toroidal dipole is a peculiar electromagnetic excitation that can not be presented in terms of standard electric and magnetic multipoles. A static toroidal dipole has been shown to lead to violation of parity in atomic spectra and many other unusual electromagnetic phenomena. The existence of electromagnetic resonances of toroidal nature was experimentally demonstrated only recently, first in the microwave metamaterials, and then at optical frequencies, where they could be important in spectroscopy analysis of a wide class of media with constituents of toroidal symmetry, such as complex organic molecules, fullerenes, bacteriophages, etc. Despite the experimental progress in studying toroidal resonances, no direct link has yet been established between microscopic toroidal excitations and macroscopic scattering characteristics of the medium. To address this essential gap in the electromagnetic theory, we have developed an analytical approach for calculating the transmissivity and reflectivity of thin slabs of materials that exhibit toroidal dipolar excitations.
CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS
Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z.; Karas, V.
2013-03-01
A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.
Tunnel Splitting Distributions and Dipolar Shuffling in Mn12-acetate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertes, K. M.; Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M. P.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.
2003-03-01
In magnetic fields applied parallel to the anisotropy axis, the magnetization of Mn12 has been measured in response to a field that is swept back and forth across each of the ground state energy resonances corresponding to steps N=4...9, which provides a means of more directly [1] determining the distribution of tunnel splittings. The analysis of the data in terms of a distribution of tunnel splittings will be presented. Deviations from the expected curves at slow sweep rates are attributed to dipolar shuffling [2] which results in a redistribution of internal magnetic fields whenever a molecule tunnels. [1] K. M. Mertes, Yoko Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 227205 (2001) [2] Jie Liu, Biao Wu, Libin Fu, R. B. Diener and Qian Niu, Phys. Rev. B, 65 224401 (2002)
Controllable nonlocal interactions between dark solitons in dipolar condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bland, T.; Edmonds, M. J.; Proukakis, N. P.; Martin, A. M.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2015-12-01
We study the family of static and moving dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring their modified form and interactions. The density dip of the soliton acts as a giant antidipole which adds a nonlocal contribution to the conventional local soliton-soliton interaction. We map out the stability diagram as a function of the strength and polarization direction of the atomic dipoles, identifying both roton and phonon instabilities. Away from these instabilities, the solitons collide elastically. Varying the polarization direction relative to the condensate axis enables tuning of this nonlocal interaction between repulsive and attractive; the latter case supports unusual dark-soliton bound states. Remarkably, these bound states are themselves shown to behave like solitons, emerging unscathed from collisions with each other.
Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice
Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin–charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism. PMID:27173154
Shielding ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John
2016-05-01
The prospect for shielding ultracold dipolar molecules from inelastic and reactive collisions is investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of molecules of experimental interest such as NaRb, NaK, RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO, are considered and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. We acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche and the ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476.
Properties of a dipolar condensate with three-body interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blakie, Peter
2016-05-01
We discuss the properties of a harmonically trapped dilute dipolar condensate with a short ranged conservative three-body interaction. We show that this system supports two distinct fluid states: a usual condensate state and a self-cohering droplet state. We develop a simple model to quantify the energetics of these states, which we verify with full numerical calculations. Based on our simple model we develop a phase diagram showing that there is a first order phase transition between the states. Using dynamical simulations we explore the phase transition dynamics, revealing that the droplet crystal observed in previous work is an excited state that arises from heating as the system crosses the phase transition. Utilising our phase diagram we show it is feasible to produce a single droplet by dynamically adjusting the confining potential. We acknowledge support from the Marsden Fund of New Zealand.
Dipolar bilayer with antiparallel polarization: A self-bound liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebenstreit, Martin; Rader, Michael; Zillich, Robert E.
2016-01-01
Dipolar bilayers with antiparallel polarization, i.e., opposite polarization in the two layers, exhibit liquidlike rather than gaslike behavior. In particular, even without external pressure, a self-bound liquid droplet of constant density will form. We investigate the symmetric case of two identical layers, corresponding to a two-component Bose system with equal partial densities. The zero-temperature equation of state E (ρ )/N , where ρ is the total density, has a minimum, with an equilibrium density that can be adjusted by the distance d between the layers (decreasing with increasing d ). The attraction necessary for a self-bound liquid comes from the interlayer dipole-dipole interaction that leads to a mediated intralayer attraction. We investigate the regime of negative pressure towards the spinodal instability, where the bilayer is unstable against infinitesimal fluctuations of the total density, confirmed by calculations of the speed of sound of total density fluctuations.
Strongly dipolar fluids at low densities compared to living polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavares, J. M.; Weis, J. J.; Telo da Gama, M. M.
1999-04-01
We carried out extensive canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, with N=1024 particles at fixed reduced density ρ*=0.05, in order to investigate the chainlike structure that occurs at low densities, for sufficiently large reduced dipole moments μ*. The dissociation and recombination of chains during equilibrium runs suggest an analogy between the DHS's and a system of living polymers. This was checked quantitatively by comparing the results of the simulations with those of a theory for living polymers taking into account the indistinguishability of the particles in self-assembled chains. Quantitative agreement between theoretical and simulated mean chain lengths and number of monomers, was found for particular choices of the parameters used in the working definition of the MC chains.
Collisional effects in the dynamics of a dipolar gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sykes, Andrew
2016-05-01
In this talk, we discuss the role of collisions in dipolar gases which are far from equilibrium. We compare and contrast collisional mechanisms with mean-field effects. We consider several cases of dynamical behaviour. We begin with cross-dimensional relaxation, where the time-scale of equilibration is studied following a quench in the trap parameters. We also discuss the damping of monopole and quadrupole excitations. Finally we discuss time-of-flight expansion dynamics. Our results demonstrate that collisions can play a significant role. We use these results to extract an estimate of the deca-heptuplet s-partial-wave scattering length of bosonic dysprosium, and to improve the accuracy of experimental time-of-flight expansion imaging. Financial support from the Marie Sklodowska-Curie H2020 framework program.
Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice.
Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas
2016-05-13
Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.
Evolution of multiple quantum coherences with scaled dipolar Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Claudia M.; Buljubasich, Lisandro; Pastawski, Horacio M.; Chattah, Ana K.
2017-08-01
In this article, we introduce a pulse sequence which allows the monitoring of multiple quantum coherences distribution of correlated spin states developed with scaled dipolar Hamiltonian. The pulse sequence is a modification of our previous Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt echo (PRL echo) with phase increment, in order to verify the accuracy of the weighted coherent quantum dynamics. The experiments were carried out with different scaling factors to analyze the evolution of the total magnetization, the time dependence of the multiple quantum coherence orders, and the development of correlated spins clusters. In all cases, a strong dependence between the evolution rate and the weighting factor is observed. Remarkably, all the curves appeared overlapped in a single trend when plotted against the self-time, a new time scale that includes the scaling factor into the evolution time. In other words, the spin system displayed always the same quantum evolution, slowed down as the scaling factor decreases, confirming the high performance of the new pulse sequence.
Strongly Correlated States of Ultracold Rotating Dipolar Fermi Gases
Osterloh, Klaus; Barberan, Nuria; Lewenstein, Maciej
2007-10-19
We study strongly correlated ground and excited states of rotating quasi-2D Fermi gases constituted of a small number of dipole-dipole interacting particles with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the plane of motion. As the number of atoms grows, the system enters an intermediate regime, where ground states are subject to a competition between distinct bulk-edge configurations. This effect obscures their description in terms of composite fermions and leads to the appearance of novel quasihole ground states. In the presence of dipolar interactions, the principal Laughlin state at filling {nu}=1/3 exhibits a substantial energy gap for neutral (total angular momentum conserving) excitations and is well-described as an incompressible Fermi liquid. Instead, at lower fillings, the ground state structure favors crystalline order.
Nonequilibrium condensation and coarsening of field-driven dipolar colloids.
Jäger, Sebastian; Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L
2012-07-01
In colloidal suspensions, self-organization processes can be easily fueled by external fields. Here we consider monolayers of particles with permanent dipole moments that are driven by rotating external fields. In recent experiments, it has been shown that the particles in such systems self-organize into two-dimensional clusters. Here we report results from a computer simulation study of these pattern forming systems. Specifically, we employ Langevin dynamics simulations, Brownian dynamics simulations that include hydrodynamic interactions, and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo simulations of soft spheres interacting via dipolar potentials. We investigate at which field strengths and frequencies clusters form and explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions. We also examine the phase behavior of the equilibrium system resulting from a time average of the colloidal interactions in the rotating field. In this way we demonstrate that the clustering described in the driven system arises from a first-order phase transition between a vapor and a condensed phase.
Nonequilibrium condensation and coarsening of field-driven dipolar colloids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäger, Sebastian; Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.
2012-07-01
In colloidal suspensions, self-organization processes can be easily fueled by external fields. Here we consider monolayers of particles with permanent dipole moments that are driven by rotating external fields. In recent experiments, it has been shown that the particles in such systems self-organize into two-dimensional clusters. Here we report results from a computer simulation study of these pattern forming systems. Specifically, we employ Langevin dynamics simulations, Brownian dynamics simulations that include hydrodynamic interactions, and Wang-Landau Monte Carlo simulations of soft spheres interacting via dipolar potentials. We investigate at which field strengths and frequencies clusters form and explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions. We also examine the phase behavior of the equilibrium system resulting from a time average of the colloidal interactions in the rotating field. In this way we demonstrate that the clustering described in the driven system arises from a first-order phase transition between a vapor and a condensed phase.
Shielding 2Σ ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L.
2016-01-01
The prospects for shielding ultracold, paramagnetic, dipolar molecules from inelastic and chemical collisions are investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value, as previously shown for nonparamagnetic molecules. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of 2Σ molecules of experimental interest—RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO—are considered, and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. It is further shown that, for these molecules described by Hund's coupling case (b), electronic and nuclear spins play the role of spectator with respect to the shielding.
Fibonacci anyon excitations of one-dimensional dipolar lattice bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Äńurić, Tanja; Biedroń, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2017-02-01
We study a system of dipolar bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. In particular, we analyze low energy properties of the system at an average filling of 3/2 atoms per lattice site. We identify the region of the parameter space where the system has non-Abelian Fibonacci anyon excitations that correspond to fractional domain walls between different charge-density waves. When such one-dimensional systems are combined into a two-dimensional network, braiding of Fibonacci anyon excitations has potential application for fault tolerant, universal, topological quantum computation. Contrary to previous calculations, our results also demonstrate that super-solid phases are not present in the phase diagram for the discussed 3/2 average filling. Instead, decreasing the value of the nearest-neighbor tunneling strength leads to a direct, Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless, superfluid to charge-density-wave quantum phase transition.
Broadband high-frequency waves detected at dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Cao, J. B.; Fu, H. S.; Wang, T. Y.; Liu, W. L.; Yao, Z. H.
2017-04-01
Dipolarization front (DF) is a sharp boundary most probably separating the reconnection jet from the background plasma sheet. So far at this boundary, the observed waves are mainly in low-frequency range (e.g., magnetosonic waves and lower hybrid waves). Few high-frequency waves are observed in this region. In this paper, we report the broadband high-frequency wave emissions at the DF. These waves, having frequencies extending from the electron cyclotron frequency fce, up to the electron plasma frequency fpe, could contribute 10% to the in situ measurement of intermittent energy conversion at the DF layer. Their generation may be attributed to electron beams, which are simultaneously observed at the DF as well.
Two states of magnetotail dipolarization fronts: A statistical study
Schmid, D; Nakamura, R; Plaschke, F; Volwerk, M; Baumjohann, W
2015-01-01
We study the ion density and temperature in the predipolarization and postdipolarization plasma sheets in the Earth's magnetotail using 9 years (2001–2009) of Cluster data. For our study we selected cases when Cluster observed dipolarization fronts (DFs) with an earthward plasma flow greater than 150km/s. We perform a statistical study of the temperature and density variations during the DF crossings. Earlier studies concluded that on average, the temperature increases while the density decreases across the DF. Our statistical results show a more diverse picture: While ∼54% of the DFs follow this pattern (category A), for ∼28% the temperature decreases while the density increases across the DF (category B). We found an overall decrease in thermal pressure for category A DFs with a more pronounced decrease at the DF duskside, while DFs of category B showed no clear pattern in the pressure change. Both categories are associated with earthward plasma flows but with some difference: (1) category A flows are faster than category B flows, (2) the observations indicate that category B flows are directed perpendicular to the current in the near-Earth current sheet while category A flows are tilted slightly duskward from this direction, and (3) the background Bz of category B is higher than that of category A. Based on these results, we hypothesize that after reconnection takes place, a bursty bulk flow emerges with category A characteristics, and as it travels earthward, it further evolves into category B characteristics, which is in a more dipolarized region with slower plasma flow (closer to the flow-braking region). PMID:26167443
Ordering and short-time orientational diffusion in dipolar hard-spherical colloids.
Alarcón-Waess, O; Diaz-Herrera, E
2002-03-01
Orientational hydrodynamic functions and short-time, self-orientational and collective orientational diffusion coefficients of dipolar hard-spherical colloids are performed on a homogeneous isotropic phase, as functions of the wave vector q, for various values of the volume fraction and the dipolar strength of the macroparticles. The calculation is based on the dynamic orientational structure factor, which is the time-dependent self-correlation of the orientation density. We assume that the time evolution of the orientation density is given by the Smoluchoswki's equation, taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions as well as the dipolar interaction. The former are considered assuming pairwise additivity. The importance of the dynamic orientational structure factor is that its initial slope can be measured in a depolarized light scattering experiment. The results predict a different behavior for dilute and for dense dipolar colloids. The ordering phenomena are studied via the ordering coefficients, which are the orientational hydrodynamic functions at q=0. The results show that as the dipolar colloid evolves to the instability line, the translational ordering velocity increases while the rotational one reduces. The short-time orientational diffusion coefficients at q=0 are also performed. They predict that near to the instability line, the dipolar colloid diffuses translationally more than rotationally. At very dilute concentration the dipolar colloid presents an unexpected dynamical behavior, which seems to indicate that the colloid could be evolving to a reentrant phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, R. K.; Rawal, S.; Norton, D.; Hebard, A. F.
2010-12-01
The effect of dipolar interactions on the coercive field of Ni nanoparticles embedded as layers in a Al2O3 host matrix is discussed. The results for two sets of 5 layer samples with different interlayer spacings and a set of single layer samples are compared for samples with particle size varying from 3 nm (single domain) to 60 nm (multiple domain). The dipolar interactions are strongest in the samples with shorter interlayer distances and weakest for the single layer samples. Our observation that dipolar interactions increase the coercive field and decrease the critical diameter separating single domain from multiple domain behavior reinforces a description based on collective dynamics.
Fermion production in dipolar electric field on de Sitter expanding universe
Băloi, Mihaela-Andreea Crucean, Cosmin
2015-12-07
The production of fermions in dipolar electric fields on de Sitter universe is studied. The amplitude and probability of pair production are computed using the exact solution of the Dirac equation in de Sitter spacetime. The form of the dipolar fields is established using the conformal invariance of the Maxwell equations. We obtain that the momentum conservation law is broken in the process of pair production in dipolar electric fields. Also we establish that there are nonvanishing probabilities for processes in which the helicity is conserved/nonconserved. The Minkowski limit is recovered when the expansion factor becomes zero.
Dipolar gases of ground state molecules: NaK in Hannover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gempel, Matthias W.; Schulze, Torben A.; Hartmann, Torsten; Temelkov, Ivo I.; Knöckel, Horst; Zenesini, Alessandro; Tiemann, Eberhard; Ospelkaus, Silke
2014-05-01
In the coming years, dipolar interactions will be one of the most promising tools in the field of ultracold atoms. Since the first realization of degenerate gases of dipolar atoms and the creation of large diatomic molecular samples in their rovibrational groundstate, a lot of experimental and theoretical interest has been focused on long-range interactions, anisotropy, exotic phase transitions and other peculiar phenomena. We will update you on our work in Hannover with details on the NaK experimental apparatus and on our effort to determine the most efficient adiabatic transfer from weakly-bound dimers to ground state dipolar molecules.
Probing the Dipolar Coupling in a Heterospin Endohedral Fullerene-Phthalocyanine Dyad.
Zhou, Shen; Yamamoto, Masanori; Briggs, G Andrew D; Imahori, Hiroshi; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos
2016-02-03
Paramagnetic endohedral fullerenes and phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes are promising building blocks for molecular quantum information processing, for which tunable dipolar coupling is required. We have linked these two spin qubit candidates together and characterized the resulting electron paramagnetic resonance properties, including the spin dipolar coupling between the fullerene spin and the copper spin. Having interpreted the distance-dependent coupling strength quantitatively and further discussed the antiferromagnetic aggregation effect of the CuPc moieties, we demonstrate two ways of tuning the dipolar coupling in such dyad systems: changing the spacer group and adjusting the solution concentration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.
2015-12-01
Recent study employing the MDS-1 satellite reveals that magnetic field dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere is not unusual. When the MDS-1 satellite was located at L=3.5-5.0 near the auroral onset longitude (MLT difference of ≤2.5 h), the occurrence probability of local dipolarization was about 16%. Surprisingly, an event was found at L~3.6, far inside the geosynchronous altitude. It was also shown that after the dipolarization, the oxygen ENA flux in the nightside ring current region measured by the IMAGE satellite was predominantly enhanced by a factor of 2-5 and stayed at an enhanced level for more than 1 h, while clear enhancement was scarcely seen in the hydrogen ENA flux. To better understand mechanisms of the selective acceleration of O+ ions during dipolarization, an in-situ measurement of ion fluxes is needed. However, there are few studies investigating H+ and O+ flux variations during dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere. In this study we investigate magnetic field dipolarization and its associated ion flux variations in the deep inner magnetosphere, using magnetic field and ion flux data obtained by the Van Allen Probes. From the magnetic field data recorded on the nightside (1800-0600 MLT) in the inner magnetosphere (L=3.0-6.6) in VDH coordinates, we select substorm-related dipolarization events in which the H component increases by more than 20 nT and the absolute value of the V component decreases by more than 8 nT in 5 minutes. About 150 dipolarization events are identified from 1 October 2012 to 30 June 2015. We find that the dipolarization mostly occurs at L=4.5-6.5 in the premidnight sector (2100-0000 MLT). No events are found at L<4.0. Some dipolarization events are accompanied by O+ flux enhancements in the energy range higher than a few keV, which have the pitch angle distribution peaked around 45 or 135 degrees. We also find that low energy O+ ions often appear after dipolarization with an energy dispersion starting from
Remote dipolar interactions for objective density calibration and flow control of excitonic fluids.
Cohen, Kobi; Rapaport, Ronen; Santos, Paulo V
2011-03-25
In this Letter we suggest a method to observe remote interactions of spatially separated dipolar quantum fluids, and in particular, of dipolar excitons in GaAs bilayer based devices. The method utilizes the static electric dipole moment of trapped dipolar fluids to induce a local potential change on spatially separated test dipoles. We show that such an interaction can be used for model-independent, objective fluid density measurements, an outstanding problem in this field of research, as well as for interfluid exciton flow control and trapping. For a demonstration of the effects on realistic devices, we use a full two-dimensional hydrodynamical model.
Modification of roton instability due to the presence of a second dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Asad-uz-Zaman, M.; Blume, D.
2011-03-15
We study the behavior of two coupled purely dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), each located in a cylindrically symmetric pancake-shaped external confining potential, as the separation b between the traps along the tight confining direction is varied. The solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which account for the full dynamics, show that the system behavior is modified by the presence of the second dipolar BEC. For sufficiently small b, the presence of the second dipolar BEC destabilizes the system dramatically. In this regime, the coupled system collapses through a mode that is notably different from the radial roton mode that induces the collapse of the uncoupled system. Finally, we comment on the shortcomings of an approach that employs a separable wavefunction, which is assumed to be a good approximation for highly pancake-shaped dipolar BECs in the literature.
Exploring the stability and dynamics of dipolar matter-wave dark solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmonds, M. J.; Bland, T.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2016-06-01
We study the stability, form, and interaction of single and multiple dark solitons in quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. The solitons are found numerically as stationary solutions in the moving frame of a nonlocal Gross Pitaevskii equation and characterized as a function of the key experimental parameters, namely the ratio of the dipolar atomic interactions to the van der Waals interactions, the polarization angle, and the condensate width. The solutions and their integrals of motion are strongly affected by the phonon and roton instabilities of the system. Dipolar matter-wave dark solitons propagate without dispersion and collide elastically away from these instabilities, with the dipolar interactions contributing an additional repulsion or attraction to the soliton-soliton interaction. However, close to the instabilities, the collisions are weakly dissipative.
Spectral collocation and a two-level continuation scheme for dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeng, B.-W.; Chien, C.-S.; Chern, I.-L.
2014-01-01
We exploit the high accuracy of spectral collocation methods in the context of a two-level continuation scheme for computing ground state solutions of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), where the first kind Chebyshev polynomials and Fourier sine functions are used as the basis functions for the trial function space. The governing Gross-Pitaevskii equation (or Schrödinger equation) can be reformulated as a Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) type system [13]. The two-level continuation scheme is developed for tracing the first solution curves of the SP system, which in turn provide an appropriate initial guess for the Newton method to compute ground state solutions for 3D dipolar BEC. Extensive numerical experiments on 3D dipolar BEC and dipolar BEC in optical lattices are reported.
Thermal 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethine imines with active esters.
He, Liwenze; Liu, Lin; Han, Runfeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong
2016-07-12
An efficient method for the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine imines with active esters under thermal conditions has been described in good to high yields. This method offers a straightforward pathway to synthesize bioactive pyrazolidinones.
Many-Body Dynamics of Dipolar Molecules in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Gadway, Bryce; Foss-Feig, Michael; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.; Rey, Ana Maria
2014-11-01
We use Ramsey spectroscopy to experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of disordered dipolar-interacting ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice, and we compare the results to theory. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength. We find excellent agreement between our measurements of the spin dynamics and theoretical calculations with no fitting parameters, including the dynamics' dependence on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. This agreement verifies the microscopic model expected to govern the dynamics of dipolar molecules, even in this strongly correlated beyond-mean-field regime, and represents the first step towards using this system to explore many-body dynamics in regimes that are inaccessible to current theoretical techniques.
Many-body dynamics of dipolar molecules in an optical lattice.
Hazzard, Kaden R A; Gadway, Bryce; Foss-Feig, Michael; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Yao, Norman Y; Lukin, Mikhail D; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S; Rey, Ana Maria
2014-11-07
We use Ramsey spectroscopy to experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of disordered dipolar-interacting ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice, and we compare the results to theory. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength. We find excellent agreement between our measurements of the spin dynamics and theoretical calculations with no fitting parameters, including the dynamics' dependence on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. This agreement verifies the microscopic model expected to govern the dynamics of dipolar molecules, even in this strongly correlated beyond-mean-field regime, and represents the first step towards using this system to explore many-body dynamics in regimes that are inaccessible to current theoretical techniques.
Mollica, Giulia; Dekhil, Myriam; Ziarelli, Fabio; Thureau, Pierre; Viel, Stéphane
2015-02-01
The relationship between the crystal packing of powder samples and long-range (13)C-(13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings is presented and illustrated for the case of uniformly (13)C-enriched L-alanine and L-histidine·HCl·H2O. Dipolar coupling measurement is based on the partial reintroduction of dipolar interactions by spinning the sample slightly off-magic-angle, while the coupling of interest for a given spin pair is isolated with a frequency-selective pulse. A cost function is used to correlate the so-derived dipolar couplings to trial crystal structures of the samples under study. This procedure allowed for the investigation of the l-alanine space group and L-histidine·HCl·H2O space group and unit-cell parameters.
How to Observe Dipolar Effects in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
Gawryluk, Krzysztof; Brewczyk, Miroslaw; Bongs, Kai
2011-04-08
We propose an experiment which proves the possibility of spinning gaseous media via dipolar interactions in the spirit of the famous Einstein-de Haas effect for ferromagnets. The main idea is to utilize resonances that we find in spinor condensates of alkali atoms while these systems are placed in an oscillating magnetic field. A significant transfer of angular momentum from spin to motional degrees of freedom observed on resonance is a spectacular manifestation of dipolar effects in spinor condensates.
Vortex formation and hidden vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramaniyan, Sabari
2017-09-01
We examine vortex formation in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with rotating double-well (DW) trap potential. For this purpose, we solve a two-dimensional, nonlocal Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically. We obtain the critical rotation frequency (Ωc) for vortex formation in dipolar BECs for two different species and three different interaction strengths in each case. We also study hidden vortices, which are positioned along the DW potential, for all possible cases.
Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes
Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev
2016-09-13
In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymer brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.
Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes
Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev
2016-09-13
In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymermore » brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.« less
Two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in concentrically coupled annular traps
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Han, Wei; Wen, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Dong, Rui-Fang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2015-01-01
Dipolar Bosonic atoms confined in external potentials open up new avenues for quantum-state manipulation and will contribute to the design and exploration of novel functional materials. Here we investigate the ground-state and rotational properties of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar bosonic atoms with magnetic dipole moments aligned vertically to the condensate and one without dipole moments, confined in concentrically coupled annular traps. For the nonrotational case, it is found that the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to control the location of each component between the inner and outer rings, and to induce the desired ground-state phase. Under finite rotation, it is shown that there exists a critical value of rotational frequency for the nondipolar case, above which vortex state can form at the trap center, and the related vortex structures depend strongly on the rotational frequency. For the dipolar case, it is found that various ground-state phases and the related vortex structures, such as polygonal vortex clusters and vortex necklaces, can be obtained via a proper choice of the dipolar interaction and rotational frequency. Finally, we also study and discuss the formation process of such vortex structures. PMID:25731962
Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes
Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev
2016-09-13
In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymer brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.
Two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in concentrically coupled annular traps.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Han, Wei; Wen, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Dong, Rui-Fang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2015-03-03
Dipolar Bosonic atoms confined in external potentials open up new avenues for quantum-state manipulation and will contribute to the design and exploration of novel functional materials. Here we investigate the ground-state and rotational properties of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar bosonic atoms with magnetic dipole moments aligned vertically to the condensate and one without dipole moments, confined in concentrically coupled annular traps. For the nonrotational case, it is found that the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to control the location of each component between the inner and outer rings, and to induce the desired ground-state phase. Under finite rotation, it is shown that there exists a critical value of rotational frequency for the nondipolar case, above which vortex state can form at the trap center, and the related vortex structures depend strongly on the rotational frequency. For the dipolar case, it is found that various ground-state phases and the related vortex structures, such as polygonal vortex clusters and vortex necklaces, can be obtained via a proper choice of the dipolar interaction and rotational frequency. Finally, we also study and discuss the formation process of such vortex structures.
Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons in a phosphorene double layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.
2017-07-01
We study the formation of dipolar excitons and their superfluidity in a phosphorene double layer. The analytical expressions for the single dipolar exciton energy spectrum and wave function are obtained. It is predicted that a weakly interacting gas of dipolar excitons in a double layer of black phosphorus exhibits superfluidity due to the dipole-dipole repulsion between the dipolar excitons. In calculations are employed the Keldysh and Coulomb potentials for the interaction between the charge carriers to analyze the influence of the screening effects on the studied phenomena. It is shown that the critical velocity of superfluidity, the spectrum of collective excitations, concentrations of the superfluid and normal component, and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are anisotropic and demonstrate the dependence on the direction of motion of dipolar excitons. The critical temperature for superfluidity increases if the exciton concentration and the interlayer separation increase. It is shown that the dipolar exciton binding energy and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are sensitive to the electron and hole effective masses. The proposed experiment to observe a directional superfluidity of excitons is addressed.
Conformations of a dipolar solute in a Stockmayer solvent channel.
Yi, Taeil; Wang, Qian; Lichter, Seth
2012-10-30
A wide range of molecules, from inorganic to biological, self-assemble on surfaces. Previous studies have elucidated many features of solute reorganization on surfaces using coarse-grained modeling, implicit solvents, and constraints such as chemically bonding the solute to the surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations under various combinations of interaction parameters, solute fractions, and solute dipole moment, we study the redistribution of freely-rotating dipolar solute molecules solvated by a water-like Stockmayer solvent initially adhered to a face-centered cubic substrate. The balance of attractive and repulsive forces is essential for acquiring a particular stable conformation. Here we show that the adsorbed molecules redistribute into different conformations--wetting film, nonwetting, partial wetting, and pseudopartial wetting drops--depending on the parameter values. We observe that the pseudopartial wetting drop is transient and its rate of spreading fluctuates, slowing to nearly zero as it passes through particular conformations before reaching an equilibrium thin film. Strong attraction between solute molecules yields a droplet with a net dipole moment. A high solute fraction leads to a pancake-like conformation arising from a balance of surface tension and van der Waals forces. This study augments our understanding of the evolution of aggregates in biological systems and also the design of polymers for self-assembled monolayers for industrial applications.
Transient Magnetic Reconnection and Dipolarization Fronts in the Terrestrial Magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua; Pang, Ye; Xu, Xiaojun; Huang, Shiyong; Tang, Rongxin; Yuan, Zhigang
2015-04-01
We report a Cluster observation of transient magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail at the location of [Xgsm~ -17.2 RE, Ygsm~ -4.5 RE and Zgsm~ 0]. The reconnection X-line retreated tailward with a speed of 34 km/s based on multi-spacecraft analysis. An ion diffusion region with a weak guide field (~10% of lobe field) was encountered during the flow reversal. A flux rope was embedded in the tailward flow. Transient suprathermal electron beams, which directed away from the X-line, were detected repeatedly around the separatrix region with periods of about 60s during the tailward flow bursts. On the earthward side of X-line, multiple earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts were observed quasi-periodically at the edge of the ion diffusion region with time period of 60s-90s. Particle and wave characteristics also show distinct signatures at different stages of the transient reconnection. The implications of this observation will be discussed.
Decay of dipolar vortex structures in a stratified fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flór, J. B.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Delfos, R.
1995-02-01
In this paper the viscous decay of dipolar vortex structures in a linearly stratified fluid is investigated experimentally, and a comparison of the experimental results with simple theoretical models is made. The dipoles are generated by a pulsed horizontal injection of fluid. In a related experimental study by Flór and van Heijst [J. Fluid Mech. 279, 101 (1994)], it was shown that, after the emergence of the pancake-shaped vortex structure, the flow is quasi-two-dimensional and decays due to the vertical diffusion of vorticity and entrainment of ambient irrotational fluid. This results in an expansion of the vortex structure. Two decay models with the horizontal flow based on the viscously decaying Lamb-Chaplygin dipole, are presented. In a first model, the thickness and radius of the dipole are assumed constant, and in a second model also the increasing thickness of the vortex structure is taken into account. The models are compared with experimental data obtained from flow visualizations and from digital analysis of particle-streak photographs. Although both models neglect entrainment and the decay is modeled by diffusion only, a reasonable agreement with the experiments is obtained.
Energetic Electrons in Dipolarization Events: Spatial Properties and Anisotropy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.
2014-01-01
Using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection, flow bursts, and dipolarization, we further investigate the acceleration of electrons to suprathermal energies. Particular emphasis is on spatial properties and anisotropies as functions of energy and time. The simulation results are compared with Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. The test particle approach successfully reproduces several observed injection features and puts them into a context of spatial maps of the injection region(s): a dominance of perpendicular anisotropies farther down the tail and closer to the equatorial plane, an increasing importance of parallel anisotropy closer to Earth and at higher latitudes, a drop in energy fluxes at energies below approximately 10 keV, coinciding with the plasma density drop, together with increases at higher energy, a triple peak structure of flux increases near 0 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg, and a tendency of flux increases to extend to higher energy closer to Earth and at lower latitudes. We identified the plasma sheet boundary layers and adjacent lobes as a main source region for both increased and decreased energetic electron fluxes, related to the different effects of adiabatic acceleration at high and low energies. The simulated anisotropies tend to exceed the observed ones, particularly for perpendicular fluxes at high energies. The most plausible reason is that the MHD simulation lacks the effects of anisotropy-driven microinstabilities and waves, which would reduce anisotropies.
Pollux: a stable weak dipolar magnetic field but no planet?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurière, Michel; Konstantinova-Antova, Renada; Espagnet, Olivier; Petit, Pascal; Roudier, Thierry; Charbonnel, Corinne; Donati, Jean-François; Wade, Gregg A.
2014-08-01
Pollux is considered as an archetype of a giant star hosting a planet: its radial velocity (RV) presents sinusoidal variations with a period of about 590 d, which have been stable for more than 25 years. Using ESPaDOnS and Narval we have detected a weak (sub-gauss) magnetic field at the surface of Pollux and followed up its variations with Narval during 4.25 years, i.e. more than for two periods of the RV variations. The longitudinal magnetic field is found to vary with a sinusoidal behaviour with a period close to that of the RV variations and with a small shift in phase. We then performed a Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) investigation from the Stokes V and Stokes I least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles. A rotational period is determined, which is consistent with the period of variations of the RV. The magnetic topology is found to be mainly poloidal and this component almost purely dipolar. The mean strength of the surface magnetic field is about 0.7 G. As an alternative to the scenario in which Pollux hosts a close-in exoplanet, we suggest that the magnetic dipole of Pollux can be associated with two temperature and macroturbulent velocity spots which could be sufficient to produce the RV variations. We finally investigate the scenarii of the origin of the magnetic field which could explain the observed properties of Pollux.
Rapid acceleration of protons upstream of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts
Ukhorskiy, AY; Sitnov, MI; Merkin, VG; Artemyev, AV
2013-01-01
[1] Transport and acceleration of ions in the magnetotail largely occurs in the form of discrete impulsive events associated with a steep increase of the tail magnetic field normal to the neutral plane (Bz), which are referred to as dipolarization fronts. The goal of this paper is to investigate how protons initially located upstream of earthward moving fronts are accelerated at their encounter. According to our analytical analysis and simplified two-dimensional test-particle simulations of equatorially mirroring particles, there are two regimes of proton acceleration: trapping and quasi-trapping, which are realized depending on whether the front is preceded by a negative depletion in Bz. We then use three-dimensional test-particle simulations to investigate how these acceleration processes operate in a realistic magnetotail geometry. For this purpose we construct an analytical model of the front which is superimposed onto the ambient field of the magnetotail. According to our numerical simulations, both trapping and quasi-trapping can produce rapid acceleration of protons by more than an order of magnitude. In the case of trapping, the acceleration levels depend on the amount of time particles stay in phase with the front which is controlled by the magnetic field curvature ahead of the front and the front width. Quasi-trapping does not cause particle scattering out of the equatorial plane. Energization levels in this case are limited by the number of encounters particles have with the front before they get magnetized behind it. PMID:26167430
Evolution of multiple quantum coherences with scaled dipolar Hamiltonian.
Sánchez, Claudia M; Buljubasich, Lisandro; Pastawski, Horacio M; Chattah, Ana K
2017-08-01
In this article, we introduce a pulse sequence which allows the monitoring of multiple quantum coherences distribution of correlated spin states developed with scaled dipolar Hamiltonian. The pulse sequence is a modification of our previous Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt echo (PRL echo) with phase increment, in order to verify the accuracy of the weighted coherent quantum dynamics. The experiments were carried out with different scaling factors to analyze the evolution of the total magnetization, the time dependence of the multiple quantum coherence orders, and the development of correlated spins clusters. In all cases, a strong dependence between the evolution rate and the weighting factor is observed. Remarkably, all the curves appeared overlapped in a single trend when plotted against the self-time, a new time scale that includes the scaling factor into the evolution time. In other words, the spin system displayed always the same quantum evolution, slowed down as the scaling factor decreases, confirming the high performance of the new pulse sequence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Optical propagation via dipolar coupling in metal nanoparticle chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Willes H.; Ford, George W.
2005-03-01
Electromagnetic propagation in metal nanoparticle chains offers the potential for nano-sized integrated optical circuits. Dispersion relations for dipolar modes propagating along such a chain are calculated by solving the full Maxwell equations, including radiation damping. The nanoparticles are treated as point dipoles, which means the results are valid only for a/d <= 1/3, where a is the particle radius and d the spacing.^1 The discrete modes for a finite chain are first calculated, then these are mapped onto the dispersion relations appropriate for the infinite chain. Computed results are given for a chain of 50-nm diameter Ag spheres spaced by 75 nm.^2 We find large deviations from previous quasistatic results:^3 Transverse modes interact strongly with the light line. Longitudinal modes develop a bandwidth more than twice as large, resulting in a group velocity that is more than doubled. All modes for which kmode<= φ/c show strongly enhanced decay due to radiation damping. These features are consistent with recent calculations by Citrin.^4 ^1 S. Y. Park and D. Stroud, Phys. Rev. B 69, 125418 (2004). ^2 W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, Phys. Rev. B 70, 125429 (2004). ^3 M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16356 (2000). ^4 D. S. Citrin, Nano Lett. 4, 1561 (2004).
Functionalization of graphene via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.
Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio
2010-06-22
Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino groups selectively bind to gold nanorods, which were introduced as contrast markers for the identification of the graphene reactive sites. The interaction between gold nanorods and functionalized graphene was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The presence of the organic groups was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The sheets were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating the presence of gold nanorods distributed uniformly all over the graphene surface. This observation indicates that reaction has taken place not just at the edges but also at the internal C horizontal lineC bonds of graphene. Our results identify exfoliated graphene as a considerably more reactive structure than graphite and hence open the possibility to control the functionalization for use as a scaffold in the construction of organized composite nanomaterials.
Overflow of a dipolar exciton trap at high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietl, S.; Kowalik-Seidl, K.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Holleitner, A. W.; Wurstbauer, U.
2017-08-01
We study laterally trapped dipolar exciton ensembles in coupled GaAs quantum wells at high magnetic fields in the Faraday configuration. In photoluminescence experiments, we identify three magnetic field regimes. At low fields, the exciton density is increased by a reduced charge carrier escape from the trap, and additionally, the excitons' emission energy is corrected by a positive diamagnetic shift. At intermediate fields, magnetic field dependent correction terms apply which follow the characteristics of a neutral magnetoexciton. Due to a combined effect of an increasing binding energy and lifetime, the exciton density is roughly doubled from zero to about 7 T. At the latter high field value, the charge carriers occupy only the lowest Landau level. In this situation, the exciton trap can overflow independently from the electrostatic depth of the trapping potential, and the energy shift of the excitons caused by the so-called quantum confined Stark effect is effectively compensated. Instead, the exciton energetics seem to be driven by the magnetic field dependent renormalization of the many-body interaction terms. In this regime, the impact of parasitic in-plane fields at the edge of trapping potential is eliminated.
Dynamical Properties of Surface-mounted Dipolar Molecular Rotators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Underwood, Jason; Price, John; Caskey, Douglas; Michl, Josef
2007-03-01
We use dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) to study the rotational dynamics of dipolar molecules mounted on fused SiO2 surfaces. Each ``molecular rotor'' consists of three parts: 1) a mounting group for attachment to the substrate, 2) a rotating group having a permanent dipole moment, and 3) an axis connecting the rotor to the attachment group. Attachment is facilitated either by covalent bonding through reaction of silane groups with surface hydroxyls or by van der Waals interactions. Fused SiO2 substrates are patterned with interdigitated electrode Au capacitors (C ˜ 1 pF), and rotor molecule dynamics are characterized by measurement of the capacitance C and loss tangent δ≡ReZ/ImZ. We employ a ratio-transformer bridge technique to measure these quantities, with sensitivities in C and δ of 1 aF and 1 ppm, respectively. A unique aspect of this work is the experimental apparatus, which allows us to prepare sub-monolayer films, determine coverage via two independent methods (DRS and XPS), and study molecule rotational motion, in-situ in ultra-high vacuum. Results will be presented on the kinetics of rotor adsorption/desorption, barrier height and asymmetry of the rotational potential of the molecules, and the effects of varying rotor coverages and adventitious H2O.
Residual dipolar couplings: synergy between NMR and structural genomics.
Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Patel, Dinshaw J
2002-01-01
Structural genomics is on a quest for the structure and function of a significant fraction of gene products. Current efforts are focusing on structure determination of single-domain proteins, which can readily be targeted by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and computational homology modeling. However, comprehensive association of gene products with functions also requires systematic determination of more complex protein structures and other biomolecules participating in cellular processes such as nucleic acids, and characterization of biomolecular interactions and dynamics relevant to function. Such NMR investigations are becoming more feasible, not only due to recent advances in NMR methodology, but also because structural genomics is providing valuable structural information and new experimental and computational tools. The measurement of residual dipolar couplings in partially oriented systems and other new NMR methods will play an important role in this synergistic relationship between NMR and structural genomics. Both an expansion in the domain of NMR application, and important contributions to future structural genomics efforts can be anticipated.
Plasma Entry from Tail into the Dipolar Magnetosphere During Substorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haerendel, Gerhard
Plasma entering the dipolar magnetosphere from the tail has to overcome the obstacle presented by the conductivity enhancements caused by the poleward arc(s). While the arcs move poleward, the plasma proceeds equatorward as testified by the existence of a westward electric field. The arcs break into smaller-scale structures and loops with a tendency of eastward growth and expansion, although the basic driving force is directed earthward/equatorward. The likely reason is that the arc-related conductivity enhancements act as flow barriers and convert normal into shear stresses. The energy derived from the release of the shear stresses and dissipated in the arcs lowers the entropy content of the flux tubes and enables their earthward progression. In addition, poleward jumps of the breakup arcs are quite common. They result from refreshments of the generator plasma by the sequential arrival of flow bursts from the near-Earth neutral line. Once inside the oval, the plasma continues to move equatorward as manifested through north-south aligned auroral forms. Owing to the existence of an inner border of the oval, marked by the Region 2 currents, all flows are eventually diverted sunward.
Rapid acceleration of protons upstream of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts.
Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Merkin, V G; Artemyev, A V
2013-08-01
[1] Transport and acceleration of ions in the magnetotail largely occurs in the form of discrete impulsive events associated with a steep increase of the tail magnetic field normal to the neutral plane (Bz ), which are referred to as dipolarization fronts. The goal of this paper is to investigate how protons initially located upstream of earthward moving fronts are accelerated at their encounter. According to our analytical analysis and simplified two-dimensional test-particle simulations of equatorially mirroring particles, there are two regimes of proton acceleration: trapping and quasi-trapping, which are realized depending on whether the front is preceded by a negative depletion in Bz . We then use three-dimensional test-particle simulations to investigate how these acceleration processes operate in a realistic magnetotail geometry. For this purpose we construct an analytical model of the front which is superimposed onto the ambient field of the magnetotail. According to our numerical simulations, both trapping and quasi-trapping can produce rapid acceleration of protons by more than an order of magnitude. In the case of trapping, the acceleration levels depend on the amount of time particles stay in phase with the front which is controlled by the magnetic field curvature ahead of the front and the front width. Quasi-trapping does not cause particle scattering out of the equatorial plane. Energization levels in this case are limited by the number of encounters particles have with the front before they get magnetized behind it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenetskii, E. O.; Joffe, R.; Shavit, R.
2011-08-01
A coupled state of an electromagnetic field with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation is well known as a polariton. Such a state is the result of the mixing of a photon with the excitation of a material. The most discussed types of polaritons are phonon polaritons, exciton polaritons, and surface-plasmon polaritons. Recently, it was shown that, in microwaves, strong magnon-photon coupling can be achieved due to magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) vortices in small thin-film ferrite disks. These coupled states can be specified as MDM-vortex polaritons. In this paper, we study the properties of MDM-vortex polaritons. We numerically analyze a variety of topological structures of MDM-vortex polaritons. Based on analytical studies of the MDM spectra, we give theoretical insight into a possible origin for the observed topological properties of the fields. We show that the MDM-vortex polaritons are characterized by helical-mode resonances. We demonstrate the PT-invariance properties of MDM oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk and show that such properties play an essential role in the physics of the observed topologically distinctive states with the localization or cloaking of electromagnetic fields. We may suppose that one of the useful implementations of the MDM-vortex polaritons could be microwave metamaterial structures and microwave near-field sensors.
Kamenetskii, E. O.; Joffe, R.; Shavit, R.
2011-08-15
A coupled state of an electromagnetic field with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation is well known as a polariton. Such a state is the result of the mixing of a photon with the excitation of a material. The most discussed types of polaritons are phonon polaritons, exciton polaritons, and surface-plasmon polaritons. Recently, it was shown that, in microwaves, strong magnon-photon coupling can be achieved due to magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) vortices in small thin-film ferrite disks. These coupled states can be specified as MDM-vortex polaritons. In this paper, we study the properties of MDM-vortex polaritons. We numerically analyze a variety of topological structures of MDM-vortex polaritons. Based on analytical studies of the MDM spectra, we give theoretical insight into a possible origin for the observed topological properties of the fields. We show that the MDM-vortex polaritons are characterized by helical-mode resonances. We demonstrate the PT-invariance properties of MDM oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk and show that such properties play an essential role in the physics of the observed topologically distinctive states with the localization or cloaking of electromagnetic fields. We may suppose that one of the useful implementations of the MDM-vortex polaritons could be microwave metamaterial structures and microwave near-field sensors.
Statistical and superposed epoch study of dipolarization events using data from Wind perigee passes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigsbee, K.; Slavin, J. A.; Lepping, R. P.; Szabo, A.; Øieroset, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Reiner, M. J.; Singer, H. J.
2005-03-01
From 1995 to 2000, the Wind spacecraft spent over 500h in the magnetotail, much of it within ~2x104km of the predicted location of the neutral sheet. Wind passed through the near magnetotail at distances of -15 RE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Bibhuti B.; Zhang, Hua; Opella, Stanley J.
2014-05-01
A method for making resonance assignments in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra of membrane proteins that utilizes the range of heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies in combination with conventional chemical shift based assignment methods is demonstrated. The Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) takes advantage of the rotational alignment of the membrane proteins in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers. Improved resolution is obtained by combining the magnetically inequivalent heteronuclear dipolar frequencies with isotropic chemical shift frequencies. Spectra with both dipolar and chemical shift frequency axes assist with resonance assignments. DAAP can be readily extended to three- and four-dimensional experiments and to include both backbone and side chain sites in proteins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruski, M.; Bailly, A.; Lang, D. P.; Amoureux, J.-P.; Fernandez, C.
1999-06-01
A new technique for measurements of dipolar interactions in rotating solids is presented that combines the capabilities of multiple quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) with the rotational echo double resonance (REDOR). It employs the dipolar recoupling between spin-1/2 ( I) and quadrupolar ( S) nuclei by applying a series of π pulses to the I spins. In contrast to the previously reported MQ-REDOR method, the recoupling sequence is applied during the triple quantum, rather than single quantum evolution. As the dipolar effect is enhanced by the MQ coherence order, this new technique exhibits improved sensitivity toward weak dipolar interactions.
Oxygen impacts on dipolarization fronts and reconnection rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Haoming; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Lapenta, Giovanni; Walker, Raymond J.
2016-02-01
Spacecraft observations near a magnetotail X line show that oxygen (O+) ions are minor species during nonstorm substorms, but they can become major species during some of the storm time substorms. Dipolarization fronts (DFs), which are characterized by a sharp increase northward magnetic field in the magnetotail, are commonly observed during magnetospheric substorms. In this study, we investigated the O+ effects on DFs and the reconnection rate during magnetotail reconnection. We used a 2.5-D implicit particle-in-cell simulation in a 2-D Harris current sheet in the presence of H+ and O+ ions. Simulation runs with equal number densities of O+ and H+ (O+ run) and with pure H+ ion species (H+ run) were performed. Comparing the two different runs, we found that both the reconnection rate and the DF speed in the O+ run were much less than those in the H+ run. By studying the force balance and plasma composition at the DF, we found that the outflow magnetic flux and DF propagation were encumbered by the current sheet O+ inertia, which reduced the DF speed and delayed the reconnection rate in the O+ run. We also found an ambipolar electric field in the O+ run due to the different inflow and outflow speeds of O+ and electrons in the O+ diffusion region. As a result, this ambipolar electric field induced O+ drag on the convective magnetic field in the O+ diffusion region. The small reconnection rate determined in the O+ run can be attributed to the current sheet inertia and the O+ drag on the convective magnetic flux.
Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization
C.Z. Cheng
2003-10-22
A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m{sup 2} as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization.
Re-creation of Dipolarization fronts observed by Cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin; Schmid, Daniel
2016-04-01
Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are an important structure ahead of busty bulk flows (BBFs) and can accelerate electrons and ions in the plasma sheet, is. The evolution of two DFs, observed by four Cluster satellites, are studied. One DF is observed on 9 July 2002 at ~0417 UT when Cluster is located near [-9.0, -15.0, 4.6] RE in GSM. The inter-satellite separation is ~4000 km, while the ion initial length is ~447 km. C1 and C2 are mainly separated along the X direction, observe similar profiles of BZ. The DF is first observed by C2, and then observed by C1. Interestingly, the front observed by C1 displays wave profiles on the ion initial length scale, which are observed by C2 just ahead of the front. Another DF is observed on 14 September 2004 at ~2042 UT when Cluster is located near [-17.4, 1.8, 0.9] RE. The ion initial length is ~646 km, and the inter-spacecraft separation distance is ~1000 km. The distance between C1, C3 and C4 is less than 500 km along Y direction, and we find that these three satellites observe similar magnetic profiles behind the DF, and a waves with period ~2.5 s ahead of DF. The amplitude of the waves ahead of the DF becomes larger as time increases. This suggests that waves of ion initial length scale ahead of a DF can become larger in amplitude and may re-create the DF, while the previous DF can be found as large magnetic oscillations behind the new DF.
Forces driving fast flow channels, dipolarizations, and turbulence in the magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Richard, Robert L.; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Walker, Raymond J.
2016-11-01
Fast flow channels are a major contributor to earthward transport in the magnetotail. Fast flow channels originate at reconnection sites in the magnetotail and terminate with dipolarizations, earthward moving regions of enhanced magnetic field. We have used a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetotail dynamics during a substorm on 7 February 2009 to investigate the stresses in the plasma sheet. In particular, we present an analysis of forces in and around flow channels and dipolarizations. Earthward of the dipolarization magnetic and thermal pressure forces are nearly in equilibrium. Tailward of the dipolarization the pattern of stresses is complex, but several general features are evident. In the earthward flow channel the magnetic tension force dominates. In the dipolarization a tailward magnetic force is partially balanced by the earthward pressure force. The stresses in azimuth (y) are variable. In some places they cause the flow stream to meander, while in others they cause the stream to become wider or narrower. A major consequence of fast earthward flow channels is that they drive large-scale vortices that initiate turbulence.
AC susceptibility as a tool to probe the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landi, Gabriel T.; Arantes, Fabiana R.; Cornejo, Daniel R.; Bakuzis, Andris F.; Andreu, Irene; Natividad, Eva
2017-01-01
The dipolar interaction is known to substantially affect the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. This is particularly important when the particles are kept in a fluid suspension or packed within nano-carriers. In addition to its usual long-range nature, in these cases the dipolar interaction may also induce the formation of clusters of particles, thereby strongly modifying their magnetic anisotropies. In this paper we show how AC susceptibility may be used to obtain information regarding the influence of the dipolar interaction in a sample. We develop a model which includes both aspects of the dipolar interaction and may be fitted directly to the susceptibility data. The usual long-range nature of the interaction is implemented using a mean-field approximation, whereas the particle-particle aggregation is modeled using a distribution of anisotropy constants. The model is then applied to two samples studied at different concentrations. One consists of spherical magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in oil and the other of cubic magnetite nanoparticles embedded on polymeric nanospheres. We also introduce a simple technique to address the presence of the dipolar interaction in a given sample, based on the height of the AC susceptibility peaks for different driving frequencies.
Mixing, demixing, and structure formation in a binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young-S., Luis E.; Adhikari, S. K.
2012-12-01
We study the static properties of disk-shaped binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates of 168Er-164Dy and 52Cr-164Dy mixtures under the action of interspecies and intraspecies contact and dipolar interactions and demonstrate the effect of dipolar interaction using the mean-field approach. Throughout this study we use realistic values of interspecis and intraspecies dipolar interactions and the intraspecies scattering lengths and consider the interspecies scattering length as a parameter. The stability of the binary mixture is illustrated through phase plots involving a number of atoms of the species. The binary system always becomes unstable as the number of atoms increases beyond a certain limit. As the interspecies scattering length increases corresponding to more repulsion, an overlapping mixed state of the two species changes to a separated demixed configuration. During the transition from a mixed to a demixed configuration as the interspecies scattering length is increased for parameters near the stability line, the binary condensate shows special transient structures in density in the form of red-blood-cell-like biconcave and Saturn-ring-like shapes, which are direct manifestations of the dipolar interaction.
Multi-dipolar microwave plasmas and their application to negative ion production
Béchu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.; Aleiferis, S.; Ivanov, A. A. Jr.; Bacal, M.
2013-10-15
During the past decade multi-dipolar plasmas have been employed for various purposes such as surface treatments in biomedicine, physical and chemical vapour deposition for hydrogen storage, and applications in mechanical engineering. On the other hand, due to the design and operational mode of these plasma sources (i.e., strong permanent magnets for the electron cyclotron resonance coupling, low working pressure, and high electron density achieved) they are suitable for studying fundamental mechanisms involved in negative ion sources used in magnetically confined fusion and particle accelerators. Thus, this study presents an overview of fundamental results obtained with: (i) a single dipolar source, (ii) a network of seven dipolar plasma sources inserted into a magnetic multipolar chamber (Camembert III), and (iii) four dipolar sources housed in a smaller metallic cylinder (ROSAE III). Investigations with Langmuir probes of electron energy probability functions revealed the variation of the plasma properties versus the radial distance from the axis of a dipolar source in its mid plane and allowed the determination of the proportion between hot and cold electron populations in both chambers. These results are compared with the density of hydrogen negative ions, measured using the photodetachment technique. Electron energy probability functions obtained in these different configurations show the possibility of both hot and cold electron production. The former is a prerequisite for increasing the vibrational level of molecules and the dissociation degree and the latter for producing negative ions via dissociative attachment of the cold electrons or via surface production induced by H atoms.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-18
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Creation of Ultracold Dipolar Ground State Molecules of 23Na40K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Sebastian; Park, Jee Woo; Schloss, Jennifer; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Zwierlein, Martin
2015-05-01
Over the past decade ultracold atomic quantum gases have successfully been employed as quantum simulators to gain a better understanding of strongly correlated many-body systems. However, the dominant interactions between atoms are typically short-range in character, limiting the spectrum of quantum phenomena to be explored. Quantum particles with long-range dipolar interactions will open new routes for quantum simulation and promise the creation of novel states of matter, such as quantum crystals, topological superfluids and supersolids. Ultracold heteronuclear molecules offer a unique path to realize a strongly dipolar quantum gas. Among several choices, NaK stands out as an exceptional molecule due to its chemical stability and a large electric dipole moment in its absolute ground state. We report on recent progress that led us to the creation of the first ultracold, strongly dipolar molecules of NaK. Using a two-photon STIRAP process we have efficiently transferred NaK from the Feshbach state to the rovibrational ground state. By applying an external electric field, we have aligned the molecular dipoles, inducing long-range dipolar interactions. These advances bring the creation of novel states of matter in a strongly dipolar quantum gas of NaK into experimental reach.
Numerical and experimental studies of long-range magnetic dipolar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledbetter, M. P.; Savukov, I. M.; Bouchard, L.-S.; Romalis, M. V.
2004-07-01
We describe several numerical methods developed to analyze the behavior of spin polarized liquids in the presence of long-range magnetic dipolar interactions and external field gradients. Two of the methods use a discrete lattice of spins. In the first we calculate the magnetic field from the lattice of spins directly, either in the rotating frame, or in the lab frame. In the second method we include the dipolar fields from linear magnetization gradients analytically and calculate the dipolar fields from higher order gradients in Fourier space, where they are a local function of the magnetization. In the third method the magnetization is expanded in a Taylor series and the dipolar fields are calculated analytically for each term. The results of these calculations are compared to experimental data, in which we use two superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers adjacent to a spherical sample of hyperpolarized liquid 129Xe to detect the evolution of magnetization gradients. In particular, we observe an increase by a factor of 100 of the spin dephasing time in a longitudinal magnetic field gradient due to dipolar interactions of the spins. While each of the numerical techniques has certain limitations, they are generally in agreement with each other and with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalov, L. A.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.
2015-06-01
Using 1 /S expansion, we discuss the magnon spectrum of Heisenberg antiferromagnet (AF) on a simple cubic lattice with small dipolar interaction at small temperature T ≪TN , where TN is the Néel temperature. Similar to three-dimensional and two-dimensional ferromagnets, quantum and thermal fluctuations renormalize greatly the bare gapless spectrum leading to a gap Δ ˜ω0 , where ω0 is the characteristic dipolar energy. This gap is accompanied by anisotropic corrections to the free energy which make the cube edges easy directions for the staggered magnetization (dipolar anisotropy). In accordance with previous results, we find that dipolar forces split the magnon spectrum into two branches. This splitting makes possible two types of processes which lead to a considerable enhancement of the damping compared to the Heisenberg AF: a magnon decay into two other magnons and a confluence of two magnons. It is found that magnons are well defined quasiparticles in quantum AF. We demonstrate however that a small fraction of long-wavelength magnons can be overdamped in AFs with S ≫1 and in quantum AFs with a single-ion anisotropy competing with the dipolar anisotropy. Particular materials are pointed out which can be suitable for experimental observation of this long-wavelength magnons breakdown that contradicts expectation of the quasiparticle concept.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Second-order dipolar order in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.
van Beek, Jacco D; Hemmi, Adrian; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H
2011-10-21
Generating dipolar order under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions is explored for different pulse sequences and dipolar-coupling networks. It is shown that under MAS second-order dipolar order can be generated reliably with 10% to 30% efficiency using the Jeener-Broekaert sequence in systems where the second-order average Hamiltonian is a (near) constant of the motion. When using adiabatic demagnetization and remagnetization, second-order dipolar order can be generated and reverted back to Zeeman order with up to 60% efficiency. This requires a maximum field strength with a nutation frequency that is less than one-quarter of the rotor frequency, and that the spin system can be properly spinlocked under such conditions. A simple coherent description accounts for the principal features of the spin dynamics, even using the smallest possible system of three coupled spins. For the systems investigated, the lifetime of second-order dipolar order under MAS was found to be on the order of T(1). © 2011 American Institute of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hada, T.; Nishimura, T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lee, W. J.; Lang, Z. R.
2015-12-01
Investigation of Earth's radiation environment is important not only because of its geophysical significance but also because it can inform the design of future satellites. The observed dipolarization effects on pitch-angle distributions (PAD) of electrons at the tailside in the inner plasmasheet during geomagnetic activity identified by AL index has been studied via analyzing data from THEMIS mission. We have shown that cigar distributions below about 1keV tend to become isotropized at the fronts at the dipolarization sites whereas isotropic distributions above 1keV tend to become more cigar-shaped (i.e., fluxes peak at pitch-angle of 0o and 180o). We have previously suggested that the ineffectiveness of Fermi acceleration below 1keV could be the factor causing this difference. We examine the dependence of this effect on radial distance from Earth taking place at or near dipolarization sites during times of geomagnetic activity. Because both the field line length and the properties of dipolarizations vary with radial distance. We anticipate significant dependence of this effect on radial distance. Our study contributes to our understanding of the electron environment during dipolarizations in Earth's magnetosphere.
Low-frequency wave activity related to dipolarization fronts detected by MMS in the magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Breuillard, H.; Mirioni, L.; Roux, A.; Chust, T.; Chasapis, A.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Vaivads, A.; Fu, H.; Marklund, G. T.; Nakamura, R.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Fischer, D.; Leinweber, H. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Argall, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Pollock, C. J.; Mauk, B.; Fuselier, S. A.
2015-12-01
Dipolarization fronts are often associated to reconnection jets in the magnetotail current sheet and are sites of important energy dissipation and particle energization. Since the launch on March 12th and until the 9th of July 2015, the MMS constellation has been moving from dawn to dusk in a string of pearls formation. Although particle instruments were rarely operating and only FIELDS instrument suite was often gathering data, the MMS spacecraft have detected numerous dipolarization fronts, in particular on May 15th. Since 9th of July, the MMS evolved into a tetrahedral configuration with an average inter-satellite distance of 160 km and was still able to detect dipolarization fronts in the dusk magnetotail. As the Larmor radius of thermal protons is about 500 km in this region and dipolarization fronts have a typical thickness of the order of the Larmor radius, such a separation allows us to investigate in detail the microphysics of dipolarization fronts. In this study, we focus in particular on low-frequency electromagnetic wave activity related to the fronts and discuss possible mechanisms of particle heating and acceleration both at large scales (string of pearls configuration) and at kinetic scales (tetrahedral configuration).
Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions.
Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy
2014-06-01
The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.
Two-Dimensional Bright Solitons in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
Pedri, P.; Santos, L.
2005-11-11
We analyze the physics of bright solitons in 2D dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. These solitons, which are not possible in short-range interacting gases, constitute the first realistic proposal of fully mobile stable 2D solitons in ultracold gases. In particular, we discuss the necessary conditions for the existence of stable 2D bright solitary waves by means of a 3D analysis of the lowest-lying excitations. We show that the anisotropy of the dipolar potential is crucial, since sufficiently large dipolar interactions can destabilize the 2D soliton. Additionally, we study the scattering of solitary waves, which, contrary to the contact-interacting case, is inelastic and could lead to fusion of the waves. Finally, the experimental possibilities for observability are discussed.
Model energy landscapes of low-temperature fluids: Dipolar hard spheres.
Matyushov, Dmitry V
2007-07-01
An analytical model of non-Gaussian energy landscape of low-temperature fluids is developed based on the thermodynamics of the fluid of dipolar hard spheres. The entire excitation profile of the liquid, from the high-temperature liquid to the point of ideal-glass transition, has been obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. The fluid of dipolar hard spheres loses stability close to the point of ideal-glass transition transforming via a first-order transition into a columnar liquid phase of dipolar chains locally arranged in a body-centered-tetragonal order. Significant non-Gaussianity of the energy landscape is responsible for narrowing of the distribution of potential energies and energies of inherent structures with decreasing temperature. We suggest that the proposed functionality of the enumeration function is widely applicable to both polar and nonpolar low-temperature liquids.
Numerical method for evolving the dipolar projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Blakie, P B; Ticknor, C; Bradley, A S; Martin, A M; Davis, M J; Kawaguchi, Y
2009-07-01
We describe a method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE) for an interacting Bose gas in a harmonic-oscillator potential, with the inclusion of a long-range dipolar interaction. The central difficulty in solving this equation is the requirement that the field is restricted to a small set of prescribed modes that constitute the low-energy c -field region of the system. We present a scheme, using a Hermite-polynomial-based spectral representation, which precisely implements this mode restriction and allows an efficient and accurate solution of the dipolar PGPE. We introduce a set of auxiliary oscillator states to perform a Fourier transform necessary to evaluate the dipolar interaction in reciprocal space. We extensively characterize the accuracy of our approach and derive Ehrenfest equations for the evolution of the angular momentum.
Numerical method for evolving the dipolar projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Blakie, P. B.; Bradley, A. S.; Ticknor, C.; Martin, A. M.; Davis, M. J.; Kawaguchi, Y.
2009-07-15
We describe a method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE) for an interacting Bose gas in a harmonic-oscillator potential, with the inclusion of a long-range dipolar interaction. The central difficulty in solving this equation is the requirement that the field is restricted to a small set of prescribed modes that constitute the low-energy c-field region of the system. We present a scheme, using a Hermite-polynomial-based spectral representation, which precisely implements this mode restriction and allows an efficient and accurate solution of the dipolar PGPE. We introduce a set of auxiliary oscillator states to perform a Fourier transform necessary to evaluate the dipolar interaction in reciprocal space. We extensively characterize the accuracy of our approach and derive Ehrenfest equations for the evolution of the angular momentum.
Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferlaino, Francesca
2016-05-01
Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.
Topological defect formation in rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Han, Wei; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming; Saito, Hiroki; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-12-01
We investigate the topological defects and spin structures of a rotating binary Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms confined in spin-dependent optical lattices, for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Our results show that the tunable dipolar interaction, especially the orientation of the dipoles, can be used to control the direction of stripe phase and its related half-vortex sheets. In addition, it can also be used to obtain a regular arrangement of various topological spin textures, such as meron, circular and cross disgyration spin structures. We point out that such topological defects and regular arrangement of spin structures arise primarily from the long-range and anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction and its competition with the spin-dependent optical lattices and rotation.
Dipolar Antiferromagnetism and Quantum Criticality in LiErF4
Kraemer, Conradin; Nikseresht, Neda; Piatek, Julian; Tsyrulin, Nikolay; Piazza, Bastien; Kiefer, Klaus; Klemke, Bastian; Rosenbaum, Thomas; Aeppli, Professor Gabriel; Gannarelli, Che; Prokes, Karel; Straessle, Thierry; Keller, Lukas; Zaharko, Oksana; Kraemer, Karl; Ronnow, Henrik
2012-01-01
Magnetism has been predicted to occur in systems in which dipolar interactions dominate exchange. We present neutron scattering, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility data for LiErF{sub 4}, establishing it as a model dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet with planar spin-anisotropy and a quantum phase transition in applied field H{sub c{parallel}} = 4.0 {+-} 0.1 kilo-oersteds. We discovered non-mean-field critical scaling for the classical phase transition at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature that is consistent with the two-dimensional XY/h{sub 4} universality class; in accord with this, the quantum phase transition at H{sub c} exhibits three-dimensional classical behavior. The effective dimensional reduction may be a consequence of the intrinsic frustrated nature of the dipolar interaction, which strengthens the role of fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Lianyun; Zhu, Lei
2014-03-01
The leakage current, ion migration, and dipolar orientational polarization are major losses in ferroelectric polymers. The loss from the leakage current originates from electronic conduction and its behavior could be significantly affected by the internal electric field, which is induced by the dipolar orientational polarization. In this work, the leakage current in the corona charged PVDF electrets is studied under different external electric fields. Under low applied electric field, when no or very few dipoles could flip, the conductivity from the leakage direct current increases upon increasing the electric field. Under higher electric field, the aligned dipole-induced internal field would prevent the electrons from going through so that the conductivity decreases. After all the dipoles are aligned with the external electric field, the conductivity can increase again. This study will help us better understand the interplay between electronic conduction and dipolar orientation in ferroelectric materials.
CMB low multipole alignments in the ΛCDM and dipolar models
Polastri, L.; Natoli, P.; Gruppuso, A. E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it
2015-04-01
The dipolar model [1] has attracted much interest because it may phenomenologically explain the CMB hemispherical power asymmetry found in the WMAP and Planck data. Since such a model explicitly breaks isotropy at large angular scales it is natural to wonder whether it can also explain other CMB directional anomalies. Focusing on the low ℓ alignments and assuming ΛCDM, we confirm that the quadrupole/octupole and the dipole/quadrupole/octupole alignments are anomalous with a significance up to 99.9% C.L., for both WMAP and Planck data. Moreover, we show for the first time that such features are anomalous also in the dipolar model, roughly at the same level as in ΛCDM . We conclude that the dipolar model does not provide a better fit to the data than the ΛCDM.
Dipolar Waves Map the Structure and Topology of Helices in Membrane Proteins
Mesleh, Michael F.; Lee, Sangwon; Veglia, Gianluigi; Thiriot, David S.; Marassi, Francesca M.; Opella, Stanley J.
2012-01-01
Dipolar waves describe the structure and topology of helices in membrane proteins. The fit of sinusoids with the 3.6 residues per turn period of ideal α-helices to experimental measurements of dipolar couplings as a function of residue number makes it possible to simultaneously identify the residues in the helices, detect kinks or curvature in the helices, and determine the absolute rotations and orientations of helices in completely aligned bilayer samples and relative rotations and orientations of helices in a common molecular frame in weakly aligned micelle samples. Since as much as 80% of the structured residues in a membrane protein are in helices, the analysis of dipolar waves provides a significant step toward structure determination of helical membrane proteins by NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12862490
Three-dimensional vortex structures in a rotating dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishor Kumar, Ramavarmaraja; Sriraman, Thangarasu; Fabrelli, Henrique; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Gammal, Arnaldo
2016-08-01
We study three-dimensional vortex lattice structures in purely dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). By using the mean-field approximation, we obtain a stability diagram for the vortex states in purely dipolar BECs as a function of harmonic trap aspect ratio (λ) and dipole-dipole interaction strength (D) under rotation. Rotating the condensate within the unstable region leads to collapse while in the stable region furnishes stable vortex lattices of dipolar BECs. We analyse stable vortex lattice structures by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Further, the stability of vortex states is examined by evolution in real-time. We also investigate the distribution of vortices in a fully anisotropic trap by increasing eccentricity of the external trapping potential. We observe the breaking up of the condensate in two parts with an equal number of vortices on each when the trap is sufficiently weak, and the rotation frequency is high.
Stability spectroscopy: recurring roton signatures in a dipolar-BEC phase diagram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John; Wilson, Ryan; Bohn, John
2015-05-01
When a strongly-dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is tightly confined in either one or two dimensions, the excitation spectrum is predicted to exhibit a nontrivial local minimum, termed ``roton.'' Rotons have proven to be elusive in dipolar-BEC experiments, and it is therefore of interest to devise a straightforward scheme whereby rotons may be measured. We propose observing the stability of a dipolar BEC that is perturbed by a tunable optical lattice. When the stability is mapped in terms of lattice depth s and spacing λ, we find regularly-spaced features whose positions and periodicity are determined by the roton wavelength. In this sense, a measurement of the phase diagram represents a spectroscopic measurement of the roton itself. In quasi-two-dimensional geometry, the polarization tilt plays an important role in determining which features appear in the stability diagram.
Dipolar Decoupling in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy using Optimal Control Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, William; Haas, Holger; Budakian, Raffi
We present data showing how a modified gradient ascent pulse engineering method can be used to design nuclear magnetic resonance pulses that perform a single unitary transformation over a large range of maximum Rabi field strengths (B1) , while decoupling the secular dipolar interactions between spins. We designed dipolar-decoupling π-pulses that perform well over spins feeling maximum B1 fields from 131 - 274 G . By combining these π-pulses into a simple multiple pulse sequence, with fields produced by a silver microwire, we have increased T2* in a polystyrene sample attached to the tip of a silicon nanowire from 11 μs to ~ 250 ms . This dipolar decoupling could be used to improve the spatial resolution of nano-MRI experiments and to allow spectroscopy of chemical shifts in nanoscale samples.
Pulse Dipolar ESR and Protein Superstructures and Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freed, Jack
2014-03-01
Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance (PDS-ESR) has emerged as a powerful methodology for the study of protein structure and function. This technology, in the form of double quantum coherence (DQC) - ESR and double-electron-electron resonance (DEER) in conjunction with site-directed spin-labeling will be described. It enables the measurement of distances and their distributions in the range of 1-9 nm between pairs of spins labeled at two sites in the protein. Many biological objects can be studied: soluble and membrane proteins, protein complexes, etc. Many sample morphologies are possible: uniform, heterogeneous, etc. thereby permitting a variety of sample types: solutions, liposomes, micelles, bicelles. Concentrations from micromolar to tens of millimolar are amenable, requiring only small amounts of biomolecules. The distances are quite accurate, so a relatively small number of them are sufficient to reveal structures and functional details. Several examples will be shown. The first is defining the protein complexes that mediate bacterial chemotaxis, which is the process whereby cells modulate their flagella-driven motility in response to environmental cues. It relies on a complex sensory apparatus composed of transmembrane receptors, histidine kinases, and coupling proteins. PDS-based models have captured key architectural features of the receptor kinase arrays and the flagellar motor, and their changes in conformation and dynamics that accompany kinase activation and motor switching. Another example will be determining the conformational states and cycling of a membrane transporter, GltPh, which is a homotrimer, in its apo, substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound, states in membrane vesicles providing insight into its energetics. In a third example the structureless (in solution) proteins alpha-synuclein and tau, which are important in Parkinson's disease and in neurodegeneration will be described and the structures they take on in contact with membranes will be
Theoretical studies of excited state 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belluccci, Michael A.
The 1,3 dipolar photocycloaddition reaction between 3-hydroxy-4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone (3-HTMF) and methyl cinnamate is investigated in this work. Since its inception in 2004 [JACS, 124, 13260 (2004)], this reaction remains at the forefront in the synthetic design of the rocaglamide natural products. The reaction is multi-faceted in that it involves multiple excited states and is contingent upon excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in 3-HTMF. Given the complexity of the reaction, there remain many questions regarding the underlying mechanism. Consequently, throughout this work we investigate the mechanism of the reaction along with a number of other properties that directly influence it. To investigate the photocycloaddition reaction, we began by studying the effects of different solvent environments on the ESIPT reaction in 3-hydroxyflavone since this underlying reaction is sensitive to the solvent environment and directly influences the cycloaddition. To study the ESIPT reaction, we developed a parallel multi-level genetic program to fit accurate empirical valence bond (EVB) potentials to ab initio data. We found that simulations with our EVB potentials accurately reproduced experimentally determined reaction rates, fluorescence spectra, and vibrational frequency spectra in all solvents. Furthermore, we found that the ultrafast ESIPT process results from a combination of ballistic transfer and intramolecular vibrational redistribution. To investigate the cycloaddition reaction mechanism, we utilized the string method to obtain minimum energy paths on the ab initio potential. These calculations demonstrated that the reaction can proceed through formation of an exciplex in the S1 state, followed by a non-adiabatic transition to the ground state. In addition, we investigated the enantioselective catalysis of the reaction using alpha,alpha,alpha',alpha'-tetraaryl-1,3-dioxolan-4,5-dimethanol alcohol (TADDOL). We found that TADDOL lowered the energy
Ion and electron kinetic physics associated with magnetotail dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eastwood, Jonathan; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Zhang, Xiao-Jia; Hietala, Heli; Krupar, Vratislav; Mistry, Rishi; Lapenta, Giovanni; Angelopoulos, Vassilis
2016-04-01
Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in controlling the dynamics of the Earth's magnetotail. In particular, a dipolarization front (DF) may form at the leading edge of the reconnection exhaust as a consequence of its interaction with the pre-existing plasma sheet. Earthward moving DFs typically exhibit a rapid increase in the northward component of the magnetic field which divides the pre-existing plasma sheet from the hotter, high speed and lower density reconnection exhaust. Extensive observations have been made of DFs at Earth with multi-point missions such as Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and now Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS). In this invited contribution we will first review previous work showing that DFs are often relatively thin and locations where significant particle acceleration and heating can occur in a variety of ways. The dynamics and kinematics of ions and electrons at DFs are very different, as a result of their different particle masses. The reflection of ions by DFs leads to acceleration and heating, and we show that via kinetic effects, some part of the pre-existing plasma sheet ion population is entrained and accelerated into the exhaust. This interaction in fact occurs over a macroscopic region, rather than simply being limited to the thin DF interface. This leads to a more general consequence which is that reconnection exhausts are not necessarily simply fed by plasma inflow across the separatrices, but also by plasma from the region into which the jet is propagating; the implications of this finding are discussed. In contrast, electron acceleration and thermalisation is more related to the presence of instabilities in particular associated with temperature anisotropy and the growth of whistler waves. We discuss the observational evidence and also explore the possibility of the role that Cherenkov emission of whistlers by electron holes could play in this process. Finally we will briefly highlight recent new work in this area, and
Internal structure and stability of vortices in a dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgh, Magnus O.; Lovegrove, Justin; Ruostekoski, Janne
2017-05-01
We demonstrate how dipolar interactions can have pronounced effects on the structure of vortices in atomic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and illustrate generic physical principles that apply across dipolar spinor systems. We then find and analyze the cores of singular vortices with non-Abelian charges in the point-group symmetry of a spin-3 52Cr condensate. Using a simpler model system, we analyze the underlying dipolar physics and show how a characteristic length scale arising from the magnetic dipolar coupling interacts with the hierarchy of healing lengths of the s -wave scattering and leads to simple criteria for the core structure: When the interactions both energetically favor the ground-state spin condition, such as in the spin-1 ferromagnetic phase, the size of singular vortices is restricted to the shorter spin-dependent healing length (s -wave or dipolar). Conversely, when the interactions compete (e.g., in the spin-1 polar phase), we find that the core of a singular vortex is enlarged by increasing dipolar coupling. We further demonstrate how the spin alignment arising from the interaction anisotropy is manifest in the appearance of a ground-state spin-vortex line that is oriented perpendicularly to the condensate axis of rotation, as well as in potentially observable internal core spin textures. We also explain how it leads to an interaction-dependent angular momentum in nonsingular vortices as a result of competition with rotation-induced spin ordering. When the anisotropy is modified by a strong magnetic field, we show how it gives rise to a symmetry-breaking deformation of a vortex core into a spin-domain wall.
Improved narrowband dipolar recoupling for homonuclear distance measurements in rotating solids.
Goobes, G; Vega, S
2002-02-01
Recovery of the magnetic dipolar interaction between nuclei bearing the same gyromagnetic ratio in rotating solids can be promoted by synchronous rf irradiation. Determination of the dipolar interaction strength can serve as a tool for structural elucidation in polycrystalline powders. Spinning frequency dependent narrow-band (nb) RFDR and SEDRA experiments are utilized as simple techniques for the determination of dipolar interactions between the nuclei in coupled homonuclear spin pairs. The magnetization exchange and coherence dephasing due to a fixed number of rotor-synchronously applied pi-pulses is monitored at spinning frequencies in the vicinity of the rotational resonance (R(2)) conditions. The powder nbRFDR and nbSEDRA decay curves of spin magnetizations and coherences, respectively, as a function of the spinning frequency can be measured and analyzed using simple rate equations providing a quantitative measure of the dipolar coupling. The effects of the phenomenological relaxation parameters in these rate equations are discussed and an improved methodology is suggested for analyzing nbRFDR data for small dipolar couplings. The distance between the labeled nuclei in the 1,3-(13)C(2)-hydroxybutyric acid molecule is rederived using existing nbRFDR results and the new simulation procedure. A nbSEDRA experiment has been performed successfully on a powder sample of singly labeled 1-(13)C-L-leucine measuring the dipolar interaction between the labeled carboxyl carbon and the natural abundant beta-carbon. Both narrowband techniques are employed for the determination of the nuclear distances between the side-chain carbons of leucine and its carbonyl carbon in a tripeptide Leu-Gly-Phe that is singly (13)C-labeled at the leucine carbonyl carbon position.
Improved Narrowband Dipolar Recoupling for Homonuclear Distance Measurements in Rotating Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goobes, G.; Vega, S.
2002-02-01
Recovery of the magnetic dipolar interaction between nuclei bearing the same gyromagnetic ratio in rotating solids can be promoted by synchronous rf irradiation. Determination of the dipolar interaction strength can serve as a tool for structural elucidation in polycrystalline powders. Spinning frequency dependent narrow-band (nb) RFDR and SEDRA experiments are utilized as simple techniques for the determination of dipolar interactions between the nuclei in coupled homonuclear spin pairs. The magnetization exchange and coherence dephasing due to a fixed number of rotor-synchronously applied π-pulses is monitored at spinning frequencies in the vicinity of the rotational resonance (R2) conditions. The powder nbRFDR and nbSEDRA decay curves of spin magnetizations and coherences, respectively, as a function of the spinning frequency can be measured and analyzed using simple rate equations providing a quantitative measure of the dipolar coupling. The effects of the phenomenological relaxation parameters in these rate equations are discussed and an improved methodology is suggested for analyzing nbRFDR data for small dipolar couplings. The distance between the labeled nuclei in the 1,3-13C2-hydroxybutyric acid molecule is rederived using existing nbRFDR results and the new simulation procedure. A nbSEDRA experiment has been performed successfully on a powder sample of singly labeled 1-13C-L-leucine measuring the dipolar interaction between the labeled carboxyl carbon and the natural abundant β-carbon. Both narrowband techniques are employed for the determination of the nuclear distances between the side-chain carbons of leucine and its carbonyl carbon in a tripeptide Leu-Gly-Phe that is singly 13C-labeled at the leucine carbonyl carbon position.
Luy, B; Glaser, S J
2001-01-01
The superposition of scalar and residual dipolar couplings gives rise to so-called cylindrical mixing Hamiltonians in dipolar coupling spectroscopy. General analytical polarization and coherence transfer functions are presented for three cylindrically coupled spins 12 under energy-matched conditions. In addition, the transfer efficiency is analyzed as a function of the relative coupling constants for characteristic special cases.
Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.
2016-06-01
We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.
Review: Use of residual dipolar couplings to determine the structure of carbohydrates.
Canales, A; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Pastor, M
2012-12-01
Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is especially useful in the carbohydrate field. The measurement of residual dipolar couplings provides long-range structural information, a valuable complement for the structural study of carbohydrates either in its free form or in the bound state to proteins. They permit to deduce the geometry and the flexibility of the glycosidic linkages, which have a major influence on the conformation of carbohydrates and their overall shape. This article reviews the current application of the residual dipolar couplings methodology to carbohydrates.
Acoustic-excitonic effects in a two-dimensional gas of dipolar excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boev, M. V.; Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.
2016-08-01
The theory of the interaction of a two-dimensional gas of indirect dipolar excitons with Rayleigh surface elastic waves has been developed. The absorption and renormalization of the phase velocity of a surface wave, as well as the drag of excitons by the surface acoustic wave and the generation of bulk acoustic waves by a twodimensional gas of dipolar excitons irradiated by external electromagnetic radiation, have been considered. These effects have been studied both in a normal phase at high temperatures and in a condensed phase of the exciton gas. The calculations have been performed in the ballistic and diffusion limits for both phases.
Interaction-sensitive oscillations of dark solitons in trapped dipolar condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bland, T.; Pawłowski, K.; Edmonds, M. J.; Rzążewski, K.; Parker, N. G.
2017-06-01
Thanks to their immense purity and controllability, dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates are an exemplar for studying fundamental nonlocal nonlinear physics. Here we show that a family of fundamental nonlinear waves—the dark solitons—are supported in trapped quasi-one-dimensional dipolar condensates and within reach of current experiments. Remarkably, the oscillation frequency of the soliton is strongly dependent on the atomic interactions, in stark contrast to the nondipolar case. Established analytical techniques are shown to not capture the simulated dynamics. These sensitive waves may act as mesoscopic probes of the underlying quantum matter field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Biao; Sun, Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming; Ji, An-Chun; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2017-07-01
We consider a binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive contact and dipolar interactions under rotation. Our results show that the interplay among short-range interaction, long-range interaction, and rotation can give rise to a rich variety of topological configurations, including giant skyrmions with multiply topological charges and skyrmion-vortex lattices. In particular, we find that for fixed rotation frequencies, tuning the short- and long-range interactions can derive novel ground-state phases, such as a meron pair composed of two fractional skyrmions and a skyrmion with topological charge Q =2 centered in giant skyrmions.
Hydrodynamics of vortices and solitons in a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabari, S.; Dey, Bishwajyoti
2017-05-01
By solving the two-dimensional, nonlocal Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically, we study the hydrodynamics of quantized vortices in a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential. We calculate the critical velocity for the vortex nucleation in the presence and absence of dipole-dipole interaction. Above a critical velocity, the oscillating potential nucleates the vortex pairs, whose impulses alternatively change their direction synchronously with the oscillation of the Gaussian potential. We study the dynamics of the vortices and also the formation of the dark solitons which have not been previously reported in a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Consequences of rotating off-centred dipolar electromagnetic field in vacuum around Pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, A.; Pétri, J.
2016-12-01
Studying the electromagnetic field of pulsars is one of the key themes in neutron star physics. While most of the works assume a standard central dipolar electromagnetic field model, recently some efforts had been made in explaining how inclusion of higher field components produces drastic consequences in our understanding of these objects. We put forward the effects of a unique recently presented approach in which the magnetic axis is shifted off from the centre. It is found that the rotating off-centred dipolar electromagnetic field itself reveals the presence of the higher components within. The consequences of this approach on the shape of the polar caps and the emission diagrams are discussed.
Crossover from normal to anomalous diffusion in systems of field-aligned dipolar particles.
Jordanovic, Jelena; Jäger, Sebastian; Klapp, Sabine H L
2011-01-21
Using molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the translational dynamics of particles with dipolar interactions in homogenous external fields. For a broad range of concentrations, we find that the anisotropic, yet normal diffusive behavior characterizing weakly coupled systems becomes anomalous both parallel and perpendicular to the field at sufficiently high dipolar coupling and field strength. After the ballistic regime, chain formation first yields cagelike motion in all directions, followed by transient, mixed diffusive-superdiffusive behavior resulting from cooperative motion of the chains. The enhanced dynamics disappears only at higher densities close to crystallization.
Wei, Junji; Zhang, Zhongbo; Tseng, Jung-Kai; Treufeld, Imre; Liu, Xiaobo; Litt, Morton H; Zhu, Lei
2015-03-11
In this report, a dipolar glass polymer, poly(2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl methacrylate) (PMSEMA), was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylate monomer. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, PMSEMA exhibited a strong γ transition at a temperature as low as -110 °C at 1 Hz, about 220 °C below its glass transition temperature around 109 °C. Because of this strong γ dipole relaxation, the glassy PMSEMA sample exhibited a high dielectric constant of 11.4 and a low dissipation factor (tan δ) of 0.02 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. From an electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop study, PMSEMA demonstrated a high discharge energy density of 4.54 J/cm(3) at 283 MV/m, nearly 3 times that of an analogue polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). However, the hysteresis loss was only 1/3-1/2 of that for PMMA. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipolar side groups are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications.
Effect of Nanoclustering and Dipolar Interactions in Heat Generation for Magnetic Hyperthermia.
Coral, Diego F; Zélis, Pedro Mendoza; Marciello, Marzia; Morales, María del Puerto; Craievich, Aldo; Sánchez, Francisco H; van Raap, Marcela B Fernández
2016-02-09
Biomedical magnetic colloids commonly used in magnetic hyperthermia experiments often display a bidisperse structure, i.e., are composed of stable nanoclusters coexisting with well-dispersed nanoparticles. However, the influence of nanoclusters in the optimization of colloids for heat dissipation is usually excluded. In this work, bidisperse colloids are used to analyze the effect of nanoclustering and long-range magnetic dipolar interaction on the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency. Two kinds of colloids, composed of magnetite cores with mean sizes of around 10 and 18 nm, coated with oleic acid and dispersed in hexane, and coated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and dispersed in water, were analyzed. Small-angle X-ray scattering was applied to thoroughly characterize nanoparticle structuring. We proved that the magnetic hyperthermia performances of nanoclusters and single nanoparticles are distinctive. Nanoclustering acts to reduce the specific heating efficiency whereas a peak against concentration appears for the well-dispersed component. Our experiments show that the heating efficiency of a magnetic colloid can increase or decrease when dipolar interactions increase and that the colloid concentration, i.e., dipolar interaction, can be used to improve magnetic hyperthermia. We have proven that the power dissipated by an ensemble of dispersed magnetic nanoparticles becomes a nonextensive property as a direct consequence of the long-range nature of dipolar interactions. This knowledge is a key point in selecting the correct dose that has to be injected to achieve the desired outcome in intracellular magnetic hyperthermia therapy.
3+2-Dipolar cycloaddition of dianhydrohexitol azidoderivatives with N-arylmaleimides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gella, I. M.; Babak, N. L.; Drushlyak, T. G.; Shishkina, S. V.; Musatov, V. I.; Lipson, V. V.
2015-11-01
Dianhydrohexitol azides dipolar 3+2 cycloaddition with N-arylmaleimides has been studied with NMR (1H and 13C, COSY, NOESY and HSQC) and X-ray analysis. In spite of low asymmetrical induction in this reaction, diastereomerically pure products have been obtained. These products are interesting over their structural similarity to griseolic acid derivatives and dihydropyrrolotriazoles, significant for pharmaceutics.
Dong, Zhenghao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Li, Boyu; Wang, Cui; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Kairong; Wang, Rui
2017-02-28
The optically active α-trifluoromethyl pyrrolidines have been achieved through organocatalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction firstly. With diphenyl- prolinol trimethylsilyl ether as catalyst and in the presence of 3, 5-dinitrobenzoic acid, the reaction of trifluoroethylamine-derived ketimine with 2-enals gave α-trifluoro-methyl pyrrolidines bearing three contiguous stereogenic centers in excellent diastereoselectivies, stereoselectivities and yields.
Molina, Alba; Pascual-Escudero, Ana; Adrio, Javier; Carretero, Juan C
2017-09-28
A three-step reaction sequence has been developed to prepare a variety of enantioenriched pyrroloisoquinoline derivatives. The process involves a catalytic asymmetric azomethine ylide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by an intramolecular Au(I)-catalyzed alkyne hydroamination and enamine reduction.
Salas, Gorka; Camarero, Julio; Cabrera, David; Takacs, Hélène; Varela, María; Ludwig, Robert; Dähring, Heidi; Hilger, Ingrid; Miranda, Rodolfo; Morales, María del Puerto; Teran, Francisco Jose
2014-07-23
Here, we report on the study of heat dissipation power in monodisperse and crystalline magnetite nanoparticles as function of particle and aggregate sizes, magnetic field frequencies (up to 435 kHz) and amplitudes (up to 50 mT), media viscosity and particle concentration. These nanoparticles display specific absorption rate values of few hundreds of Wg_{Fe}^{-1} at moderate frequencies (~100 kHz), increasing up to 3632 Wg_{Fe}^{-1} at more extreme field conditions (430 kHz and 40 mT) for the largest size. We have found that Néelian relaxation processes are dominant for all nanoparticle sizes, whereas Brownian contribution dominates only for the largest size (22 nm) at high particle concentrations when dipolar interactions enhance the effective magnetic anisotropy. Besides, the particle concentration dependence of the specific absorption rate reflects the importance of magnetic dipolar interactions which strongly depend on aggregate and particle size. Our results show that dipolar interactions tune the effective magnetic anisotropy determining the Néelian and Brownian contributions into SAR values. The possibility of switching between heating mechanisms via dipolar interactions is of great importance towards controlling the heat exposure supplied by IONP as intracellular heating mediators.
Salas, Gorka; Camarero, Julio; Cabrera, David; ...
2014-07-23
Here, we report on the study of heat dissipation power in monodisperse and crystalline magnetite nanoparticles as function of particle and aggregate sizes, magnetic field frequencies (up to 435 kHz) and amplitudes (up to 50 mT), media viscosity and particle concentration. These nanoparticles display specific absorption rate values of few hundreds of WgFe-1 at moderate frequencies (~100 kHz), increasing up to 3632 WgFe-1 at more extreme field conditions (430 kHz and 40 mT) for the largest size. We have found that Néelian relaxation processes are dominant for all nanoparticle sizes, whereas Brownian contribution dominates only for the largest size (22more » nm) at high particle concentrations when dipolar interactions enhance the effective magnetic anisotropy. Besides, the particle concentration dependence of the specific absorption rate reflects the importance of magnetic dipolar interactions which strongly depend on aggregate and particle size. Our results show that dipolar interactions tune the effective magnetic anisotropy determining the Néelian and Brownian contributions into SAR values. The possibility of switching between heating mechanisms via dipolar interactions is of great importance towards controlling the heat exposure supplied by IONP as intracellular heating mediators.« less
Catalytic, Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Nitrile Imines with Methyleneindolinones
Gerten, Anthony L.; Slade, Michael C.; Pugh, Kelsie M.
2013-01-01
Catalytic, enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of nitrile imines with methyleneindolinones are reported. The spiro[pyrazolin[3,3′-oxindole] products are formed in good yields (up to 98%) and high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). PMID:24132663
Magnetic self-assembly of gold nanoparticle chains using dipolar core-shell colloids.
Kim, Bo Yun; Shim, In-Bo; Monti, Oliver L A; Pyun, Jeffrey
2011-01-21
The preparation of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) assemblies was conducted by the synthesis and dipolar assembly of ferromagnetic core-shell nanoparticles composed of AuNP cores and cobalt NP shells. Dissolution of metallic Co phases with mineral acids afforded self-assembled AuNP chains and bracelets.
Theory of Stochastic Dipolar Recoupling in Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Tycko, Robert
2008-01-01
Dipolar recoupling techniques in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) consist of radio-frequency (rf) pulse sequences applied in synchrony with magic-angle spinning (MAS) that create non-zero average magnetic dipole-dipole couplings under MAS. Stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR) is a variant in which randomly chosen rf carrier frequency offsets are introduced to cause random phase modulations of individual pairwise couplings in the dipolar spin Hamiltonian. Several aspects of SDR are investigated through analytical theory and numerical simulations: (1) An analytical expression for the evolution of nuclear spin polarization under SDR in a two-spin system is derived and verified through simulations, which show a continuous evolution from coherent, oscillatory polarization exchange to incoherent, exponential approach to equilibrium as the range of random carrier offsets (controlled by a parameter fmax) increases; (2) In a many-spin system, polarization transfers under SDR are shown to be described accurately by a rate matrix in the limit of large fmax, with pairwise transfer rates that are proportional to the inverse sixth power of pairwise internuclear distances; (3) Quantum mechanical interferences among non-commuting pairwise dipole-dipole couplings, which are a complicating factor in solid state NMR studies of molecular structures by traditional dipolar recoupling methods, are shown to be absent from SDR data in the limit of large fmax, provided that coupled nuclei have distinct NMR chemical shifts. PMID:18085769
Dipolar interactions between domains in lipid monolayers at the air-water interface.
Rufeil-Fiori, Elena; Wilke, Natalia; Banchio, Adolfo J
2016-05-25
A great variety of biologically relevant monolayers present phase coexistence characterized by domains formed by lipids in an ordered phase state dispersed in a continuous, disordered phase. From the difference in surface densities between these phases, inter-domain dipolar interactions arise. These interactions are relevant for the determination of the spacial distribution of domains as well as their dynamics. In this work, we propose a novel way of estimating the dipolar repulsion using a passive method that involves the analysis of images of the monolayer with phase coexistence. This method is based on the comparison of the pair correlation function obtained from experiments with that obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations of a model system. As an example, we determined the difference in dipolar density of a binary monolayer of DSPC/DMPC at the air-water interface from the analysis of the radial distribution of domains, and the results are compared with those obtained by surface potential determinations. A systematic analysis for the experimentally relevant parameter range is given, which may be used as a working curve for obtaining the dipolar repulsion in different systems.
Lorentz microscopy sheds light on the role of dipolar interactions in magnetic hyperthermia.
Campanini, M; Ciprian, R; Bedogni, E; Mega, A; Chiesi, V; Casoli, F; de Julián Fernández, C; Rotunno, E; Rossi, F; Secchi, A; Bigi, F; Salviati, G; Magén, C; Grillo, V; Albertini, F
2015-05-07
Monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles with comparable size distributions have been synthesized by two different synthesis routes, co-precipitation and thermal decomposition. Thanks to the different steric stabilizations, the described samples can be considered as a model system to investigate the effects of magnetic dipolar interactions on the aggregation states of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the presence of magnetic dipolar interactions can strongly affect the nanoparticle efficiency as a hyperthermic mediator. In this paper, we present a novel way to visualize and map the magnetic dipolar interactions in different kinds of nanoparticle aggregates by the use of Lorentz microscopy, an easy and reliable in-line electron holographic technique. By exploiting Lorentz microscopy, which is complementary to the magnetic measurements, it is possible to correlate the interaction degrees of magnetic nanoparticles with their magnetic behaviors. In particular, we demonstrate that Lorentz microscopy is successful in visualizing the magnetic configurations stabilized by dipolar interactions, thus paving the way to the comprehension of the power loss mechanisms for different nanoparticle aggregates.
Dipolarization Front: A Distinctive Feature of the Reconnection Onset in the Magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M.; Divin, A. V.
2008-12-01
Recent particle simulations with open boundaries revealed interesting new effects in collisionless magnetic reconnection, including its intermittent regimes with the formation of the secondary plasmoids in the outflow regions. In this presentation we show that, apart from rather conventional plasmoids forming near the electron diffusion region of the central X-line, there is another group of the secondary reconnection structures that strongly resemble the dipolarization fronts, reported in Geotail, Cluster, and Themis observations of bursty bulk flows and substorm activations in the terrestrial magnetotail. These structures are characterized by a strong and quick increase of the original tail field Bz, normal to the neutral plane, up a half of the lobe field, in contrast to a relatively small and shallow negative dip of Bz in the front precursor, comparable in amplitude to the field Bz prior to the dipolarization onset. Both electrons and ions are magnetized at the front of the dipolarization wave. In contrast, in its trail, ions are unmagnetized and move slower compared to the ExB drift, whereas the magnetized electrons either follow that drift or move even faster, forming super-Alfvenic jets. In spite of drastically different motions of electrons and ions, the formation and growth of the dipolarization front is not accompanied by the corresponding growth of the electrostatic field. This suggests that the electron compressibility effect, stabilizing the ion tearing mode in the tail-like systems with trapped magnetized electrons [Lembege and Pellat, 1982], is strongly attenuated in open systems.
Using “domino” model to study the secular variation of the geomagnetic dipolar moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duka, B.; Peqini, K.; De Santis, A.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.
2015-05-01
Aiming to understand the physical processes underneath the reversals events of geomagnetic field, different numerical models have been conceived. We considered here the so named “domino” model, an Ising-Heisenberg model of interacting magnetic macrospins aligned along a ring. This model was proposed by Mazaud and Laj (1989) and then applied by Mori et al. (2013) to study geomagnetic field reversals. The long series of the axial magnetic moment (dipolar moment or “magnetization”) generated by the “domino” model are empirically studied by varying all model parameters. We present here some results which are slightly different from those given by Mori et al. (2013), and will provide our explanation on the presence of these differences. We also define the set of parameters that supply the longest mean time between reversals. Using this set of parameters, a large number of time series of axial magnetic moment are also generated. After de-noising the fluctuation of these time series and averaging them, we compared the resulting averaged series with the series of axial dipolar magnetic moment values supplied by CALS7k.2, and CALS10k.1b models, finding similar behavior for the all time series. In a similar way, we also compared the averaged 14,000 years long series of dipolar moment with the dipolar magnetic moment obtained by the model SHA.DIF.14k.
Synthesis of 2H-indazoles by the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones with arynes.
Fang, Yuesi; Wu, Chunrui; Larock, Richard C; Shi, Feng
2011-11-04
A rapid and efficient synthesis of 2H-indazoles has been developed using a [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones and arynes. A series of 2H-indazoles have been prepared in good to excellent yields using this protocol, and subsequent Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions can be applied to the halogenated products to generate a structurally diverse library of indazoles.
Dynamics of spherical distributions of charge with small internal dipolar motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flammer, P. D.
2016-04-01
This paper extends the Lorentz-Abraham model of an electron (i.e., the equations of motion for a small spherical shell of charge, which is rigid in its proper frame) to treat a small, spherically symmetric charge distribution, allowing for small internal dipolar motion. This is done by dividing the distribution into thin spherical shells (in the continuum limit), and tracking the interactions between shells. Dipolar motion of each constituent spherical shell is allowed along the net dipole moment, but higher-order multipole moments are ignored. The amplitude of dipolar motion of each spherical shell is assumed to be linearly proportional to the net dipole moment. Under these assumptions, low-velocity equations of motion are determined for both the center-of-mass motion and net dipolar motion of the distribution. This is then generalized to arbitrary (relativistic) center-of-mass velocity and acceleration, assuming the motion of individual shells is completely in phase or out of phase with the net dipole moment.
Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules
Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen
2015-02-07
Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T{sup 2}, which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ≥ 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (Δg = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of Δg = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When Δg is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/T{sup n} with n = 2 and higher.
Observational test of the interchange stability associated with near-tail dipolarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, D.; Kim, K.; Ohtani, S.; Park, M.
2010-12-01
The interchange instability is a pressure gradient-driven instability. Formally speaking, the interchange mode can be considered to be a special case of the more general ballooning mode in the sense that the perpendicular displacement (as multiplied by the magnetic field strength) of the interchange mode is defined to be constant along the magnetic field line while that of a ballooning mode can be localized to the “bad curvature” region (i.e. the equatorial plane). Since the radial pressure profile in the near-earth tail is expected to become steeper prior to the substorm onset, instability of either interchange or ballooning type mode may be expected to occur. An observational test is generally non-trivial and difficult for the ballooning mode. For the interchange mode, however, the classic analytic criterion has long been known and thus using this criterion an observational test of the instability can be more feasible. The only difficulty has been how to evaluate the flux tube volume, for which Wolf et al. [2006] have suggested a useful formula. Using the formula, we have evaluated the interchange criterion for a set of pair-dipolarization events that are radially aligned. We found that the near-tail configuration before and during a dipolarization is likely stable against the interchange mode. Using a number of more dipolarizations, we have performed an analysis on evaluating the interchange criterion in a statistical manner and reached the results that support the conclusion of the interchange stability. This seems to suggest to us that the interchange instability is unlikely a candidate to trigger dipolarizations in association with substorms. But, the ballooning instability, the mode structure of which can be localized near the equatorial plane, remains a possibility responsible for dipolarizations.
Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules.
Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen
2015-02-07
Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T(2), which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ≥ 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (Δg = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of Δg = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When Δg is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/T(n) with n = 2 and higher.
Dielectric relaxation in ionic liquid/dipolar solvent binary mixtures: A semi-molecular theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit
2016-03-01
A semi-molecular theory is developed here for studying dielectric relaxation (DR) in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common dipolar solvents. Effects of ion translation on DR time scale, and those of ion rotation on conductivity relaxation time scale are explored. Two different models for the theoretical calculations have been considered: (i) separate medium approach, where molecularities of both the IL and dipolar solvent molecules are retained, and (ii) effective medium approach, where the added dipolar solvent molecules are assumed to combine with the dipolar ions of the IL, producing a fictitious effective medium characterized via effective dipole moment, density, and diameter. Semi-molecular expressions for the diffusive DR times have been derived which incorporates the effects of wavenumber dependent orientational static correlations, ion dynamic structure factors, and ion translation. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to the binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) with water (H2O), and acetonitrile (CH3CN) for which experimental DR data are available. On comparison, predicted DR time scales show close agreement with the measured DR times at low IL mole fractions (xIL). At higher IL concentrations (xIL > 0.05), the theory over-estimates the relaxation times and increasingly deviates from the measurements with xIL, deviation being the maximum for the neat IL by almost two orders of magnitude. The theory predicts negligible contributions to this deviation from the xIL dependent collective orientational static correlations. The drastic difference between DR time scales for IL/solvent mixtures from theory and experiments arises primarily due to the use of the actual molecular volume ( Vmol dip ) for the rotating dipolar moiety in the present theory and suggests that only a fraction of Vmol dip is involved at high xIL. Expectedly, nice agreement between theory and experiments appears when experimental
Dielectric relaxation in ionic liquid/dipolar solvent binary mixtures: A semi-molecular theory.
Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit
2016-03-14
A semi-molecular theory is developed here for studying dielectric relaxation (DR) in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common dipolar solvents. Effects of ion translation on DR time scale, and those of ion rotation on conductivity relaxation time scale are explored. Two different models for the theoretical calculations have been considered: (i) separate medium approach, where molecularities of both the IL and dipolar solvent molecules are retained, and (ii) effective medium approach, where the added dipolar solvent molecules are assumed to combine with the dipolar ions of the IL, producing a fictitious effective medium characterized via effective dipole moment, density, and diameter. Semi-molecular expressions for the diffusive DR times have been derived which incorporates the effects of wavenumber dependent orientational static correlations, ion dynamic structure factors, and ion translation. Subsequently, the theory has been applied to the binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) with water (H2O), and acetonitrile (CH3CN) for which experimental DR data are available. On comparison, predicted DR time scales show close agreement with the measured DR times at low IL mole fractions (x(IL)). At higher IL concentrations (x(IL) > 0.05), the theory over-estimates the relaxation times and increasingly deviates from the measurements with x(IL), deviation being the maximum for the neat IL by almost two orders of magnitude. The theory predicts negligible contributions to this deviation from the x(IL) dependent collective orientational static correlations. The drastic difference between DR time scales for IL/solvent mixtures from theory and experiments arises primarily due to the use of the actual molecular volume (V(mol)(dip)) for the rotating dipolar moiety in the present theory and suggests that only a fraction of V(mol)(dip) is involved at high x(IL). Expectedly, nice agreement between theory and experiments appears when
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Giles, Barbara; Le Contel, Olivier; Stawarz, Julia; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Artemyev, Anton
2017-04-01
During substorms significant energy conversion has been reported to take place at the sharp dipolarization front in the flow braking region where the probability of observing bursty bulk flows (BBFs) significantly drops. On 10 August 2016, MMS traversed the pre-midnight near-Earth plasma sheet when dipolarization disturbances were detected in an extended nightside local time region by Cluster, Geotail, GOES 13, 14 and 15, and the Van Allen Probes. In an expanding plasma sheet during the dipolarization, MMS detected sub-ion scale field-aligned current layers that are propagating both Earthward (equatorward) as well as tailward (outward). These multi-scale multi-point observations enable a unique investigation of both the meso-scale evolution of the disturbances and the detailed kinetic structures of the fronts and boundaries relevant to the dipolarizations.
Hatcher, P.G.
1987-01-01
Two natural lignins, one from a gymnosperm wood the other from angiosperm wood, were examined by conventional solid-state and dipolar dephasing 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The results obtained from both techniques show that the structure of natural lignins is consistent with models of softwood and hardwood lignin. The dipolar dephasing NMR data provide a measure of the degree of substitution on aromatic rings which is consistent with the models. ?? 1987.
Narayanarao, Manjunatha; Koodlur, Lokesh; Revanasiddappa, Vijayakumar G; Gopal, Subramanya
2016-01-01
A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts. PMID:28144362
Narayanarao, Manjunatha; Koodlur, Lokesh; Revanasiddappa, Vijayakumar G; Gopal, Subramanya; Kamila, Susmita
2016-01-01
A new series of spiropyrrolidine compounds containing indole/indazole moieties as side chains have been accomplished via a one-pot multicomponent synthesis. The method uses the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between N-alkylvinylindole/indazole and azomethine ylides, prepared in situ from cyclic/acyclic amino acids. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition proceeds efficiently under thermal conditions to afford the regio- and stereospecific cyclic adducts.
Few-body dynamics of dipolar and finite-range systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris
2013-05-01
The physics of few-body universality has progressed recently in leaps and bounds. This talk will discuss some of the exciting recent theoretical developments as well as some of the experimental headway in this realm. One topic to be covered is the universal physics of 3 dipolar fermions and 3 dipolar bosons and their relationship to Efimov physics. Other recent headway relates to the universality of the 3-body parameter, again in the Efimov domain, for both homonuclear and heteronuclear systems with short-range interactions. Collaborators in various aspects of the research to be discussed include Jose D'Incao, Brett Esry, Jia Wang, and Yujun Wang. NSF and AFOSR-MURI supported
Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrnes, Christian; Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Tomo
2016-12-01
We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.
Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.
2007-07-01
Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.
A combined discontinuous Galerkin method for the dipolar Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiang-Gui; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Rong-Pei; Cao, Shengshan
2014-10-01
In this work, a combined discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is a hybridized mixed discontinuous Galerkin (HMDG) method combined with the direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method, is proposed to compute ground states and dynamics of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) described by a multi-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) coupled with a first-order velocity system. Due to the adaption of the first-order velocity system instead of dipolar interactions, the proposed combined DG method avoids to evaluate integrals with high singularity. Additionally, this method keeps the conservation of the particle number. The Krylov semi-implicit method is applied to the time discretization. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the proposed method.
Mean-field regime of trapped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in one and two dimensions
Cai Yongyong; Rosenkranz, Matthias; Lei Zhen; Bao Weizhu
2010-10-15
We derive rigorous one- and two-dimensional mean-field equations for cigar- and pancake-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with arbitrary polarization angle. We show how the dipolar interaction modifies the contact interaction of the strongly confined atoms. In addition, our equations introduce a nonlocal potential, which is anisotropic for pancake-shaped condensates. We propose to observe this anisotropy via measurement of the condensate aspect ratio. We also derive analytically approximate density profiles from our equations. Both the numerical solutions of our reduced mean-field equations and the analytical density profiles agree well with numerical solutions of the full Gross-Pitaevskii equation while being more efficient to compute.
Newman, Hugh D.; Yethiraj, Anand
2015-01-01
In this work, we use structure and dynamics in sedimentation equilibrium, in the presence of gravity, to examine, via confocal microscopy, a Brownian colloidal system in the presence of an external electric field. The zero field equation of state (EOS) is hard sphere without any re-scaling of particle size, and the hydrodynamic corrections to the long-time self-diffusion coefficient are quantitatively consistent with the expected value for hard spheres. Care is taken to ensure that both the dimensionless gravitational energy, which is equivalent to a Peclet number Peg, and dipolar strength Λ are of order unity. In the presence of an external electric field, anisotropic chain-chain clusters form; this cluster formation manifests itself with the appearance of a plateau in the diffusion coefficient when the dimensionless dipolar strength Λ ~ 1. The structure and dynamics of this chain-chain cluster state is examined for a monodisperse system for two particle sizes. PMID:26323363
Spin squeezing of a dipolar Bose gas in a double-well potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Qing-Shou; Lu, Hai-Yan; Yi, Su
2016-01-01
The spin-squeezing dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional dipolar Bose gas trapped in a double-well potential is studied by employing the method of the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree for bosons. We find that optimal squeezing generated by the dipolar interaction can be improved over the one-axis twisting limit, and this squeezing is much stronger than that obtained by the contact interaction. Moreover, natural orbital-related squeezing can be controlled by the direction of the dipole moment, which provides control for storing the optimal spin squeezing. The origin of the squeezing as well as the relationship between spin squeezing and the two-order correlation function are also discussed.
Liu, Yu; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoît P; Leuvrey, Cedric; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Rastei, Mircea; Schmerber, Guy; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean Yves
2014-10-21
The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices.
Fu, Yinan; Wand, A Joshua
2013-08-01
High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.
Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua
2013-01-01
High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/ DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling. PMID:23807390
Finslerian dipolar modulation of the CMB power spectra at scales 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan
2017-05-01
A common explanation for the CMB power asymmetry is to introduce a dipolar modulation at the stage of inflation, where the primordial power spectrum is spatially varying. If the universe in the stage of inflation is Finslerian, and if the Finsler spacetime is non-reversible under parity flip, x→ -x, then a three dimensional spectrum which is a function of wave vector and direction is valid. In this paper, a three dimensional primordial power spectrum with preferred direction is derived in the framework of Finsler spacetime. It is found that the amplitude of dipolar modulation is related to the Finslerian parameter, which in turn is a function of wave vector. The angular correlation coefficients are presented, and the numerical results for the anisotropic correlation coefficients over the multipole range 2
Orientational dynamics of fluctuating dipolar particles assembled in a mesoscopic colloidal ribbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massana-Cid, Helena; Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro
2017-07-01
We combine experiments and theory to investigate the dynamics and orientational fluctuations of ferromagnetic microellipsoids that form a ribbonlike structure due to attractive dipolar forces. When assembled in the ribbon, the ellipsoids display orientational thermal fluctuations with an amplitude that can be controlled via application of an in-plane magnetic field. We use video microscopy to investigate the orientational dynamics in real time and space. Theoretical arguments are used to derive an analytical expression that describes how the distribution of the different angular configurations depends on the strength of the applied field. The experimental data are in good agreement with the developed model for all the range of field parameters explored. Understanding the role of fluctuations in chains composed of dipolar particles is important not only from a fundamental point of view, but it may also help understanding the stability of such structures against thermal noise, which is relevant in microfluidics and laboratory-on-a-chip applications.
Fermionic Ground State Molecules NaK with Strong Dipolar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jee Woo; Schloss, Jennifer; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin
2015-05-01
23 Na40K is a fermionic molecule that is especially well suited for this purpose. In the rovibrational ground state, NaK molecules are chemically stable and possess a large electric dipole moment of 2.72 Debye. The poster will report on our progress at MIT that recently led us to the creation of the first dipolar ground state molecules of NaK, covering the formation of Feshbach molecules, spectroscopic investigation of the molecular structure of NaK as well as the successful coherent two-photon transfer of NaK to the absolute ground state. These advances bring the exploration of novel states of matter in strongly dipolar quantum matter within experimental reach.
Ultracold Dipolar Gas of Fermionic 23Na 40K Molecules in Their Absolute Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jee Woo; Will, Sebastian A.; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2015-05-01
We report on the creation of an ultracold dipolar gas of fermionic 23Na 40K molecules in their absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we demonstrate hyperfine resolved two-photon transfer into the singlet X 1Σ+ |v =0 ,J =0 ⟩ ground state, coherently bridging a binding energy difference of 0.65 eV via stimulated rapid adiabatic passage. The spin-polarized, nearly quantum degenerate molecular gas displays a lifetime longer than 2.5 s, highlighting NaK's stability against two-body chemical reactions. A homogeneous electric field is applied to induce a dipole moment of up to 0.8 D. With these advances, the exploration of many-body physics with strongly dipolar Fermi gases of 23Na 40K molecules is within experimental reach.
Phase transition in two-dimensional dipolar fluids at low densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavares, J. M.; Weis, J. J.; Telo da Gama, M. M.
2006-04-01
Monte Carlo computer simulations of a quasi two-dimensional (2D) dipolar fluid at low and intermediate densities indicate that the structure of the fluid is well described by an ideal mixture of self-assembling clusters. A detailed analysis of the topology of the clusters, of their internal energy and of their size (or mass) distributions is used to obtain approximations to their partition functions. Within the scope of these approximations, the results of this work suggest that the 2D dipolar fluid undergoes a phase transition from a dilute phase characterized by a number of disconnected clusters to a condensed phase characterized by a network or spanning (macroscopic) cluster that includes most of the particles in the system.
NMR Detection Using Laser-Polarized Xenon as a DipolarSensor
Granwehr, Josef; Urban, Jeffry T.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander
2005-02-28
Hyperpolarized Xe-129 can be used as a sensor to indirectly detect NMR spectra of heteronuclei that are neither covalently bound nor necessarily in direct contact with the Xe atoms, but coupled through long-range intermolecular dipolar couplings. In order to reintroduce long-range dipolar couplings the sample symmetry has to be broken. This can be done either by an asymmetric sample arrangement, or by breaking the symmetry of the spin magnetization with field gradient pulses. Experiments are performed where only a small fraction of the available Xe-129 magnetization is used for each point, so that a single batch of xenon suffices for the point-by-point acquisition of a heteronuclear NMR spectrum. Examples with H-1 as analyte nucleus show that these methods have the potential to obtain spectra with a resolution that is high enough to determine homonuclear J couplings. The applicability of this technique with remote detection is discussed.
Fellows, Jonathan M.; Carr, Sam T.
2011-11-15
We discuss a model of dipolar bosons trapped in a weakly coupled planar array of one-dimensional tubes. We consider the situation where the dipolar moments are aligned by an external field, and we find a rich phase diagram as a function of the angle of this field exhibiting quantum phase transitions between solid, superfluid, and supersolid phases. In the low energy limit, the model turns out to be identical to one describing quasi-one-dimensional superconductivity in condensed matter systems. This opens the possibility of using bosons as a quantum analog simulator of electronic systems, a scenario arising from the intricate relation between statistics and interactions in quasi-one-dimensional systems.
Monte Carlo simulations of a kagome lattice with magnetic dipolar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holden, M. S.; Plumer, M. L.; Saika-Voivod, I.; Southern, B. W.
2015-06-01
The results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of classical spins on the two-dimensional kagome lattice with only dipolar interactions are presented. In addition to revealing the sixfold-degenerate ground state, the nature of the finite-temperature phase transition to long-range magnetic order is discussed. Low-temperature states consisting of mixtures of degenerate ground-state configurations separated by domain walls can be explained as a result of competing exchange-like and shape-anisotropy-like terms in the dipolar coupling. Fluctuations between pairs of degenerate spin configurations are found to persist well into the ordered state as the temperature is lowered until locking in to a low-energy state.
Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Wang, Shen-yun
2015-02-23
In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.
Low energy quantum regimes of 1D dipolar Hubbard model with correlated hopping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazzini, S.; Barbiero, L.; Montorsi, A.
2017-05-01
We apply the bosonization technique to derive the phase diagram of a balanced unit density two-component dipolar Fermi gas in a one dimensional lattice geometry. The considered interaction processes are of the usual contact and dipolar long-range density-density type together with peculiar correlated hopping terms which can be generated dynamically. Rigorous bounds for the transition lines are obtained in the weak coupling regime. In addition to the standard bosonization description, we derive the low energy phase diagram taking place when part of the interaction is embodied non-perturbatively in the single component Hamiltonians. In this case the Luttinger liquid regime is shown to become unstable with respect to the opening of further gapped phases, among which insulating bond ordered wave and Haldane phases, the latter with degenerate edge modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fruehauff, D.; Glassmeier, K. H.
2016-12-01
The Earth's dynamic magnetotail is frequently populated by transient phenomena propagating earthward in the vicinity of the neutral sheet. Of these, Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs) are often accompanied by Dipolarization Fronts (DFs), named by their large-amplitude Bz magnetic field increase. While believed to stem from spatially localized reconnection regions further downtail, they significantly contribute to mass and flux transfer and cross-tail current disruption, specifically in the active magnetotail. Yet, although a large amount of observations has already been gathered by Cluster, THEMIS and MMS missions, a full and quantitative understanding has not been reached so far. Several elements, such as the nature of the Bz dip, the internal current system of the DF, or braking mechanisms lack complete description. Using MHD simulations this study focuses on understanding key properties in the propagation of Dipolarization Fronts through a simplified magnetotail model. Central aspects are compared to previous results and latest observations from THEMIS.
Collective excitations of dipolar gases based on local tunneling in superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Lushuai; Mistakidis, Simeon I.; Deng, Xing; Schmelcher, Peter
2017-01-01
The collective dynamics of a dipolar fermionic quantum gas confined in a one-dimensional double-well superlattice is explored. The fermionic gas resides in a paramagnetic-like ground state in the weak interaction regime, upon which a new type of collective dynamics is found when applying a local perturbation. This dynamics is composed of the local tunneling of fermions in separate supercells, and is a pure quantum effect, with no classical counterpart. Due to the presence of the dipolar interactions the local tunneling transports through the entire superlattice, giving rise to a collective dynamics. A well-defined momentum-energy dispersion relation is identified in the ab-initio simulations demonstrating the phonon-like behavior. The phonon-like characteristic is also confirmed by an analytical description of the dynamics within a semiclassical picture.
Dielectric antennas--a suitable platform for controlling magnetic dipolar emission.
Schmidt, M K; Esteban, R; Sáenz, J J; Suárez-Lacalle, I; Mackowski, S; Aizpurua, J
2012-06-18
Plasmonic nanoparticles are commonly used to tune and direct the radiation from electric dipolar emitters. Less progress has been made towards understanding complementary systems of magnetic nature. However, it has been recently shown that high-index dielectric spheres can act as effective magnetic antennas. Here we explore the concept of coupling dielectric magnetic antennas with either an electric or magnetic dipolar emitter in a similar fashion to the purely electric systems reported previously. We investigate the enhancement of radiation from systems comprising admixtures of these electric and magnetic elements and perform a full study of its dependence on the distance and polarization of the emitter with respect to the antenna. A comparison to the plasmon antennas reveals remarkable symmetries between electric and magnetic systems, which might lead to novel paradigms in the design of nanophotonic devices that involve magnetic activity.
Determination of residual dipolar couplings in homonuclear MOCCA-SIAM experiments.
Möglich, Andreas; Wenzler, Michael; Kramer, Frank; Glaser, Steffen J; Brunner, Eike
2002-07-01
In solutions with partial molecular alignment, anisotropic magnetic interactions such as the chemical shift anisotropy, the electric quadrupole interaction, and the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction are no longer averaged out to zero in contrast to isotropic solutions. The resulting residual anisotropic magnetic interactions are increasingly used in biological NMR studies for the determination of 3D structures of proteins and other biomolecules. In the present paper we propose a new approach allowing the measurement of residual HN-H(alpha) dipolar couplings of non-isotope enriched proteins based on the application of the MOCCA-SIAM experiment. This experiment allows the measurement of homonuclear coupling constants with an accuracy of ca. +/- 0.2 Hz and is therefore particularly well suited to determine residual dipolar couplings at relatively low degrees of molecular orientation. The agreement between experimentally determined residual HN-H(alpha) couplings and calculated values is demonstrated for BPTI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patidar, M. M.; Jain, D.; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V.
2016-07-01
Resonant dipolar relaxation in poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) is reported using thermally stimulated discharge current spectroscopy. PCL is a bio-medically known shape memory polymer having a well defined γ, β, α, and α ' relaxations, respectively, centered around 125 K, 170 K, 220 K, and 270 K as seen by the measurements. By employing a new protocol variable poling temperature at constant freezing temperature, resonant dipolar relaxation in PCL could be induced, especially in the vicinity of α relaxation. Such a protocol is useful in de-convoluting the features in a more meaningful fashion. By an analysis of activation process, we could show a clear contrast enhancement of the dynamics of the participating dipoles by means of a minimum in the activation energies situated around the glass transition region. The relevant parameters of interest such as activation energies and relaxation times are estimated and discussed.
Coherence Transfer in Dipolar-Coupled Homonuclear Spin Systems in Solids Rotating at the Magic Angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weintraub, O.; Vega, S.; Hoelger, C.; Limbach, H. H.
Two routes for the exploitation of the t-SEDRA pulse scheme, which induces coherence transfer in dipolar-coupled homonuclear spin systems in rotating samples, are demonstrated and discussed. This sequence is utilized to deduce intramolecular connectivities by creating an initial coherence of one spin only, applying the t-SEDRA sequence, and monitoring the signal enhancement of the coupled spin. Probing the signal amplitude variations of the two spins and comparing them to simulations can also yield molecular distances. Using 2D spectroscopy, t-SEDRA can also be utilized to establish spin correlations. In this case, the t-SEDRA sequence is applied during the mixing time of a 2D dipolar-correlation experiment. These two approaches are demonstrated by performing 15N CPMAS NMR experiments on a 15N-doubly labeled sample of 3(5)-methyl-5(3)-phenylpyrazole.
Ultracold Dipolar Gas of Fermionic 23Na40 K Molecules in Their Absolute Ground State.
Park, Jee Woo; Will, Sebastian A; Zwierlein, Martin W
2015-05-22
We report on the creation of an ultracold dipolar gas of fermionic 23Na40 K molecules in their absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we demonstrate hyperfine resolved two-photon transfer into the singlet X 1Σ+|v=0,J=0⟩ ground state, coherently bridging a binding energy difference of 0.65 eV via stimulated rapid adiabatic passage. The spin-polarized, nearly quantum degenerate molecular gas displays a lifetime longer than 2.5 s, highlighting NaK's stability against two-body chemical reactions. A homogeneous electric field is applied to induce a dipole moment of up to 0.8 D. With these advances, the exploration of many-body physics with strongly dipolar Fermi gases of 23Na40K molecules is within experimental reach.
Arrays of dipolar molecular rotors in Tris(o-phenylenedioxy) cyclotriphosphazene.
Zhao, Ke; Dron, Paul I; Kaleta, Jiří; Rogers, Charles T; Michl, Josef
2014-01-01
Regular two-dimensional or three-dimensional arrays of mutually interacting dipolar molecular rotors represent a worthy synthetic objective. Their dielectric properties, including possible collective behavior, will be a sensitive function of the location of the rotors, the orientation of their axes, and the size of their dipoles. Host-guest chemistry is one possible approach to gaining fine control over these factors. We describe the progress that has been achieved in recent years using tris (o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a host and a series of rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors as guests. Structures of both surface and bulk inclusion compounds have been established primarily by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Low-temperature dielectric spectroscopy revealed rotational barriers as low as 1.5 kcal/mol, but no definitive evidence for collective behavior has been obtained so far.
Classical and quantum filaments in the ground state of trapped dipolar Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cinti, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo
2017-07-01
We study, by quantum Monte Carlo simulations, the ground state of a harmonically confined dipolar Bose gas with aligned dipole moments and with the inclusion of a repulsive two-body potential of varying range. Two different limits can clearly be identified, namely, a classical one in which the attractive part of the dipolar interaction dominates and the system forms an ordered array of parallel filaments and a quantum-mechanical one, wherein filaments are destabilized by zero-point motion, and eventually the ground state becomes a uniform cloud. The physical character of the system smoothly evolves from classical to quantum mechanical as the range of the repulsive two-body potential increases. An intermediate regime is observed in which ordered filaments are still present, albeit forming different structures from the ones predicted classically; quantum-mechanical exchanges of indistinguishable particles across different filaments allow phase coherence to be established, underlying a global superfluid response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ţifrea, Ionel; Flatté, Michael E.
2011-10-01
We investigate the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) caused by hyperfine coupling between nonequilibrium electronic spins and nuclear spins in semiconductor nanostructures. We derive the time and position dependence of the resulting hyperfine and dipolar magnetic fields. In GaAs quantum wells the induced nuclear spin polarization greatly exceeds the polarization of the electronic system that causes the DNP. The induced magnetic fields vary between tens of tesla for the electronic hyperfine field acting on nuclei, to hundreds of gauss for the nuclear hyperfine field acting on electrons, to a few gauss for the induced nuclear dipolar fields that act on both nuclei and electrons. The field strengths should be measurable via optically induced nuclear magnetic resonance or time-resolved Faraday rotation experiments. We discuss the implications of our calculations for low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures.
Quantum non-Markovian reservoirs of atomic condensates engineered via dipolar interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Ji-Bing; Xing, Hai-Jun; Kuang, Le-Man; Yi, Su
2017-03-01
We investigate the quantum dephasing dynamics of an impurity qubit immersed in a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate whose collective excitations act as a reservoir for the qubit. We show that the properties of the environment are highly engineerable through the relative strength of the dipolar and contact interactions such that qubit's dephasing dynamics could be Markovian, weak non-Markovian, or even highly non-Markovian. It is also revealed that the appearance of the roton excitation is responsible for the highly non-Markovian dephasing dynamics. Since rotonlike dispersions also appear in condensates placed in cavities or with spin-orbit couplings, our results pave the way for searching for systems that are suitable environment engineering.
Rotating colloids in rotating magnetic fields: Dipolar relaxation and hydrodynamic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coughlan, Anna C. H.; Bevan, Michael A.
2016-10-01
Video microscopy (VM) experiments and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations were used to measure and model superparamagnetic colloidal particles in rotating magnetic fields for interaction energies on the order of the thermal energy, kT . Results from experiments and simulations were compared for isolated particle rotation, particle rotation within doublets, doublet rotation, and separation within doublets vs field rotation frequency. Agreement between VM and BD results was obtained at all frequencies and amplitudes only by including exact two-body hydrodynamic interactions and relevant relaxation times of magnetic dipoles. Frequency-dependent particle forces and torques cause doublets to rotate at low frequencies via dipolar interactions and at high frequencies via hydrodynamic translation-rotation coupling. By matching measurements and simulations for a range of conditions, our findings unambiguously demonstrate the quantitative forms of dipolar and hydrodynamic interactions necessary to capture nonequilibrium, steady-state dynamics of Brownian colloids in magnetic fields.
Non-dipolarity of channeling radiation at GeV beam energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azadegan, Behnam; Wagner, Wolfgang
2017-07-01
At electron-beam energies higher than about 1 GeV, the dipole approximation for channeling radiation (CR) loses its validity. The reason of non-dipolarity consists in the coupling of the longitudinal and transverse motions of the channeled particle, while, at lower energies, its transverse motion is assumed to be independent from the longitudinal one and is governed by the continuous potential only. The non-dipolarity of CR appears in a change of its energy spectrum and intensity. This effect cannot be ignored, e.g., at simulation of positron production by means of pair creation in the non-conventional scheme of a hybrid positron source. We present a classical method for calculation of the CR spectrum in the non-dipole case.
Geometric stability spectra of dipolar Bose gases in tunable optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John P.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2013-07-01
We examine the stability of quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of weak optical lattices of various geometries. We find that when the condensate possesses a roton-maxon quasiparticle dispersion, the conditions for stability exhibit a strong dependence both on the lattice geometry and the polarization tilt. This results in rich structures in the system's stability diagram akin to spectroscopic signatures. We show how these structures originate from the mode matching of rotons to the perturbing lattice. In the case of a one-dimensional lattice, some of the features emerge only when the polarization axis is tilted into the plane of the condensate. Our results suggest that the stability diagram may be used as a novel means to spectroscopically measure rotons in dipolar condensates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, A. D.; Blakie, P. B.
2012-11-01
We study theoretically Bose-Einstein condensates with polarized dipolar interactions in anisotropic traps. We map the parameter space by varying the trap frequencies and dipolar interaction strengths and find an irregular-shaped region of parameter space in which density-oscillating condensate states occur, with maximum density away from the trap center. These density-oscillating states may be biconcave (red-blood-cell-shaped), or have two or four peaks. For all trap frequencies, the condensate becomes unstable to collapse for sufficiently large dipole interaction strength. The collapse coincides with the softening of an elementary excitation. When the condensate mode is density oscillating, the character of the softening excitation is related to the structure of the condensate. We classify these excitations by linear and angular characteristics. We also find excited solutions to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which are always unstable.
Flat-top electron distributions and wave activities observed near a tailward dipolarization front
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Suiyan; Zhao, Duo; Parks, George; Sun, Weijie; Zong, Qiugang; Zhao, Shaojie
2017-04-01
Electron flat-top distributions are observed by ARTEMIS spacecraft at 55 Re in the magnetotail near a tailward dipolarization front. These electrons are observed inside a high-speed flow behind the front, occupied a region narrow than the flow channel. The distribution can be classified into three different types relative to the location of the front. Wave activities are also observed together with the appearance of the electron flat-top distributions. These waves are similar to the whistler mode waves, which appear at the local minimum of the fluctuating total magnetic and electric field. Fast flows and associated dipolarization front are believed to be associated with reconnection processes, and the observed electron distribution seems agree with the scenario.The possible forming mechanism and the relations between the wave activities and the electron distribution are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoît P.; Leuvrey, Cedric; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Rastei, Mircea; Schmerber, Guy; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean Yves
2014-09-01
The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices.The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Section 1: synthesis and characterization of silver and gold nanoparticles and Section 2: modeling of the 2D and 3D nanoparticles' optical response. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03292f
Coexistence, Interfacial Energy, and the Fate of Microemulsions of 2D Dipolar Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroni, Saverio; Boninsegni, Massimo
2014-12-01
The superfluid-crystal quantum phase transition of a system of purely repulsive dipolar bosons in two dimensions is studied by quantum Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature. We determine freezing and melting densities and estimate the energy per unit length of a macroscopic interface separating the two phases. The results rule out the microemulsion scenario for any physical realization of this system, given the exceedingly large predicted size of the bubbles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palin, L.; Jacquey, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Connors, M.; Sergeev, V.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Nakamura, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Turc, L.
2015-05-01
We present a case study of eight successive plasma sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts), associated with small individual BZGSM increases on 31 March 2009 (0200-0900 UT), observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms mission. This series of events happens during very quiet solar wind conditions, over a period of 7 h preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low-amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few (1 or 2) rapid flux transport events (RFT, Eh>2 mV/m), whereas the large-amplitude ones encompass many more RFT events. All PS activations are associated with small and localized substorm current wedge (SCW)-like current system signatures, which seems to be the consequence of RFT arrival in the near tail. The associated ground magnetic perturbations affect a larger part of the contracted auroral oval when, in the magnetotail, more RFT are embedded in PS activations (>5). Dipolarization fronts with very low amplitude, a type usually not included in statistical studies, are of particular interest because we found even those to be associated with clear small SCW-like current system and particle injections at geosynchronous orbit. This exceptional data set highlights the role of flow bursts in the magnetotail and leads to the conclusion that we may be observing the smallest form of a substorm or rather its smallest element. This study also highlights the gradual evolution of the ionospheric current disturbance as the plasma sheet is observed to heat up.
1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazomethane to element-substituted (Si, Ge, Sn)-alkoxyacetylenes
Kostyuk, A.S.; Knyaz'kov, K.A.; Ponomarev, S.V.; Lutsenko, I.F.
1986-03-10
1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazomethane to the triple bond of trialkylsilyl-, trialkylgermyl-, and trialkylstannylalkoxyacetylenes proceeds regioselectivity and is a convenient method for synthesis of the previously not described 3(5)-element-substituted 4-alkoxypyrazoles. When heated in methanol in the presence of an acid, 3(5)-silyl(germyl)-4-alkoxypyrazoles are slowly hydrolyzed with cleavage of the element-carbon bond.
Porubský, Martin; Tenora, Lukáš; Potáček, Milan
2016-02-04
This paper describes the synthesis of precursors with a benzo[b]furan skeleton for the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides prepared from N-substituted 3-allyl-aminobenzo[b]furan-2-aldehydes and secondary amines derived from α-amino acid esters. Reactions were initiated by heating. The products consisted of four fused rings with three stereogenic centers. Their structure and stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectra and X-ray measurements.
Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles by the [3 + 2] Dipolar Cycloaddition of Sydnones with Arynes
Fang, Yuesi; Wu, Chunrui; Larock, Richard C.; Shi, Feng
2011-01-01
A rapid and efficient synthesis of 2H-indazoles has been developed using a [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones and arynes. A series of 2H-indazoles have been prepared in good to excellent yields using this protocol, and subsequent Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions can be applied to the halogenated products to generate a structurally diverse library of indazoles. PMID:21970468
Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azlactones.
Zhang, Zhenhua; Sun, Wangsheng; Zhu, Gongming; Yang, Junxian; Zhang, Ming; Hong, Liang; Wang, Rui
2016-01-25
The first chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed highly diastereo- and enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azlactones and methyleneindolinones was disclosed. By using a BINOL-derived chiral phosphoric acid as the catalyst, azlactones were activated as chiral anti N-protonated 1,3-dipoles to react with methyleneindolinones to yield biologically important 3,3'-pyrrolidonyl spirooxindole scaffolds in high yields, with good-to-excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palihawadana-Arachchige, Maheshika; Nemala, Humeshkar; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna
2017-01-01
Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), where localized heating is generated when magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are subjected to a radiofrequency magnetic field, has a great potential as a non-invasive cancer therapy treatment. The efficiency of heat generation depends on the magnetic properties of MNPs, such as saturation magnetization (Ms) and magnetic anisotropy (K), as well as the particle size distribution and magnetic dipolar interactions. We have investigated MHT in two Fe3O4 ferrofluids prepared by co-precipitation (CP) and hydrothermal (HT) synthesis methods showing similar physical particle size distribution (14 ± 4 nm) and saturation magnetization (70 ± 2 emu/g of Fe3O4) but very different specific absorption rates (SAR) of ˜110 W/g and ˜40 W/g at room temperature (measured with an ac magnetic field amplitude of 240 Oe and a frequency of 375 kHz). This observed reduction in SAR has been explained by taking into account the dipolar interactions and the distribution of the magnetic core size of MNPs in ferrofluids. The HT ferrofluid shows a higher effective dipolar interaction and a wider distribution of the magnetic core size of MNPs compared to those of the CP ferrofluid. We have fitted the temperature dependent SAR data using the linear response theory, incorporating an effective dipolar interaction, to determine the magnetic anisotropy constant of MNPs prepared by CP (22 ± 2 kJ/m3) and HT (26 ± 2 kJ/m3) synthesis methods. These values are in good agreement with the magnetic anisotropy constant determined using frequency and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data obtained on powder samples.
Ionic liquid crystals as alignment medium to measure residual dipolar couplings for carbohydrates.
Dama, Murali; Berger, Stefan
2013-08-09
Ionic liquids consisting of N-dodecyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bromide [C12MPB] in a mixture with D2O, decanol, and DMSO were for the first time found to give anisotropic molecular alignment in magnetic fields and are useful to measure residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from polar analytes, for example, glucose. The system shows less quadrupolar splitting of the deuterated solvent signal compared with other liquid crystal systems and hence less undesired line broadening.
Gas–crystal phase transition in a 2D dipolar exciton system
Suris, R. A.
2016-03-15
A system of dipolar excitons at temperatures exceeding the expected Bose–Einstein condensation temperature is considered. It is shown that a first-order phase transition with the formation of a phase close to the crystal of such excitons is possible at such temperatures. The phase diagram in the range of low concentrations and temperatures is constructed. The effect of this transition on the luminescence spectrum of the system is analyzed.
Dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann approach to ionic solutions: a mean field and loop expansion analysis.
Levy, Amir; Andelman, David; Orland, Henri
2013-10-28
We study the variation of the dielectric response of ionic aqueous solutions as function of their ionic strength. The effect of salt on the dielectric constant appears through the coupling between ions and dipolar water molecules. On a mean-field level, we account for any internal charge distribution of particles. The dipolar degrees of freedom are added to the ionic ones and result in a generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation called the Dipolar PB (DPB). By looking at the DPB equation around a fixed point-like ion, a closed-form formula for the dielectric constant is obtained. We express the dielectric constant using the "hydration length" that characterizes the hydration shell of dipoles around ions, and thus the strength of the dielectric decrement. The DPB equation is then examined for three additional cases: mixture of solvents, polarizable medium, and ions of finite size. Employing field-theoretical methods, we expand the Gibbs free-energy to first order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the dielectric constant. For pure water, the dipolar fluctuations represent an important correction to the mean-field value and good agreement with the water dielectric constant is obtained. For ionic solutions we predict analytically the dielectric decrement that depends on the ionic strength in a nonlinear way. Our prediction fits rather well a large range of concentrations for different salts using only one fit parameter related to the size of ions and dipoles. A linear dependence of the dielectric constant on the salt concentration is observed at low salinity, and a noticeable deviation from linearity can be seen for ionic strength above 1 M, in agreement with experiments.
Improving resolution in proton solid-state NMR by removing nitrogen-14 residual dipolar broadening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Robin S.; Elena, Bénédicte; Emsley, Lyndon
2008-06-01
Residual dipolar coupling between quadrupolar and other nuclei under MAS has not usually been thought to be important in high field NMR spectroscopy. We show that coupling to 14N broadens 1H lineshapes significantly even at 11.7 T, and that we can decouple 14N from 1H during 1H homonuclear decoupling to successfully improve 1H resolution. The method used for decoupling is the application of evenly spaced pulses to the quadrupolar nucleus.
Collection of NMR Scalar and Residual Dipolar Couplings Using a Single Experiment.
Gil-Silva, Leandro F; Santamaría-Fernández, Raquel; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Gil, Roberto R
2016-01-11
A new DMSO-compatible aligning gel based on cross-linked poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA) has been developed. Due to a significant difference in bulk magnetic susceptibility between the DMSO inside and outside the gel, it is possible to simultaneously collect isotropic and anisotropic NMR data, such as residual dipolar couplings (RDC), in the same NMR tube. RDC-assisted structural analysis of menthol and the alkaloid retrorsine is reported as proof of concept.
Kumar, R V Sudheer; Ramanathan, Krishna V
2015-07-20
NMR spectroscopy is a powerful means of studying liquid-crystalline systems at atomic resolutions. Of the many parameters that can provide information on the dynamics and order of the systems, (1) H-(13) C dipolar couplings are an important means of obtaining such information. Depending on the details of the molecular structure and the magnitude of the order parameters, the dipolar couplings can vary over a wide range of values. Thus the method employed to estimate the dipolar couplings should be capable of estimating both large and small dipolar couplings at the same time. For this purpose, we consider here a two-dimensional NMR experiment that works similar to the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) experiment in solution. With the incorporation of a modification proposed earlier for experiments with low radio frequency power, the scheme is observed to enable a wide range of dipolar couplings to be estimated at the same time. We utilized this approach to obtain dipolar couplings in a liquid crystal with phenyl rings attached to either end of the molecule, and estimated its local order parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butter, K.; Bomans, P. H.; Frederik, P. M.; Vroege, G. J.; Philipse, A. P.
2003-04-01
The particle structure of ferrofluids is studied in situ, by cryogenic electron microscopy, on vitrified films of iron and magnetite dispersions. By means of synthesis of iron colloids with controlled particle size and different types of surfactant, dipolar particle interactions can be varied over a broad range, which significantly influences the ferrofluid particle structure. Our experiments on iron dispersions (in contrast to magnetite dispersions) for the first time demonstrate, in ferrofluids in zero field, a transition with increasing particle size from separate particles to linear chains of particles (Butter K, Bomans P H, Frederik P M, Vroege G J and Philipse A P 2003 Nature Mater. 2 88). These chains, already predicted theoretically by de Gennes and Pincus (de Gennes P G and Pincus P A 1970 Phys. Kondens. Mater. 11 189), very much resemble the fluctuating chains found in simulations of dipolar fluids (Weis J J 1998 Mol. Phys. 93 361, Chantrell R W, Bradbury A, Popplewell J and Charles S W 1982 J. Appl. Phys. 53 2742). Decreasing the range of steric repulsion between particles by employing a thinner surfactant layer is found to change particle structures as well. The dipolar nature of the aggregation is confirmed by the alignment of existing chains and individual particles in the field direction upon vitrification of dispersions in a saturating magnetic field. Frequency-dependent susceptibility measurements indicate that particle structures in truly three-dimensional ferrofluids are qualitatively similar to those in liquid films.
Constraining the dipolar magnetic field of M82 X-2 by the accretion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen-Cong
2017-02-01
Recently, ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-2 has been identified to be an accreting neutron star, which has a P = 1.37 s spin period, and is spinning up at a rate dot{P}=-2.0× 10^{-10} s s^{-1}. Interestingly, its isotropic X-ray luminosity Liso = 1.8 × 1040 erg s- 1 during outbursts is 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star. In this Letter, based on the standard accretion model we attempt to constrain the dipolar magnetic field of the pulsar in ULX M82 X-2. Our calculations indicate that the accretion rate at the magnetospheric radius must be super-Eddington during outbursts. To support such a super-Eddington accretion, a relatively high multipole field ( ≳ 1013 G) near the surface of the accretor is invoked to produce an accreting gas column. However, our constraint shows that the surface dipolar magnetic field of the pulsar should be in the range of 1.0-3.5 × 1012 G. Therefore, our model supports that the neutron star in ULX M82 X-2 could be a low-magnetic-field magnetar (proposed by Tong) with a normal dipolar field (˜1012 G) and relatively strong multipole field. For the large luminosity variations of this source, our scenario can also present a self-consistency interpretation.
Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high Tc superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2017-02-01
We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.
Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
Rojas-Rojas, S.; Vicencio, R. A.; Molina, M. I.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.
2011-09-15
Modulational instability and discrete matter wave solitons in dipolar BECs, loaded into a deep optical lattice, are investigated analytically and numerically. The process of modulational instability of nonlinear plane matter waves in a dipolar nonlinear lattice is studied and the regions of instability are established. The existence and stability of bulk discrete solitons are analyzed analytically and confirmed by numerical simulations. In marked contrast with the usual discrete nonlinear Schroedinger behavior (no dipolar interactions), we found a region where the two fundamental modes are simultaneously unstable, allowing enhanced mobility across the lattice for large norm values. To study the existence and properties of surface discrete solitons, an analysis of the dimer configuration is performed. The properties of symmetric and antisymmetric modes including stability diagrams and bifurcations are investigated in closed form. For the case of a bulk medium, properties of fundamental on-site and intersite localized modes are analyzed. On-site and intersite surface localized modes are studied, and we find that they do not exist when nonlocal interactions predominate with respect to local ones.
Theoretical Study of Dual-Direction Dipolar Excitation of Ions in Linear Ion Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Qiankun; Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Huang, Xiaohua; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Rizhi; Ding, Chuan-Fan
2016-04-01
The ion enhanced activation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) by simultaneous dipolar excitation of ions in the two radial directions of linear ion trap (LIT) have been recently developed and tested by experiment. In this work, its detailed properties were further studied by theoretical simulation. The effects of some experimental parameters such as the buffer gas pressure, the dipolar excitation signal phases, power amplitudes, and frequencies on the ion trajectory and energy were carefully investigated. The results show that the ion activation energy can be significantly increased by dual-direction excitation using two identical dipolar excitation signals because of the addition of an excitation dimension and the fact that the ion motion radius related to ion kinetic energy can be greater than the field radius. The effects of higher-order field components, such as dodecapole field on the performance of this method are also revealed. They mainly cause ion motion frequency shift as ion motion amplitude increases. Because of the frequency shift, there are different optimized excitation frequencies in different LITs. At the optimized frequency, ion average energy is improved significantly with relatively few ions lost. The results show that this method can be used in different kinds of LITs such as LIT with 4-fold symmetric stretch, linear quadrupole ion trap, and standard hyperbolic LIT, which can significantly increase the ion activation energy and CID efficiency, compared with the conventional method.
The effect of bottom friction on tidal dipolar vortices and the associated transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran-Matute, Matias; Kamp, Leon; van Heijst, Gertjan
2016-11-01
Tidal dipolar vortices can be formed in a semi-enclosed basin as the tides flow in and out through an inlet. If they are strong enough to overcome the opposing tidal currents, these vortices can travel away from the inlet due to their self-propelling mechanism, and hence, act as an efficient transport agent for suspended material. We present results of two-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow through an idealized tidal inlet, with either a linear or a nonlinear parameterization of the bottom friction. We then quantify the effect of the bottom friction on the propagation of the dipolar vortex and on its ability as a transport agent by computing the flushing and residence times of passive particles. Bottom friction is detrimental to the ability of tidal dipolar vortices to propagate and hinders transport away from the inlet. The magnitude of this effect is related to the relative duration of the tidal period as compared to the typical decay time scale of the vortex dipole. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI Grant 863.13.022.
New cofactor supports α,β-unsaturated acid decarboxylation via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.
Payne, Karl A P; White, Mark D; Fisher, Karl; Khara, Basile; Bailey, Samuel S; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Trivedi, Drupad K; Goodacre, Royston; Beveridge, Rebecca; Barran, Perdita; Rigby, Stephen E J; Scrutton, Nigel S; Hay, Sam; Leys, David
2015-06-25
The bacterial ubiD and ubiX or the homologous fungal fdc1 and pad1 genes have been implicated in the non-oxidative reversible decarboxylation of aromatic substrates, and play a pivotal role in bacterial ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q) biosynthesis or microbial biodegradation of aromatic compounds, respectively. Despite biochemical studies on individual gene products, the composition and cofactor requirement of the enzyme responsible for in vivo decarboxylase activity remained unclear. Here we show that Fdc1 is solely responsible for the reversible decarboxylase activity, and that it requires a new type of cofactor: a prenylated flavin synthesized by the associated UbiX/Pad1. Atomic resolution crystal structures reveal that two distinct isomers of the oxidized cofactor can be observed, an isoalloxazine N5-iminium adduct and a N5 secondary ketimine species with markedly altered ring structure, both having azomethine ylide character. Substrate binding positions the dipolarophile enoic acid group directly above the azomethine ylide group. The structure of a covalent inhibitor-cofactor adduct suggests that 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry supports reversible decarboxylation in these enzymes. Although 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is commonly used in organic chemistry, we propose that this presents the first example, to our knowledge, of an enzymatic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Our model for Fdc1/UbiD catalysis offers new routes in alkene hydrocarbon production or aryl (de)carboxylation.
Kechrakos, D; Trohidou, K N
2008-06-01
Assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles exhibit interesting physical properties arising from the competition of intraparticle dynamics and interparticle interactions. In ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles magnetostatic interparticle interactions introduce collective dynamics acting competitively to random anisotropy. Basic understanding, characterization and control of dipolar interaction effects in arrays of magnetic nanoparticles is an issue of central importance. To this end, numerical simulation techniques offer an indispensable tool. We report on Monte Carlo studies of the magnetic hysteresis and spin-dependent transport in thin films formed by ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Emphasis is given to the modifications of the single-particle behavior due to interparticle dipolar interactions as these arise in quantities of experimental interest, such as, the magnetization, the susceptibility and the magnetoresistance. We investigate the role of the structural parameters of an array (interparticle separation, number of stacked monolayers) and the role of the internal structure of the nanoparticles (single phase, core-shell). Dipolar interactions are responsible for anisotropic magnetic behavior between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions of the sample, which is reflected on the investigated magnetic properties (magnetization, transverse susceptibility and magnetoresistance) and the parameters of the array (remanent magnetization, coercive field, and blocking temperature). Our numerical results are compared to existing measurements on self-assembled arrays of Fe-based and Co nanoparticles is made.
Magnetotail dipolarization and associated current systems observed by Cluster and Double Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volwerk, M.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Lester, M.; Walsh, A. P.; Alexeev, I.; Cao, X.; Dunlop, M. W.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Grocott, A.; Kistler, L.; Lun, X.; Mouikis, C.; Pu, Z.; Shen, C.; Shi, J. K.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Runov, A.; VöRöS, Z.; Zhang, T. L.; Takada, T.; RèMe, H.; Klecker, B.; Carr, C. M.
2008-08-01
A dipolarization and its associated current systems are studied using Cluster, Double Star TC1, and ground-based observations. The Cluster spacecraft are located approximately 16 RE downtail near 0030 LT. The Double Star TC1 spacecraft is located more earthward at approximately 7 RE just before local midnight. Auroral observations by the Wideband Imaging Camera on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration spacecraft are used to determine the onset times of substorms. It is shown that the magnetic phenomena at the earthward site of a magnetic reconfiguration region are governed by field-aligned currents, which in their turn generate auroral brightenings near the foot points of the spacecraft. It is also shown that the inward and outward motion of the dipolarization front near Cluster has a direct influence on the parallel plasma flow at TC1, indicating a piston mechanism. Just like a piston, the inward moving dipolarization at Cluster pushes in plasma along with the flux transport, which turns to parallel plasma flow at TC1. When the flow reverses at Cluster, i.e., outgoing flux transport, the plasma gets "sucked out" again, which is directly reflected in the plasma data from TC1.
Dipolar condensates with tilted dipoles in a pancake-shaped confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Chinmayee; Nath, Rejish
2016-09-01
The effect of dipolar orientation with respect to the condensate plane on the mean-field dynamics of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in a pancake-shaped confinement is discussed. The stability of a quasi-two-dimensional condensate, with respect to the tilting angle, is found to be different from a two-dimensional layer of dipoles, indicating the relevance of the transverse extension while characterizing two-dimensional dipolar systems. An anisotropic excitation spectrum exhibiting a highly tunable, rotonlike minimum can arise entirely from the dipole-dipole interactions, by tilting the dipoles. At the magic angle and in the absence of contact interactions, the long-wavelength excitations are not phononlike and always unstable. The post-roton-instability dynamics, in contrast to phonon instability, in a uniform condensate, is featured by a transient, defect-free, stripe pattern, which eventually undergoes local collapses, and driving the condensate back into the stable regime can make them sustained for longer. Hopping between stripes has been observed before it melts into a uniform state in the presence of dissipation. Finally, we discuss a class of solutions, in which a quasi-two-dimensional condensate is self-trapped in one direction, as well as a regime of interaction parameters, including attractive short-range interactions, at which a two-dimensional anisotropic soliton can be stabilized, and we show that a chromium condensate with a relatively small number of atoms is well suited for this.
Barros, Wilson; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C
2009-05-07
The description of the nuclear magnetic resonance magnetization dynamics in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions, which is based upon approximate solutions of Bloch-Torrey equations including the effect of a distant dipolar field, has been revisited. New experiments show that approximate analytic solutions have a broader regime of validity as well as dependencies on pulse-sequence parameters that seem to have been overlooked. In order to explain these experimental results, we developed a new method consisting of calculating the magnetization via an iterative formalism where both diffusion and distant dipolar field contributions are treated as integral operators incorporated into the Bloch-Torrey equations. The solution can be organized as a perturbative series, whereby access to higher order terms allows one to set better boundaries on validity regimes for analytic first-order approximations. Finally, the method legitimizes the use of simple analytic first-order approximations under less demanding experimental conditions, it predicts new pulse-sequence parameter dependencies for the range of validity, and clarifies weak points in previous calculations.
Theoretical Study of Dual-Direction Dipolar Excitation of Ions in Linear Ion Traps.
Dang, Qiankun; Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Huang, Xiaohua; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Rizhi; Ding, Chuan-Fan
2016-04-01
The ion enhanced activation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) by simultaneous dipolar excitation of ions in the two radial directions of linear ion trap (LIT) have been recently developed and tested by experiment. In this work, its detailed properties were further studied by theoretical simulation. The effects of some experimental parameters such as the buffer gas pressure, the dipolar excitation signal phases, power amplitudes, and frequencies on the ion trajectory and energy were carefully investigated. The results show that the ion activation energy can be significantly increased by dual-direction excitation using two identical dipolar excitation signals because of the addition of an excitation dimension and the fact that the ion motion radius related to ion kinetic energy can be greater than the field radius. The effects of higher-order field components, such as dodecapole field on the performance of this method are also revealed. They mainly cause ion motion frequency shift as ion motion amplitude increases. Because of the frequency shift, there are different optimized excitation frequencies in different LITs. At the optimized frequency, ion average energy is improved significantly with relatively few ions lost. The results show that this method can be used in different kinds of LITs such as LIT with 4-fold symmetric stretch, linear quadrupole ion trap, and standard hyperbolic LIT, which can significantly increase the ion activation energy and CID efficiency, compared with the conventional method.
Warshavsky, V B; Zeng, X C
2013-10-07
We have studied interfacial structure and properties of liquid-vapor interfaces of dipolar fluids and quadrupolar fluids, respectively, using the classical density functional theory (DFT). Towards this end, we employ the fundamental measure DFT for a reference hard-sphere (HS) part of free energy and the modified mean field approximation for the correlation function of dipolar or quadrupolar fluid. At low temperatures we find that both the liquid-vapor interfacial density profile and orientational order parameter profile exhibit weakly damped oscillatory decay into the bulk liquid. At high temperatures the decay of interfacial density and order parameter profiles is entirely monotonic. The scaled temperature τ = 1 - T/T(c) that separates the two qualitatively different interfacial structures is in the range 0.10-0.15. At a given (dimensionless) temperature, increasing the dipolar or quadrupolar moment enhances the density oscillations. Application of an electric field (normal to the interface) will damp the oscillations. Likewise, at the given temperature, increasing the strength of any multipolar moment also increases the surface tensions while increasing the strength of the applied electric field will reduce the surface tensions. The results are compared with those based on the local-density approximations (LDA) for the reference HS part of free energy as well as with results of numerical experiments.
Decoherence of multiple quantum coherences generated from a dipolar ordered state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.
2011-01-01
Starting from the hypothesis that the decay of coherent signals observed in H1 NMR experiments is driven by quantum interference, irreversible decoherence, and nonidealities in the experiment, we design an experiment to isolate and identify the irreversible attenuation of multiple-quantum coherences toward quasiequilibrium states of dipolar order in nematic liquid crystals (LCs). The experiment combines the well-known “magic sandwich” pulse sequence with preparation of dipolar ordered states and encoding of multiple-quantum coherences. The spin system composed of the dipole-coupled protons of a LC molecule provides an example of a small cluster of strongly interacting spins. We study decoherence rates under a sequence that reverses time evolution with the secular dipolar Hamiltonian to compensate coherent evolution of a closed quantum system. In this way, the time scale is made evident where irreversible decoherence takes place, providing insight into the nature of the processes responsible for the attainment of quasiequilibrium. The behavior of single- and double-quantum-coherence amplitudes with reversal time is interpreted as evidence of the quantum character (as opposed to stochastic character) of the processes that drive irreversible decoherence. The experimental method proposed is useful for probing the action of the environment on materials with quantum information processing potential.
EPR-correlated dipolar spectroscopy by Q-band chirp SIFTER.
Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar
2016-08-17
While two-dimensional correlation spectra contain more information as compared to one-dimensional spectra, typical spectral widths encountered in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy largely restrict the applicability of correlation techniques. In essence, the monochromatic excitation pulses established in pulsed EPR often cannot uniformly excite the entire spectrum. Here, this restriction is alleviated for nitroxide spin labels at Q-band microwave frequencies around 35 GHz. This is achieved by substitution of monochromatic pulses by frequency-swept chirp pulses tailored for uniform excitation. Unwanted interference effects brought by this substitution are analyzed for a pair of electron spins with secular dipolar coupling. Experimentally, the dipole-dipole interaction can be separated from other interactions by a constant-time Zeeman-compensated solid echo sequence called SIFTER. Such SIFTER experiments usually yield a one-dimensional dipolar spectrum. EPR-correlated dipolar spectra can be obtained when the four pulses are replaced by chirp pulses. These two-dimensional spectra encode additional information on the geometrical arrangement of the two spin labels. With the excitation parameters achieved by a home-built Q-band spectrometer capable of frequency-swept excitation, unwanted interference effects can be largely neglected for the examined model compound with a spin-spin distance of 4 nm. The experimentally obtained correlation pattern conforms to the expectation based on the inter-spin geometry of the investigated rigid model compound.
New cofactor supports α,β-unsaturated acid decarboxylation via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition
Payne, Karl A.P.; White, Mark D.; Fisher, Karl; Khara, Basile; Bailey, Samuel S.; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J.W.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Goodacre, Royston; Beveridge, Rebecca; Barran, Perdita; Rigby, Stephen E.J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Hay, Sam; Leys, David
2016-01-01
The ubiD/ubiX or the homologous fdc/pad genes have been implicated in the non-oxidative reversible decarboxylation of aromatic substrates, and play a pivotal role in bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis1–3 or microbial biodegradation of aromatic compounds4–6 respectively. Despite biochemical studies on individual gene products, the composition and co-factor requirement of the enzyme responsible for in vivo decarboxylase activity remained unclear7–9. We show Fdc is solely responsible for (de)carboxylase activity, and that it requires a new type of cofactor: a prenylated flavin synthesised by the associated UbiX/Pad10. Atomic resolution crystal structures reveal two distinct isomers of the oxidized cofactor can be observed: an isoalloxazine N5-iminium adduct and a N5 secondary ketimine species with drastically altered ring structure, both having azomethine ylide character. Substrate binding positions the dipolarophile enoic acid group directly above the azomethine ylide group. The structure of a covalent inhibitor-cofactor adduct suggests 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry supports reversible decarboxylation in these enzymes. While 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is commonly used in organic chemistry11–12, we propose this presents the first example of an enzymatic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Our model for Fdc/UbiD catalysis offers new routes in alkene hydrocarbon production or aryl (de)carboxylation. PMID:26083754
Dipolar Magnetism in Ordered and Disordered Low-Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies
Varón, M.; Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Puntes, V. F.; Frandsen, C.
2013-01-01
Magnetostatic (dipolar) interactions between nanoparticles promise to open new ways to design nanocrystalline magnetic materials and devices if the collective magnetic properties can be controlled at the nanoparticle level. Magnetic dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong to sustain magnetic order at ambient temperature in assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles with magnetic moments of ≥ 100 μB. Here we use electron holography with sub-particle resolution to reveal the correlation between particle arrangement and magnetic order in self-assembled 1D and quasi-2D arrangements of 15 nm cobalt nanoparticles. In the initial states, we observe dipolar ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and local flux closure, depending on the particle arrangement. Surprisingly, after magnetic saturation, measurements and numerical simulations show that overall ferromagnetic order exists in the present nanoparticle assemblies even when their arrangement is completely disordered. Such direct quantification of the correlation between topological and magnetic order is essential for the technological exploitation of magnetic quasi-2D nanoparticle assemblies. PMID:23390584
Sulfone-Containing Dipolar Glass Polymers with High Dielectric Constant and Low Loss Property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhongbo; Litt, Morton; Zhu, Lei
Sulfone-containing polyoxetanes are designed and synthesized for high dielectric constant and low loss dipolar glasses. The precursor polymer, poly(3,3-bis(chloromethyl)oxetane) (PBCMO) is synthesized by bulk cationic polymerization with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as initiator. The number-average molecular weight of PBCMO is 73 kDa, with a polydispersity of 1.53 as obtained from size-exclusion chromatography results. Post-modification of PBCMO yields the dipolar glass polymer, poly(3,3-bis(methylsulfonylmethyl)oxetane) (MST). Nuclear magnetic resonance result shows 100% conversion. Differential scanning calorimetry result indicates that MST has a glass transition temperature of ca. 120 °C. Due to the large dipole moment (4.25 D) and small size of the side-chain sulfone groups, MST exhibits a high dielectric constant of 8.7 and a low dissipation factor of 0.01 at 25 °C and 1 Hz. This study suggests that dipolar glass polymers with large dipole moments and small-sized dipoles in the side chains are promising candidates for high energy density and low loss dielectric applications. This work is supported by NSF Polymers Program (DMR-1402733).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinther, Joachim M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.
2013-01-01
Refocused continuous wave (rCW) decoupling is presented as an efficient and robust means to obtain well-resolved magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectra of low-γ spins, such as 13C dipolar coupled to fluorine. The rCW decoupling sequences, recently introduced for 1H decoupling, are very robust towards large isotropic and anisotropic shift ranges as often encountered for 19F spins. In rCW decoupling, the so-called refocusing pulses inserted into the CW irradiation eliminate critical residual second- and third-order dipolar coupling and dipolar-coupling against chemical shielding anisotropy cross-terms in the effective Hamiltonian through time-reversal (i.e. refocusing). As important additional assets, the rCW decoupling sequences are robust towards variations in rf amplitudes, operational at low to high spinning speeds, and easy to set-up for optimal performance experimentally. These aspects are demonstrated analytically/numerically and experimentally in comparison to state-of-the-art decoupling sequences such as TPPM, SPINAL-64, and frequency-swept variants of these.
Tunable dipolar resonances and Einstein-de Haas effect in a Rb87-atom condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Świsłocki, Tomasz; Sowiński, Tomasz; Pietraszewicz, Joanna; Brewczyk, Mirosław; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Gajda, Mariusz
2011-06-01
We theoretically study a spinor condensate of Rb87 atoms in a F=1 hyperfine state confined in an optical dipole trap. Putting initially all atoms in an mF=1, component we observe a significant transfer of atoms to other, initially empty Zeeman states exclusively due to dipolar forces. Because of conservation of a total angular momentum the atoms going to other Zeeman components acquire an orbital angular momentum and circulate around the center of the trap. This is a realization of the Einstein-de Haas effect in a system of cold gases. We show that the transfer of atoms via dipolar interactions is possible only when the energies of the initial and the final sates are equal. This condition can be fulfilled utilizing a resonant external magnetic field, which tunes energies of involved states via the linear Zeeman effect. We found that there are many final states of different spatial density, which can be tuned selectively to the initial state. We show a simple model explaining high selectivity and controllability of weak dipolar interactions in the condensate of Rb87 atoms.
Dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm on 7 October 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, H.; Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Blake, J. B.; Cohen, I. J.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Korth, H.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Magnes, W.; Marklund, G. T.; Mauk, B.; Paulson, K. W.; Russell, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Turner, D. L.
2016-12-01
A dipolarization event was observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at L=3.8 and 19.8 magnetic local time (MLT) starting at 23:42:36 UT on 7 October 2015. The magnetic and electric fields showed initially coherent variations between the spacecraft. The sunward convection turned tailward after the dipolarization. The observation is interpreted in terms of the pressure balance or the momentum equation. This was followed by a region traversed where the fields were irregular. The scale length was of the order of the ion gyroradius, suggesting the kinetic nature of the fluctuations. Combination of the multi-instrument, multi-spacecraft data reveals a more detailed picture of the dipolarization event in the inner magnetosphere. Conjunction ionosphere-plasmasphere observations from DMSP, two-dimensional GPS TEC, the Millstone Hill mid-latitude incoherent scatter radar, and AMPERE measurements imply that MMS observations are located on the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough where Region 2 field aligned currents flow.
Dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm on 7 October 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, H.; Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Blake, J. B.; Cohen, I. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Farrugia, C. J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Korth, H.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Magnes, W.; Marklund, G. T.; Mauk, B. H.; Paulson, K. W.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Turner, D. L.
2016-09-01
A dipolarization event was observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at L = 3.8 and 19.8 magnetic local time starting at ˜23:42:36 UT on 7 October 2015. The magnetic and electric fields showed initially coherent variations between the spacecraft. The sunward convection turned tailward after the dipolarization. The observation is interpreted in terms of the pressure balance or the momentum equation. This was followed by a region traversed where the fields were irregular. The scale length was of the order of the ion gyroradius, suggesting the kinetic nature of the fluctuations. Combination of the multi-instrument, multispacecraft data reveals a more detailed picture of the dipolarization event in the inner magnetosphere. Conjunction ionosphere-plasmasphere observations from DMSP, two-dimensional GPS total electron content, the Millstone Hill midlatitude incoherent scatter radar, and AMPERE measurements imply that MMS observations are located on the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough where Region 2 field-aligned currents flow.
Srivastava, Madhur; Georgieva, Elka R; Freed, Jack H
2017-03-30
We adapt a new wavelet-transform-based method of denoising experimental signals to pulse-dipolar electron-spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). We show that signal averaging times of the time-domain signals can be reduced by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, while retaining the fidelity of the underlying signals, in comparison with noiseless reference signals. We have achieved excellent signal recovery when the initial noisy signal has an SNR ≳ 3. This approach is robust and is expected to be applicable to other time-domain spectroscopies. In PDS, these time-domain signals representing the dipolar interaction between two electron spin labels are converted into their distance distribution functions P(r), usually by regularization methods such as Tikhonov regularization. The significant improvements achieved by using denoised signals for this regularization are described. We show that they yield P(r)'s with more accurate detail and yield clearer separations of respective distances, which is especially important when the P(r)'s are complex. Also, longer distance P(r)'s, requiring longer dipolar evolution times, become accessible after denoising. In comparison to standard wavelet denoising approaches, it is clearly shown that the new method (WavPDS) is superior.
Chain-based order and quantum spin liquids in dipolar spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClarty, P. A.; Sikora, O.; Moessner, R.; Penc, K.; Pollmann, F.; Shannon, N.
2015-09-01
Recent experiments on the spin-ice material Dy2Ti2O7 suggest that the Pauling "ice entropy," characteristic of its classical Coulombic spin-liquid state, may be lost at low temperatures [Pomaranski et al., Nat. Phys. 9, 353 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2591]. However, despite nearly two decades of intensive study, the nature of the equilibrium ground state of spin ice remains uncertain. Here we explore how long-range dipolar interactions D , short-range exchange interactions, and quantum fluctuations combine to determine the ground state of dipolar spin ice. We identify the organizational principle that ordered ground states are selected from a set of "chain states" in which dipolar interactions are exponentially screened. Using both quantum and classical Monte Carlo simulation, we establish phase diagrams as a function of quantum tunneling g and temperature T , and find that only a very small gc≪D is needed to stabilize a quantum spin liquid ground state. We discuss the implications of these results for Dy2Ti2O7 .
Quantum spin ices and magnetic states from dipolar-octupolar doublets on the pyrochlore lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gang
We consider a class of electron systems in which dipolar-octupolar Kramers doublets arise on the pyrochlore lattice. In the localized limit, the Kramers doublets are described by the effective spin 1/2 pseudospins. The most general nearest-neighbor exchange model between these pseudospins is the XYZ model. In additional to dipolar ordered and octupolar ordered magnetic states, we show that this XYZ model exhibits two distinct quantum spin ice (QSI) phases, that we dub dipolar QSI and octupolar QSI. These two QSIs are distinct symmetry enriched U(1) quantum spin liquids, enriched by the lattice symmetry. Moreover, the XYZ model is absent from the notorious sign problem for a quantum Monte Carlo simulation in a large parameter space. We discuss the potential relevance to real material systems such as Dy2Ti2O7, Nd2Zr2O7, Nd2Hf2O7, Nd2Ir2O7, Nd2Sn2O7 and Ce2Sn2O7. chggst@gmail.com, Refs: Y-P Huang, G Chen, M Hermele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 167203 (2014).
Topological defect formation in rotating binary dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Han, Wei; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming; Saito, Hiroki; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-12-15
We investigate the topological defects and spin structures of a rotating binary Bose–Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms confined in spin-dependent optical lattices, for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Our results show that the tunable dipolar interaction, especially the orientation of the dipoles, can be used to control the direction of stripe phase and its related half-vortex sheets. In addition, it can also be used to obtain a regular arrangement of various topological spin textures, such as meron, circular and cross disgyration spin structures. We point out that such topological defects and regular arrangement of spin structures arise primarily from the long-range and anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction and its competition with the spin-dependent optical lattices and rotation. - Highlights: • Effects of both strength and orientation of the dipoles are discussed. • Various topological defects can be formed in different parameter regions. • Present one possible way to obtain regular arrangements of spin textures.
A Multi-Instrument Study of Dipolarization Events in the Kronian Magnetotail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, A.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.
2016-12-01
A spacecraft located planetward of a magnetotail reconnection site may observe a dipolarization front: the snapping back of magnetic field lines towards the planet following the reconfiguration of the tail field. Dipolarizations were initially identified in Cassini magnetometer data as significant (above background) north-to-south rotations of the magnetic field [Smith et al., 2016]. Three years of data were surveyed covering radial distances from 15-69 RS and local times from 18:00-06:00. From an initial sample of 712 events, additional criteria were derived. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPs) data were analyzed to search for evidence of related electron heating. Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) was also used to estimate the front propagation direction. The quality of the MVA determination provided another criteria. Average magnetic field and electron signatures are discussed with regards to the timing and magnitude of the signatures. The distribution of detections across the Kronian magnetotail, as well as their plasma composition and front propagation direction are also examined. Finally, the auroral currents associated with the dipolarizations signatures are evaluated and compared with known examples. Smith, A. W., C. M. Jackman, and M. F. Thomsen (2016), J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 2984-3005, doi:10.1002/2015JA022005.
Statics and dynamics of a self-bound dipolar matter-wave droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2017-02-01
We study the statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile, self-bound three-dimensional dipolar matter-wave droplet created in the presence of a tiny repulsive three-body interaction. In frontal collision with an impact parameter and in angular collision at large velocities along all directions two droplets behave like quantum solitons. Such a collision is found to be quasi elastic and the droplets emerge undeformed after collision without any change of velocity. However, in a collision at small velocities the axisymmeric dipolar interaction plays a significant role and the collision dynamics is sensitive to the direction of motion. For an encounter along the z direction at small velocities, two droplets, polarized along the z direction, coalesce to form a larger droplet—a droplet molecule. For an encounter along the x direction at small velocities, the same droplets stay apart and never meet each other due to the dipolar repulsion. The present study is based on an analytic variational approximation and a numerical solution of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the parameters of 52Cr atoms.
Comparison of the dipolar magnetic field generated by two Ising-like models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo
2015-04-01
We consider two Ising-like models named respectively the "domino" model and the Rikitake disk dynamo model. Both models are based on some collective interactions that can generate a dipolar magnetic field which reproduces the well-known features of the geomagnetic field: the reversals and secular variation (SV). The first model considers the resultant dipolar magnetic field as formed by the superposition of the magnetic fields generated by the dynamo elements called macrospins, while the second one, starting from the two-disk dynamo action, takes in consideration the collective interactions of several disk dynamo elements. We will apply two versions of each model: the short-range and the long-range coupled dynamo elements. We will study the statistical properties of the time series generated by the simulation of all models. The comparison of these results with the paleomagnetic data series and long series of SV enables us to conclude which of these Ising-like models better match with the geomagnetic field time series. Key words: geomagnetic field, domino model, Rikitake disk dynamo, dipolar moment
Impurity modes in Frenkel exciton systems with dipolar interactions and cubic symmetry.
Avgin, I; Huber, D L
2013-04-28
We introduce a continuum model for impurity modes of Frenkel excitons in fully occupied face-centered and body-centered cubic lattices with dipole-dipole interactions and parallel moments. In the absence of impurities, the model reproduces the small-k behavior found in numerical calculations of dipolar lattice sums. The exciton densities of states near the upper and lower band edges are calculated and compared with the corresponding results for a random array of dipoles. The Green function obtained with the continuum model, together with a spherical approximation to the Brillouin zone, is used to determine the conditions for the formation of a localized exciton mode associated with a shift in the transition energy of a single chromophore. The dependence of the local mode energy on the magnitude of the shift is ascertained. The formation of impurity bands at high concentrations of perturbed sites is investigated using the coherent potential approximation. The contribution of the impurity bands to the optical absorption is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. The locations of the optical absorption peaks of the dipolar system are shown to depend on the direction of propagation of the light relative to the dipolar axis, a property that is maintained in the presence of short-range interactions.
Xu, Xinfang; Doyle, Michael P
2014-04-15
The combination of two or more unsaturated structural units to form cyclic organic compounds is commonly referred to as cycloaddition, and the combination of two unsaturated structural units that forms a six-membered ring is formally either a [5 + 1]-, [4 + 2]-, [2 + 2 + 2]-, or [3 + 3]-cycloaddition. Occurring as concerted or stepwise processes, cycloaddition reactions are among the most useful synthetic constructions in organic chemistry. Of these transformations, the concerted [4 + 2]-cycloaddition, the Diels-Alder reaction, is by far the best known and most widely applied. However, although symmetry disallowed as a concerted process and lacking certifiable examples until recently, stepwise [3 + 3]-cycloadditions offer advantages for the synthesis of a substantial variety of heterocyclic compounds, and they are receiving considerable attention. In this Account, we present the development of stepwise [3 + 3]-cycloaddition reactions from virtual invisibility in the 1990s to a rapidly growing synthetic methodology today, involving organocatalysis or transition metal catalysis. With origins in organometallic or vinyliminium ion chemistry, this area has blossomed into a viable synthetic transformation for the construction of six-membered heterocyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatoms. The development of [3 + 3]-cycloaddition transformations has been achieved through identification of suitable and compatible reactive dipolar adducts and stable dipoles. The reactive dipolar species is an energetic dipolar intermediate that is optimally formed catalytically in the reaction. The stepwise process occurs with the reactive dipolar adduct reacting as an electrophile or as a nucleophile to form the first covalent bond, and this association provides entropic assistance for the construction of the second covalent bond and the overall formal [3 + 3]-cycloaddition. Organocatalysis is well developed for both inter- and intramolecular synthetic transformations, but the
2015-01-01
Conspectus The combination of two or more unsaturated structural units to form cyclic organic compounds is commonly referred to as cycloaddition, and the combination of two unsaturated structural units that forms a six-membered ring is formally either a [5 + 1]-, [4 + 2]-, [2 + 2 + 2]-, or [3 + 3]-cycloaddition. Occurring as concerted or stepwise processes, cycloaddition reactions are among the most useful synthetic constructions in organic chemistry. Of these transformations, the concerted [4 + 2]-cycloaddition, the Diels–Alder reaction, is by far the best known and most widely applied. However, although symmetry disallowed as a concerted process and lacking certifiable examples until recently, stepwise [3 + 3]-cycloadditions offer advantages for the synthesis of a substantial variety of heterocyclic compounds, and they are receiving considerable attention. In this Account, we present the development of stepwise [3 + 3]-cycloaddition reactions from virtual invisibility in the 1990s to a rapidly growing synthetic methodology today, involving organocatalysis or transition metal catalysis. With origins in organometallic or vinyliminium ion chemistry, this area has blossomed into a viable synthetic transformation for the construction of six-membered heterocyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatoms. The development of [3 + 3]-cycloaddition transformations has been achieved through identification of suitable and compatible reactive dipolar adducts and stable dipoles. The reactive dipolar species is an energetic dipolar intermediate that is optimally formed catalytically in the reaction. The stepwise process occurs with the reactive dipolar adduct reacting as an electrophile or as a nucleophile to form the first covalent bond, and this association provides entropic assistance for the construction of the second covalent bond and the overall formal [3 + 3]-cycloaddition. Organocatalysis is well developed for both inter- and intramolecular synthetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, R. Kishor; Young-S., Luis E.; Vudragović, Dušan; Balaž, Antun; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, S. K.
2015-10-01
Many of the static and dynamic properties of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are usually studied by solving the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation for short-range atomic interaction. More recently, BEC of atoms with long-range dipolar atomic interaction are used in theoretical and experimental studies. For dipolar atomic interaction, the GP equation is a partial integro-differential equation, requiring complex algorithm for its numerical solution. Here we present numerical algorithms for both stationary and non-stationary solutions of the full three-dimensional (3D) GP equation for a dipolar BEC, including the contact interaction. We also consider the simplified one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) GP equations satisfied by cigar- and disk-shaped dipolar BECs. We employ the split-step Crank-Nicolson method with real- and imaginary-time propagations, respectively, for the numerical solution of the GP equation for dynamic and static properties of a dipolar BEC. The atoms are considered to be polarized along the z axis and we consider ten different cases, e.g., stationary and non-stationary solutions of the GP equation for a dipolar BEC in 1D (along x and z axes), 2D (in x- y and x- z planes), and 3D, and we provide working codes in Fortran 90/95 and C for these ten cases (twenty programs in all). We present numerical results for energy, chemical potential, root-mean-square sizes and density of the dipolar BECs and, where available, compare them with results of other authors and of variational and Thomas-Fermi approximations.
Wang, Hai I; Lu, Hao; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Cánovas, Enrique
2017-05-23
Reducing the donor-acceptor excess energy (ΔGET) associated with electron transfer (ET) across quantum dot (QD)/oxide interfaces can boost photoconversion efficiencies in sensitized solar cell and fuel architectures. One proposed path for engineering ΔGET losses at interfaces refers to the tuning of sensitizer workfunction by exploiting QD dipolar molecular capping treatments. However, the change in workfunction per debye in QD solids has been reported to be ∼20-fold larger when compared to the effect achieved in QD-sensitized architectures. The origin behind the modest workfunction tunability in QD-sensitized oxides remains unclear. Here, we investigate the interplay between QD dipolar molecular capping, interfacial QD-oxide ET rates, and QD workfunction in PbS QD/SnO2-sensitized interfaces. We find that interfacial QD-to-oxide ET is invariant to both the nature and strength of the specific QD dipolar capping treatment. Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the resolved invariance in ET rates is the result of a lack of QD workfunction (and hence ΔGET) tuning, despite effective molecular dipolar capping. We therefore conclude that Fermi level pinning precludes tuning donor-acceptor energetics by dipolar molecular capping in strongly coupled quantum dot-sensitized oxides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffith, Olga L.; Liu, Xiao; Amonoo, Jojo A.; Djurovich, Peter I.; Thompson, Mark E.; Green, Peter F.; Forrest, Stephen R.
2015-08-01
We investigate dipolar donor materials mixed with a C70 acceptor in an organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell. Dipolar donors that have donor-acceptor-acceptor (d-a-a') structure result in high conductivity pathways due to close coupling between neighboring molecules in the mixed films. We analyze the charge transfer properties of the dipolar donor:C70 mixtures and corresponding neat donors using a combination of time-resolved electroluminescence from intermolecular polaron pair states and conductive tip atomic force microscopy, from which we infer that dimers of the d-a-a' donors tend to form a continuous network of nanocrystalline clusters within the blends. Additional insights are provided by quantum-mechanical calculations of hole transfer coupling and hopping rates between donor molecules using nearest-neighbor donor packing motifs taken from crystal structural data. The approximation using only nearest-neighbor interactions leads to good agreement between donor hole hopping rates and the conductive properties of the donor:C70 blends. This represents a significant simplification from requiring details of the nano- and mesoscale morphologies of thin films to estimate their electronic characteristics. Using these dipolar donors, we obtain a maximum power conversion efficiency of 9.6 ±0.5 % under 1 sun, AM1.5G simulated illumination for an OPV comprised of an active layer containing a dipolar donor mixed with C70.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moscoso-Londoño, O.; Tancredi, P.; Muraca, D.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Coral, D.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Wolff, U.; Neu, V.; Damm, C.; de Oliveira, C. L. P.; Pirota, K. R.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.
2017-04-01
Controlled magnetic granular materials with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles immersed in a non-conducting polymer matrix were synthesized and, their macroscopic magnetic observables analyzed in order to advance towards a better understanding of the magnetic dipolar interactions and its effects on the obtained magnetic parameters. First, by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure an accurate study of the structural properties was carried out. Then, the magnetic properties were analyzed by means of different models, including those that consider the magnetic interactions through long-range dipolar forces as: the Interacting Superparamagnetic Model (ISP) and the Vogel-Fulcher law (V-F). In systems with larger nanoparticle concentrations, magnetic results clearly indicate that the role played by the dipolar interactions affects the magnetic properties, giving rise to obtaining magnetic and structural parameters without physical meaning. Magnetic parameters as the effective anisotropic constant, magnetic moment relaxation time and mean blocking temperature, extracted from the application of the ISP model and V-F Law, were used to simulate the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling curves (FC). A comparative analysis of the simulated, fitted and experimental ZFC/FC curves suggests that the current models depict indeed our dilute granular systems. Notwithstanding, for concentrated samples, the ISP model infers that clustered nanoparticles are being interpreted as single entities of larger magnetic moment and volume, effect that is apparently related to a collective and complex magnetic moment dynamics within the cluster.
Keller, Katharina; Zalibera, Michal; Qi, Mian; Koch, Vanessa; Wegner, Julia; Hintz, Henrik; Godt, Adelheid; Jeschke, Gunnar; Savitsky, Anton; Yulikov, Maxim
2016-09-14
The four Mn(ii) complexes Mn-DOTA, Mn-TAHA, Mn-PyMTA, and Mn-NO3Py were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and relaxation measurements, to predict their relative performance in the EPR pulse dipolar spectroscopy (PDS) experiments. High spin density localization on the metal ions was proven by ENDOR on (1)H, D, (14)N, and (55)Mn nuclei. The transverse relaxation of the Mn(ii) complexes appears to be slow enough for PDS-based spin-spin distance determination. Rather advantageous ratios of T1/Tm were measured allowing for good relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) performance and, in general, fast shot repetitions in any PDS experiment. Relaxation properties of the Mn(ii) complexes correlate with the strengths of their zero field splitting (ZFS). Further, a comparison of Mn(ii)-DOTA and Gd(iii)-DOTA based spin labels is presented. The RIDME technique to measure nanometer-range Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distances in biomolecules is discussed as an alternative to the well-known DEER technique that often appears challenging in cases of metal-metal distance measurements. The use of a modified kernel function that includes dipolar harmonic overtones allows model-free computation of the Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distance distributions. Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distances are computed from RIDME data of Mn-rulers consisting of two Mn-PyMTA complexes connected by a rodlike spacer of defined length. Level crossing effects seem to have only a weak influence on the distance distributions computed from this set of Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) RIDME data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pergamenshchik, V. M.; Uzunova, V. A.
2011-02-01
In spite of the analogy to the electrostatics, the three-dimensional colloidal nematostatics is substantially different in both its mathematical structure and its physical implications. The general tensorial structure of elastic multipoles derived in V. M. Pergamenshchik and V. O. Uzunova [Eur. Phys. J. EEPJSFH1292-894110.1140/epje/i2006-10169-x 23, 161 (2007); Phys. Rev. EEPJSFH1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.76.011707 76, 011707 (2007)] allows for a classification of different types of colloids in the nematostatics. In comparison to their electrostatic counterparts, the elastic multipoles have one extra tensorial index. Based on this structure, we identify possible types of elastic dipoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by three coefficients—isotropic strength, anisotropy, and chirality—and a two-component vector along the unperturbed director. The relationship between the dipole type and symmetry groups is established and sketches of various representative types of dipolar colloids are given. Instead of a single electric dipole, in the nematostatics there are four different pure types (dipolar singlets) and eight mixed types of elastic dipoles (one quintet, one quartet, two triplets, and four doublets). It is shown that the full symmetry of the colloid-induced director field and the colloid’s shape (body) symmetry determine different dipole components. For instance, a helicoidal component of the anchoring easy axes can make a chiral elastic dipole of a colloid with the quadrupolar shape symmetry. The interaction potentials for different singlet and doublet dipoles are derived and illustrated in terms of the dipolar dyads and elastic Coulomb law. We argue that multipole parameters must be found by pure numerical means, as from ansatz director distributions one can find only orders of their magnitudes.
Nuclear magnetic relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism: Three-spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-07-01
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation, we have developed a non-perturbative theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole couplings, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we implement the general dipolar EMOR theory for a macromolecule-bound three-spin system, where one, two, or all three spins exchange with the bulk solution phase. In contrast to the previously studied two-spin system with a single dipole coupling, there are now three dipole couplings, so relaxation is affected by distinct correlations as well as by self-correlations. Moreover, relaxation can now couple the magnetizations with three-spin modes and, in the presence of a static dipole coupling, with two-spin modes. As a result of this complexity, three secondary dispersion steps with different physical origins can appear in the longitudinal relaxation dispersion profile, in addition to the primary dispersion step at the Larmor frequency matching the exchange rate. Furthermore, and in contrast to the two-spin system, longitudinal relaxation can be significantly affected by chemical shifts and by the odd-valued ("imaginary") part of the spectral density function. We anticipate that the detailed studies of two-spin and three-spin systems that have now been completed will provide the foundation for developing an approximate multi-spin dipolar EMOR theory sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to allow quantitative molecular-level interpretation of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation data from biophysical model systems and soft biological tissue.
Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang
2017-05-01
Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.
Simulations of dipolar fluids using effective many-body isotropic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sindt, Julien O.; Camp, Philip J.
2015-07-01
The partition function of a system with pairwise-additive anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions is equal to that of a hypothetical system with many-body isotropic interactions [G. Stell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 286 (1974)]. The effective many-body interactions contain n-body contributions of all orders. Each contribution is known as an expansion in terms of the particle-particle distances r, and the coefficients are temperature dependent. The leading-order two-body term is the familiar -r-6 attraction, and the leading-order three-body term is equivalent to the Axilrod-Teller interaction. In this work, a fluid of particles with the leading-order two-body and three-body interactions is compared to an equivalent dipolar soft-sphere fluid. Molecular simulations are used to determine the conditions under which the effective many-body interactions reproduce the fluid-phase structures of the dipolar system. The effective many-body interaction works well at moderately high temperatures but fails at low temperatures where particle chaining is expected to occur. It is shown that an adjustment of the coefficients of the two-body and three-body terms leads to a good description of the structure of the dipolar fluid even in the chaining regime, due primarily to the ground-state linear configuration of the three-body Axilrod-Teller interaction. The vapor-liquid phase diagrams of systems with different Axilrod-Teller contributions are determined. As the strength of the three-body interaction is increased, the critical temperature and density both decrease and disappear completely above a threshold strength, where chaining eventually suppresses the condensation transition.
Theoretical Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Hydrazoic Acid to Substituted Ynamines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiao-fang; Yang, Kun; Han, Ke-li
2009-04-01
The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of various substituted ynamines with hydrazoic acid were theoretically investigated with the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method. Two regioisomers, 4-amine, and 5-amine substituted adducts, were obtained, with the former as the preferred yield. This regioselectivity is rationalized by the frontier molecular orbital theory. The reactivity and synchronicity are enhanced with the increase of the electron-withdrawing character of the substitute on ynamine fragment. The calculations also show that the effect of solvent increases the activation energy, and the reaction becomes even harder in polar solvent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, A. A.; McKellar, B. H. J.; Martin, A. M.
2016-06-01
We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of the electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally trapped condensates.
Wood, A A; McKellar, B H J; Martin, A M
2016-06-24
We show that the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect can induce a persistent flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules confined in a toroidal trap, with the dipolar interaction mediated via an electric dipole moment. For Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with a magnetic dipole moment, we show that although it is theoretically possible to induce persistent flow via the Aharonov-Casher effect, the strength of the electric field required is prohibitive. We also outline an experimental geometry tailored specifically for observing the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect in toroidally trapped condensates.
Dipolar addition to cyclic vinyl sulfones leading to dual conformation tricycles
Wong, Steven S Y; Brant, Michael G; Barr, Christopher; Oliver, Allen G
2013-01-01
Summary Dipolar addition of cyclic azomethine imines with cyclic vinyl sulfones gave rise to functionalized tricycles that exhibited fluxional behavior in solution at room temperature. The scope of the synthetic methodology was explored, and the origin of the fluxional behavior was probed by NMR methods together with DFT calculations. This behavior was ultimately attributed to stereochemical inversion at one of two nitrogen centers embedded in the tricyclic framework. Two tetracycles were also synthesized, and the degree of signal-broadening in the NMR spectra was found to depend on the presence of substitution next to the inverting nitrogen center. PMID:23946837
Influence of the black hole spin on the chaotic particle dynamics within a dipolar halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag, Sankhasubhra; Sinha, Siddhartha; Ananda, Deepika B.; Das, Tapas K.
2017-04-01
We investigate the role of the spin angular momentum of astrophysical black holes in controlling the special relativistic chaotic dynamics of test particles moving under the influence of a post-Newtonian pseudo-Kerr black hole potential, along with a perturbative potential created by an asymmetrically placed (dipolar) halo. Proposing a Lyapunov-like exponent to be the effective measure of the degree of chaos observed in the system under consideration, it has been found that black hole spin anti-correlates with the degree of chaos for the aforementioned dynamics. Our findings have been explained applying the general principles of dynamical systems analysis.
Meyer, Adam G; Ryan, John H
2016-07-23
We provide a comprehensive account of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides with carbonyl dipolarophiles. Many different azomethine ylides have been studied, including stabilized and non-stabilized ylides. Of the carbonyl dipolarophiles, aldehydes including formaldehyde are the most studied, although there are now examples of cycloadditions with ketones, ketenes and carboxyl systems, in particular isatoic anhydrides and phthalic anhydrides. Intramolecular cycloadditions with esters can also occur under certain circumstances. The oxazolidine cycloadducts undergo a range of reactions triggered by the ring-opening of the oxazolidine ring system.
Conditions for the spin wave nonreciprocity in an array of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verba, Roman; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Bankowski, Elena; Meitzler, Thomas; Melkov, Gennadiy; Slavin, Andrei
2013-08-01
It is demonstrated that collective spin waves (SWs) propagating in complex periodic arrays of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars existing in a saturated (single-domain) ground state in a zero bias magnetic field could be nonreciprocal. To guarantee the SW nonreciprocity, two conditions should be fulfilled: (i) existence of a nonzero out-of-plane component of the pillars' static magnetization and (ii) a complex periodicity of array's ground state with at least two elements per a primitive cell, if the elements are different, and at least three elements per a primitive cell, if the elements are identical.
Three-body interacting dipolar bosons and the fate of lattice supersolidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Manpreet; Mishra, Tapan
2016-12-01
We investigate a system of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice with local two- and three-body interactions. Using the mean-field-theory approach, we obtain the ground-state phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model with both repulsive and attractive three-body interactions. We show that the additional three-body on-site interaction has strong effects on the phase diagram, especially on the supersolid phase. Positive values of the three-body interaction lead to the enhancement of the gapped phases at densities larger than unity by reducing the supersolid region. However, a small attractive three-body interaction enhances the supersolid phase.
Multiple Field Induced Transitions in the Dipolar Pyrochlore Gd2 Ti2 O_7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shastry, B. Sriram
2003-03-01
Pyrochlore frustrated magnetic systems have received considerable attention after the experiment by Ramirez and coworkers on the ``Spin Ice'' compound DTO or Dy2 Ti2 O_7, a magnetic realization of entropic Ice originally studied by Pauling, Bernal and Fowler. DTO consists of effective spin half moments residing on the Pyrochlore lattice, but by changing the rare earth, one has realizations of the XY and also Heisenberg models. GTO, or Gd2 Ti2 O7 is a Heisenberg system, where the interactions are predominantly dipolar with a weak isotropic superexchange. This enables one to study almost for the first time, the rich and novel behavior of spins living on undistorted cubic systems with dipolar interactions, in contrast to the well understood spin flop transition in uniaxial magnets. The thermodynamics in the presence of a magnetic field of (powder) GTO shows a remarkably rich phase diagram[1], with several phase transitions occurring at a given temperature as the field is varied. In an effort to understand this, we have studied a 4- sublattice mean field theory[1] wherein the spins interact via a dipolar interaction plus superexchange. This mean field theory is intriguingly non trivial and reproduces the observed transitions with only one free parameter (J). The magnetic field partially lifts the degeneracy of the six zero field states in a specific ways depending on the direction of the field, signaling the transitions. The nature of some of the transitions is best described in terms of a nematic type order parameter T^α, β=1/4 sum_i=1^4 m^αi m^βi where mi is the sublattice magnetization vector. This talk describes the above experiment and theory, its recent extensions, and also some more recent experiments on GTO. [1] "Multiple Phase Transitions in a Geometrically-Frustrated Dipolar Spin System Gd_2Ti_2O_7, (A P Ramirez, B S Shastry , A Hayashi, J J Krajewski, D A Huse, and R J Cava), Phys. Rev. Letts. 89, 067202 (2002).
Dipolar field-induced spin-wave waveguides for spin-torque magnonics
Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; Zholud, A.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Demokritov, S. O.
2015-01-12
We use high-resolution imaging to study the propagation of spin waves in magnonic waveguides created by the dipolar magnetic fields of microscopic patterns. We show that the characteristics of spin-wave modes in such waveguides depend strongly on their geometry. In particular, by tuning the geometrical parameters, field-induced confinement for both the edge and the center waveguide modes can be achieved, enabling control over the spin-wave transmission characteristics. The studied waveguiding structures are particularly promising for the implementation of magnonic devices utilizing spin-torque phenomena.
s -wave scattering lengths of the strongly dipolar bosons 162Dy and 164Dy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yijun; Sykes, Andrew; Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; Bohn, John L.; Lev, Benjamin L.
2015-08-01
We report the measurement of the deca-heptuplet s -partial-wave scattering length a of two bosonic isotopes of the highly magnetic element dysprosium: a =112 (10 ) a0 for 162Dy and a =92 (8 ) a0 for 164Dy, where a0 is the Bohr radius. The scattering lengths are determined by the cross-dimensional relaxation of ultracold gases of these Dy isotopes at temperatures above quantum degeneracy. In this temperature regime, the measured rethermalization dynamics can be compared to simulations of the Boltzmann equation using a direct-simulation Monte Carlo method employing the anisotropic differential scattering cross section of dipolar particles.
Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions
Okkel, Andreas; Schwach, Lukas; Wagner, Laura; Selig, Anja; Prokop, Aram
2014-01-01
Summary An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity. PMID:25161720
Zhang, Jialin; Wang, Zhunzhun; Li, Zhenyu E-mail: phycw@nus.edu.sg; Niu, Tianchao; Chen, Wei E-mail: phycw@nus.edu.sg
2014-03-17
We report a spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) investigation of reversibly switchable dipolar vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) on graphite by using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. VOPc molecule can be switched between O-up and O-down configurations by changing the polarity of the pulse voltage applied to the tip, actuated by the inelastic tunneling electrons. The spatially resolved STS measurements allow the identification of the electronic structures of VOPc with different dipole orientation. The present approach provides geometry images and electronic characterization of a molecular switch on surface spontaneously.
Ruder, Warren C; Hsu, Chia-Pei D; Edelman, Brent D; Schwartz, Russell; Leduc, Philip R
2012-08-06
We have studied the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles in ferrofluids consisting of single-domain, biogenic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) isolated from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1). Although dipolar chains form in magnetic colloids in zero applied field, when dried upon substrates, the solvent front disorders nanoparticle aggregation. Using avidin-biotin functionalization of the particles and substrate, we generated self-assembled, linear chain motifs that resist solvent front disruption in zero-field. The engineered self-assembly process we describe here provides an approach for the creation of ordered magnetic structures that could impact fields ranging from micro-electro-mechanical systems development to magnetic imaging of biological structures.
No evidence of gas-liquid coexistence in dipolar hard spheres.
Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Russo, John; Sciortino, Francesco
2011-12-02
We report accurate calculations of the particle density of states in the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. Implementing efficient and tailored Monte Carlo algorithms, we are able to explore, in equilibrium, the low temperature region where a phase separation between a dilute gas of chain ends and a high-density liquid of chain junctions has been predicted to occur. Our data clearly show that the density of states remains always single peaked, definitively excluding the possibility of critical phenomena in the investigated temperature and density region. The analysis of the low temperature configurations shows that at low densities particles preferentially self-assemble into closed rings, strongly suppressing the chain ends concentration.
Nonmonotonic magnetic susceptibility of dipolar hard-spheres at low temperature and density.
Kantorovich, Sofia; Ivanov, Alexey O; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Tavares, José Maria; Sciortino, Francesco
2013-04-05
We investigate, via numerical simulations, mean field, and density functional theories, the magnetic response of a dipolar hard sphere fluid at low temperatures and densities, in the region of strong association. The proposed parameter-free theory is able to capture both the density and temperature dependence of the ring-chain equilibrium and the contribution to the susceptibility of a chain of generic length. The theory predicts a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the initial (zero field) magnetic susceptibility, arising from the competition between magnetically inert particle rings and magnetically active chains. Monte Carlo simulation results closely agree with the theoretical findings.
Relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups
Diaz-Calleja, R.; Riande, E.; Roman, J.S.
1992-08-06
This paper discusses how relaxation spectra and dipolar correlations for flexible polymers with bulky side groups (PBPA chains) suggest that intermolecular correlations are not very important in this polymer and that {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} absorptions exist. TSDC techniques reveal that the {gamma} peak has a smaller activation energy than the {beta}, and the coupling scheme is used to interpret the complex dielectric and mechanical {alpha} relaxations. The anomalous temperature dependence of the glass-rubber relaxation is discussed in terms of the bulkiness of the side group. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi
2012-01-01
We present a new method to enhance the sensitivity in static solid-state NMR for a gain in signal-to-noise ratio up to 40%. This sensitivity enhancement is different from the corresponding solution NMR sensitivity enhancement schemes and is achieved by combining single and multiple quantum dipolar coherences. While this new approach is demonstrated for the PISEMA (polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle) experiment, it can be generalized to the other separated local field experiments for solid-state NMR spectroscopy. This method will have a direct impact on solid-state NMR spectroscopy of liquid crystals as well as membrane proteins aligned in lipid membranes. PMID:19351170
Isoxazolodihydropyridinones: 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides onto 2,4-dioxopiperidines
Coffman, Keith C.; Hartley, Timothy P.; Dallas, Jerry L.; Kurth, Mark J.
2012-01-01
Practical and efficient methods have been developed for the diversity-oriented synthesis of isoxazolodihydropyridinones via the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides onto 2,4-dioxopiperidines. A select few of these isoxazolodihydropyridinones were further elaborated with triazoles by copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. A total of 70 compounds and intermediates were synthesized and analyzed for drug likeness. Sixty-four of these novel compounds were submitted to the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository for high-throughput biological screening. PMID:22352295
Charged, dipolar soft matter systems from a combined microscopic-mesoscopic viewpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Christian; Steinhauser, Othmar
2016-09-01
As an example of charged, dipolar soft matter, the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium dicyanamide is studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We focus on the link between microscopic and mesoscopic properties for both structure and dynamics. Thereby, the generalized Kirkwood g K-factor plays a central role in establishing this link which is not possible on the basis of molecular hydrodynamics. The decoupling between translational and rotational motion is indicative of the dynamical heterogeneity in ionic liquids.
Vortex dipolar structures in a rigid model of the larynx at flow onset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisari, N. E.; Artana, G.; Sciamarella, D.
2011-02-01
Starting jet airflow is investigated in a channel with a pair of consecutive slitted constrictions approximating the true and false vocal folds in the human larynx. The flow is visualized using the Schlieren optical technique and simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible two-dimensional viscous flow. Laboratory and numerical experiments show the spontaneous formation of three different classes of vortex dipolar structures in several regions of the laryngeal profile under conditions that may be assimilated to those of voice onset.
Computer-Assisted 3D Structure Elucidation of Natural Products using Residual Dipolar Couplings.
Troche-Pesqueira, Eduardo; Anklin, Clemens; Gil, Roberto R; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando
2017-03-20
An enhanced computer-assisted procedure for the determination of the relative configuration of natural products, which starts from the molecular formula and uses a combination of conventional 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), is reported. Having already the data acquired (1D/2D NMR and RDCs), the procedure begins with the determination of the molecular constitution using standard computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) and is followed by fully automated determination of relative configuration through RDC analysis. In the case of moderately flexible molecules the simplest data-explaining conformational model is selected by the use of the Akaike information criterion.
Calculation of Vibrational Spectra of Coordinated Perchlorate Ion in Dipolar Aprotic Solvents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, G. P.
2014-09-01
The vibrational spectrum of perchlorate ion coordinated to Li+, Na+, and Mg2+ cations in dipolar aprotic solvents (DAS) was studied using Hartree-Fock methods not taking into account (RHF) and accounting partially for electron correlation (MP2) and B3LYP density functional theory within the polarized continuum model (PCM). Experimental and calculated spectrum-structure correlations for coordinated perchlorate-ion complexes in DAS were analyzed. It was found that the best fi t of the experimental and calculated vibrational spectra was achieved by taking into account the electron correlation and non-specific solvation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kindervater, J.; Säubert, S.; Böni, P.
2017-01-01
Iron is one of the archetypical ferromagnets to study the critical fluctuations at a continuous phase transition thus serving as a model system for the application of scaling theory. We report a comprehensive study of the critical dynamics at the transition from the ferro- to the paramagnetic phase in Fe, employing the high-resolution neutron spin-echo technique, modulated intensity of zero effort (MIEZE). The results show that the dipolar interactions lead to an additional damping of the critical spin fluctuations at small momentum transfers q . The results agree essentially with scaling theory if the dipolar interactions are taken into account by means of the mode-coupling equations. However, in contrast to expectations, the dipolar wave number qD that plays a central role in the scaling function f (κ /q ,qD/κ ) becomes temperature dependent. In the limit of small q the critical exponent z crosses over from 2.5 to 2.0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, Ravi; Ernst, Matthias; Madhu, P. K.; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Nielsen, Anders B.
2017-04-01
We present a general theoretical description that allows us to describe the influence of isotropic chemical shift in homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar recoupling experiments in magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR. Through a transformation of the Hamiltonian into an interaction frame with the combined radio-frequency irradiation and the isotropic chemical shift, we determine an effective Hamiltonian to first order with respect to the relevant internal nuclear spin interactions. This unravels the essential resonance conditions for efficient dipolar recoupling. Furthermore, we propose how to handle situations where the resonance conditions are not exactly fulfilled. To verify the general theoretical description, we compare numerical simulations using a time-sliced time-dependent Hamiltonian with simulations using the calculated effective Hamiltonian for propagation. The comparisons are exemplified for the homonuclear dipolar recoupling experiments C 721 and POST-C 721 .
The dipolar interaction in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C. C.; Cheng, Chih-Wei; Weng, Yi-Chien; Chern, G.
2014-05-01
Ultrathin CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is a promising candidate for the high density magnetic random access memory. However, a dipolar interaction between the CoFeB layers may introduce a minor loop shift (Hs) and causes uncertainty during the operation. In this report, we systematically studied the dipolar effect in these structures and found that the coupling may be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic (15 Oe > Hs > -15 Oe) depending upon the CoFeB thickness (0.9-1.4 nm). A modified Fabry-Perot model, which accounts the Bloch wave interference, may explain the present observations of the dipolar effect in the perpendicular junctions of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB.
1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of organic azides to alkynes by a dicopper-substituted silicotungstate.
Kamata, Keigo; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka
2008-11-19
The dicopper-substituted gamma-Keggin silicotungstate TBA 4[gamma-H2SiW10O36Cu2(mu-1,1-N3)2] (I, TBA = tetra- n-butylammonium) could act as an efficient precatalyst for the regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of organic azides to alkynes. Various combinations of substrates (four azides and eight alkynes) were efficiently converted to the corresponding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives in excellent yields without any additives. The present system was applicable to a larger-scale cycloaddition of benzyl azide to phenylacetylene under solvent-free conditions (100 mmol scale) in which 21.5 g of the analytically pure corresponding triazole could be isolated. In this case, the turnover frequency and the turnover number reached up to 14,800 h(-1) and 91,500, respectively, and these values were the highest among those reported for the copper-mediated systems so far. In addition, I could be applied to the one-pot synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole from benzyl chloride, sodium azide, and phenylacetylene. The catalyst effect, kinetic, mechanistic, and computational studies show that the reduced dicopper core plays an important role in the present 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, M.; Deng, X.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Pang, Y.; Lapenta, G.; Fu, H.; Walker, R. J.; Huang, S.; Tang, R.
2015-12-01
We report a Cluster observation of transient magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail at the location of [Xgsm ~ -17.2 RE, Ygsm ~ -4.5 RE and Zgsm ~ 0]. The reconnection X-line retreated tailward with a speed of 34 km/s. An ion diffusion region with a weak guide field (~10% of the lobe field) was encountered during the flow reversal. Transient energetic electron beams, which directed away from the X-line, were detected repeatedly around the current sheet boundary layer with periods of about 60s during the tailward flow burst. On the earthward side of X-line, multiple earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts were observed quasi-periodically with time period of 60s-90s. Surprisingly the cross-tail sizes of some observed dipolarization fronts are only 1-2 ion inertial lengths. The X-line expanded across the tail in the electron flow direction with a speed about 0.03VA, here VA is the Alfven speed. Two spacecraft, which were separated in the cross-tail direction by 1 RE, observed distinct structures and different tones of reconnection, which implies that reconnection proceeds drastically different in different segments of X-line.
Supramolecular Magnetic Brushes: The Impact of Dipolar Interactions on the Equilibrium Structure
2015-01-01
The equilibrium structure of supramolecular magnetic filament brushes is analyzed at two different scales. First, we study the density and height distributions for brushes with various grafting densities and chain lengths. We use Langevin dynamics simulations with a bead–spring model that takes into account the cross-links between the surface of the ferromagnetic particles, whose magnetization is characterized by a point dipole. Magnetic filament brushes are shown to be more compact near the substrate than nonmagnetic ones, with a bimodal height distribution for large grafting densities. This latter feature makes them also different from brushes with electric dipoles. Next, in order to explain the observed behavior at the filament scale, we introduce a graph theory analysis to elucidate for the first time the structure of the brush at the scale of individual beads. It turns out that, in contrast to nonmagnetic brushes, in which the internal structure is determined by random density fluctuations, magnetic forces introduce a certain order in the system. Because of their highly directional nature, magnetic dipolar interactions prevent some of the random connections to be formed. On the other hand, they favor a higher connectivity of the chains’ free and grafted ends. We show that this complex dipolar brush microstructure has a strong impact on the magnetic response of the brush, as any weak applied field has to compete with the dipole–dipole interactions within the crowded environment. PMID:26538768
Condensation to a strongly correlated dark fluid of two dimensional dipolar excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazuz-Harpaz, Yotam; Cohen, Kobi; Rapaport, Ronen
2017-08-01
Recently we reported on the condensation of cold, electrostatically trapped dipolar excitons in GaAs bilayer heterostructure into a new, dense and dark collective phase. Here we analyze and discuss in detail the experimental findings and the emerging evident properties of this collective liquid-like phase. We show that the phase transition is characterized by a sharp increase of the number of non-emitting dipoles, by a clear contraction of the fluid spatial extent into the bottom of the parabolic-like trap, and by spectral narrowing. We extract the total density of the condensed phase which we find to be consistent with the expected density regime of a quantum liquid. We show that there are clear critical temperature and excitation power onsets for the phase transition and that as the power further increases above the critical power, the strong darkening is reduced down until no clear darkening is observed. At this point another transition appears which we interpret as a transition to a strongly repulsive yet correlated e-h plasma. Based on the experimental findings, we suggest that the physical mechanism that may be responsible for the transition is a dynamical final-state stimulation of the dipolar excitons to their dark spin states, which have a long lifetime and thus support the observed sharp increase in density. Further experiments and modeling will hopefully be able to unambiguously identify the physical mechanism behind these recent observations.
Asymmetric 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions Catalyzed by Heterocycle-Based Metal Complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, Hiroyuki
Highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dipoles, such as nitrones, nitrile oxides, nitrile imines, diazoalkanes, azomethine imines and carbonyl ylides, catalyzed by heterocyclic supramolecular type of metal complexes consisting of chiral heterocyclic compounds and metal salts were described in terms of their ability of asymmetric induction and enantioface differentiation. The scope and limitations of each cycloaddition reactions were also briefly described. Of the chiral hererocycle-based ligands, chiral bisoxazoline, 2,6-bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine, and related oxazoline ligands are shown to be quite effective in obtaining high levels of asymmtric induction. The combination of the bisoxazoline ligand derived from (1S,2R)-cis-1-amino-2-indanol and metal salts was especially efficient for asymmetric cycloaddition reactions of a number of 1,3-dipoles, such as nitrones, nitrile oxide, nitrile imines, diazoacetates and azomethine imines. The metals utilized for the heterocycle-based complexes show a crucial role for degree of asymmetric induction depending upon the 1,3-dipole used. High levels of enantioselectivity were achieved in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of unstable carbonyl ylides with benzyloxyacetaldehyde derivatives, α-keto esters, 3-(2-alkenoyl)-2-oxazolidinones, and even vinyl ethers, which were catalyzed by Pybox-lanthanoid metal complexes.
Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids
Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco
2014-01-15
We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the Euler–Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrödinger equation for the “pair amplitude” √(g(r)), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from Jastrow–Feenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the Hartree–Fock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical density–density response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings. -- Highlights: •We have studied the ground state properties of a strongly correlated two-dimensional fluid of dipolar fermions. •We have calculated the effective inter-particle interaction and the dynamical density–density response function. •We have shown that an undamped zero sound mode exists at any value of the interaction strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Jerry C. C.; Eckert, Hellmut
2000-12-01
Anexperimental strategy has been developed for measuring multiple dipole-dipole interactions in inorganic compounds using the technique of rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR. Geometry-independent information about the dipole couplings between the observe nuclear species S (arbitrary quantum number) and the heteronuclear species I (spin-{1}/{2}) can be conveniently obtained from the experimental curve of ΔS/S0 versus dipolar evolution time by limiting the analysis to the initial data range 0 < ΔS/S0 < 0.30. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a three-spin system of type SI2 in order to assess the effect of the I-I homonuclear dipole-dipole coupling and the influence of experimental imperfections such as finite pulse length and misadjustments of the 180° pulses applied to the I-spin species. The simulations show further that within the initial data range the effects of such misadjustments can be internally compensated by a modified sequence having an additional 180° pulse on the I channel in the middle of the dipolar evolution periods. Experimental 27Al{31P} REDOR results on the multispin systems Al(PO3)3, AlPO4, [AlPO4]12(C3H7)4NF, and Na3PO4 confirm the general utility of this approach. Thus, for applications to unknown systems the compensation strategy obviates calibration procedures with model compounds.
Thermodynamic study of a lattice of compass needles in dipolar interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olive, Enrick; Molho, Pierre
1998-10-01
We present the study of an original system, which is an experimental dipolar model allowing a precise understanding of dipolar effects. This system is a square lattice of 22×22 magnetized needles (compass needles). Its thermodynamic properties are studied by considering the action of a random external field supposed to mimic the thermal fluctuations. In parallel, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation of the experimental system is performed. Both studies show the existence of a phase transition between an ordered phase and a disordered one. We introduce the notion of ``line length'' which is the relevant quantity to describe the obtained configurations and to give a precise description of the observed transition. This phase transition is characterized by the emergence of a preferential direction, called the ``director,'' and by an increase of the average line length. The order parameter expressing the symmetry breaking is defined. Our results show an example of a successful mapping of a dynamic dissipative system excited by a random field onto equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Supra Arcade Downflows with XRT Informed by Dipolarization Fronts with THEMIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kobelski, Adam; Savage, Sabrina L.; Malaspina, David M.
2016-01-01
Magnetic reconnection can rapidly reconfigure the magnetic field of the corona, accelerating plasma through the site of reconnection. Ambiguities due to the nature of remote sensing have complicated the interpretation of observations of the inflowing and outflowing plasma in reconnecting regions. In particular, the interpretation of sunward moving density depletions above flare arcades (known as Supra Arcade Downflows - SADs) is still debated. Hinode/XRT has provided a wealth of observations for SADs and helped inform our current understanding of these structures. SADs have been interpreted as wakes behind newly reconnected and outflowing loops (Supra Arcade Downflowing Loops - SADLs). Models have shown the plausibility of this interpretation, though this interpretation has not yet been fully accepted. We present here observations of newly reconnected outflowing loops observed via in situ instruments in the magnetosphere. These observations, provided by five THEMIS spacecraft, show that around retracting loops (dipolarization fronts in this context) similar dynamic temperature and density structures are found as seen in SADs. We compare data from multiple SADs and dipolarization fronts to show that the observational signatures implied in the corona can be directly observed in similar plasma regimes in the magnetosphere, strongly favoring the interpretation of SADs as wakes behind retracting loops.
SOLAR MICRO-TYPE III BURST STORMS AND LONG DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE OUTER CORONA
Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.
2015-08-01
Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 R{sub S}. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 R{sub S} suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.
Wang, Xiaoguang; Miller, Daniel S.; de Pablo, Juan J.; ...
2014-08-15
The spontaneous positioning of colloids on the surfaces of micrometer-sized liquid crystal (LC) droplets and their subsequent polymerization offers the basis of a general and facile method for the synthesis of patchy microparticles. The existence of multiple local energetic minima, however, can generate kinetic traps for colloids on the surfaces of the LC droplets and result in heterogeneous populations of patchy microparticles. To address this issue, in this paper it is demonstrated that adsorbate-driven switching of the internal configurations of LC droplets can be used to sweep colloids to a single location on the LC droplet surfaces, thus resulting inmore » the synthesis of homogeneous populations of patchy microparticles. The surface-driven switching of the LC can be triggered by addition of surfactant or salts, and permits the synthesis of dipolar microparticles as well as “Janus-like” microparticles. Finally, by using magnetic colloids, the utility of the approach is illustrated by synthesizing magnetically responsive patchy microdroplets of LC with either dipolar or quadrupolar symmetry that exhibit distinct optical responses upon application of an external magnetic field.« less
Wang, Xiaoguang; Miller, Daniel S.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.
2014-08-15
The spontaneous positioning of colloids on the surfaces of micrometer-sized liquid crystal (LC) droplets and their subsequent polymerization offers the basis of a general and facile method for the synthesis of patchy microparticles. The existence of multiple local energetic minima, however, can generate kinetic traps for colloids on the surfaces of the LC droplets and result in heterogeneous populations of patchy microparticles. To address this issue, in this paper it is demonstrated that adsorbate-driven switching of the internal configurations of LC droplets can be used to sweep colloids to a single location on the LC droplet surfaces, thus resulting in the synthesis of homogeneous populations of patchy microparticles. The surface-driven switching of the LC can be triggered by addition of surfactant or salts, and permits the synthesis of dipolar microparticles as well as “Janus-like” microparticles. Finally, by using magnetic colloids, the utility of the approach is illustrated by synthesizing magnetically responsive patchy microdroplets of LC with either dipolar or quadrupolar symmetry that exhibit distinct optical responses upon application of an external magnetic field.
Supra Arcade Downflows in the Corona Informed by Magnetospheric Dipolarization Fronts with THEMIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobelski, A.; Savage, S. L.; Malaspina, D.
2016-12-01
Magnetic reconnection rapidly reconfigures the magnetic field of the corona, accelerating plasma through the site of reconnection. Ambiguities (such as line-of-sight effects) due to the nature of the remote sensing instruments available to study the corona complicate the interpretation of observations of the inflowing and outflowing plasma in reconnecting regions. In particular, the interpretation of sunward moving density depletions above flare arcades (known as Supra Arcade Downflows — SADs) is still debated. SADs have been interpreted as wakes behind newly reconnected and outflowing loops (Supra Arcade Downflowing Loops — SADLs). Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA have provided a wealth of observations for SADs and helped inform our current understanding of these structures. Models have shown the plausibility of the interpretation of SADs as wakes behind loops, though this interpretation has not yet been fully accepted. We present here observations of newly reconnected outflowing loops observed via in situ instruments in the magnetosphere. These observations, provided by up to five THEMIS spacecraft, show that around retracting loops (dipolarization fronts in this context), similar temperature and density structures as seen in SADs. We compare data from multiple SADs and dipolarization fronts to show that the observational signatures implied in the corona can be directly observed in similar plasma regimes in the magnetosphere, strongly favoring the interpretation of SADs as wakes behind retracting loops.
Towards Chemically Stable Fermionic Ground State Molecules with Strong Dipolar Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Sebastian; Park, Jee; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Schloss, Jennifer; Zwierlein, Martin
2013-05-01
Quantum gases with dipolar interactions will open new avenues for the creation of novel quantum many-body systems with intriguing properties, ranging from crystalline over magnetic to topological phases. A promising route for the experimental realization of dipolar quantum gases is the formation of fermionic ground-state molecules with a large electric dipole moment, giving rise to long-range anisotropic interactions. With our experiment we work towards the realization of fermionic ground state molecules of 23Na40K. The NaK ground state molecule is chemically stable and possesses a large induced electric dipole moment of 2.72 Debye. In pioneering studies, we have created nearly degenerate samples of weakly bound 23Na40K Feshbach molecules. With a long lifetime and a significant admixture of the electronic spin singlet state, the Feshbach molecules are an ideal starting point to reach the singlet rovibrational ground state with a two-photon STIRAP transfer. Aiming for an efficient transfer path, we have performed spectroscopic studies on excited and ground state molecular potentials of 23Na40K and will report on our current progress. This work was supported by the NSF, AFOSR-MURI and -PECASE, ARO-MURI, ONR YIP, DARPA YFA, a grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation.
Low density mesostructures of confined dipolar particles in an external field.
Richardi, J; Weis, J-J
2011-09-28
Mesostructures formed by dipolar particles confined between two parallel walls and subjected to an external field are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The main focus of the work is the structural behavior of the Stockmayer fluid in the low density regime. The dependence of cluster thickness and ordering is estimated as a function of density and wall separation, the two most influential parameters, for large dipole moments and high field strengths. The great sensitivity of the structure to details of the short-range part of the interactions is pointed out. In particular, the attractive part of the Lennard-Jones potential is shown to play a major role in driving chain aggregation. The effect of confinement, evaluated by comparison with results for a bulk system, is most pronounced for a short range hard sphere potential. No evidence is found for a novel "gel-like" phase recently uncovered in low density dipolar colloidal suspensions [A. K. Agarwal and A. Yethiraj, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 198301 (2009)].
Supra Arcade Downflows with XRT Informed by Dipolarization Fronts with THEMIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kobelski, Adam; Savage, Sabrina Leah; Malaspina, David
2016-01-01
Magnetic reconnection can rapidly reconfigure the magnetic field of the corona, accelerating plasma through the site of reconnection. Ambiguities due to the nature of remote sensing have complicated the interpretation of observations of the inflowing and outflowing plasma in reconnecting regions. In particular, the interpretation of sunward moving density depletions above flare arcades (known as Supra Arcade Downflows - SADs) is still debated. Hinode/XRT has provided a wealth of observations for SADs and helped inform our current understanding of these structures. SADs have been interpreted as wakes behind newly reconnected and outflowing loops (Supra Arcade Downflowing Loops - SADLs). Models have shown the plausibility of this interpretation, though this interpretation has not yet been fully accepted. We present here observations of newly reconnected outflowing loops observed via in situ instruments in the magnetosphere. These observations, provided by five THEMIS spacecraft, show that around retracting loops (dipolarization fronts in this context) similar dynamic temperature and density structures are found as seen in SADs. We compare data from multiple SADs and dipolarization fronts to show that the observational signatures implied in the corona can be directly observed in similar plasma regimes in the magnetosphere, strongly favoring the interpretation of SADs as wakes behind retracting loops.
Transport of dipolar excitons in (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedichkin, F.; Andreakou, P.; Jouault, B.; Vladimirova, M.; Guillet, T.; Brimont, C.; Valvin, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Dussaigne, A.; Grandjean, N.; Lefebvre, P.
2015-05-01
We investigate the transport of dipolar indirect excitons along the growth plane of polar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum well structures by means of spatially and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The transport in these strongly disordered quantum wells is activated by dipole-dipole repulsion. The latter induces an emission blue shift that increases linearly with exciton density, whereas the radiative recombination rate increases exponentially. Under continuous, localized excitation, we observe continuously decreasing emission energy, as excitons propagate away from the excitation spot. This corresponds to a steady-state gradient of exciton density, measured over several tens of micrometers. Time-resolved microphotoluminescence experiments provide information on the dynamics of recombination and transport of dipolar excitons. We account for the ensemble of experimental results by solving the nonlinear drift-diffusion equation. Quantitative analysis suggests that in such structures, exciton propagation on the scale of 10 to 20 μ m is mainly driven by diffusion, rather than by drift, due to the strong disorder and the presence of nonradiative defects. Secondary exciton creation, most probably by the intense higher-energy luminescence, guided along the sample plane, is shown to contribute to the exciton emission pattern on the scale up to 100 μ m . The exciton propagation length is strongly temperature dependent, the emission being quenched beyond a critical distance governed by nonradiative recombination.
Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.
2015-08-01
Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Washburn, Kathryn E.; Cheng, Yuesheng
2017-05-01
The mechanism behind surface relaxivity within organic porosity in shales has been an unanswered question. Here, we present results that confirm the existence of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling between solid and liquid phases in sedimentary organic matter. Transverse magnetization exchange measurements were performed on an organic-rich shale saturated with liquid hydrocarbon. Liquid and solid constituents were identified through both sample resaturation and through their T1/T2 ratios. Extensive cross peaks are observed in the T2-T2 exchange spectra between the solid and liquid constituents, indicating an exchange of magnetization between the two phases. This result cannot arise from physical molecular diffusion, and the dissolution energies are too high for chemical exchange, such that the magnetization exchange must arise from intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling. These results both confirm a possible source of surface relaxivity in organic matter and emphasize caution in the use of standard porous media interpretations of relaxation results in shales because of coupling between different magnetization environments.
Characteristics of high-latitude precursor flows ahead of dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jia-Zheng; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, Andrei; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Dong-Xiao; Zong, Qiu-Gang
2017-05-01
Dipolarization fronts (DFs), earthward propagating structures in the magnetotail current sheet characterized by sharp enhancements of northward magnetic field, are capable of converting electromagnetic energy into particle kinetic energy. The ions previously accelerated and reflected at the DFs can contribute to plasma flows ahead of the fronts, which have been identified as DF precursor flows in both the near-equatorial plasma sheet and far from it, near the plasma sheet boundary. Using observations from the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft, we show that the earthward particle and energy flux enhancements ahead of DFs are statistically larger farther away from the neutral sheet (at high latitudes) than in the near-equatorial region. High-latitude particle and energy fluxes on the DF dawnside are found to be significantly greater than those on the duskside, which is opposite to the dawn-dusk asymmetries previously found near the equatorial region. Using forward and backward tracing test-particle simulations, we then explain and reproduce the observed latitude-dependent characteristics of DF precursor flows, providing a better understanding of ion dynamics associated with dipolarization fronts.
Khaneja, Navin; Kehlet, Cindie; Glaser, Steffen J; Nielsen, Niels Chr
2006-03-21
The efficiency of dipole-dipole coupling driven coherence transfer experiments in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of powder samples is limited by dispersion of the orientation of the internuclear vectors relative to the external magnetic field. Here we introduce general design principles and resulting pulse sequences that approach full polarization transfer efficiency for all crystallite orientations in a powder in magic-angle-spinning experiments. The methods compensate for the defocusing of coherence due to orientation dependent dipolar coupling interactions and inhomogeneous radio-frequency fields. The compensation scheme is very simple to implement as a scaffold (comb) of compensating pulses in which the pulse sequence to be improved may be inserted. The degree of compensation can be adjusted and should be balanced as a compromise between efficiency and length of the overall pulse sequence. We show by numerical and experimental data that the presented compensation protocol significantly improves the efficiency of known dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR experiments.
Ground-state properties of few dipolar bosons in a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic trap
Deuretzbacher, F.; Cremon, J. C.; Reimann, S. M.
2010-06-15
We study the ground state of few bosons with repulsive dipole-dipole interaction in a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic trap by means of the exact diagonalization method. Up to three interaction regimes are found, depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the ratio of transverse to axial oscillator lengths: a regime where the dipolar Bose gas resembles a system of weakly {delta}-interacting bosons, a second regime where the bosons are fermionized, and a third regime where the bosons form a Wigner crystal. In the first two regimes, the dipole-dipole potential can be replaced by a {delta} potential. In the crystalline state, the overlap between the localized wave packets is strongly reduced and all the properties of the boson system equal those of its fermionic counterpart. The transition from the Tonks-Girardeau gas to the solidlike state is accompanied by a rapid increase of the interaction energy and a considerable change of the momentum distribution, which we trace back to the different short-range correlations in the two interaction regimes.
Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidemueller, Matthias
2011-05-01
Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.
Fisher, Charles K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M
2009-05-07
NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for studying the internal dynamics of biomolecules. Current formalisms approximate the dynamics using simple continuous motional models or models involving discrete jumps between a small number of states. However, no approach currently exists for interpreting NMR data in terms of continuous spatially complex motional paths that may feature more than one distinct maneuver. Here, we present an approach for approximately reconstructing spatially complex continuous motions of chiral domains using NMR anisotropic interactions. The key is to express Wigner matrix elements, which can be determined experimentally using residual dipolar couplings, as a line integral over a curve in configuration space containing an ensemble of conformations and to approximate the curve using a series of geodesic segments. Using this approach and five sets of synthetic residual dipolar couplings computed for five linearly independent alignment conditions, we show that it is theoretically possible to reconstruct salient features of a multisegment interhelical motional trajectory obtained from a 65 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a stem-loop RNA. Our study shows that the 3-D atomic reconstruction of complex motions in biomolecules is within experimental reach.
Dipolar NLO Chromophores Bearing Diazine Rings as π-Conjugated Linkers.
Klikar, Milan; le Poul, Pascal; Růžička, Aleš; Pytela, Oldřich; Barsella, Alberto; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Robin-le Guen, Françoise; Bureš, Filip; Achelle, Sylvain
2017-09-15
The synthesis of a series of push-pull derivatives bearing triphenylamine electron-donating group, cyclopenta[c]thiophen-4,6-dione electron acceptor and various π-linkers including (hetero)aromatic fragments is reported. All target chromophores with systematically varied π-linker structure were further investigated by electrochemistry, absorption measurements, and EFISH experiments in conjunction with DFT calculations. Based on electrochemical and photophysical measurements, when a polarizable 2,5-thienylene moiety is embedded into the chromophore π-backbone the highest intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) is observed. Benzene, pyrimidine, and pyridazine derivatives exhibit lower polarizability and extent of the ICT across these π-linkers. The elongation of the π-conjugated system via additional ethenylene linker results in a significant reduction of the HOMO-LUMO gap and an enhancement of the NLO response. Whereas it does not significantly influence electrochemical and linear optical properties, the orientation of the pyrimidine ring seems to be a key parameter on the μβ value due to significant variation of the dipolar moment (μ) value. In 2a and 2c, pyrimidine is oriented to behave as an acceptor and thus generate dipolar molecule with μ above 5 D, whereas in 2b and 2d ground state dipole moment is significantly reduced. This study seems to indicate a high aromaticity of pyrimidine and pyridazine derivatives, close to the benzene analogues and significantly higher than thiophene analogues.
Spectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices
Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2011-09-15
Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional layers or ''pancakes'', spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state is necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep three-dimensional lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including all the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment.
Creation of a strongly dipolar gas of ultracold ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Dajun; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier
2016-05-01
We report on successful creation of an ultracold sample of ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules with a large effective electric dipole moment. Through a carefully designed two-photon Raman process, we have successfully transferred the magneto-associated Feshbach molecules to the singlet ground state with high efficiency, obtaining up to 8000 23 Na87 Rb molecules with peak number density over 1011 cm-3 in their absolute ground-state level. With an external electric field, we have induced an effective dipole moment over 1 Debye, making 23 Na87 Rb the most dipolar ultracold particle ever achieved. Contrary to the expectation, we observed a rather fast population loss even for 23 Na87 Rb in the absolute ground state with the bi-molecular exchange reaction energetically forbidden. The origin for the short lifetime and possible ways of mitigating it are currently under investigation. Our achievements pave the way toward investigation of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.
Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baul, Upayan; Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep; Anishetty, Ramesh; Vemparala, Satyavani
2016-03-01
Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH4) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.
Branching points in the low-temperature dipolar hard sphere fluid.
Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Kantorovich, Sofia; Ivanov, Alexey O; Tavares, José Maria; Sciortino, Francesco
2013-10-07
In this contribution, we investigate the low-temperature, low-density behaviour of dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) particles, i.e., hard spheres with dipoles embedded in their centre. We aim at describing the DHS fluid in terms of a network of chains and rings (the fundamental clusters) held together by branching points (defects) of different nature. We first introduce a systematic way of classifying inter-cluster connections according to their topology, and then employ this classification to analyse the geometric and thermodynamic properties of each class of defects, as extracted from state-of-the-art equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. By computing the average density and energetic cost of each defect class, we find that the relevant contribution to inter-cluster interactions is indeed provided by (rare) three-way junctions and by four-way junctions arising from parallel or anti-parallel locally linear aggregates. All other (numerous) defects are either intra-cluster or associated to low cluster-cluster interaction energies, suggesting that these defects do not play a significant part in the thermodynamic description of the self-assembly processes of dipolar hard spheres.
Washburn, Kathryn E; Cheng, Yuesheng
2017-03-04
The mechanism behind surface relaxivity within organic porosity in shales has been an unanswered question. Here, we present results that confirm the existence of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling between solid and liquid phases in sedimentary organic matter. Transverse magnetization exchange measurements were performed on an organic-rich shale saturated with liquid hydrocarbon. Liquid and solid constituents were identified through both sample resaturation and through their T1/T2 ratios. Extensive cross peaks are observed in the T2-T2 exchange spectra between the solid and liquid constituents, indicating an exchange of magnetization between the two phases. This result cannot arise from physical molecular diffusion, and the dissolution energies are too high for chemical exchange, such that the magnetization exchange must arise from intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling. These results both confirm a possible source of surface relaxivity in organic matter and emphasize caution in the use of standard porous media interpretations of relaxation results in shales because of coupling between different magnetization environments.
Ion trajectory simulations of axial ac dipolar excitation in the Orbitrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guangxiang; Noll, Robert J.; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Hu, Qizhi; Perry, Richard H.; Cooks, R. Graham
2006-07-01
The newly developed version of the multi-particle ion trajectory simulation program, ITSIM 6.0, was applied to simulate ac dipolar excitation of ion axial motion in the Orbitrap. The Orbitrap inner and outer electrodes were generated in AutoCAD, a 3D drawing program. The electrode geometry was imported into the 3D field solver COMSOL; the field array was then imported into ITSIM 6.0. Ion trajectories were calculated by solving Newton's equations using Runge-Kutta integration methods. Compared to the analytical solution, calculated radial components of the field at the device's "equator" (z = 0) were within 0.5% and calculated axial components midway between the inner and outer electrodes were within 0.2%. The experiments simulated here involved the control of axial motion of ions in the Orbitrap by the application of dipolar ac signals to the split outer electrodes, as described in a recently published paper from this laboratory [Hu et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 110 (2006) 2682]. In these experiments, ac signal was applied at the axial resonant frequency of a selected ion. Axial excitation and eventual ion ejection resulted when the ac was in phase with, i.e., had 0° phase relative to ion axial motion. De-excitation of ion axial motion until the ions were at z = 0 and at rest with respect to the z-axis resulted if the applied ac was out of phase with ion motion, with re-excitation of ion axial motion occurring if the dipolar ac was continued beyond this point. Both de-excitation and re-excitation could be achieved mass-selectively and depended on the amplitude and duration (number of cycles) of the applied ac. The effects of ac amplitude, frequency, phase relative to ion motion, and bandwidth of applied waveform were simulated. All simulation results were compared directly with the experimental data and good agreement was observed. Such ion motion control experiments and their simulation provide the possibility to improve Orbitrap performance and to develop tandem mass
Xu, Qin; Wang, De; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min
2014-06-01
A highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of bispirooxindoles by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of in situ generated azomethine ylides from isatin and proline to different electron-deficient alkenes has been developed. The synthesis affords the desired bispiro scaffold compounds in excellent yields with high regioselectivity under mild conditions. The stereochemistry was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baez, M. L.; Borzi, R. A.
2017-02-01
We study the three-dimensional Kasteleyn transition in both nearest neighbours and dipolar spin ice models using an algorithm that conserves the number of excitations. We first limit the interactions range to nearest neighbours to test the method in the presence of a field applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] , and then focus on the dipolar spin ice model. The effect of dipolar interactions, which is known to be greatly self screened at zero field, is particularly strong near full polarization. It shifts the Kasteleyn transition to lower temperatures, which decreases ≈0.4 K for the parameters corresponding to the best known spin ice materials, \\text{D}{{\\text{y}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} and \\text{H}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} . This shift implies effective dipolar fields as big as 0.05 T opposing the applied field, and thus favouring the creation of ‘strings’ of reversed spins. We compare the reduction in the transition temperature with results in previous experiments, and study the phenomenon quantitatively using a simple molecular field approach. Finally, we relate the presence of the effective residual field to the appearance of string-ordered phases at low fields and temperatures, and we check numerically that for fields applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] there are only three different stable phases at zero temperature.
Pietrzik, Nikolas; Schmollinger, Daniel
2008-01-01
Summary Copper-catalyzed, thermal or microwave promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (Click Reaction) of 2-propynyl and 3-butynyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-6-azido-6-deoxy-glycopyranosides in the D-gluco, D-galacto and D-manno series afford the corresponding dimeric cycloaddition products. PMID:18941499
Madden, Michael M.; Vera, Claudia I. Rivera; Song, Wenjiao; Lin, Qing
2009-01-01
We report the first use of a photoinduced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction in “stapling” peptide side chains to reinforce a model peptide helical structure with moderate to excellent yields. The resulting pyrazoline “staplers” exhibit unique fluorescence useful in a cell permeability study. PMID:19753366
Baez, M L; Borzi, R A
2017-02-08
We study the three-dimensional Kasteleyn transition in both nearest neighbours and dipolar spin ice models using an algorithm that conserves the number of excitations. We first limit the interactions range to nearest neighbours to test the method in the presence of a field applied along [Formula: see text], and then focus on the dipolar spin ice model. The effect of dipolar interactions, which is known to be greatly self screened at zero field, is particularly strong near full polarization. It shifts the Kasteleyn transition to lower temperatures, which decreases ≈0.4 K for the parameters corresponding to the best known spin ice materials, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. This shift implies effective dipolar fields as big as 0.05 T opposing the applied field, and thus favouring the creation of 'strings' of reversed spins. We compare the reduction in the transition temperature with results in previous experiments, and study the phenomenon quantitatively using a simple molecular field approach. Finally, we relate the presence of the effective residual field to the appearance of string-ordered phases at low fields and temperatures, and we check numerically that for fields applied along [Formula: see text] there are only three different stable phases at zero temperature.
Carra, Ryan J.; Epperson, Matthew T.; Gin, David Y.
2008-01-01
An intramolecular non-stabilized azomethine ylide dipolar cycloaddition was applied toward the first non-racemic synthesis of the fully-oxygenated bridged pyrrolizidine core (45) of (+)-stemofoline (1) in eleven steps from a commercially available starting material. PMID:18443655
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinther, Joachim M.; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.
2012-12-01
A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors. The method, called refocused continuous-wave (rCW) decoupling, is systematically established by interleaving continuous wave decoupling with appropriately inserted rotor-synchronized high-power π refocusing pulses of alternating phases. The effect of the refocusing pulses in eliminating residual effects from dipolar coupling in heteronuclear spin systems is rationalized by effective Hamiltonian calculations to third order. In some variants the π pulse refocusing is supplemented by insertion of rotor-synchronized π/2 purging pulses to further reduce the residual dipolar coupling effects. Five different rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths. In numerical simulations, the rCW schemes clearly reveal superior characteristics relative to the best decoupling schemes presented so far, which we to some extent also are capable of demonstrating experimentally. A major advantage of the rCW decoupling methods is that they are easy to set up and optimize experimentally.
Brioche, Julien; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine
2015-06-05
Electron-deficient ynamides, possessing an ynoate or an ynone moiety, have been successfully involved for the first time in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with stabilized pyridinium ylides. These reactions afford an efficient and general access toward a variety of substituted 2-aminoindolizines which can serve as useful precursors for the synthesis of other more complex nitrogen heterocycles.
Tosner, Zdenek; Glaser, Steffen J; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr
2006-11-14
We report the use of optimal control algorithms for tailoring the effective Hamiltonians in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy through sophisticated radio-frequency (rf) pulse irradiation. Specifically, we address dipolar recoupling in solid-state NMR of powder samples for which case pulse sequences offering evolution under planar double-quantum and isotropic mixing dipolar coupling Hamiltonians are designed. The pulse sequences are constructed numerically to cope with a range of experimental conditions such as inhomogeneous rf fields, spread of chemical shifts, the intrinsic orientation dependencies of powder samples, and sample spinning. While the vast majority of previous dipolar recoupling sequences are operating through planar double-or zero-quantum effective Hamiltonians, we present here not only improved variants of such experiments but also for the first time homonuclear isotropic mixing sequences which transfers all I(x), I(y), and I(z) polarizations from one spin to the same operators on another spin simultaneously and with equal efficiency. This property may be exploited to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of two-dimensional experiments by a factor of square root 2 compared to conventional solid-state methods otherwise showing the same efficiency. The sequences are tested numerically and experimentally for a powder of (13)C(alpha),(13)C(beta)-L-alanine and demonstrate substantial sensitivity gains over previous dipolar recoupling experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spöler, C.; Klapp, S. H. L.
2004-11-01
Using replica integral equations in the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) approximation we calculate vapor-liquid spinodals, chemical potentials, and compressibilities of fluids with angle-averaged dipolar interactions adsorbed to various disordered porous media. Comparison with previous RHNC results for systems with true angle-dependent Stockmayer (dipolar plus Lennard-Jones) interactions [C. Spöler and S. H. L. Klapp, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3628 (2003); ibid.120, 6734 (2004)] indicate that, for a dilute hard sphere matrix, the angle-averaged fluid-fluid (ff) potential is a reasonable alternative for reduced fluid dipole moments m*2=μ2/(ɛ0σ3)⩽2.0. This range is comparable to that estimated in bulk fluids, for which RHNC results are presented as well. Finally, results for weakly polar matrices suggest that angle-averaged fluid-matrix (fm) interactions can reproduce main features observed for true dipolar (fm) interactions such as the shift of the vapor-liquid spinodals towards lower temperatures and higher densities. However, the effective attraction induced by dipolar (fm) interaction is underestimated rather than overestimated as in the case of angle-averaged ff interactions.
P-wave superfluid in a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Fermi quantum gas mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong
2013-03-01
The p-wave (px + ipy) superfluid has attracted significant attention in recent years mainly because its vortex core supports a Majorana fermion which, due to its non-Abelian statistics, can be explored for implementing topological quantum computation (TQC). Mixing in bosons may lead to p-wave pairing in a Fermi gas. In a dipolar condensate, the dipole-dipole interaction represents a control knob inaccessible to nondipolar Bosons. Thus, mixing dipolar bosons with fermions opens up new possibilities. We consider a mixture of a spin-polarized Fermi gas and a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a quasi-two-dimensional trap setting. We take the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field approach and develop a theory for studying the stability of the mixture and estimating the critical temperature of the p-wave superfluid. We use this theory to identify the experimentally accessible parameter space in which the mixture is stable against phase separation and the p-wave superfluid pairing can be resonantly enhanced. An enhanced p-wave superfluid order parameter can make the fault tolerant TQC less susceptible to thermal fluctuations. This work aims to stimulate experimental activity in creating dipolar Bose-Fermi mixtures. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation and the US Army Research Office
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andresen, Juan Carlos; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Oganesyan, Vadim; Schechter, Moshe
2014-10-01
The nature of ordering in dilute dipolar interacting systems dates back to the work of Debye and is one of the most basic, oldest and as-of-yet unsettled problems in magnetism. While spin-glass order is readily observed in several RKKY-interacting systems, dipolar spin glasses are the subject of controversy and ongoing scrutiny, e.g., in LiHoxY1 -xF4, a rare-earth randomly diluted uniaxial (Ising) dipolar system. In particular, it is unclear if the spin-glass phase in these paradigmatic materials persists in the limit of zero concentration or not. We study an effective model of LiHoxY1 -xF4 using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that combine parallel tempering with a special cluster algorithm tailored to overcome the numerical difficulties that occur at extreme dilutions. We find a paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition for all Ho+ ion concentrations down to the smallest concentration numerically accessible, 0.1%, and including Ho+ ion concentrations that coincide with those studied experimentally up to 16.7%. Our results suggest that randomly diluted dipolar Ising systems have a spin-glass phase in the limit of vanishing dipole concentration, with a critical temperature vanishing linearly with concentration. The agreement of our results with mean-field theory testifies to the irrelevance of fluctuations in interactions strengths, albeit being strong at small concentrations, to the nature of the low-temperature phase and the functional form of the critical temperature of dilute anisotropic dipolar systems. Deviations from linearity in experimental results at the lowest concentrations are discussed.
Efficient Synchronization of Dipolarly Coupled Vortex-Based Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Locatelli, Nicolas; Hamadeh, Abbass; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Belanovsky, Anatoly D.; Skirdkov, Petr N.; Lebrun, Romain; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Muñoz, Manuel; Grollier, Julie; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; de Loubens, Grégoire
2015-11-01
Due to their nonlinear properties, spin transfer nano-oscillators can easily adapt their frequency to external stimuli. This makes them interesting model systems to study the effects of synchronization and brings some opportunities to improve their microwave characteristics in view of their applications in information and communication technologies and/or to design innovative computing architectures. So far, mutual synchronization of spin transfer nano-oscillators through propagating spinwaves and exchange coupling in a common magnetic layer has been demonstrated. Here we show that the dipolar interaction is also an efficient mechanism to synchronize neighbouring oscillators. We experimentally study a pair of vortex-based spin transfer nano-oscillators, in which mutual synchronization can be achieved despite a significant frequency mismatch between oscillators. Importantly, the coupling efficiency is controlled by the magnetic configuration of the vortices, as confirmed by an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations highlighting the physics at play in the synchronization process.
Efficient Synchronization of Dipolarly Coupled Vortex-Based Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators
Locatelli, Nicolas; Hamadeh, Abbass; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Belanovsky, Anatoly D.; Skirdkov, Petr N.; Lebrun, Romain; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Muñoz, Manuel; Grollier, Julie; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; de Loubens, Grégoire
2015-01-01
Due to their nonlinear properties, spin transfer nano-oscillators can easily adapt their frequency to external stimuli. This makes them interesting model systems to study the effects of synchronization and brings some opportunities to improve their microwave characteristics in view of their applications in information and communication technologies and/or to design innovative computing architectures. So far, mutual synchronization of spin transfer nano-oscillators through propagating spinwaves and exchange coupling in a common magnetic layer has been demonstrated. Here we show that the dipolar interaction is also an efficient mechanism to synchronize neighbouring oscillators. We experimentally study a pair of vortex-based spin transfer nano-oscillators, in which mutual synchronization can be achieved despite a significant frequency mismatch between oscillators. Importantly, the coupling efficiency is controlled by the magnetic configuration of the vortices, as confirmed by an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations highlighting the physics at play in the synchronization process. PMID:26608230
Calculation of residual dipolar couplings from disordered state ensembles using local alignment.
Marsh, Joseph A; Baker, Jennifer M R; Tollinger, Martin; Forman-Kay, Julie D
2008-06-25
Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) have been observed in disordered states of several proteins. While their nonuniform values were initially surprising, it has been shown that reasonable approximation of experimental RDCs can be obtained using simple statistical coil models and assuming global alignment of each structure, provided that many thousands of conformers are averaged. Here we show that, by using short local alignment tensors, we can achieve good agreement between experimental and simulated RDCs with far fewer structures than required when using global alignment. This makes the possibility of using RDCs as direct restraints in structural calculations of disordered proteins much more feasible. In addition, it provides insight into the nature of RDCs in disordered states, suggesting that they are primarily reporting on local structure.
Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, David A. D.
2006-11-01
Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by `snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar geomagnetic reference frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.
Evans, David A D
2006-11-02
Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by 'snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar geomagnetic reference frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.
Coexistence, Interfacial Energy and the Fate of Microemulsions of 2D Dipolar Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boninsegni, Massimo
The superfluid-crystal quantum phase transition of a system of purely repulsive dipolar bosons in two dimensions has been the subject of a lot of theoretical study, mainly because of some intriguing predictions by Spivak and Kivelson (2004) regarding an exotic, intermediate ''microemulsion'' that should appear at low temperature between the crystal and the superfluid. We investigated this scenario by means of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature, determined freezing and melting densities, and estimated the energy per unit length of a macroscopic interface separating the coexisting crystal and superfluid phases. The results rule out quantitatively the microemulsion scenario for any physical realization of this system, given the exceedingly large predicted size of the bubbles. Reference: S. Moroni and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 240407 (2014)
beta Sheet structure in amyloid beta fibrils and vibrational dipolar coupling.
Paul, Cynthia; Axelsen, Paul H
2005-04-27
Fibrils formed by amyloid beta proteins were labeled with 13C at various positions and examined by infrared spectroscopy to detect vibrational dipolar coupling, implying close physical proximity. The results support key features of several recently proposed models for amyloid fibril structure, but they also add some important caveats. For instance, they support the conclusion that the beta structure is parallel; however, the coupling is not as strong as expected when residues are in register. This may be explained by out-of-register alignment of adjacent strands, or nonstandard parallel sheet structure that yields suboptimal alignment of labeled dipole moments. The data also point to a significant structural difference between fibrils formed by the 40-residue amyloid beta protein and fibrils formed by residues 10-35.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Rui; Thakur, Yash; Ranjan, Vivek; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Zhang, Qiming; Bernholc, Jerry
Materials for capacitive energy storage with high energy density and low loss are desired in many fields. We perform multiscale simulations to investigate several members of the aromatic polyurea family. We find that the disordered structures with misaligned chains have considerably larger dielectric constants, due to significant increase in the free volume, which leads to easier reorientation of dipolar groups in the presence of an electric field. Large segment motion is still not allowed below the glass transition temperature, upholding the very low loss at high field and elevated temperature that we observe experimentally. Optimization of the nanostructure and free volume effects thus provides a new, very promising pathway for the design of high-performance dielectrics for capacitive energy storage.
Efficient dipolar double quantum filtering under magic angle spinning without a 1H decoupling field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Joseph M.; Rienstra, Chad M.
2016-08-01
We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in 13C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n ⩾ 7, provided that the 13C nutation frequency is on the order of 100 kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between 13C and 1H fields. For 13C nutation frequencies greater than 75 kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied 1H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20 kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n = 3 were found to perform adequately.
Protein dynamics from chemical shift and dipolar rotational spin-echo sup 15 N NMR
Garbow, J.R.; Jacob, G.S.; Stejskal, E.O.; Schaefer, J. )
1989-02-07
The partial collapse of dipolar and chemical shift tensors for peptide NH and for the amide NH at cross-link sites in cell wall peptidoglycan, of intact lyophilized cells of Aerococcus viridans, indicates NH vector root-mean-square fluctuations of 23{degree}. This result is consistent with the local mobility calculated in typical picosecond regime computer simulations of protein dynamics in the solid state. The experimental root-mean-square angular fluctuations for both types of NH vectors increase to 37{degree} for viable wet cells at 10{degree}C. The similarity in mobilities for both general protein and cell wall peptidoglycan suggests that one additional motion in wet cells involves cooperative fluctuations of segments of cell walls, attached proteins, and associated cytoplasmic proteins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rader, Michael; Hebenstreit, Martin; Zillich, Robert E.
2017-03-01
We present a method for calculating the dynamics of a bosonic mixture, the multicomponent correlated-basis-function (CBF) method. For a single component, CBF results for the excitation energies agree quite well with experimental results, even for highly correlated systems like 4He, and recent systematic improvements of CBF achieve perfect agreement. We give a full derivation of multicomponent CBF, and apply the method to a dipolar Bose gas cut into two-dimensional layers by a deep optical lattice, with coupling between layers due to the long-ranged dipole-dipole interaction. We consider the case of strong coupling, leading to large positive interlayer correlations. We calculate the spectrum for a system of eight layers and show that the strong coupling can lead to a simpler spectrum than in the uncoupled case, with a single peak carrying most of the spectral weight.
Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature
Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.
2010-09-15
The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T{sub F}, exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.
Anisotropic and long-range vortex interactions in two-dimensional dipolar Bose gases.
Mulkerin, B C; van Bijnen, R M W; O'Dell, D H J; Martin, A M; Parker, N G
2013-10-25
We perform a theoretical study into how dipole-dipole interactions modify the properties of superfluid vortices within the context of a two-dimensional atomic Bose gas of co-oriented dipoles. The reduced density at a vortex acts like a giant antidipole, changing the density profile and generating an effective dipolar potential centred at the vortex core whose most slowly decaying terms go as 1/ρ(2) and ln(ρ)/ρ(3). These effects modify the vortex-vortex interaction which, in particular, becomes anisotropic for dipoles polarized in the plane. Striking modifications to vortex-vortex dynamics are demonstrated, i.e., anisotropic corotation dynamics and the suppression of vortex annihilation.
Pitchfork bifurcations in blood-cell-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Rau, Stefan; Main, Joerg; Koeberle, Patrick; Wunner, Guenter
2010-03-15
We demonstrate that the method of coupled Gaussian wave packets is a full-fledged alternative to direct numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation of condensates with electromagnetically induced attractive 1/r interaction or with dipole-dipole interaction. Moreover, Gaussian wave packets are superior in that they are capable of producing both stable and unstable stationary solutions and thus of giving access to yet unexplored regions of the space of solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We apply the method to clarify the theoretical nature of the collapse mechanism of blood-cell-shaped dipolar condensates: On the route to collapse the condensate passes through a pitchfork bifurcation, where the ground state itself turns unstable, before it finally vanishes in a tangent bifurcation.
Variational calculations for anisotropic solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Eichler, Ruediger; Main, Joerg; Wunner, Guenter
2011-05-15
We present variational calculations using a Gaussian trial function to calculate the ground state of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and to describe the dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Furthermore, we extend the ansatz to a linear superposition of Gaussians, improving the results for the ground state to exact agreement with numerical grid calculations using imaginary time and the split-operator method. We are able to give boundaries for the scattering length at which stable solitons may be observed in an experiment. By dynamic calculations with coupled Gaussians, we are able to describe the rather complex behavior of the thermally excited solitons. The discovery of dynamically stabilized solitons indicates the existence of such BECs at experimentally accessible temperatures.
Bright solitons in a two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Yongping; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-07-01
We study a two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive contact interactions by both the variational method and the imaginary-time evolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The dipoles are completely polarized along one direction in the two-dimensional plane to provide an effective attractive dipole-dipole interaction. We find two types of solitons as the ground states arising from such attractive dipole-dipole interactions: a plane-wave soliton with a spatially varying phase and a stripe soliton with a spatially oscillating density for each component. Both types of solitons possess smaller size and higher anisotropy than the soliton without spin-orbit coupling. Finally, we discuss the properties of moving solitons, which are nontrivial because of the violation of Galilean invariance.
Dipolar colloids in apolar media: direct microscopy of two-dimensional suspensions
Janai, Erez; Cohen, Avner P.; Butenko, Alexander V.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Schultz, Moty; Sloutskin, Eli
2016-01-01
Spherical colloids, in an absence of external fields, are commonly assumed to interact solely through rotationally-invariant potentials, u(r). While the presence of permanent dipoles in aqueous suspensions has been previously suggested by some experiments, the rotational degrees of freedom of spherical colloids are typically neglected. We prove, by direct experiments, the presence of permanent dipoles in commonly used spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids, suspended in an apolar organic medium. We study, by a combination of direct confocal microscopy, computer simulations, and theory, the structure and other thermodynamical properties of organic suspensions of colloidal spheres, confined to a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer. Our studies reveal the effects of the dipolar interactions on the structure and the osmotic pressure of these fluids. These observations have far-reaching consequences for the fundamental colloidal science, opening new directions in self-assembly of complex colloidal clusters. PMID:27346611
A Dipolar Anthracene Dye: Synthesis, Optical Properties and Two-photon Tissue Imaging.
Moon, Hyunsoo; Jun, Yong Woong; Kim, Dokyoung; Ryu, Hye Gun; Wang, Taejun; Kim, Ki Hean; Huh, Youngbuhm; Jung, Junyang; Ahn, Kyo Han
2016-09-20
Two-photon microscopy is a powerful tool for studying biological systems. In search of novel two-photon absorbing dyes for bioimaging, we synthesized a new anthracene-based dipolar dye (anthradan) and evaluated its two-photon absorbing and imaging properties. The new anthradan, 9,10-bis(o-dimethoxy-phenyl)-anthradan, absorbs and emits at longer wavelengths than acedan, a well-known two-photon absorbing dye. It is also stable under two-photon excitation conditions and biocompatible, and thus used for two-photon imaging of mouse organ tissues to show bright, near-red fluorescence along with negligible autofluorescence. Such an anthradan thus holds promise as a new class of two-photon absorbing dyes for the development of fluorescent probes and tags for biological systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Suprathermal particle energization in dipolarization fronts: Particle-in-cell simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, San; Angelopoulos, V.; Fu, Huishan
2016-10-01
Within dipolarization fronts (DFs) in the Earth's magnetotail, significant magnetic energy is converted to plasma energy, and a significant portion of the electrons and ions therein are accelerated to suprathermal energies. The mechanism that produces these suprathermal particles while simultaneously reducing magnetic field energy is poorly understood, however. We use two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to explore this process in conventional flux bundle-type DFs, which are formed by single X line reconnection and connected to the Earth, and in newly proposed flux rope-type DFs, which are formed and bracketed by two X lines. In flux bundle-type DFs, electrons are betatron accelerated near the Bz peak, and ions are energized through reflection at the front. In flux rope-type DFs, most suprathermal electrons and ions are confined to the flux rope's magnetic structure and are accelerated through repeated reflections at the structure's two ends.
All-dielectric perforated metamaterials with toroidal dipolar response (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenishchev, Ivan; Basharin, Alexey A.
2017-05-01
We present metamaterials based on dielectric slab with perforated identical cylindrical clusters with perforated holes, which allow to support the toroidal dipolar response due to Mie-resonances in each hole. Note that proposed metamaterial is technologically simple for fabrication in optical frequency range. Metamaterial can be fabricated by several methods. For instance, we may apply the molecular beam epitaxy method for deposition of Si or GaAs layers, which have permittivity close to 16. Next step, nanometer/micrometer holes are perforated by focused ion beam method or laser cutting method. Fundamental difference of proposed metamaterial is technological fabrication process. Classically all- dielectric optical metamaterials consist of nano-spheres or nano-discs, which are complicated for fabrication, while our idea and suggested metamaterials are promising prototype of various optical/THz all-dielectic devices as sensor, nano-antennas elements for nanophotonics.
Spin-wave edge modes in finite arrays of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Slavin, Andrei; Bondarenko, Pavel; Ivanov, Boris A.; Bankowski, Elena; Meitzler, Thomas; Nikitov, Sergey
2014-09-01
The frequency spectrum of spin-wave edge modes localized near the boundaries of a finite array of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars is calculated theoretically. Two mechanisms of edge mode formation are revealed: inhomogeneity of the internal static magnetic field existing near the array boundaries and time-reversal symmetry breaking of the dipole-dipole interaction. The latter mechanism is analogous to the formation mechanism of a surface Damon-Eschbach mode in continuous in-plane magnetized magnetic films and is responsible for the nonreciprocity of edge modes in finite-width nanopillar arrays. The number of edge modes in nanopillar arrays depends on the spatial profile of the internal static magnetic field near the array boundaries and several edge modes are formed if a substantial field inhomogeneity extends over several rows of nanopillars.
Uranyl triazolate formation via an in situ Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction
Knope, Karah E.; Cahill, Christopher L.
2010-08-27
A two dimensional UO_{2}^{2+} coordination polymer, (UO_{2})_{3}(C_{10}H_{5}N_{3}O_{4})_{2}(OH)_{2}(H_{2}O)_{2}, has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The triazolate ligand, 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid (CPTAZ) has been generated via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 4-azidobenzoic acid and propiolic acid. Reactions of the UO_{2}^{2+} cation with both the in situ generated triazolate ligand and the presynthesized ligand have been explored. The structure, fluorescent and thermal behaviour of this material are presented, as is a discussion of the utility of in situ ligand formation versus direct assembly.
Dipolar Relaxation Dynamics at the Active Site of an ATPase Regulated by Membrane Lateral Pressure.
Fischermeier, Elisabeth; Pospíšil, Petr; Sayed, Ahmed; Hof, Martin; Solioz, Marc; Fahmy, Karim
2017-01-24
The active transport of ions across biological membranes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P1B -type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nanodiscs. Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dipolar phonons and electronic screening in monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yuanjun; Millis, Andrew J.
2017-08-01
Monolayer films of FeSe grown on SrTiO3 substrates exhibit significantly higher superconducting transition temperatures than those of bulk FeSe. Interaction of electrons in the FeSe layer with dipolar SrTiO3 phonons has been suggested as the cause of the enhanced transition temperature. In this paper we systematically study the coupling of SrTiO3 longitudinal-optical phonons to the FeSe electron, including also electron-electron Coulomb interactions at the random phase approximation level. We find that the electron-phonon interaction between FeSe and SrTiO3 substrate is almost entirely screened by the electronic fluctuations in the FeSe monolayer, so that the net electron-phonon interaction is very weak and unlikely to lead to superconductivity.
Phase diagram of dipolar hard-core bosons on a honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakafuji, Takashi; Ito, Takeshi; Nagamori, Yuya; Ichinose, Ikuo
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study phase diagrams of dipolar hard-core boson gases on a honeycomb lattice. The system is described by the Haldane-Bose-Hubbard model with complex hopping amplitudes and nearest-neighbor repulsion. By using the slave-particle representation of the hard-core bosons and also the path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the system and show that the systems have a rich phase diagram. There are Mott, superfluid, chiral superfluid, and sublattice chiral superfluid phases as well as the density-wave phase. We also found a coexisting phase of superfluid and chiral superfluid. Critical behaviors of the phase transitions are also clarified.
Anisotropic and Long-Range Vortex Interactions in Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulkerin, B. C.; van Bijnen, R. M. W.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Martin, A. M.; Parker, N. G.
2013-10-01
We perform a theoretical study into how dipole-dipole interactions modify the properties of superfluid vortices within the context of a two-dimensional atomic Bose gas of co-oriented dipoles. The reduced density at a vortex acts like a giant antidipole, changing the density profile and generating an effective dipolar potential centred at the vortex core whose most slowly decaying terms go as 1/ρ2 and ln(ρ)/ρ3. These effects modify the vortex-vortex interaction which, in particular, becomes anisotropic for dipoles polarized in the plane. Striking modifications to vortex-vortex dynamics are demonstrated, i.e., anisotropic corotation dynamics and the suppression of vortex annihilation.
Mirror mode structures ahead of dipolarization front near the neutral sheet observed by Cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, G. Q.; Zhang, T. L.; Volwerk, M.; Schmid, D.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Pan, Z. H.
2016-09-01
Magnetic compressional structures ahead of a dipolarization front (DF) on 30 August 2002 are investigated by using Cluster data. Our findings are as follows: (1) the structures, observed near the neutral sheet, are mainly compressional and dominant in BZ; (2) they are almost nonpropagating relative to the local ion bulk flow and their lengths are several local proton gyroradius; (3) the ion density increases when BT decreases; (4) ions are partially trapped by the structures with parallel and perpendicular velocities varying in antiphase; and (5) local conditions are favorable for excitation of the mirror instability, and we suggest that these structures are mirror mode-like. Our findings also suggest that local conditions ahead of the DF are viable for exciting the mirror instability to generate mirror mode waves or structures.
Rolly, Brice; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Abdeddaim, Redha; Stout, Brian; Bonod, Nicolas
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that a local excitation of a single scatterer of relative dielectric permittivity ε = 6 permits to excite broad dipolar and quadrupolar electric and magnetic resonances that shape the emission pattern in an unprecedented way. By suitably positioning the feed with respect to the sphere at a λ/3 distance, this compact antenna is able to spectrally sort the electromagnetic emission either in the forward or in the backward direction, together with a high gain in directivity. Materials with ε = 6 can be found in the whole spectrum of frequencies promising Mie antennas to become an enabling technology in numbers of applications, ranging from quantum single photon sources to telecommunications. PMID:24165924
Reentrant superfluidity and pair density wave in single-component dipolar Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Yanming; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin
2016-06-01
We study the superfluidity of single-component dipolar Fermi gases in three dimensions using a pairing fluctuation theory, within the context of BCS-BEC crossover. The transition temperature Tc for the dominant pz wave superfluidity exhibits a remarkable reentrant behavior as a function of the pairing strength induced by the dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), which leads to an anisotropic pair dispersion. The anisotropy and the long-range nature of the DDI cause Tc to vanish for a narrow range of intermediate interaction strengths, where a pair density wave emerges as the ground state. The superfluid density and thermodynamics below Tc, along with the density profiles in a harmonic trap, are investigated as well. Implications for experiments are discussed.
Dipolar colloids in apolar media: direct microscopy of two-dimensional suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janai, Erez; Cohen, Avner P.; Butenko, Alexander V.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Schultz, Moty; Sloutskin, Eli
2016-06-01
Spherical colloids, in an absence of external fields, are commonly assumed to interact solely through rotationally-invariant potentials, u(r). While the presence of permanent dipoles in aqueous suspensions has been previously suggested by some experiments, the rotational degrees of freedom of spherical colloids are typically neglected. We prove, by direct experiments, the presence of permanent dipoles in commonly used spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids, suspended in an apolar organic medium. We study, by a combination of direct confocal microscopy, computer simulations, and theory, the structure and other thermodynamical properties of organic suspensions of colloidal spheres, confined to a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer. Our studies reveal the effects of the dipolar interactions on the structure and the osmotic pressure of these fluids. These observations have far-reaching consequences for the fundamental colloidal science, opening new directions in self-assembly of complex colloidal clusters.
Beyond mean-field properties of binary dipolar Bose mixtures at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastukhov, Volodymyr
2017-02-01
We rigorously analyze the low-temperature properties of homogeneous three-dimensional two-component Bose mixture with dipole-dipole interaction. For such a system the effective hydrodynamic action that governs the behavior of low-energy excitations is derived. The infrared structure of the exact single-particle Green's functions is obtained in terms of macroscopic parameters, namely the inverse compressibility and the superfluid density matrices. Within the one-loop approximation we calculate some of the most relevant observable quantities and give the beyond mean-field stability condition for the binary dipolar Bose gas in the dilute limit. A brief variational derivation of the coupled equations that describe macroscopic hydrodynamics of the system in the external nonuniform potential at zero temperature is presented.
Dipolar colloids in apolar media: direct microscopy of two-dimensional suspensions.
Janai, Erez; Cohen, Avner P; Butenko, Alexander V; Schofield, Andrew B; Schultz, Moty; Sloutskin, Eli
2016-06-27
Spherical colloids, in an absence of external fields, are commonly assumed to interact solely through rotationally-invariant potentials, u(r). While the presence of permanent dipoles in aqueous suspensions has been previously suggested by some experiments, the rotational degrees of freedom of spherical colloids are typically neglected. We prove, by direct experiments, the presence of permanent dipoles in commonly used spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids, suspended in an apolar organic medium. We study, by a combination of direct confocal microscopy, computer simulations, and theory, the structure and other thermodynamical properties of organic suspensions of colloidal spheres, confined to a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer. Our studies reveal the effects of the dipolar interactions on the structure and the osmotic pressure of these fluids. These observations have far-reaching consequences for the fundamental colloidal science, opening new directions in self-assembly of complex colloidal clusters.
Carr, Sam T.; Quintanilla, Jorge; Betouras, Joseph J.
2010-07-15
We consider a two-dimensional model of noninteracting chains of spinless fermions weakly coupled via a small interchain hopping and a repulsive interchain interaction. The phase diagram of this model has a surprising feature: an abrupt change in the Fermi surface as the interaction is increased. We study in detail this metanematic transition and show that the well-known 2(1/2)-order Lifshitz transition is the critical end point of this first-order quantum phase transition. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the end point, the order parameter has a nonperturbative BCS-type form. We also study a competing crystallization transition in this model and derive the full phase diagram. This physics can be demonstrated experimentally in dipolar ultracold atomic or molecular gases. In the presence of a harmonic trap, it manifests itself as a sharp jump in the density profile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Kong Ooi; Rajeswari, M.; Madhu, P. K.; Ernst, Matthias
2015-02-01
We show a theoretical framework, based on triple-mode Floquet theory, to analyze recoupling sequences derived from symmetry-based pulse sequences, which have a non-vanishing effective field and are not rotor synchronized. We analyze the properties of one such sequence, a homonuclear double-quantum recoupling sequence derived from the C72 1 sequence. The new asynchronous sequence outperforms the rotor-synchronized version for spin pairs with small dipolar couplings in the presence of large chemical-shift anisotropy. The resonance condition of the new sequence is analyzed using triple-mode Floquet theory. Analytical calculations of second-order effective Hamiltonian are performed to compare the efficiency in suppressing second-order cross terms. Experiments and numerical simulations are shown to corroborate the results of the theoretical analysis.
Testing physical models for dipolar asymmetry: From temperature to k space to lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zibin, J. P.; Contreras, D.
2017-03-01
One of the most intriguing hints of a departure from the standard cosmological model is a large-scale dipolar power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If not a statistical fluke, its origins must lie in the modulation of the position-space fluctuations via a physical mechanism, which requires the observation of new modes to confirm or refute. We introduce an approach to describe such a modulation in k space and calculate its effects on the CMB temperature and lensing. We fit the k -space modulation parameters to Planck 2015 temperature data and show that CMB lensing will not provide us with enough independent information to confirm or refute such a mechanism. However, our approach elucidates some poorly understood aspects of the asymmetry, in particular that it is weakly constrained. Also, it will be particularly useful in predicting the effectiveness of polarization in testing a physical modulation.
Karakatsani, Eirini K; Economou, Ioannis G
2006-05-11
The perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) is extended to polar molecular fluids, namely dipolar and quadrupolar fluids. The extension is based on the perturbation theory for polar fluids by Stell and co-workers. Appropriate expressions are proposed for dipole-dipole, quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-quadrupole interactions. Furthermore, induced dipole interactions are calculated explicitly in the model. The new polar PC-SAFT model is relatively complex; for this purpose, a truncated polar PC-SAFT model is proposed using only the leading term in the polynomial expansion for polar interactions. The new model is used for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of various quadrupolar pure fluids. In all cases, the agreement between experimental data and model predictions is very good.
Preparation of chromophoric dipolar dendrons as second-order nonlinear optical material
Yokoyama, S.; Mashiko, S.
1998-07-01
Dendritic macromolecules, called dendrons, having a branching structure modified with an electron donor/acceptor functionalized azobenzene chromophore have been synthesized. The structurally different dendrons possess different numbers, 1, 3, 7, and 15, of chromophore units. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of dendrons was measured in the molecular oriented thin films prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett film transfer technique. In such structurally organized thin films, individual chromophores coherently contribute to the increase in the molecular hyperpolarizability of dendrons. The SHG activity became large as the numbers of branching units of dendrons increased. The highest molecular hyperpolarizability was found to be >8,000 x 10{sup {minus}}30 esu for dendron containing 15 chromophoric units. The SHG results suggest that the structure of dendrons synthesized is uniaxially dipolar, and that there is a particular merit in this structure for the generation of SHG.
Awan, Z A
2015-04-10
An analytical theory for the dipolar scattering characteristics of uncoated or coated sphere with different materials is presented. These materials are magnetodielectric, single negative, single near zero, and double near zero (DNZ) materials. It is shown that an uncoated magnetodielectric sphere has nearly identical E- and H-plane scattered intensities. It is further observed that for an epsilon near zero (ENZ) sphere, the intensity of scattered field in the E plane is nearly isotropic. For a coated sphere, it is shown that a magnetodielectric sphere coated with ENZ and mu near zero materials have nearly identical E-plane scattered intensities in the forward and backward scattering (BS) directions. Likewise, it is also shown that a finite sized magnetodielectric sphere coated with a DNZ layer can be made hidden to the incoming wave in the BS direction.
Controlling electric, magnetic, and chiral dipolar emission with PT-symmetric potentials
Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A.
2015-06-01
We investigate the effect of parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials on the radiation of achiral and chiral dipole sources. Two properties unique to PT-symmetric potentials are observed. First, the dipole can be tuned to behave as a strong optical emitter or absorber based on the non-Hermiticity parameter and the dipole location. Second, exceptional points give rise to new system resonances that lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancements in the dipolar emitted or absorbed power. Utilizing these properties, we show that enantiomers of chiral molecules near PT-symmetric metamaterials exhibit a 4.5-fold difference in their emitted power and decay rate. The results of this work could enable new atom-cavity interactions for quantum optics, as well as all-optical enantioselective separation.
Half-quantum vortex molecules in a binary dipolar Bose gas.
Shirley, Wilbur E; Anderson, Brandon M; Clark, Charles W; Wilson, Ryan M
2014-10-17
We study the ground state phases of a rotating two-component, or binary, Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein one component possesses a large permanent magnetic dipole moment. A variety of nontrivial phases emerge in this system, including a half-quantum vortex (HQV) chain phase and a HQV molecule phase, where HQVs bind at short distances. We attribute these phases to the development of a minimum in the HQV interaction potential, which emerges without coherent coupling or attractive interactions between the components. Thus, we show that the presence of dipolar interactions in this system provides a unique mechanism for the formation of HQV molecules and results in a rich ground state phase diagram.
Dipolar order by disorder in the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice.
Chern, Gia-Wei; Moessner, R
2013-02-15
Ever since the experiments which founded the field of highly frustrated magnetism, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has been the archetypical setting for the study of fluctuation induced exotic ordering. To this day the nature of its classical low-temperature state has remained a mystery: the nonlinear nature of the fluctuations around the exponentially numerous harmonically degenerate ground states has not permitted a controlled theory, while its complex energy landscape has precluded numerical simulations at low temperature, T. Here we present an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm which removes the latter obstacle. Our simulations detect a low-temperature regime in which correlations asymptote to a remarkably small value as T→0. Feeding these results into an effective model and analyzing the results in the framework of an appropriate field theory implies the presence of long-range dipolar spin order with a tripled unit cell.
Gaseous [sup 3]He-[sup 3]He magnetic dipolar spin relaxation
Newbury, N.R.; Barton, A.S.; Cates, G.D.; Happer, W.; Middleton, H. )
1993-12-01
We derive the nuclear-spin relaxation rate of gaseous [sup 3]He due to the magnetic-dipole interaction between the [sup 3]He nuclear spins. This dipolar relaxation rate is numerically evaluated for temperatures from 0.1 K to 550 K. At room temperature, the relaxation time for a [sup 3]He density of 10 amagats is 74.4 h. We have made a series of high-density (4--12 amagat) [sup 3]He samples for which nulcear relaxation is limited by the magnetic-dipole interaction. Both our theoretical and experimental results are particularly important for the growing use of [sup 3]He, polarized through spin exchange with optically pumped Rb vapor.
Electromagnetic disturbances observed near the dip region ahead of dipolarization front
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, D.; Fu, S. Y.; Sun, W. J.; Parks, G. K.; Zong, Q. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Pu, Z. Y.; Cui, Y. B.; Wu, T.; Liu, J.; Zhou, X. Z.
2016-04-01
Dipolarization front (DF) is a thin magnetic structure embedded in fast flows in the magnetotail, which plays an important role in particle acceleration, flow braking, wave excitation, and other related processes. Electromagnetic disturbances near the magnetic dip region in front of DFs are investigated using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probe observations in this paper. Strong magnetic field and electric field fluctuations, with several wave bands below and around the lower hybrid frequency, are found in an event on 21 March 2008. The properties of the wave are similar to that of magnetosonic wave. Detailed analyses show that the phase space density for ions in the perpendicular direction has a positive slope near the local Alfvén speed, which is a possible free-energy source for the generation of the wave. This type of ion distribution could result from the earthward reflected ions ahead of DF, though other forming mechanism could not be fully ruled out.
Long-range transverse Ising model built with dipolar condensates in two-well arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chaohong; Malomed, Boris A.; Santos, Luis
2017-01-01
Dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in an array of double-well potentials realize an effective transverse Ising model with peculiar inter-layer interactions, that may result under proper conditions in an anomalous first-order ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic phase transition, and non-trivial phases due to frustration. The considered setup allows as well for the study of Kibble–Zurek defect formation, whose kink statistics follows that expected from the universality class of the mean-field one-dimensional transverse Ising model. Furthermore, random occupation of each layer of the stack leads to random effective Ising interactions and local transverse fields, that may lead to the Anderson-like localization of imbalance perturbations.
Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.
Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen
2003-12-01
We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.
Fractional quantum Hall states of dipolar fermions in a strained optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Ashida, Yuto; Furukawa, Shunsuke
2016-10-01
We study strongly correlated ground states of dipolar fermions in a honeycomb optical lattice with spatial variations in hopping amplitudes. Similar to strained graphene, such nonuniform hopping amplitudes produce valley-dependent pseudomagnetic fields for fermions near the two Dirac points, resulting in the formation of Landau levels. The dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the honeycomb plane yield a long-range repulsive interaction. By exact diagonalization in the zeroth-Landau-level basis, we show that this repulsive interaction stabilizes a variety of valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin and composite-fermion states. The present system thus offers an intriguing platform for emulating fractional quantum Hall physics in a static optical lattice. We calculate the energy gaps above these incompressible states and discuss the temperature scales required for their experimental realization.
Robustness of fractional quantum Hall states with dipolar atoms in artificial gauge fields
Grass, T.; Baranov, M. A.; Lewenstein, M.
2011-10-15
The robustness of fractional quantum Hall states is measured as the energy gap separating the Laughlin ground state from excitations. Using thermodynamic approximations for the correlation functions of the Laughlin state and the quasihole state, we evaluate the gap in a two-dimensional system of dipolar atoms exposed to an artificial gauge field. For Abelian fields, our results agree well with the results of exact diagonalization for small systems but indicate that the large value of the gap predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 070404 (2005)] was overestimated. However, we are able to show that the small gap found in the Abelian scenario dramatically increases if we turn to non-Abelian fields squeezing the Landau levels.
Quantum control of spin-nematic squeezing in a dipolar spin-1 condensate.
Huang, Yixiao; Xiong, Heng-Na; Yang, Yang; Hu, Zheng-Da; Xi, Zhengjun
2017-02-24
Versatile controllability of interactions and magnetic field in ultracold atomic gases ha now reached an era where spin mixing dynamics and spin-nematic squeezing can be studied. Recent experiments have realized spin-nematic squeezed vacuum and dynamic stabilization following a quench through a quantum phase transition. Here we propose a scheme for storage of maximal spin-nematic squeezing, with its squeezing angle maintained in a fixed direction, in a dipolar spin-1 condensate by applying a microwave pulse at a time that maximal squeezing occurs. The dynamic stabilization of the system is achieved by manipulating the external periodic microwave pulses. The stability diagram for the range of pulse periods and phase shifts that stabilize the dynamics is numerical simulated and agrees with a stability analysis. Moreover, the stability range coincides well with the spin-nematic vacuum squeezed region which indicates that the spin-nematic squeezed vacuum will never disappear as long as the spin dynamics are stabilized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borkar, Aditi N.; De Simone, Alfonso; Montalvao, Rinaldo W.; Vendruscolo, Michele
2013-06-01
We describe a method of determining the conformational fluctuations of RNA based on the incorporation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) as replica-averaged structural restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. In this approach, the alignment tensor required to calculate the RDCs corresponding to a given conformation is estimated from its shape, and multiple replicas of the RNA molecule are simulated simultaneously to reproduce in silico the ensemble-averaging procedure performed in the NMR measurements. We provide initial evidence that with this approach it is possible to determine accurately structural ensembles representing the conformational fluctuations of RNA by applying the reference ensemble test to the trans-activation response element of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Cai, Congbo; Lin, Yulan; Cai, Shuhui; Sun, Huijun; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong
2012-03-07
Intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences (iMQCs) originated from distant dipolar field (DDF) possess some appealing unique properties for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DDF is usually induced with continuous wave (i.e., sine- or square-wave) magnetization modulation in the whole sample. In this article, a spatially localized and enhanced DDF was optimally tailored in a thin slice with an adiabatic inversion pulse. Evidence was provided to show that careful tailoring of the spatially localized DDF can generate highly efficient iMQC signals, with more than two-fold enhancement compared to the conventional sine-wave magnetization modulation method, and 1.5 times of that with the square-wave modulation under the similar condition. Theoretical predictions, simulation results, and experimental verifications agree well with each other. Practical implementation of this approach for efficient iMQC MRI was explored. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M
2016-08-01
We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately.