Science.gov

Sample records for mesorhizobiumloti mp6 induces

  1. The mouse proline-rich protein MP6 promoter binds isoprenaline-inducible parotid nuclear proteins via a highly conserved NFkB/rel-like site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S G; Layfield, R; McDonald, C J

    1991-10-11

    Proline-rich protein (PRP) gene MP6 was isolated from a mouse BALB/c genomic DNA library in lambda EMBL3, characterised by hybridisation and restriction mapping and the promoter region, from -162 to +72 around the PRP consensus cap-site, was sequenced. In gel shift assays this region formed complexes C1 and C2 with parotid nuclear proteins which were induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. DNA competition studies and direct binding assays of promoter subfragments showed that it was the sequence from -157 to -91 that was forming the isoprenaline-dependent complexes. All PRP genes conserve a 23bp. sequence, termed PRP Box1, with ets and NFkB/rel binding site-like elements, upstream of their promoters. In the MP6 promoter, PRP Box1 was within the region forming the complexes. Further gel shift assays using PRP Box1 oligonucleotides as competitors and targets indicated that the NFkB/rel binding site-like element was important in formation of the isoprenaline-inducible complexes. HeLa nuclear extracts also formed complexes with PRP Box1 similar to C1 and C2 but nuclear extracts from spleen, submandibular gland and liver did not. These complexes are thus candidate regulators for the isoprenaline-dependent and tissue-specific transcription of PRP genes.

  2. Interleukin-2 and a T cell hybridoma (MP6) derived B cell-stimulatory factor act synergistically to induce proliferation and differentiation of human B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Tötterman, T H; Rosén, A; Nilsson, K

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we communicate that cells of a selected B-CLL clone (I83), after 2 days of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain 1 (SAC) activation, respond to recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) and a B cell stimulatory factor (BSF-MP6) and act in strong synergism with induction of simultaneous high-rate proliferation and differentiation. None of the factors alone or other lymphokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, 12 kDa BCGF, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6) induced significant DNA synthesis in SAC-activated cells. However, low levels of IgM were produced by cells stimulated by SAC + rIL-2. The SAC activation was followed by an increase in IL-2 receptor (IL-2R; CD25) expression, and the proliferation induced by BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 could be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by alpha-CD25 antibody. Furthermore, flow cytometric cell cycle studies showed that SAC and BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 stimulated cells underwent a complete transition through the cell cycle to become arrested in G1. The induced proliferation by BSF-MP6 + rIL-2 was dependent on serum but independent of the 2.8% of CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 positive cells contaminating the I83 cell population. Previously, we reported that I83 cells activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were induced to differentiation only but that the addition of BSF-MP6 induced DNA synthesis concomitantly with the differentiation. This paper demonstrates that physiological stimuli can induce both high-rate proliferation and differentiation in a B-CLL clone in vitro. It also suggests that the low proliferation and the differentiation block in vivo, characteristic of most B-CLLs, may reflect a subnormal response of B-CLL cells to growth and differentiation factors, or a dysfunction in the factor production by the patients' T cells.

  3. Exopolymer production and flocculation by zoogloea mp6.

    PubMed Central

    Unz, R F; Farrah, S R

    1976-01-01

    Flocculation by Zoogloea MP6 was accompanied by the production of a mucopolysaccharide exopolymer. Polymer formation was initiated in mid-logarithmic growth phase, and the quantity produced appeared to be influenced by the level of carbon and nitrogen in the culture medium. PMID:131511

  4. Exopolymer production and flocculation by zoogloea mp6.

    PubMed

    Unz, R F; Farrah, S R

    1976-04-01

    Flocculation by Zoogloea MP6 was accompanied by the production of a mucopolysaccharide exopolymer. Polymer formation was initiated in mid-logarithmic growth phase, and the quantity produced appeared to be influenced by the level of carbon and nitrogen in the culture medium.

  5. Calcium permeability of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 4 channels measured by TRPC4-GCaMP6s

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Juyeon; Myeong, Jongyun; Yang, Dongki

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has been obtained regarding whether transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC) are store-operated channels (SOCs) or receptor-operated channels (ROCs). Moreover, the Ca/Na permeability ratio differs depending on whether the current-voltage (I-V) curve has a doubly rectifying shape or inward rectifying shape. To investigate the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels, we attached GCaMP6s to TRPC4 and simultaneously measured the current and calcium signals. A TRPC4 specific activator, (–)-englerin A, induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. Muscarinic receptor stimulator, carbachol, also induced both current and calcium fluorescence with the similar time course. By forming heteromers with TRPC4, TRPC1 significantly reduced the inward current with outward rectifying I-V curve, which also caused the decrease of calcium fluorescence intensity. These results suggest that GCaMP6s attached to TRPC4 can detect slight calcium changes near TRPC4 channels. Consequently, TRPC4-GCaMP6s can be a useful tool for testing the calcium permeability of TRPC4 channels. PMID:28066150

  6. Isolation of exocellular polymer from Zoogloea strains MP6 and 106 and from activated sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Farrah, S R; Unz, R F

    1976-01-01

    Exocellular polymer was isolated from zoogloeae of Zoogloea strains MP6 and 106 and from activated sludge flocs by blending samples with phosphate buffer and precipitation of solubilized polymer with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Samples of polymer from these sources were similar and yielded amino sugars as the principal components after acid hydrolysis. PMID:135526

  7. Isolation of exocellular polymer from Zoogloea strains MP6 and 106 and from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Farrah, S R; Unz, R F

    1976-07-01

    Exocellular polymer was isolated from zoogloeae of Zoogloea strains MP6 and 106 and from activated sludge flocs by blending samples with phosphate buffer and precipitation of solubilized polymer with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Samples of polymer from these sources were similar and yielded amino sugars as the principal components after acid hydrolysis.

  8. Simultaneous GCaMP6-based fiber photometry and fMRI in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhifeng; Ma, Yuncong; Watson, Glenn D R; Zhang, Nanyin

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between neural and vascular signals is essential for interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) results with respect to underlying neuronal activity. Simultaneously measuring neural activity using electrophysiology with fMRI has been highly valuable in elucidating the neural basis of the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal. However, this approach is also technically challenging due to the electromagnetic interference that is observed in electrophysiological recordings during MRI scanning. Recording optical correlates of neural activity, such as calcium signals, avoids this issue, and has opened a new avenue to simultaneously acquire neural and BOLD signals. The present study is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneously and repeatedly acquiring calcium and BOLD signals in animals using a genetically encoded calcium indicator, GCaMP6. This approach was validated with a visual stimulation experiment, during which robust increases of both calcium and BOLD signals in the superior colliculus were observed. In addition, repeated measurement in the same animal demonstrated reproducible calcium and BOLD responses to the same stimuli. Taken together, simultaneous GCaMP6-based fiber photometry and fMRI recording presents a novel, artifact-free approach to simultaneously measuring neural and fMRI signals. Furthermore, given the cell-type specificity of GCaMP6, this approach has the potential to mechanistically dissect the contributions of individual neuron populations to BOLD signal, and ultimately reveal its underlying neural mechanisms. The current study established the method for simultaneous GCaMP6-based fiber photometry and fMRI in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f for studying astrocyte Ca2+ dynamics in the awake mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Haroon, Mateen A.; Salinas, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes play a much more active role in neural processes than the traditional view of them as supporting cells suggests. Although not electrically excitable, astrocytes exhibit diverse Ca2+ dynamics across spatial and temporal scales, more or less dependent on the animal's behavioral state. Ca2+ dynamics range from global elevations lasting multiple seconds encompassing the soma up to the finest processes, to short elevations restricted to so-called microdomains within fine processes. Investigations of astrocyte Ca2+ dynamics have particularly benefitted from the development of Genetically-Encoded Calcium Indicators (GECIs). GECI expression can be achieved non-invasively in a cell type-specific manner and it can be genetically targeted to subcellular domains. The GCaMP family, a group of GECIs derived from the green fluorescent protein, has experienced some of the fastest advancements during the past decade. As a consequence we are now facing the challenge of needing to compare published data obtained with different versions of GECIs. With the intention to provide some guidance, here we compared Ca2+ dynamics across scales in awake transgenic mice expressing either the well-established GCaMP3, or the increasingly popular GCaMP6f, specifically in astrocytes. We found that locomotion-induced global Ca2+ elevations in cortical astrocytes displayed only minor kinetic differences and their apparent dynamic ranges for Ca2+ sensing were not different. In contrast, Ca2+ waves in processes and microdomain Ca2+ transients were much more readily detectable with GCaMP6f. Our findings suggest that behavioral state-dependent global astrocyte Ca2+ responses can be studied with either GCaMP3 or GCaMP6f whereas the latter is more appropriate for studies of spatially restricted weak and fast Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:28742117

  10. Deciphering the molecular mechanism responsible for GCaMP6m's Ca2+-dependent change in fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lauren M; Hughes, Thomas E; Drobizhev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine how GCaMP6m's fluorescence is altered in response to Ca2+-binding. Our detailed spectroscopic study reveals the simplest explanation for how GCaMP6m changes fluorescence in response to Ca2+ is with a four-state model, in which a Ca2+-dependent change of the chromophore protonation state, due to a shift in pKa, is the predominant factor. The pKa shift is quantitatively explained by a change in electrostatic potential around the chromophore due to the conformational changes that occur in the protein when calmodulin binds Ca2+ and interacts with the M13 peptide. The absolute pKa values for the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-saturated states of GCaMP6m are critical to its high signal-to-noise ratio. This mechanism has important implications for further improvements to GCaMP6m and potentially for other similarly designed biosensors.

  11. Deciphering the molecular mechanism responsible for GCaMP6m's Ca2+-dependent change in fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine how GCaMP6m’s fluorescence is altered in response to Ca2+-binding. Our detailed spectroscopic study reveals the simplest explanation for how GCaMP6m changes fluorescence in response to Ca2+ is with a four-state model, in which a Ca2+-dependent change of the chromophore protonation state, due to a shift in pKa, is the predominant factor. The pKa shift is quantitatively explained by a change in electrostatic potential around the chromophore due to the conformational changes that occur in the protein when calmodulin binds Ca2+ and interacts with the M13 peptide. The absolute pKa values for the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-saturated states of GCaMP6m are critical to its high signal-to-noise ratio. This mechanism has important implications for further improvements to GCaMP6m and potentially for other similarly designed biosensors. PMID:28182677

  12. In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Feng, Danielle D; Horton, Nicholas G; Cruz-Hernández, Jean C; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Reimer, Jacob; Tolias, Andreas S; Nishimura, Nozomi; Xu, Chris

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution optical imaging is critical to understanding brain function. We demonstrate that three-photon microscopy at 1,300-nm excitation enables functional imaging of GCaMP6s-labeled neurons beyond the depth limit of two-photon microscopy. We record spontaneous activity from up to 150 neurons in the hippocampal stratum pyramidale at ∼1-mm depth within an intact mouse brain. Our method creates opportunities for noninvasive recording of neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution deep within scattering brain tissues.

  13. Studying the mechanism of neurostimulation by infrared laser light using GCaMP6s and Rhodamine B imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, David; Lefort, Claire; Bardet, Sylvia M.; O'Connor, Rodney P.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared laser light radiation can be used to depolarize neurons and to stimulate neural activity. The absorption of infrared radiation and heating of biological tissue is thought to be the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon whereby local temperature increases in the plasma membrane of cells either directly influence membrane properties or act via temperature sensitive ion channels. Action potentials are typically measured electrically in neurons with microelectrodes, but they can also be observed using fluorescence microscopy techniques that use synthetic or genetically encoded calcium indicators. In this work, we studied the impact of infrared laser light on neuronal calcium signals to address the mechanism of these thermal effects. Cultured primary mouse hippocampal neurons expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6s were used in combination with the temperature sensitive fluorophore Rhodamine B to measure calcium signals and temperature changes at the cellular level. Here we present our all-optical strategy for studying the influence of infrared laser light on neuronal activity.

  14. In vivo three-photon activity imaging of GCaMP6-labeled neurons in deep cortex and the hippocampus of the mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyu; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Wang, Mengran; Feng, Danielle; Cruz-Hernandez, Jean C.; Reimer, Jacob; Tolias, Andreas; Nishimura, Nozomi; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that three-photon microscopy (3PM) with 1300-nm excitation enables functional imaging of GCaMP6s labeled neurons beyond the depth limit of two-photon microscopy (2PM) with 920-nm excitation. We quantitatively compared 2PM and 3PM imaging of calcium indicator GCaMP6s by measuring correlation between activity traces, absolute signal level, excitation attenuation with depth, and signal-to-background ratio (SBR). Compared to 2PM imaging of GCaMP6s-labeled neurons, 3PM imaging has increasingly larger advantages in signal strength and SBR as the imaging depth increases in densely labeled mouse brain, given the same pulse energy, pulse width, and repetition rate at the sample surface. For example, 3PM has comparable signal strength as 2PM and up to two orders of magnitude higher SBR as 2PM in mouse cortex around 700-800um. We also demonstrate 3PM activity recording of 150 neurons in the hippocampal stratum pyramidale (SP) at 1mm depth, which is inaccessible to non-invasive 2PM imaging. Our work establishes 3PM as a powerful tool for calcium imaging at the depth beyond 2PM limits.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of murine p75-Fc fusion protein and MP6-XT22 anti-murine TNF-alpha mAb in mice.

    PubMed

    Filler, Scott G; Solis, Norma V; Guo, Jane; Doellgast, George; Ruiz-Garcia, Ana; Pan, Wei-Jian

    2007-05-01

    Immunologic limitations make it difficult to study the pharmacokinetic effects of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers in murine models. To counter this, we have studied the pharmacokinetics in mice of two murine analogs of human TNF blockers, a murine p75-FC fusion protein (analogous to etanercept), and the rat MP6-XT22 anti-murine TNF mAb (analogous to infliximab). We analyzed the pharmacokinetics of the murine p75-Fc protein and MP6-XT22 antibody in mice that were uninfected and in mice with disseminated candidiasis in order to confirm dosing strategies and interpret future studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of these agents in mice. We propose that, while conducting safety or efficacy studies in murine disease models, it is reasonable to administer the murine p75-Fc protein to mice at <10 mg/kg every 4-5 days, and the MP6-XT22 antibody at 10-20 mg/kg every 4-5 days.

  16. Phorbol ester and B cell-stimulatory factor synergize to induce B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to simultaneous immunoglobulin secretion and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Matsson, P; Rosén, A; Sundström, C; Tötterman, T H; Nilsson, K

    1988-11-01

    This paper discusses the response of two B cell-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) clones, 173 and 183, to the phorbol ester TPA combined with a B cell-stimulatory factor (BSF) derived from a T helper cell hybridoma (MP6). Previous studies with 173 and 183 cells have consistently shown that TPA alone induces differentiation but no proliferation. However, when the two clones were exposed to TPA plus BSF-MP6, not only differentiation but also DNA synthesis was observed. Compared with TPA exposure alone, the fraction of cells with induced lymphoblastoid-plasmacytoid morphology increased and Ig secretion was enhanced. By a 1-hr TPA pulse followed by BSF-MP6, the DNA synthesis was further augmented, but less maturation was observed. T cell and monocyte removal, using cell sorting, showed that the DNA synthesis induced was independent of these cell types, also under serum-free conditions. Quantitation of several cell cycle-associated surface Ags showed that the 4F2, Ba, Bac-1, and cD23 Ags increased while the CD37 decreased in expression upon addition of BSF-MP6. We conclude that B-CLLs are inducible by TPA and BSF-MP6 not only to differentiation, but also to DNA synthesis even under serum-free conditions in vitro. The results furthermore suggest that the very low proliferation activity in B-CLL tumors in vivo may reflect a relative deficiency of proper growth and differentiation factors or a subnormal response of B-CLL cells to such factors.

  17. Effects of inhibitors of inflammatory mediators and cytokines on eosinophil and neutrophil accumulation induced by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin in mouse pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Menezes-de-Lima-Júnior, O; Werneck-Barroso, E; Cordeiro, R S; Henriques, M G

    1997-12-01

    In this work we characterize the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) -induced pleurisy and investigate the role of chemical mediators and cytokines in BCG-induced granulocyte accumulation at 24 h. Intrathoracic injection of BCG in C57B1/6 mice induces a biphasic inflammatory reaction with intense leukocyte accumulation at 24 h and 15 days. Neutrophils were observed in the pleural cavity at 4-24 h, mononuclear cells and eosinophils after 24 h. A new wave of mononuclear cells and neutrophils were observed after 15 days. Pretreatments with dexamethasone, BW 755C, BW A4C, WEB 2170, L-NAME, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) anti-interleukin-5 (IL-5; TRFK-5) had inhibited the eosinophil accumulation. On the other hand, only the pretreatments with dexamethasone, L-NAME, or mAb anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha; MP6-XT3) had inhibited the neutrophil influx. These results suggest the involvement of leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, nitric oxide, and IL-5 in the eosinophil accumulation, and a role for nitric oxide and TNF-alpha in the neutrophil influx induced by BCG.

  18. Inflammatory cytokine-induced changes in neural network activity measured by waveform analysis of high-content calcium imaging in murine cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Benjamin D S; Kahoud, Robert J; McCarthy, Christina B; Howe, Charles L

    2017-08-22

    During acute neuroinflammation, increased levels of cytokines within the brain may contribute to synaptic reorganization that results in long-term changes in network hyperexcitability. Indeed, inflammatory cytokines are implicated in synaptic dysfunction in epilepsy and in an array of degenerative and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Current tools for studying the impact of inflammatory factors on neural networks are either insufficiently fast and sensitive or require complicated and costly experimental rigs. Calcium imaging offers a reasonable surrogate for direct measurement of neuronal network activity, but traditional imaging paradigms are confounded by cellular heterogeneity and cannot readily distinguish between glial and neuronal calcium transients. While the establishment of pure neuron cultures is possible, the removal of glial cells ignores physiologically relevant cell-cell interactions that may be critical for circuit level disruptions induced by inflammatory factors. To overcome these issues, we provide techniques and algorithms for image processing and waveform feature extraction using automated analysis of spontaneous and evoked calcium transients in primary murine cortical neuron cultures transduced with an adeno-associated viral vector driving the GCaMP6f reporter behind a synapsin promoter. Using this system, we provide evidence of network perturbations induced by the inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL1β, and IFNγ.

  19. Gold nanoparticle plasmonics enhanced ultrafast laser-induced optoporation and stimulation of targeted cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Michel; Bergeron, Éric; Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Boutopoulos, Christos; Salesse, Charleen; Winnik, Françoise M.; De Koninck, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have found numerous applications in nanomedicine in view of their robustness, ease of functionalization and low toxicity. Upon irradiation of AuNPs by a pulsed ultrafast laser, various highly localized phenomena can be obtained including a temperature rise, pressure wave, charge injection and production of nanobubbles close to the cellular membrane [1]. These phenomena can be used to manipulate, optoperforate, transfect and stimulate targeted cells [2-5]. Irradiating at 800 nm in the optically biological transparent window, we demonstrated local optoporation and transfection of cells as well as local stimulation of neurons. Two recent examples will be given: (i) Laser-induced selective optoporation of cells: The technique can be used on various types of cells and a proof of principle will be given on human cancer cells in a co-culture using functionalized AuNPs [6]. (ii) Laser-induced stimulation of neurons and monitoring of the localized Ca2+ signaling: This all optical method uses a standard confocal microscope to trigger a transient increase in free Ca2+ in neurons covered by functionalized AuNPs as well as to measure these local variations optically with the Ca2+ sensor GCaMP6s [7]. The proposed techniques provide a new complement to light-dependent methods in neuroscience. REFERENCES (by our group): (1) Boulais, J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev. 17, 26 (2013); (2) Baumgart, Biomaterials 33, 2345 (2012); (3) Boulais, NanoLett. 12, 4763 (2012); (4) Boutopoulos, J. Biophotonics (2015); (5) Boutopoulos, Nanoscale 7, 11758 (2015); (6) Bergeron, Biomaterials, submitted (2015); (7) Lavoie-Cardinal, Nature Commun. submitted (2015).

  20. Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Loskill, Peter; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Marks, Natalie C.; Sheehan, Alice S.; Ma, Zhen; Mathur, Anurag; Nguyen, Trieu N.; Yoo, Jennie C.; Judge, Luke M.; Spencer, C. Ian; Chukka, Anand C.; Russell, Caitlin R.; So, Po-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Contractile motion is the simplest metric of cardiomyocyte health in vitro, but unbiased quantification is challenging. We describe a rapid automated method, requiring only standard video microscopy, to analyze the contractility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). New algorithms for generating and filtering motion vectors combined with a newly developed isogenic iPSC line harboring genetically encoded calcium indicator, GCaMP6f, allow simultaneous user-independent measurement and analysis of the coupling between calcium flux and contractility. The relative performance of these algorithms, in terms of improving signal to noise, was tested. Applying these algorithms allowed analysis of contractility in iPS-CM cultured over multiple spatial scales from single cells to three-dimensional constructs. This open source software was validated with analysis of isoproterenol response in these cells, and can be applied in future studies comparing the drug responsiveness of iPS-CM cultured in different microenvironments in the context of tissue engineering. PMID:25333967

  1. Dermatophagoides-farinae-induced pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, C K; Yang, B C; Lee, S C; Wang, J Y; Hsiue, T R; Lei, H Y

    1997-01-01

    a mixed granulocytic, monocytic pulmonary inflammation with a large number of eosinophils accumulating within the submucosa of the airways and blood vessels of sensitized mice after challenge. Der f challenge induced a sequential expression pattern of eight cytokine genes in BAL cells. The mRNA of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha strongly expressed throughout the course of the experiment. The IL-6 mRNA expression peaked at 0.5-72 h, IL-10 at 1-6 and 48-72 h, IL-4 at 6-72 h, IL-2 at 6-96 h, IL-5 at 24-72 h, and interferon-gamma at 24-96 h. Intraperitoneal injection of sensitized mice with monoclonal antibody (mAb) to murine IL-5 (TRFK5, 300 micrograms/mouse) 1 h before challenge caused 62% suppression of eosinophils in the BAL fluids. The concomitant accumulation of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, however, was not affected by this treatment. On the other hand, intranasal administration of mAb to murine TNF-alpha (MP6-XT3, 20 micrograms/ mouse), but not IL-5, 1 h before challenge and 24 h AC significantly reduced the numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the BAL fluids. The intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (50 mg/kg) for a total of four times resulted in total inhibition of the Der-f-induced cellular responses, whereas vasoactive amine antagonists (diphenhydramine, ketanserin and cyprohepatidine) did not show any effect.

  2. Inducements revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Martin; Moore, Andrew

    1999-04-01

    The paper defends the permissibility of paying inducements to research subjects against objections not covered in an earlier paper in Bioethics. The objections are that inducements would cause inequity, crowd out research, and undesirably commercialize the researcher-subject relationship. The paper shows how these objections presuppose implausible factual and/or normative claims. The final position reached is a qualified defence of freedom of contract which not only supports the permissibility of inducements but also offers guidance to ethics committees in dealing with practical problems that might arise if inducements are offered.

  3. [Induced acne].

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe

    2002-04-15

    Induced acne belongs to the clinical forms of acne. Some dermatoses present with acne-like patterns. They can be induced or perpetuated by non physiological factors. Among these factors, medicines must always be considered, taken either topically (dermocorticoids, sulfur, anti-acneic topics) or generally (androgens, oral corticoids, ACTH, anti-epileptics, anti-depressive drugs, anti-tuberculosis medications). Halogens (iodine, bromine) found in inhaled or orally taken pharmaceutical products, or associated with occupational contact, can also induce acne. Acne of exogenous origin has been described in some specific occupations, and are induced by exposure to chlorine, industrial oils, tar. Sun exposure, PUVA therapy and ionizing radiation are potentially acneigenous. Finally acne caused by cosmetics includes acne cosmetica, brilliantine and oily creams acne and detergent acne.

  4. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing labor is to "break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic exam and will guide a small plastic probe with a hook on the end through your cervix to create a hole in the membrane. This does not hurt you ...

  5. Inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal-mediated catabolic process, which through degradation of different cytoplasmic components aids in maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival during exposure to extra- or intracellular stresses. Ammonia is a potential toxic and stress-inducing byproduct of glutamine catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used as a reference treatment to emphasize the differences between an MTOR-dependent and -independent autophagy-induction. By this means 5901 phosphosites were identified of which 626 were treatment-specific regulated and 175 were coregulated. Investigation of the ammonia-specific regulated sites supported that MTOR activity was not affected, but indicated increased MAPK3 activity, regulation of proteins involved in Rho signal transduction, and a novel phosphorylation motif, serine-proline-threonine (SPT), which could be linked to cytoskeleton-associated proteins. MAPK3 could not be identified as the primary driver of ammonia-induced autophagy but instead the data suggested an upregulation of AMPK and the unfolded protein response (UPR), which might link ammonia to autophagy induction. Support of UPR induction was further obtained from the finding of increased protein levels of the ER stress markers DDIT3/CHOP and HSPA5 during ammonia treatment. The large-scale data set presented here comprises extensive high-quality quantitative information on phosphoprotein regulation in response to 2 very different autophagy inducers and should therefore be considered a general resource for the community. PMID:24300666

  6. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  7. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  8. Chemical-Induced Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2017-04-01

    Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for more than 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from nonchemically induced vitiligo, and because these chemicals appear to induce melanocyte autoimmunity, this phenomenon should be known as "chemical-induced vitiligo," rather than less accurate terms that have been previously used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  10. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  11. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  12. Flumazenil-induced ballism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Ko, Seok-Bum; Choi, Yeong-Bin; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2003-04-01

    Flumazenil, an imidazobenzodiazepine, is the first benzodiazepine antagonist and is being used to reverse the adverse pharmacological effects of benzodiazepine. There have been a few reports on the central nevous system side effects with its use. We report a patient with generalized ballism following administration of flumazenil. The mechanism through which flumazenil induced this symptom is unknown. It is conceivable that flumazenil may antagonize the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and induce dopamine hypersensitivity, thus induce dyskinesic symptoms.

  13. Flumazenil-induced ballism.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Ko, Seok-Bum; Choi, Yeong-Bin; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Flumazenil, an imidazobenzodiazepine, is the first benzodiazepine antagonist and is being used to reverse the adverse pharmacological effects of benzodiazepine. There have been a few reports on the central nevous system side effects with its use. We report a patient with generalized ballism following administration of flumazenil. The mechanism through which flumazenil induced this symptom is unknown. It is conceivable that flumazenil may antagonize the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and induce dopamine hypersensitivity, thus induce dyskinesic symptoms. PMID:12692435

  14. Drug-induced nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Paueksakon, Paisit; Fogo, Agnes B

    2017-01-01

    Drugs are associated frequently with the development of various types of acute and chronic kidney diseases. Nephrotoxicity is associated most commonly with injury in the tubulointerstitial compartment manifested as either acute tubular injury or acute interstitial nephritis. A growing number of reports has also highlighted the potential for drug-induced glomerular disease, including direct cellular injury and immune-mediated injury. Recognition of drug-induced nephropathies and rapid discontinuation of the offending agents are critical to maximizing the likelihood of renal function recovery. This review will focus on the pathology and pathogenesis of drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis and drug-induced glomerular diseases.

  15. Stress-induced flowering

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kaede C

    2010-01-01

    Many plant species can be induced to flower by responding to stress factors. The short-day plants Pharbitis nil and Perilla frutescens var. crispa flower under long days in response to the stress of poor nutrition or low-intensity light. Grafting experiments using two varieties of P. nil revealed that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in stress-induced flowering. The P. nil and P. frutescens plants that were induced to flower by stress reached anthesis, fruited and produced seeds. These seeds germinated, and the progeny of the stressed plants developed normally. Phenylalanine ammonialyase inhibitors inhibited this stress-induced flowering, and the inhibition was overcome by salicylic acid (SA), suggesting that there is an involvement of SA in stress-induced flowering. PnFT2, a P. nil ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the P. nil plants were induced to flower under poor-nutrition stress conditions, but expression of PnFT1, another ortholog of FT, was not induced, suggesting that PnFT2 is involved in stress-induced flowering. PMID:20505356

  16. Teacher-Induced Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Kent C.

    Students of English as a second language (ESL) often come to the classroom with little or no experience in writing in any language and with inaccurate assumptions about writing. Rather than correct these assumptions, teachers often seem to unwittingly reinforce them, actually inducing errors into their students' work. Teacher-induced errors occur…

  17. Mania Induced by Opipramol

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, Kazhungil; Khaleel, Asfia; Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Manoj; Raghuram, TM

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania. PMID:25722522

  18. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Feldweg, Anna M

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is an uncommon disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs in response to physical exertion. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a disorder with similar symptoms, although symptoms develop only if exercise takes place within a few hours of eating and, in most cases, only if a specific food is eaten. Management includes education about safe conditions for exercise, the importance of ceasing exercise immediately if symptoms develop, appropriate use of epinephrine, and, for patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, avoidance of the culprit food for at least 4 hours before exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  20. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  1. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  3. Drug-induced catatonia.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Harpreet S; Singh, Ira

    2005-09-01

    Catatonia is a heterogeneous syndrome that varies in etiology, presentation, course and sequelae. Initially conceptualized as a subtype of schizophrenia, catatonia is now recognized to occur not only with other psychiatric conditions but also with medical conditions and drug-induced and toxic states. While drug-induced catatonia is now a recognized entity, most studies club it with catatonia due to general medical conditions or organic catatonia, thus precluding any meaningful interpretation of such cases. The literature on drug-induced catatonia mostly draws from scattered case reports. This article attempts to review the available literature in this realm and integrate the information in an attempt to explore the epidemiology, etiology, mechanism and treatment of drug-induced catatonia.

  4. Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Robert S

    2012-04-01

    Awareness of the need for prevention of glucocorticoid-induced fractures is growing, but glucocorticoid administration is often overlooked as the most common cause of nontraumatic osteonecrosis. Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis develops in 9-40% of patients receiving long-term therapy although it may also occur with short-term exposure to high doses, after intra-articular injection, and without glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The name, osteonecrosis, is misleading because the primary histopathological lesion is osteocyte apoptosis. Apoptotic osteocytes persist because they are anatomically unavailable for phagocytosis and, with glucocorticoid excess, decreased bone remodeling retards their replacement. Glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis, a cumulative and unrepairable defect, uniquely disrupts the mechanosensory function of the osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular system and thus starts the inexorable sequence of events leading to collapse of the femoral head. Current evidence indicates that bisphosphonates may rapidly reduce pain, increase ambulation, and delay joint collapse in patients with osteonecrosis.

  5. Statin induced myotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2012-06-01

    Statins are an effective treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and used extensively worldwide. However, myotoxicity induced by statins is a common adverse event and a major barrier to maximising cardiovascular risk reduction. The clinical spectrum of statin induced myotoxicity includes asymptomatic rise in creatine kinase concentration, myalgia, myositis and rhabdomyolysis. In certain cases, the cessation of statin therapy does not result in the resolution of muscular symptoms or the normalization of creatine kinase, raising the possibility of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. There is increasing understanding and recognition of the pathophysiology and risk factors of statin induced myotoxicity. Careful history and physical examination in conjunction with selected investigations such as creatine kinase measurement, electromyography and muscle biopsy in appropriate clinical scenario help diagnose the condition. The management of statin induced myotoxicity involves statin cessation, the use of alternative lipid lowering agents or treatment regimes, and in the case of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy, immunosuppression.

  6. Electromagnetically induced phase grating.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Luís E E

    2010-04-01

    I propose an electromagnetically induced phase grating based on the giant Kerr nonlinearity of an atomic medium under electromagnetically induced transparency. The atomic phase grating behaves similarly to an ideal sinusoidal phase grating, and it is capable of producing a pi phase excursion across a weak probe beam along with high transmissivity. The grating is created with arbitrarily weak fields, and diffraction efficiencies as high as 30% are predicted.

  7. Ethionamide-induced Pellagra.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yashashree; Shah, Ira

    2015-08-01

    Pellagra is a disorder characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death, resulting from a deficiency of niacin or its precursor tryptophan. Ethionamide (a second-line antituberculosis agent)-induced pellagra is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with nicotinamide can prevent life-threatening complications. To date, only three cases have been reported. We report a 13-year-old girl presenting with ethionamide-induced pellagra that resolved after the administration of niacin.

  8. Levodopa-induced myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Klawans, H L; Goetz, C; Bergen, D

    1975-05-01

    Twelve parkinsonian patients on long-term levodopa therapy developed intermittent, myoclonic body jerks. The movements consisted of single unilateral or bilateral abrupt jerks of the extremities and occurred most frequently during sleep. Although directly related to daily dosage of levodopa, the myoclonus was specifically blocked by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide. Levodopa-induced myoclonus may be related to intermittent increases of activity of serotonin in the brain and results from levodopa-induced dysregulation of serotonin activity.

  9. Lorazepam-induced diplopia.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Jisha M; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Ram, Dushad

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia - seeing double - is a symptom with many potential causes, both neurological and ophthalmological. Benzodiazepine induced ocular side-effects are rarely reported. Lorazepam is one of the commonly used benzodiazepine in psychiatric practice. Visual problems associated with administration of lorazepam are rarely reported and the frequency of occurrence is not established. We report a rare case of lorazepam-induced diplopia in a newly diagnosed case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

  10. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B S; Das, Subhash

    2014-10-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprolactinemic galactorrhea at different time with a pituitary incidentaloma.

  11. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B. S.; Das, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprolactinemic galactorrhea at different time with a pituitary incidentaloma. PMID:25568484

  12. Induced polarization response of microbial induced sulfideprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Slater, Lee; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-06-04

    A laboratory scale experiment was conducted to examine the use of induced polarization and electrical conductivity to monitor microbial induced sulfide precipitation under anaerobic conditions in sand filled columns. Three columns were fabricated; one for electrical measurements, one for geochemical sampling and a third non-inoculated column was used as a control. A continual upward flow of nutrients and metals in solution was established in each column. Desulfovibrio vulgaris microbes were injected into the middle of the geochemical and electrical columns. Iron and zinc sulfides precipitated along a microbial action front as a result of sulfate reduction due by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The precipitation front initially developed near the microbial injection location, and subsequently migrated towards the nutrient inlet, as a result of chemotaxis by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Sampling during and subsequent to the experiment revealed spatiotemporal changes in the biogeochemical measurements associated with microbial sulfate reduction. Conductivity measurements were insensitive to all biogeochemical changes occurred within the column. Changes in the IP response (of up to 14 mrad)were observed to coincide in place and in time with the active microbe respiration/sulfide precipitation front as determined from geochemical sampling. The IP response is correlated with the lactate concentration gradient, an indirect measurement of microbial metabolism, suggesting the potential of IP as a method for monitoring microbial respiration/activity. Post experimental destructive sample analysis and SEM imaging verified the geochemical results and supported our hypothesis that microbe induced sulfide precipitation is directly detectable using electrical methods. Although the processes not fully understood, the IP response appears to be sensitive to this anaerobic microbial precipitation, suggesting a possible novel application for the IP method.

  13. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, Win; Lahorte, Philippe

    This chapter is part one of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced bioradicals is discussed. Bioradicals play a pivotal role in the complex chain of processes starting with the absorption of radiation in biological materials and ending with the radiation-induced biological after-effects. The general aspects of the four consecutive stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) are discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. The close relationship between radiation dose and track structure, induced DNA damage and cell survival or killing is treated in detail. The repair mechanisms that cells employ, to insure DNA stability following irradiation, are described. Because of their great biomedical importance tumour suppressor genes involved in radiation-induced DNA repair and in checkpoint activation will be treated briefly, together with the molecular genetics of radiosensitivity. Part two of this review will deal with modern theoretical methods and experimental instrumentation for quantitative studies in this research field. Also an extensive overview of the applications of radiation-induced bioradicals will be given. A comprehensive list of references allows further exploration of this research field, characterised in the last decade by a substantial advance, both in fundamental knowledge and in range of applications.

  14. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2010-12-01

    Few dermatologic conditions carry as much emotional distress as chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Forty-seven percent of female patients consider hair loss the most traumatic aspect of chemotherapy, and 8% would decline chemotherapy because of fear of hair loss. A number of agents have been evaluated on the basis of the current understanding of the underlying pathobiology. Among the agents that have been evaluated, topical minoxidil was able to reduce the severity or shorten the duration but could not prevent hair loss. The major approach to minimize chemotherapy-induced hair loss is by scalp cooling, although most published data on scalp cooling are of poor quality. Because chemotherapy-induced toxicity has been associated with nutritional status, nutritional assessment and support might confer beneficial effects. Several experimental approaches to the development of pharmacological agents are under evaluation including: anti-oxidants, cytokines and growth factors, cell cycle and proliferation modifiers, and inhibitors of apoptosis. At present, no approved pharmacologic treatment of chemotherapy-induced hair loss exists. The incidence and severity of the condition are variable and related to the particular chemotherapeutic protocol. Fortunately, chemotherapy-induced hair loss is mostly reversible, and appropriate hair and scalp care and temporarily wearing a wig may be the most effective coping strategy.

  15. Drug-induced mania.

    PubMed

    Peet, M; Peters, S

    1995-02-01

    Mania can occur by chance association during drug treatment, particularly in patients predisposed to mood disorder. Single case reports are unreliable, and evidence must be sought from large series of treated patients, particularly those with a matched control group. Drugs with a definite propensity to cause manic symptoms include levodopa, corticosteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids. Antidepressants of the tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor classes can induce mania in patients with pre-existing bipolar affective disorder. Drugs which are probably capable of inducing mania, but for which the evidence is less scientifically secure, include other dopaminergic anti-Parkinsonian drugs, thyroxine, iproniazid and isoniazid, sympathomimetic drugs, chloroquine, baclofen, alprazolam, captopril, amphetamine and phencyclidine. Other drugs may induce mania rarely and idiosyncratically. Management involves discontinuation or dosage reduction of the suspected drug, if this is medically possible, and treatment of manic symptoms with antipsychotic drugs or lithium.

  16. Radiation-induced gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neuro-oncologic literature. Extensive retrospective cohort data in pediatric populations after therapeutic intracranial radiation show a clearly increased risk in glioma incidence that is both patient age- and radiation dose/volume-dependent. Data in adults are more limited but show heightened risk in certain groups exposed to radiation. In both populations, there is no evidence linking increased risk associated with routine exposure to diagnostic radiation. At the molecular level, recent studies have found distinct genetic differences between radiation-induced gliomas and their spontaneously-occurring counterparts. Clinically, there is understandable reluctance on the part of clinicians to re-treat patients due to concern for cumulative neurotoxicity. However, available data suggest that aggressive intervention can lead to improved outcomes in patients with radiation-induced gliomas. PMID:19831840

  17. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  18. Crystalglobulin-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinay; El Ters, Mireille; Kashani, Kianoush; Leung, Nelson; Nasr, Samih H

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline nephropathy refers to renal parenchymal deposition of crystals leading to kidney damage. The most common forms of crystalline nephropathy encountered in renal pathology are nephrocalcinosis and oxalate nephropathy. Less frequent types include urate nephropathy, cystinosis, dihydroxyadeninuria, and drug-induced crystalline nephropathy (e.g., caused by indinavir or triamterene). Monoclonal proteins can also deposit in the kidney as crystals and cause tissue damage. This occurs in conditions such as light chain proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and crystalglobulinemia. The latter is a rare complication of multiple myeloma that results from crystallization of monoclonal proteins in the systemic vasculature, leading to vascular injury, thrombosis, and occlusion. In this report, we describe a case of crystalglobulin-induced nephropathy and discuss its pathophysiology and the differential diagnosis of paraprotein-induced crystalline nephropathy.

  19. Olmesartan-Induced Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Adike, Abimbola; Corral, Juan; Rybnicek, David; Sussman, Daniel; Shah, Samir; Quigley, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Olmesartan-induced enteropathy mimics celiac disease clinically and pathologically. As in celiac disease, the pathologic findings are villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes. Clinical presentation of olmesartan-induced enteropathy includes diarrhea, weight loss, and nausea. In contrast to celiac disease, tissue transglutaminase is not elevated and there is no response to a gluten-free diet. Including this entity in the differential diagnosis of sprue-like enteropathy is critical for its early diagnosis since replacing olmesartan with an alternative antihypertensive drug can simplify the diagnostic workup and provide both clinical and histologic improvement.

  20. Olmesartan-Induced Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adike, Abimbola; Corral, Juan; Rybnicek, David; Sussman, Daniel; Shah, Samir; Quigley, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Olmesartan-induced enteropathy mimics celiac disease clinically and pathologically. As in celiac disease, the pathologic findings are villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes. Clinical presentation of olmesartan-induced enteropathy includes diarrhea, weight loss, and nausea. In contrast to celiac disease, tissue transglutaminase is not elevated and there is no response to a gluten-free diet. Including this entity in the differential diagnosis of sprue-like enteropathy is critical for its early diagnosis since replacing olmesartan with an alternative antihypertensive drug can simplify the diagnostic workup and provide both clinical and histologic improvement. PMID:28289500

  1. Surgery induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Brian V; Peter, Mark B; Shenoy, Hrishikesh G; Horgan, Kieran; Hughes, Thomas A

    2011-02-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia result in a variety of metabolic and endocrine responses, which result in a generalised state of immunosuppression in the immediate post-operative period. Surgery induced immunosuppression has been implicated in the development of post-operative septic complications and tumour metastasis formation. In addition the effectiveness of many treatments in the adjuvant setting is dependent on a functioning immune system. By understanding the mechanisms contributing to surgery-induced immunosuppression, surgeons may undertake strategies to minimise its effect and reduce potential short-term and long-term consequences to patients.

  2. Geomagnetism and induced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-07-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of conceptual integrated science over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is initiated by the change in the magnetic flux due to the Earth's magnetic field and movement. This simple and enjoyable experiment will demonstrate how basic concepts in physics and geology can help us think about possible health effects due to the induced voltage.

  3. Drug-induced photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Robert S; Ibbotson, Sally H

    2014-07-01

    Drug-induced photosensitivity is common. The principal mechanism of systemic drug photosensitivity is phototoxicity and the principal mechanism of topical drug photosensitivity is photoallergy. Photopatch testing is helpful to determine suspected topical agent photoallergies (eg, from ultraviolet filters in sunscreens) but generally not helpful in detecting systemic drug photosensitivity. Drug-induced photosensitivity is usually best managed by stopping the suspected drug. Other measures, including phototherapy using wavelengths that do not elicit the response, are sometimes necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Topological induced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton’s coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological quantum-field theory (TQFT).

  5. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  6. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in a pump including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means 32,36 which cooperate with a first vortex cell 38 and a series of secondary vortex cells 40 to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow.

  7. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, S.Y.

    1989-08-08

    An improvement in a pump is described including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means which cooperate with a first vortex cell and a series of secondary vortex cells to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow. 3 figs.

  8. Induced Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  9. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  10. Friction induced rail vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralov, Ivan; Sinapov, Petko; Nedelchev, Krasimir; Ignatov, Ignat

    2012-11-01

    A model of rail, considered as multiple supported beam, subjected on friction induced vibration is studied in this work using FEM. The model is presented as continuous system and the mass and elastic properties of a real object are taken into account. The friction forces are nonlinear functions of the relative velocity during slipping. The problem is solved using Matlab Simulink.

  11. Exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Storms, William W

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a relatively common condition that affects both recreational and elite athletes. The latest data suggest that it is an inflammatory process, especially in elite athletes. Proper diagnosis is important to differentiate EIB from other respiratory conditions. Effective treatment usually controls this condition.

  12. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  13. Pyrazinamide induced thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Vaibhav; Anand, Sunish C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of certain antitubercular drugs and is characterized by rapid destruction of platelets whenever offending drug is taken by a susceptible person. We report a case of pyrazinamide-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient receiving anti tubercular drugs. PMID:20711377

  14. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Schedule-Induced Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Howard, Denise

    1992-01-01

    The phenomena of the induction and entrainment of adjunctive behaviors was investigated in 8 people (ages 5-51) with severe or profound mental retardation who exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Seven of the eight demonstrated evidence of schedule-induced stereotypic behavior, whereas five also showed evidence of the entrainment of these behaviors by…

  16. Drug-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  17. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  18. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  19. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  20. [Chemotherapy-induced alopecia].

    PubMed

    Spaëth, Dominique; Rosso, Nathalie; Clivot, Laetitia

    2006-11-30

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is frequent with most chemotherapy regimens; mechanisms, evolution and small prevention tools are described. Scalp cooling (helmets or continuous cooling systems) can avoid or diminish hair loss in selected chemotherapy regimens but tolerance can be fair and long harmlessness needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. Drug prevention is only in the first steps of research.

  1. Statin-induced Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Redmond, Elizabeth; Harbor, Cathryn

    2012-05-01

    Heart disease (HD) is the number one killer in the United States.(1) In 2006, the direct and indirect costs associated with cardiovascular disease in the United States were estimated at 400 billion dollars.(2) Statin therapy for cholesterol reduction is a mainstay intervention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as reflected in atorvastatin's status as the number one prescribed medication in the United States.(3) Statin therapy, however, is also associated with side effects that signal mitochondrial distress. A commonly reported statin-induced symptom is myalgia, which is defined as muscle pain without an associated elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK). In clinical trials, the reports of myalgia vary from less than 1% to 25% of patients.(4) Myopathy is a general term defined as an abnormal condition or disease of muscle tissue. Myopathy includes myalgia, myositis (inflammation of muscle tissue associated with elevated CK) and the very serious condition rhabdomyolysis (extreme myositis). Histological findings in statin-induced myopathy demonstrate electron chain dysfunction making "mitochondrial myopathy" the more precise term.(5) Mitochondrial myopathy has been associated with statin-induced CoQ10 depletion.(5) Given the density of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes, and CoQ10's role in mitochondrial energy production, depletion has long been associated with increased risk for heart disease.(6-7) In the case below, mitochondrial-specific organic acids, serum CoQ10, vitamin D and clinical history all suggest statin-induced mitochondrial myopathy, despite normal serum CK.

  2. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  3. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  4. Induced Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  5. Lovastatin induces platelet apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Ming; Chen, Mengxing; Zhou, Ling; Zhao, Lili; Hu, Renping; Yan, Rong; Dai, Kesheng

    2016-03-01

    Statins are widely used in the prevention of atherosclerosis and treatment of coronary artery disease because of pleiotropic effects on thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage occurred in some statin-treated patients, but the reason remains unclear. In the current study, we show that lovastatin dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, leading to up-regulation of Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-XL, and activation of caspase-3/8/9. Lovastatin treatment did not increase the surface expression of P-selectin or PAC-1 binding but led to strongly reduced collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. The integrin αIIbβ3 antagonist, RGDS, inhibited lovastatin-induced apoptosis in both human platelets and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing integrin αIIbβ3. The number of circulating platelets in mice was significantly reduced after intraperitoneal injections with lovastatin. Taken together, these data indicate that lovastatin induced caspase-dependent platelet apoptosis. Lovastatin does not incur platelet activation, whereas impairs platelet function and reduces circulating platelets in vivo, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage in patients treated with statins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  7. Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia.

    PubMed

    Gounden, Ronald; Blockman, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is an acquired, transient prothrombotic disorder caused by heparin. The predominant problem is the creation of a prothrombotic milieu, accompanied by a fall in the platelet count. This explains the apparent paradox of thrombosis in the face of thrombocytopaenia and why non-heparin antithrombotic agents are integral to its management.

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed Oct. 1, 2014. Stickland MK, et al. Effect of warm-up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma action plans: Help patients take control. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  9. Warfarin-induced erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Casey J; Robertson, Ivan; James, Daniel; McMeniman, Erin

    2015-02-01

    Erythroderma is a potentially serious and life-threatening skin disease with a number of possible aetiologies. Drug reactions are well-documented causes, with carbamazepine, penicillin and allopurinol being the most commonly implicated. This case describes a unique presentation of warfarin-induced erythroderma in a 78-year-old female patient.

  10. Plume-induced subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, T.; Stern, R. J.; Baes, M.; Sobolev, S. V.; Whattam, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dominant present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and/or pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness, which are themselves consequences of plate tectonics. In contrast, recently discovered plume-induced subduction initiation could have started the first subduction zone without pre-existing plate tectonics. Here, we investigate this new mechanism with high-resolution 3D numerical thermomechanical modeling experiments. We show that typical plume-induced subduction dynamics is subdivided into five different stages: (1) oceanic plateau formation by arrival of a mantle plume head; (2) formation of an incipient trench and a descending nearly-circular slab at the plateau margins; (3) tearing of the circular slab; (4) formation of several self-sustained retreating subduction zones and (5) cooling and spreading of the new lithosphere formed between the retreating subduction zones. At the final stage of plume-induced subduction initiation, a mosaic of independently moving, growing and cooling small oceanic plates heading toward individual retreating subduction zones forms. The plates are separated by spreading centers, triple junctions and transform faults and thus the newly formed multi-slab subduction system operates as an embryonic plate tectonic cell. We demonstrate that three key physical factors combine to trigger self-sustained plume-induced subduction: (1) old negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere; (2) intense weakening of the lithosphere by plume-derived magmas; and (3) lubrication of the forming subduction interface by hydrated oceanic crust. We furthermore discuss that plume-induced subduction, which is rare at present day conditions, may have been common in the Precambrian time and likely started global plate tectonics on Earth.

  11. Buckling-Induced Kirigami.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-02-24

    We investigate the mechanical response of thin sheets perforated with a square array of mutually orthogonal cuts, which leaves a network of squares connected by small ligaments. Our combined analytical, experimental and numerical results indicate that under uniaxial tension the ligaments buckle out of plane, inducing the formation of 3D patterns whose morphology is controlled by the load direction. We also find that by largely stretching the buckled perforated sheets, plastic strains develop in the ligaments. This gives rise to the formation of kirigami sheets comprising periodic distribution of cuts and permanent folds. As such, the proposed buckling-induced pop-up strategy points to a simple route for manufacturing complex morphable structures out of flat perforated sheets.

  12. Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mark; Paran, Daphna; Elkayam, Ori

    2016-01-01

    The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, otolaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients. PMID:27824551

  13. Sepsis-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailen, Manuel; Gil-Cebrian, Julián; Huertos-Ranchal, María J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is one of the main predictors of poor outcome in septic patients, with mortality rates next to 70%. During the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, both ventricles can dilate and diminish its ejection fraction, having less response to fluid resuscitation and catecholamines, but typically is assumed to be reversible within 7-10 days. In the last 30 years, It´s being subject of substantial research; however no explanation of its etiopathogenesis or effective treatment have been proved yet. The aim of this manuscript is to review on the most relevant aspects of the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, discuss its clinical presentation, pathophysiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies proposed in recent years. PMID:22758615

  14. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure.

  15. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  16. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  17. Current induced interlayer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Peter M.; Heide, Carsten; Zhang, Shufeng; Fert, Albert

    2001-03-01

    It has recently been shown that a perpendicular current in a magnetically multilayered structures induces an unusual bilinear coupling between the magnetizations of the layers [1]. While this was demonstrated in the ballistic regime, transport is likely to be diffusive in the structures where this may be relevant to the role of currents in switching the magnetization of the layers. We have derived the current induced coupling by using the Boltzmann equation in terms of the parameters used to describe the giant magnetoresistance of magnetically layered structures, and thereby estimate the strength of this coupling. Work supported in part by DARPA and ONR. [1] C.Heide and R.J.Elliott, Europhys. Lett. 50, 271 (2000).

  18. [Steroid-induced osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Perrot, Serge; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Bone-related steroid involvement is one of the most frequent complications of steroid treatment. Epidemiological data demonstrate that osteoporosis starts early during the treatment, predominantly involves trabecular bone and is correlated to dosage and treatment duration. Mechanisms and consequences of steroid bone involvement are related to osseous and extra-osseous mechanisms. In clinical practice, steroid-induced osteoporosis remains underdiagnosed and undertreated both in preventive and curative approaches. Recently, new molecules as teriparatide and zoledronic acid got indication for the treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis. To guide treatment strategies, several recommendations are available: French, not updated recommendations since 2003 (Afssaps, 2003), European elaborated by the EULAR in 2007 and those of the ACR updated in 2010. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Buckling-Induced Kirigami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the mechanical response of thin sheets perforated with a square array of mutually orthogonal cuts, which leaves a network of squares connected by small ligaments. Our combined analytical, experimental and numerical results indicate that under uniaxial tension the ligaments buckle out of plane, inducing the formation of 3D patterns whose morphology is controlled by the load direction. We also find that by largely stretching the buckled perforated sheets, plastic strains develop in the ligaments. This gives rise to the formation of kirigami sheets comprising periodic distribution of cuts and permanent folds. As such, the proposed buckling-induced pop-up strategy points to a simple route for manufacturing complex morphable structures out of flat perforated sheets.

  20. Drug-induced Photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Koronowska, Sandra; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is considered the main environmental physical hazard to the skin. It is responsible for photoaging, sunburns, carcinogenesis, and photodermatoses, including drug-induced photosensitivity. Drug-induced photosensitivity is an abnormal skin reaction either to sunlight or to artificial light. Drugs may be a cause of photoallergic, phototoxic, and photoaggravated dermatitis. There are numerous medications that can be implicated in these types of reactions. Recently, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to be a common cause of photosensitivity. As both systemic and topical medications may promote photosensitive reactions, it is important to take into consideration the potential risk of occurrence such reactions, especially in people chronically exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Drug-induced hypokalaemia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Hmouda, Houssem; Bouraoui, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Hypokalaemia (defined as a plasma potassium concentration<3.5 mEq/L) is a common electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice. Drugs are a common cause of either asymptomatic or symptomatic hypokalaemia. Drug-induced hypokalaemia is an important problem particularly in the elderly and in patients with cardiovascular, renal or hepatic disease. Hypokalaemia can complicate the use of the drug in the therapeutic concentration range, and can also be precipitated with overdose or conditions leading to drug intoxication. Because the etiologies of hypokalaemia are numerous, the diagnosis of drug-induced hypokalaemia may be overlooked. Physicians should always pay close attention to this common side effect. Evaluation and management of a hypokalaemic patient should include a careful review of medications history to determine if a drug capable of causing or aggravating this electrolyte abnormality is present.

  2. Arsenic-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Sean; Zancosky, Krysia; Farah, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in the treatment of acute promyelocytic myelogenous leukemia (APML). In most instances, the benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks associated with their respective safety profiles. Although acute pancreatitis is not commonly associated with arsenic toxicity, it should be considered as a possible side effect. We report a case of arsenic-induced pancreatitis in a patient with APML. PMID:22606427

  3. Ketamine-Induced Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Albert R; Gancsos, Mark G; Finn, Emily S; Morgan, Peter T; Corlett, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine, the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist drug, is increasingly employed as an experimental model of psychosis in healthy volunteers. At subanesthetic doses, it safely and reversibly causes delusion-like ideas, amotivation and perceptual disruptions reminiscent of the aberrant salience experiences that characterize first-episode psychosis. However, auditory verbal hallucinations, a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, have not been reported consistently in healthy volunteers even at high doses of ketamine. Here we present data from a set of healthy participants who received moderately dosed, placebo-controlled ketamine infusions in the reduced stimulation environment of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We highlight the phenomenological experiences of 3 participants who experienced particularly vivid hallucinations. Participants in this series reported auditory verbal and musical hallucinations at a ketamine dose that does not induce auditory hallucination outside of the scanner. We interpret the observation of ketamine-induced auditory verbal hallucinations in the context of the reduced perceptual environment of the MRI scanner and offer an explanation grounded in predictive coding models of perception and psychosis - the brain fills in expected perceptual inputs, and it does so more in situations of altered perceptual input. The altered perceptual input of the MRI scanner creates a mismatch between top-down perceptual expectations and the heightened bottom-up signals induced by ketamine. Such circumstances induce aberrant percepts, including musical and auditory verbal hallucinations. We suggest that these circumstances might represent a useful experimental model of auditory verbal hallucinations and highlight the impact of ambient sensory stimuli on psychopathology. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Drug-induced diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chassany, O; Michaux, A; Bergmann, J F

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a relatively frequent adverse event, accounting for about 7% of all drug adverse effects. More than 700 drugs have been implicated in causing diarrhoea; those most frequently involved are antimicrobials, laxatives, magnesium-containing antacids, lactose- or sorbitol-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, colchicine, antineoplastics, antiarrhythmic drugs and cholinergic agents. Certain new drugs are likely to induce diarrhoea because of their pharmacodynamic properties; examples include anthraquinone-related agents, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, lipase inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors. Antimicrobials are responsible for 25% of drug-induced diarrhoea. The disease spectrum of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea ranges from benign diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in drug-induced diarrhoea: osmotic diarrhoea, secretory diarrhoea, shortened transit time, exudative diarrhoea and protein-losing enteropathy, and malabsorption or maldigestion of fat and carbohydrates. Often 2 or more mechanisms are present simultaneously. In clinical practice, 2 major types of diarrhoea are seen: acute diarrhoea, which usually appears during the first few days of treatment, and chronic diarrhoea, lasting more than 3 or 4 weeks and which can appear a long time after the start of drug therapy. Both can be severe and poorly tolerated. In a patient presenting with diarrhoea, the medical history is very important, especially the drug history, as it can suggest a diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea and thereby avoid multiple diagnostic tests. The clinical examination should cover severity criteria such as fever, rectal emission of blood and mucus, dehydration and bodyweight loss. Establishing a relationship between drug consumption and diarrhoea or colitis can be difficult when the time elapsed between the start of the drug and the onset of symptoms is long, sometimes up to several

  5. Polarization induced doped transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  6. Radiation-induced schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

    1989-06-01

    The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

  7. Allopurinol induced erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geeta; Govil, Dinesh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Allopurinol, a widely prescribed urate lowering agent is responsible for various adverse drug reactions, including erythroderma. A 45-year-old male patient was admitted with the complaints of fever, redness and scaling all over the body after 3-4 weeks of allopurinol treatment for asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Elevated liver enzymes were detected in his blood analysis. Skin biopsy was consistent with drug induced erythroderma. Allopurinol was stopped and steroids were started. Patient improved over a period of 2 weeks.

  8. Ketamine-Induced Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Powers, A.R.; Gancsos, M.G.; Finn, E.S.; Morgan, P.T.; Corlett, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine, the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist drug, is increasingly employed as an experimental model of psychosis in healthy volunteers. At sub-anesthetic doses, it safely and reversibly causes delusion-like ideas, amotivation, and perceptual disruptions reminiscent of the aberrant salience experiences that characterize first-episode psychosis. However, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, have not been reported consistently in healthy volunteers even at high doses of ketamine. Methods Here we present data from a set of healthy participants who received moderately dosed, placebo controlled ketamine infusions in the reduced stimulation environment of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We highlight the phenomenological experiences of three participants who experienced particularly vivid hallucinations. Results Participants in this series reported auditory verbal and musical hallucinations at a ketamine dose that does not induce auditory hallucination outside of the scanner. Discussion We interpret the observation of ketamine-induced AVHs in the context of the reduced perceptual environment of the magnetic resonance scanner, and offer an explanation grounded in predictive coding models of perception and psychosis: the brain fills in expected perceptual inputs and it does so more in situations of reduced perceptual input. The reduced perceptual input of the MRI scanner creates a mismatch between top-down perceptual expectations and the heightened bottom-up signals induced by ketamine; such circumstances induce aberrant percepts including musical and auditory verbal hallucinations. We suggest that these circumstances might represent a useful experimental model of AVHs and highlight the impact of ambient sensory stimuli on psychopathology. PMID:26361209

  9. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  11. Induced QCD I: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Bastian B.; Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo

    2016-11-01

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU( N c ) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N b can be as small as N c . In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U( N c ) to SU( N c ), (ii) derive refined bounds on N b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  12. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  13. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made.

  14. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  15. Study of cavitating inducer instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. E.; Murphy, R.; Reddecliff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analytic and experimental investigation into the causes and mechanisms of cavitating inducer instabilities was conducted. Hydrofoil cascade tests were performed, during which cavity sizes were measured. The measured data were used, along with inducer data and potential flow predictions, to refine an analysis for the prediction of inducer blade suction surface cavitation cavity volume. Cavity volume predictions were incorporated into a linearized system model, and instability predictions for an inducer water test loop were generated. Inducer tests were conducted and instability predictions correlated favorably with measured instability data.

  16. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  17. [Drug-induced dyschromatopsias].

    PubMed

    Perdriel, G; Manent, P J

    1982-01-01

    Drug-induced dyschromatopsias are defined as functional or objective alterations of color sense following drug treatment. Drug induced chromatopsias are characterized by a perception of white surfaces as colored and occur following modifications of normally transparent structures or alterations of the chorioretina or higher centers. Digitalic intoxication is responsible for incorrect perception of yellow or blue; the retinal origin of the disorder is confirmed by electroretinograms and histologic modifications in the photoreceptor synapses. Santonin in doses exceeding 1 cg is associated with various color misperceptions due to injury to a peripheral neuron or problems of rhodopsin formation. Some sulfas and antibiotics may cause misperception of yellow, and the anticonvulsant drug Tridione may cause an almost complete disappearance of some colors. Chromotopsias of central origin due to direct action on cerebral neurons are rare but may follow use of phenacetine or atropine. Drug induced dyschromatopsias are more common and may be the initial symptoms of various kinds of drug intoxication. Various simple and reliable tests enable the practicing clinician to detect such disorders at an early stage. Synthetic antimalarial drugs derived from chloroquine and used in longterm treatment of rheumatism or during antimalarial prophylaxis, indomethacine, and the phenotiazins may cause dyschromatopsias due to retinal intoxication. Oral contraceptives diminish the chromatic perception in 20% of cases according to 1 author, and often cause deficits of blue-yellow perception. Disulfiram, certain antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, nystatin, isoniazide, and other drugs may cause dyschromatopsias due to alterations in the optical fibers. Ethambutol is the most harmful to color perception; its effects are usually but not always reversible on discontinuation of the drug. Systematic tests of color perception should be administered prior to and during treatment with any drug known to

  18. -induced continental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  19. Polycation induced actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E; Reisler, Emil

    2011-04-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon the addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations and the neutralization of repulsive interactions of negative charges on actin. The attractive forces between the filaments are strong, as shown by the low (in nanomolar range) critical concentration of their bundling at low ionic strength. These bundles are sensitive to ionic strength and disassemble partially in 100 mM NaCl, but both the dissociation and ionic strength sensitivity can be countered by higher polycation concentrations. Cys374 residues of actin monomers residing on neighboring filaments in the bundles can be cross-linked by the short span (5.4Å) MTS-1 (1,1-methanedyl bismethanethiosulfonate) cross-linker, which indicates a tight packing of filaments in the bundles. The interfilament cross-links, which connect monomers located on oppositely oriented filaments, prevent disassembly of bundles at high ionic strength. Cofilin and the polysaccharide polyanion heparin disassemble lysozyme induced actin bundles more effectively than the polylysine-induced bundles. The actin-lysozyme bundles are pathologically significant as both proteins are found in the pulmonary airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Their bundles contribute to the formation of viscous mucus, which is the main cause of breathing difficulties and eventual death in this disorder.

  20. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D.

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  1. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lisung, Fausto Gabriel; Shah, Ankit B; Levitt, Howard L; Coplan, Neil B

    2015-01-01

    A woman in her early 70s presented with chest pain, dyspnoea and diaphoresis 30 min after her husband expired in our hospital. Cardiac markers were elevated and there were acute changes in ECG suggestive for acute coronary syndrome. Echocardiogram showed apical akinesis, basal segment hyperkinesis with an ejection fraction of 30%. Cardiac catheterisation was performed showing non-obstructive coronary arteries, leading to the diagnosis of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. The patient improved with medical management. Repeat echocardiogram 2 months later showed resolution of heart failure with an ejection fraction of 65–70%. PMID:25858931

  3. Antacid-induced osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Boutsen, Y; Devogelaer, J P; Malghem, J; Noel, H; Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, C

    1996-01-01

    The case of a 49-year-old woman suffering from generalized skeletal pain and multiple fractures accompanied by severe hypophosphataemia and low urinary phosphorus excretion is reported. She had been taking large amounts of antacids containing aluminum hydroxide for many years. A diagnosis of antacid-induced osteomalacia was made. It was confirmed by biological work-up, radiographs and bone biopsy. A dramatic biological, osteodensitometric, and clinical improvement was achieved by withdrawal of antacids and phosphorus administration. The literature concerning this unusual condition has been reviewed.

  4. [Amoxicillin-induced hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Oxlund, Jakob; Ferguson, Alan Hamilton

    2011-06-27

    Amoxicillin with and without clavulanic acid is a widely used antibiotic in adults and children alike. The drug is used prophylactically as well as therapeutically. In Denmark, it has not been described that amoxicillin alone can lead to hepatitis. In literature often referenced by Danish physicians (medicin.dk and Lægemiddelkataloget), hepatotoxicity is not listed as a side effect. However, in the present case, a 61 year-old male who suffered a tick bite and was treated prophylactically with amoxicillin without clavulanic acid presented with pharmacologically induced hepatitis 20 days after treatment.

  5. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  6. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  7. Bupropion-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Krenz, Sonia; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2003-09-01

    Whereas there are some case reports of bupropion-induced vivid dreaming and nightmares, until now it has not been associated with somnambulism. A case is reported of a patient treated with bupropion as a smoking cessation medication, who developed somnambulism during nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, the sleepwalking episodes were associated with eating behaviour. Amnesia was reported for all episodes. As, on one hand,bupropion is a noradrenergic and dopaminergic drug and nicotine withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with alterations in monoaminergic functions, an interaction at the level of these neurotransmitters is suggested as the underlying mechanism.

  8. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  9. Trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guglin, Maya; Cutro, Raymond; Mishkin, Joseph D

    2008-06-01

    Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. It improves survival and increases response to chemotherapy. The major side effect of trastuzumab is cardiotoxicity manifesting as a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, either asymptomatic or with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Although reversible in most cases, cardiotoxicity frequently results in the discontinuation of trastuzumab. The objective of this review is to summarize facts about trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and to highlight the areas of future investigations. We searched PubMed for trials involving trastuzumab used as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, including the metastatic breast cancer setting, and focused on cardiotoxicity.

  10. Inducing Pluripotency in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Taheri-Ghahfarokhi, Amir; Sumer, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming technologies in general and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in particular have opened the door to a vast number of practical applications in regenerative medicine and biotechnology. It also represents a possible alternative to the still evasive achievement of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolation from refractory species such as Bos. taurus. Herein, we described a protocol for bovine iPSCs (biPSCs) generation and characterization. The protocol is based on the overexpression of the exogenous transcription factors NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, using a pantropic retroviral system.

  11. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  12. Isoniazid-induced pellagra.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Calka, Omer; Altun, Faruk

    2011-12-01

    Pellagra is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death occurring as a result of niacin or its precursor tryptophan deficiency. Although pellagra is a well-known complication of isoniazid (INH) therapy, the clinical diagnosis may be missed or delayed that may cause life-threatening consequences. Due to the diversity of pellagra-related signs and symptoms, the diagnosis can be made with an appropriate index of suspicion. We report a 7-year-old boy presenting with INH-induced pellagra that resolved after the administration of the niacin therapy.

  13. GEMCITABINE-INDUCED RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Jaclyn L

    2016-10-31

    To report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy associated with gemcitabine. The author reports a 68-year-old woman who presented with a 4-month history of bilateral vision loss. She had a history of diabetes, hypertension, and leiomyosarcoma, diagnosed 5 months before presentation and had completed 5 cycles of combination treatment with gemcitabine and docetaxel. Clinical examination revealed a Purtscher-like retinopathy that improved after gemcitabine cessation without the development of cystoid macular edema or retinal neovascularization. This case highlights the importance of recognizing gemcitabine-induced ischemic retinopathy that can be associated with life-threatening myocardial or renal ischemia.

  14. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Ari; Dobs, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    Gynecomastia is caused by drugs in 10 - 25% of all cases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for some drugs includes exogenous estrogens exposure, medications that cause hypogonadism, anti-androgenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. This manuscript reviews common examples of drug-induced gynecomastia, discussing the mechanisms and possible treatments. Discontinuing the medication is always the best choice; however, if this is not possible, then testosterone replacement therapy may be needed for hypogonadism. When a man is euogonadal, a trial of the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor may be an option.

  15. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously.

  16. Voriconazole-Induced Photosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Malani, Anurag N.; Aronoff, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent indicated for invasive aspergillosis, refractory Candida infections, and other emerging invasive fungal infections. Adverse cutaneous reactions associated with voriconazole therapy occur in fewer than 10% of treated patients and range from mild erythematous eruptions to life-threatening reactions such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Photosensitivity reactions are an uncommon but characteristic dermatitis in voriconazole recipients, particularly following chronic administration. We report a case of voriconazole-induced phototoxicity in a 50-year-old male with Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that reversed on discontinuation of the drug. PMID:18801950

  17. 5-fluorouracil induced pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Killu, Ammar; Madhavan, Malini; Prasad, Kavita; Prasad, Abhiram

    2011-04-15

    Cardiac toxicity is an infrequent, but potentially serious side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The reported incidence of 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity is approximately 3%, although estimates vary from 1.2% to 18%. Cardiac death occurs in less than 1%. The prompt recognition of cardiac toxicity demands a thorough understanding of the myriad of potential cardiac manifestations and a high index of suspicion. The most common presentation is angina pectoris while other manifestations, namely myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias and sudden death have been recognised. The authors report an unusual case of myopericarditis masquerading as myocardial infarction.

  18. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes.

  19. Drug-induced lupus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced lupus (DIL) refers to an idiosyncratic side effect of numerous, apparently unrelated, medications, in which symptoms overlap with those of systemic lupus erythematosus. DIL is reversible by discontinuation of the medication. The etiological mechanism underlying DIL is linked to the inherent susceptibility of the adaptive immune system to lapse into auto-reactivity. Clinical and laboratory features of DIL will be compared with those of idiopathic systemic lupus and with other types of drug reactions with overlapping features. Formerly commonly-used drugs conferred very high risk of developing DIL, although the probability of developing DIL has not been established with most lupus-inducing drugs. Pharmacological or physiochemical properties of the parent compounds are uninformative, but the importance of reactive drug metabolites in initiating autoimmunity will be discussed. As with most systemic autoimmune diseases, the pathogenesis of DIL is complex and obscure. The role of complement and human leukocyte allotypes as well as drug acetylator phenotype inform the underlying mechanism, and several of these non-mutually exclusive concepts will be described. The pros and cons of proposed mechanisms for DIL will be discussed in the context of current understanding of autoimmunity and immune tolerance to self.

  20. Drug-induced lupus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  1. [Gluten induced diseases].

    PubMed

    Frič, P; Zavoral, M; Dvořáková, T

    2013-05-01

    The introduction of cereals in human nutrition 10 000 years ago caused the occurrence of gluten induced diseases. This protein complex is involved in pathogenesis of wheat allergy, celiac disease, and gluten sensitivity. Wheat allergy and celiac disease are mediated by the system of adaptive immunity. Gluten sensitivity is a recently defined entity induced by innate immune mechanisms. These subjects present various intestinal and particularly extraintestinal symptoms. The differences between celiac disease and gluten intolerance include permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, histology of duodenal biopsy, and mucosal gene expression. The symptoms of gluten sensitivity may also have another genetic background of food intolerance independent of the HLADQ2, - DQ8 system and tissue transglutaminase (eg. in some psychiatric disorders). At present, there is no specific bio-marker of gluten sensitivity. The diagnosis is possible only by exclusion of other causes of symptoms and improvement on a glutenfree diet applied in a doubleblind placebo controlled manner with optional sequence of both stages to exclude the placebo effect due to nutritional intervention.

  2. Inducible fluorescent speckle microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Paulo; Belsley, Michael; Maiato, Helder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics has benefited from the capacity to generate fluorescent fiducial marks on cytoskeleton components. Here we show that light-induced imprinting of three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent speckles significantly improves speckle signal and contrast relative to classic (random) fluorescent speckle microscopy. We predict theoretically that speckle imprinting using photobleaching is optimal when the laser energy and fluorophore responsivity are related by the golden ratio. This relation, which we confirm experimentally, translates into a 40% remaining signal after speckle imprinting and provides a rule of thumb in selecting the laser power required to optimally prepare the sample for imaging. This inducible speckle imaging (ISI) technique allows 3D speckle microscopy to be performed in readily available libraries of cell lines or primary tissues expressing fluorescent proteins and does not preclude conventional imaging before speckle imaging. As a proof of concept, we use ISI to measure metaphase spindle microtubule poleward flux in primary cells and explore a scaling relation connecting microtubule flux to metaphase duration. PMID:26783303

  3. Interferon induced thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Yaron; Menconi, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) is used for the treatment of various disorders, most notable chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One of the commonest side effects of IFNalpha therapy is thyroiditis, with up to 40% of HCV patients on IFNalpha developing clinical or subclinical disease. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. IIT can manifest as clinical autoimmune thyroiditis, presenting with symptoms of classical Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease, or as non-autoimmune thyroiditis. Non-autoimmune thyroiditis can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, with early thyrotoxicosis and later hypothyroidism, or as non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of IIT have been well characterized the mechanisms causing IIT are still poorly understood. It is likely that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) itself plays a role in the disease, as the association between HCV infection and thyroiditis is well established. It is believed that IFNalpha induces thyroiditis by both immune stimulatory effects and by direct effects on the thyroid. Early detection and therapy of this condition are important in order to avoid complications of thyroid disease such as cardiac arrhythmias.

  4. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed severe hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone of 237 micro Unit/mL (Normal Reference range: 0.27-4.20 micro unit/mL) and undetectable free T4. Patient was diagnosed with nivolumab induced myxedema crisis. She was treated successfully with levothyroxine with complete resolution of her symptoms. Nivolumab was safely restarted once the symptoms of myxedema resolved. Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies including thyroiditis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus. High index of suspicion and periodic measurement of thyroid function tests are recommended in patients receiving nivolumab therapy. Our case also suggests that once the myxedema crisis is treated and symptoms are resolved, nivolumab can be safely re-challenged.

  5. Disorder-induced amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Li, Mo

    1997-03-01

    Many crystalline materials undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) phase transition when subjected to energetic particle irradiation at low temperatures. By focusing on the mean-square static atomic displacement as a generic measure of chemical and topological disorder, we are led quite naturally to a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion as a conceptual framework for a unified thermodynamic approach to solid-state amorphizing transformations. In its simplest form, the generalized Lindemann criterion assumes that the sum of the static and dynamic mean-square atomic displacements is constant along the polymorphous melting curve so that c-a transformations can be understood simply as melting of a critically-disordered crystal at temperatures below the glass transition temperature where the supercooled liquid can persist indefinitely in a configurationally-frozen state. Evidence in support of the generalized Lindemann melting criterion for amorphization is provided by a large variety of experimental observations and by molecular dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds.

  6. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Gani, Federica; Selvaggi, Lucia; Roagna, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.

  7. [Induced abortion at home].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Hilde; Qvigstad, Erik; Jerve, Fridtjof; Melseth, Eldbjørg; Eskild, Anne; Nielsen, Christopher S

    2007-09-20

    Medically induced abortion through week 9 is a well established procedure. The article concerns satisfaction among women who choose to do this at home, and possible associations between satisfaction, socio-demographic--and clinical factors. 110 women with pregnancy duration < 7 weeks, who wished to medically terminate the pregnancy at home and presented themselves at Ullevaal University Hospital, were included in the study. The woman's satisfaction with the procedure was the main variable, but anxiety and pain were also recorded. Data were retrieved from hospital journals and questionnaires filled in before and 1 and 3 weeks after the abortion. The degree of satisfaction was recorded on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 was not content and 10 was very content. Follow-up data were available for 105 women. 90 of 105 women were very content (> 7 on the satisfaction scale) with the treatment. Discomfort and pain during the abortion and marital status seemed to influence the results. The degree of pain varied much. No serious complications were observed. The study showed a high degree of satisfaction with medically induced abortion at home early in the pregnancy. The study has a relatively small sample size and no control group, so the results on factors affecting satisfaction are uncertain. Medical abortion at home should be an opportunity for women applying for early pregnancy termination; as long as the women are well informed, are offered sufficient pain relief and a well functioning follow-up programme.

  8. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing. PMID:26314514

  9. Drug-induced exanthems.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, Nikhil

    2005-04-15

    Cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs can comprise a broad spectrum of clinical and histopathological features. Recent evidence from immunohistological and functional studies of drug-reactive T cells suggest that distinct T-cell functions may be responsible for this broad spectrum of different clinical reactions. Maculopapular exanthems represent the most commonly encountered cutaneous drug eruption. Previous studies on maculopapular exanthems indicate that drug-specific CD4+ T cells expressing cytotoxic granule proteins such as perforin and granzyme B are critically involved in killing activated keratinocytes. These cells are particularly found at the dermo-epidermal junction and may contribute to the generation of vacuolar alteration and destruction of basal keratinocytes, which are typical found in drug-induced maculopapular exanthems. In contrast to maculopapular exanthems, the preferential activation of drug-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells may lead to more severe reactions like bullous drug eruptions. Furthermore, activation of drug-specific T with distinct cytokine and chemokines profiles may also explain the different clinical features of drug-induced exanthems. IL-5 and eotaxin are upregulated in maculopapular exanthems and explain the eosinophilia often found in these reactions.

  10. Statin-induced myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Michał; Stępień, Karolina M; Tomaszewska, Joanna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2011-01-01

    Statins are considered to be safe, well tolerated and the most efficient drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, one of the main risk factor for atherosclerosis, and therefore they are frequently prescribed medications. The most severe adverse effect of statins is myotoxicity, in the form of myopathy, myalgia, myositis or rhabdomyolysis. Clinical trials commonly define statin toxicity as myalgia or muscle weakness with creatine kinase (CK) levels greater than 10 times the normal upper limit. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe adverse effect of statins, which may result in acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and death. The exact pathophysiology of statin-induced myopathy is not fully known. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to statin myotoxicity. This review focuses on a number of them. The prevention of statin-related myopathy involves using the lowest statin dose required to achieve therapeutic goals and avoiding polytherapy with drugs known to increase systemic exposure and myopathy risk. Currently, the only effective treatment of statin-induced myopathy is the discontinuation of statin use in patients affected by muscle aches, pains and elevated CK levels.

  11. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  12. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  13. Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, C.; Lai, E.; Jankovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth, jaw, and tongue movements. Dystonia is usually idiopathic (primary), but in some cases it follows peripheral injury. Peripherally induced cervical and limb dystonia is well recognised, and the aim of this study was to characterise peripherally induced OMD.
METHODS—The following inclusion criteria were used for peripherally induced OMD: (1) the onset of the dystonia was within a few days or months (up to 1 year) after the injury; (2) the trauma was well documented by the patient's history or a review of their medical and dental records; and (3) the onset of dystonia was anatomically related to the site of injury (facial and oral).
RESULTS—Twenty seven patients were identified in the database with OMD, temporally and anatomically related to prior injury or surgery. No additional precipitant other than trauma could be detected. None of the patients had any litigation pending. The mean age at onset was 50.11 (SD 14.15) (range 23-74) years and there was a 2:1 female preponderance. Mean latency between the initial trauma and the onset of OMD was 65 days (range 1 day-1 year). Ten (37%) patients had some evidence of predisposing factors such as family history of movement disorders, prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and associated dystonia affecting other regions or essential tremor. When compared with 21 patients with primary OMD, there was no difference for age at onset, female preponderance, and phenomenology. The frequency of dystonic writer's cramp, spasmodic dysphonia, bruxism, essential tremor, and family history of movement disorder, however, was lower in the post-traumatic group (p<0.05). In both groups the response to botulinum toxin treatment was superior to medical therapy (p<0.005). Surgical intervention for temporomandibular disorders was more frequent in the post-traumatic group and was associated with

  14. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  15. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  16. Laser-induced bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Lynch, R.V. III

    1981-01-01

    A project has been initiated to determine the feasibility of developing a complete airborne remote sensing system for rapidly mapping high concentration patches of bioluminescent organisms in the world's oceans. Conceptually, this system would be composed of a laser illuminator to induce bioluminescence and a low light level image intensifier for detection of light. Initial laboratory measurements consisted of using a 2-J flash lamp pulsed optical dye laser to excite bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocustis lunula at ambient temperature using Rhodamine 6G as the lasing dye (585 nm) and a laser pulse width of 1 microsec. After a latency period of 15-20 msec, the bioluminescence maximum occurred in the blue (480 nm is the wavelength maximum for most dinoflagellate bioluminescence) with the peaking occurring approximately 65 msec after the laser pulse. Planned experiments will investigate the effect of different excitation wavelengths and energies at various temperatures and salinities of the cultures.

  17. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  18. [Designer drug induced psychosis].

    PubMed

    Fullajtar, Mate; Ferencz, Csaba

    2012-06-01

    3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular designer drug in Hungary, known as MP4. We present a case of a 34-year-old man, whose first psychotic episode was observed in the presence of MP4 use. The paranoid ideas of reference and the dereistic thinking could be the consequence of drug-induced psychosis. Within 24 hours after the intoxication was over delirium set in. The patient's history included only the use of MP4, use of other kinds of drugs was negated. The drug tests were negative, amphetamine derivates were not detectable in the urine sample. It is most likely that the MP4 pill contained an amount of MDPV less than detectable. In conclusion we suggest that the clinical picture could be the consequence of regular MDPV use.

  19. [Drug-induced asterixis].

    PubMed

    Rittmannsberger, H; Leblhuber, F

    1994-04-22

    A 54-year-old woman with acute schizoaffective psychosis was treated with lithium carbonate (1,350 mg daily) and zuclopenthixol. On admission, clozapine was added (250 mg daily). Because extrapyramidal symptoms (rigor, akinesia) developed, she was additionally given biperiden retard (4 mg daily) from the fourth hospital day onwards. Eleven days after admission she began to complain of "unsteadiness" and "tremors" in her arms and she had asterixis (flapping tremor) on holding up her arms. The electromyogram showed electrical pauses of 60-120 ms, typical for asterixis. There were no significant metabolic or organic cerebral changes that could have accounted for the symptoms which presumably had been induced by the drugs even though their dosage was not unusual. The symptoms in fact regressed completely after the clozapine dose had been reduced, at first to 125 mg then to 50 mg. Previous experience has suggested that the risk of asterixis is particularly high when lithium and clozapine are taken together.

  20. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  1. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

  2. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Godier, A; Susen, S

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in trauma patients who arrive alive at hospital. This type of hemorrhage has a "coagulopathic" component, specific to major trauma and associated with poor outcomes. Over the last decade, a better understanding of this trauma-induced coagulopathy lead to a new therapeutic approach requiring earlier and more aggressive management. This hemostatic resuscitation includes early activation of massive transfusion protocols with: 1) immediate delivery of blood packs with high ratios for RBC units: fresh frozen plasma: platelet-concentrates; 2) antifibrinolytics; 3) substitution of coagulation factors. However, early identification of coagulopathic patients requiring aggressive hemostatic resuscitation remains challenging, with an increasing role of point of care devices for hemostatic diagnosis and monitoring. Efforts have to be focused on the early diagnosis of coagulopathy for immediate delivery of blood products and coagulation factors to the right, accurately screened patients through pre-established protocols within the golden hour. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Pancytopenia induced by hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Louise; Singer, Sylvia Titi; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2002-11-01

    Hypothermia has been demonstrated to induce pancytopenia in animals, but whether this association exists in humans is unknown. The authors report the case of an 8-year-old girl in whom hypothermia (temperature 33 degrees C-35 degrees C) is the cause of pancytopenia. The patient developed thermoregulatory dysfunction subsequent to surgical resection of a craniopharyngioma. Her recurrent cytopenias could not be explained by any etiology except chronic hypothermia. The pancytopenia improved upon rewarming the patient to a temperature of 36 degrees C. This association between hypothermia and pancytopenia has rarely been reported in humans and may be underdiagnosed especially in cases of transient or milder presentations. The authors recommend careful hematologic monitoring of patients with thermoregulatory dysfunction.

  4. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  5. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  6. [Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Povolný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous group of diseases of heart muscle accompanied with impaired cardiac function. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is caused by prolonged tachycardia leading to dilatation and systolic dysfunction with clinical manifestation of heart failure. This state is reversible after normalization of heart rate. The diagnosis is usually made retrospectively after normalization of heart rate and recovery of left ventricular function (LVF). More than 100 years after the first documented case (described in 1913 in a young patient with atrial fibrillation and symptoms of heart failure [25]) is still limited knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms. The most common arrhythmias responsible for the TIC include atrial fibrillation [1,2], atrial flutter [3], incessant supraventricular tachycardia [4], ventricular tachycardia (VT) [5] and frequent ventricular extrasystoles (VES) [6]. TIC detection and therapeutic intervention is crucial considering potential reversibility of tachycardia. Current options of treatment involve drug therapy and surgical or catheter ablation.

  7. Catatonia induced by levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Marie-Josée; Nguyen, Dang-Khoa; Clément, Jean-François; Bruneau, Marie-Andrée

    2006-02-01

    Levetiracetam (Keppra) is a novel antiepileptic drug approved as adjunctive treatment for adults with partial onset seizures. Although the drug is generally well tolerated, behavioral side effects have been reported in variable frequency. Most behavioral problems are mild in nature (agitation, hostility, anxiety, emotional lability, apathy, depression) and quickly resolve with discontinuation of medication. However, serious psychiatric adverse events may also occur with rare cases of psychosis and suicidal behavior. We report here the case of a 43-year-old woman who developed symptoms compatible with catatonia after being exposed to levetiracetam for the treatment of epilepsy. To our knowledge, it is the first reported case of catatonia induced by levetiracetam. We review the difficulties that may be encountered in the differential diagnosis of medical catatonia.

  8. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  9. DNA Damage Induced Neuronal Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Experiments are proposed to examine the molecular mechanism by which mustard chemical warfare agents induce neuronal cell death . DNA damage is the...proposed underlying mechanism of mustard-induced neuronal cell death . We propose a novel research strategy to test this hypothesis by using mice with...perturbed DNA repair to explore the relationship between mustard-induced DNA damage and neuronal cell death . Initial in vitro studies (Years 1, 2 & 3

  10. Laser Induced Thermal Keratoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Householder, John; Horwitz, Larry S.; Lowe, Kenneth W.; Murrillo, Adolfo

    1989-09-01

    A technique of corneal surgery that is thermally induced and relatively nonenvasive has been studied by the authors, and the preliminary results of the thermal keratoplasty performed on live rabbits are reported here. A carbon dioxide laser was used with simple optical and pointing systems to thermally induce several arbitrary patterns of corneal reformation. Endothelial photographs were taken before the procedure and then again ten days after. They indicated no damage in the Descemet's membrane nor was there damage observed to the endothelium. As much, as 14 "diopters" of change occurred in the corneal keratometry with both positive and negative directions signs. The magnitude and direction of the change were recorded as functions of the pattern of the therapy produced and the laser energy deposited in the stroma. Any corneal reformation was tracked as a function of time subsequent to the procedure. A-minor decay was observed within the first three days of the procedure and the majority of the reformations have maintained at the time of this writing. Since radiation at this wavelength is highly attenuated and absorbed in cornea, no change was observed beyond mid-stroma and the lens and retina appeared uneffective. The authors believe that this technology will be a significant contributor to corneal refractive procedures in the near future. Unlike any refractive surgery currently practiced, this technology may lead to a procedure that: 1) is reversible, 2) is re.eatable, 3) stren thens rather then weakens the cornea, 4) is a..arentl more stable, 5) is more flexible in the types of corneal curvature changes it can produce, 6) results in very clean mires, 7) is painless, and 8) results in total corneal clarity.

  11. Pertussis-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kay; Harnden, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is one of the commonest vaccine preventable diseases in the UK, despite vaccination coverage being maintained for the last 15 years at over 90% among infants and the addition of a pre-school booster to the UK national immunisation programme in 2001. However, it is known that pertussis vaccine does not confer long-term immunity to clinical infection. Evidence of pertussis infection has been reported in 37% of children presenting in UK primary care and 20% of adolescents and adults presenting in Canadian health centres with persistent cough. In children and adults with persistent cough, paroxysmal coughing is the most sensitive indicator of pertussis, but has poor specificity and limited diagnostic value. Vomiting and whooping, particularly in combination, are stronger predictors of pertussis. Cough duration is longer in children than in adults with pertussis (median cough duration 112 days versus 42 days); individuals may take even longer to recover fully and regain previous levels of exercise tolerance. A diagnosis of pertussis may be confirmed by culture, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or serology. Single estimates of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibody titres in blood or oral fluid samples are highly specific. There are currently no proven efficacious treatments for pertussis-induced cough. Treatment with macrolide antibiotics reduces the duration of an individual's infectious period, but does not alter the duration of cough. Further research is needed to re-examine the epidemiology of pertussis in countries with different vaccination schedules, find efficacious treatments and develop methods of measuring cough frequency and severity in patients with pertussis-induced cough. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Raynaud's phenomenon induced by sulphasalazine.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J.; Holt, S.; Housley, E.; Sneddon, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Sulphasalazine-induced Raynaud's phenomenon is reported in a patient who showed no other features of a drug-induced lupus syndrome. The vascular disturbance disappeared when the drug was withdrawn on 3 occasions. A simple technique for assessing the circulatory abnormality in Raynaud's phenomenon is described. PMID:6104805

  13. Bellows flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tygielski, P. J.; Smyly, H. M.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The bellows flow excitation mechanism and results of comprehensive test program are summarized. The analytical model for predicting bellows flow induced stress is refined. The model includes the effects of an upstream elbow, arbitrary geometry, and multiple piles. A refined computer code for predicting flow induced stress is described which allows life prediction if a material S-N diagram is available.

  14. Fishbone-induced perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Bababekov, Yanik J; Stanelle, Eric J; Abujudeh, Hani H; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2015-05-20

    We review the literature and describe a case of fishbone-induced appendicitis. A 63-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Work up including a focused history and imaging revealed fishbone-induced perforated appendicitis. The patient was managed safely and successfully with laparoscopic removal of the foreign body and appendectomy.

  15. Inductive source induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, David; Haber, Eldad; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2013-02-01

    Induced polarization (IP) surveys are commonly performed to map the distribution of electrical chargeability that is a diagnostic physical property in mineral exploration and in many environmental problems. Although these surveys have been successful in the past, the galvanic sources required for traditional IP and magnetic IP (MIP) surveys prevent them from being applied in some geological settings. We develop a new methodology for processing frequency domain EM data to identify the presence of IP effects in observations of the magnetic fields arising from an inductive source. The method makes use of the asymptotic behaviour of the secondary magnetic fields at low frequency. A new quantity, referred to as the ISIP datum, is defined so that it equals zero at low frequencies for any frequency-independent (non-chargeable) conductivity distribution. Thus, any non-zero response in the ISIP data indicates the presence of chargeable material. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the method can be applied even in complicated geological situations. A 3-D inversion algorithm is developed to recover the chargeability from the ISIP data and the inversion is demonstrated on synthetic examples.

  16. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  17. Opioid-induced Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Kersten, Judy R.; Riess, Matthias L.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction continue to be leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Activation of opioid, adenosine, bradykinin, adrenergic and other G-protein coupled receptors have been found to be cardioprotective. κ- and/or δ-opioid receptor activation is involved in direct myocardial protection, while the role of μ-opioid receptors seems less clear. In addition, differential affinities to the three opioid-receptor subtypes by various agonists and cross-talk among different G-protein coupled receptors render conclusions regarding opioid-mediated cardioprotection challenging. The present review will focus on the protective effects of endogenously released opioid peptides as well as exogenously administered opioids such as morphine, fentanyl, remifentanil, butorphanol, and methadone against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Receptor heterodimerization and cross-talk as well as interactions with other cardioprotective techniques will be discussed. Implications for opioid-induced cardioprotection in humans and for future drug development to improve myocardial salvage will be provided. PMID:24502571

  18. Laughter-induced syncope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Alexander J; Frishman, William H

    2012-01-01

    Reported cases of syncope caused directly by laughter are rare. The common scenario described in a few reports involved episodes of fortuitous laughter, sometimes followed by a short prodrome of lightheadedness, facial flushing, and dizziness, followed by an episode of definite syncope. There were no seizure-like movements, automatisms, or bladder or bowel incontinence. After the syncopal episodes that were seconds in length, the patients regained consciousness, and at that point were fully oriented. These episodes could recur in a similar situation with such laughter. Many of these patients subsequently underwent full syncope workups, without elucidating a primary cardiac or neurologic cause. In this review of laughter-induced syncope, we describe a patient of ours who fit these descriptions. This phenomenon is likely a subtype of benign Valsalva-related syncope, with autonomic reflex arcs coming into play that ultimately result in global cerebral hypoperfusion. Besides the Valsalva produced by a great fit of laughter, laughter itself has its own neuroendocrine and vasculature effects that may play a role.

  19. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  20. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-03-01

    Few dermatologic conditions carry as much emotional distress as chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). The prerequisite for successful development of strategies for CIA prevention is the understanding of the pathobiology of CIA. The incidence and severity of CIA are variable and related to the particular chemotherapeutic protocol. CIA is traditionally categorized as acute diffuse hair loss caused by dystrophic anagen effluvium; however, CIA presents with different clinical patterns of hair loss. When an arrest of mitotic activity occurs, obviously numerous and interacting factors influence the shedding pattern. The major approach to minimize CIA is by scalp cooling. Unfortunately, most published data on scalp cooling are of poor quality. Several experimental approaches to the development of pharmacologic agents are under evaluation and include drug-specific antibodies, hair growth cycle modifiers, cytokines and growth factors, antioxidants, inhibitors of apoptosis, and cell-cycle and proliferation modifiers. Ultimately, the protection should be selective to the hair follicle; for example, topical application, such that the anticancer efficacy of chemotherapy is not hampered. Among the few agents that have been evaluated so far in humans, AS101 and minoxidil were able to reduce the severity or shorten the duration of CIA, but could not prevent CIA.

  1. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  2. [Swimming-induced asthma].

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, L; Gulsvik, A; Walløe, A

    1995-06-30

    Swimming is said to have low asthmogeneity especially when compared with other physical activities. Four young athletes who participated in heavy swimming exercise are reported as having symptoms of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Three of them started to develop the symptoms after several years of training and had no former history of asthma. In the fourth, the asthma was diagnosed in childhood but the EIA-symptoms here exacerbated by swimming. All four experienced more symptoms when the air in the swimming pool was warm, or when there was a strong smell of chlorine. Two of the athletes reported having no symptoms when they swam in outdoor pools and had only minor symptoms, or none at all, when they did other formes of physical exercise, including running. In all four their swimming performance was hampered by their respiratory symptoms. Two of the swimmers improved when they inhaled steroids and adrenerg-beta 2 agonists, and continued their swimming carrier. The cases suggest that an irritant may provoke asthma symptoms in susceptible swimmers. Volatile compounds from chlorination of the pools are suspected as possible irritant agents.

  3. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, A L; Austen, K F

    1980-08-01

    Sixteen patients were seen because of possibly life-threatening exercise-associated symptoms similar to anaphylactic reactions. Asthma attacks, cholinergic urticaria and angioedema, and cardiac arrythmias are recognized as exertion-related phenomena in predisposed patients but are distinct from the syndrome described here. A syndrome characterized by the exertion-related onset of cutaneous pruritus and warmth, the development of generalized urticaria, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse in 12 patients, gastrointestinal tract symptoms in five patients, and upper respiratory distress in 10 patients has been designated exercise-induced anaphylaxis, because of the striking similarity of this symptom complex to the anaphylactic syndrome elicited by ingestion or injection of a foreign antigenic substance. There is a family history of atopic desease for 11 patients and cold urticaria for two others and a personal history of atopy in six. The size of the wheals, the failure to develop an attack with a warm bath or shower or a fever, and the prominence of syncope rule against the diagnosis of conventional cholinergic urticaria. There is no history or evidence of an encounter with an environmental source of antigen during the exercise period.

  4. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  5. Clofibrate-Induced Antidiuresis

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Arnold M.; Howanitz, Joan; Gemert, Marcia Van; Miller, Myron

    1973-01-01

    Normal subjects and patients with antidiuretic hormone (ADH) deficiency were studied to determine the mechanism of the antidiuretic action of clofibrate. Before clofibrate treatment, the patients' ability to concentrate urine with a standardized dehydration procedure correlated with the amount of ADH which was excreted. During clofibrate administration all six patients with ADH deficiency developed an antidiuresis which was like that of ADH, since there was no change in sodium, potassium, total solute, or creatinine excretion. There was a correlation between the patients' ability to concentrate urine during dehydration and the subsequent response to clofibrate, and the excretion of ADH during dehydration correlated with the excretion of ADH on clofibrate therapy. Clofibrate-induced antidiuresis in these patients was partially overcome by ethanol and by water loading. Clofibrate interfered with the ability of patients and subjects to excrete a water load and prevented the water load from inhibiting ADH excretion in the normal subjects. These studies suggested that clofibrate was acting through endogenous ADH and this thesis was supported by the failure of clofibrate to produce an antidiuresis when injected into rats with total ADH deficiency (Brattleboro strain) although an antidiuresis was produced in water-loaded normal rats. When the drug was injected into Brattleboro rats with exogenous ADH, clofibrate either did not alter or it inhibited the action of the ADH. The data demonstrate that clofibrate has a significant ADH-like action. This action appears to be mediated through the release of endogenous ADH. Images PMID:4685079

  6. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bryan L.; Skuli, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O2) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O2 availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O2 are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities. PMID:22866203

  8. Loperamide-induced hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Catherine; Gan, Earn H; Pearce, Simon H S

    2016-01-01

    Loperamide is the most commonly used antidiarrhoeal medication in the UK. We report a serious and hitherto undocumented adverse effect of chronic use in a 45-year-old man with inflammatory bowel disease. He presented to the endocrine clinic with fatigue and low libido; biochemical assessment revealed hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency without any elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone. When symptoms allowed, loperamide was reduced and a short synacthen test (SST) showed a ‘clear pass’ with a normal peak cortisol of 833 nmol/L. Later, worsening diarrhoea necessitated an escalation in loperamide use again. While taking a daily dose of 15–20 mg (recommended daily maximum 16 mg) reassessment revealed a fall in peak cortisol on SST to 483 nmol/L, a subnormal response. Clinicians should exercise caution when relying on loperamide to manage their patients’ chronic diarrhoea and remain mindful of the possibility of drug-induced life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27681351

  9. Ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Chiva, E; Díaz-Rangel, M; Monsalve-Naharro, J Á; Cuesta-Montero, P; Catalá-Ripoll, J V; García-Martínez, E M

    2017-05-27

    Ceftazidime is an antibiotic belonging to the group of third generation cephalosporins, frequently used in clinical practice for its broad antibacterial spectrum. A case report is presented on a 78-year-old man who entered the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure secondary to nosocomial pneumonia in the postoperative period of a laparoscopic hepatic bisegmentectomy for a hepatocarcinoma. It required invasive mechanical ventilation and was treated with ceftazidime, developing a progressive decrease in platelet count after the onset of this drug and after re-exposure to it, not coinciding with the introduction of other drugs. The adverse reaction was reported to the Spanish pharmacosurveillance system and according to the Naranjo algorithm the causal relationship was probable. Since no case of ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia was found in the literature, we consider knowledge of it relevant as an adverse effect to be taken into account given its potential severity, especially when it cannot be explained by other causes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  11. Coffee-induced Hypokalaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Taking an excess amount of caffeine (e.g. overdrinking caffeinated beverages) sometimes causes hypokalaemia. Although the detailed mechanism has not been clarified yet, an increased loss of potassium via the urine stream caused by the diuretic action of caffeine is proposed as one of the possibilities. We report the case of a 50-year-old female outpatient who rapidly developed severe generalized muscle weakness and fatigue. Her symptoms were considered to be principally due to hypokalaemia. Since her blood urea nitrogen concentration decreased greatly, it was suggested that she had massive polyuria due to overhydration (i.e. dilution of her body fluids). Initially, we considered that a urinary tract infection might have caused her illness. However, we found that she was a heavy coffee drinker and had constantly experienced massive diuresis. After a course of oral antibiotics, potassium replacement and stopping coffee (caffeine) ingestion, her symptoms resolved quickly. In conclusion, it was considered that overdrinking coffee (caffeine) induced her hypokalaemia. Probably, loss of potassium via the urine stream with secondary aldosteronism was the main cause of the hypokalaemia. PMID:21769248

  12. Tumour-induced osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Minisola, Salvatore; Peacock, Munro; Fukumoto, Seijii; Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Tella, Sri Harsha; Collins, Michael T

    2017-07-13

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Owing to the role of FGF23 in renal phosphate handling and vitamin D synthesis, TIO is characterized by decreased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, by hypophosphataemia and by low levels of active vitamin D. Chronic hypophosphataemia ultimately results in osteomalacia (that is, inadequate bone mineralization). The diagnosis of TIO is usually suspected when serum phosphate levels are chronically low in the setting of bone pain, fragility fractures and muscle weakness. Locating the offending tumour can be very difficult, as the tumour is often very small and can be anywhere in the body. Surgical removal of the tumour is the only definitive treatment. When the tumour cannot be located or when complete resection is not possible, medical treatment with phosphate salts or active vitamin D is necessary. One of the most promising emerging treatments for unresectable tumours that cause TIO is the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23. The recent identification of a fusion of fibronectin and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) as a molecular driver in some tumours not only sheds light on the pathophysiology of TIO but also opens the door to a better understanding of the transcription, translocation, post-translational modification and secretion of FGF23, as well as suggesting approaches to targeted therapy. Further study will reveal if the FGFR1 pathway is also involved in tumours that do not harbour the translocation.

  13. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar

    2011-01-01

    In the last 7 decades heparin has remained the most commonly used anticoagulant. Its use is increasing, mainly due to the increase in the number of vascular interventions and aging population. The most feared complication of heparin use is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT is a clinicopathologic hypercoagulable, procoagulant prothrombotic condition in patients on heparin therapy, and decrease in platelet count by 50% or to less than 100,000, from 5 to 14 days of therapy. This prothrombotic hypercoagulable state in HIT patient is due to the combined effect of various factors, such as platelet activation, mainly the formation of PF4/heparin/IgG complex, stimulation of the intrinsic factor, and loss of anticoagulant effect of heparin. Diagnosis of HIT is done by clinical condition, heparin use, and timing of thrombocytopenia, and it is confirmed by either serotonin release assay or ELISA assay. Complications of HIT are venous/arterial thrombosis, skin gangrene, and acute platelet activation syndrome. Stopping heparin is the basic initial treatment, and Direct Thrombin Inhibitors (DTI) are medication of choice in these patients. A few routine but essential procedures performed by using heparin are hemodialysis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, and Cardiopulmonary Bypass; but it cannot be used if a patient develops HIT. HIT patients with unstable angina, thromboembolism, or indwelling devices, such as valve replacement or intraaortic balloon pump, will require alternative anticoagulation therapy. HIT can be prevented significantly by keeping heparin therapy shorter, avoiding bovine heparin, using low-molecular weight heparin, and stopping heparin use for flush and heparin lock.

  14. Methods for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Phillip G; Carr-Ellis, Sacheen; Borgatta, Lynn

    2004-07-01

    We describe present methods for induced abortion used in the United States. The most common procedure is first-trimester vacuum curettage. Analgesia is usually provided with a paracervical block and is not completely effective. Pretreatment with nonsteroidal analgesics and conscious sedation augment analgesia but only to a modest extent. Cervical dilation is accomplished with conventional tapered dilators, hygroscopic dilators, or misoprostol. Manual vacuum curettage is as safe and effective as the electric uterine aspirator for procedures through 10 weeks of gestation. Common complications and their management are presented. Early abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol combinations is replacing some surgical abortions. Two mifepristone/misoprostol regimens are used. The rare serious complications of medical abortion are described. Twelve percent of abortions are performed in the second trimester, the majority of these by dilation and evacuation (D&E) after laminaria dilation of the cervix. Uterine evacuation is accomplished with heavy ovum forceps augmented by 14-16 mm vacuum cannula systems. Cervical injection of dilute vasopressin reduces blood loss. Operative ultrasonography is reported to reduce perforation risk of D&E. Dilation and evacuation procedures have evolved to include intact D&E and combination methods for more advanced gestations. Vaginal misoprostol is as effective as dinoprostone for second-trimester labor-induction abortion and appears to be replacing older methods. Mifepristone/misoprostol combinations appear more effective than misoprostol alone. Uterine rupture has been reported in women with uterine scars with misoprostol abortion in the second trimester. Fetal intracardiac injection to reduce multiple pregnancies or selectively abort an anomalous twin is accepted therapy. Outcomes for the remaining pregnancy have improved with experience.

  15. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  16. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  17. Inducible Lysis in Clostridium tetani

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Lawrence M.; Altenbern, Robert A.

    1967-01-01

    Lysis was induced in seven strains of Clostridium tetani by exposure to mitomycin C. The search for a suitable indicator strain to detect bacteriophage in lysates has, so far, been unsuccessful. Inhibition studies on macromolecular synthesis during induction have shown that deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein syntheses are all involved in the lysis induced by mitomycin C. In experiments comparing toxin and protein content in induced and uninduced cells of C. tetani, the toxin-protein ratio proved to be the same in both systems up to the point of lysis. Several possible hypotheses deduced from these results are discussed. PMID:4226682

  18. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  19. Pregnancy-Induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kintiraki, Evangelia; Papakatsika, Sophia; Kotronis, George; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) complicates 6-10% of pregnancies. It is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mmHg. It is classified as mild (SBP 140-149 and DBP 90-99 mmHg), moderate (SBP 150-159 and DBP 100-109 mmHg) and severe (SBP ≥ 160 and DBP ≥ 110 mmHg). PIH refers to one of four conditions: a) pre-existing hypertension, b) gestational hypertension and preeclampsia (PE), c) pre-existing hypertension plus superimposed gestational hypertension with proteinuria and d) unclassifiable hypertension. PIH is a major cause of maternal, fetal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Women with PIH are at a greater risk of abruptio placentae, cerebrovascular events, organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fetuses of these mothers are at greater risk of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and intrauterine death. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a period of 24 h seems to have a role in predicting deterioration from gestational hypertension to PE. Antiplatelet drugs have moderate benefits when used for prevention of PE. Treatment of PIH depends on blood pressure levels, gestational age, presence of symptoms and associated risk factors. Non-drug management is recommended when SBP ranges between 140-149 mmHg or DBP between 90-99 mmHg. Blood pressure thresholds for drug management in pregnancy vary between different health organizations. According to 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines, antihypertensive treatment is recommended in pregnancy when blood pressure levels are ≥ 150/95 mmHg. Initiation of antihypertensive treatment at values ≥ 140/90 mmHg is recommended in women with a) gestational hypertension, with or without proteinuria, b) pre-existing hypertension with the superimposition of gestational hypertension or c) hypertension with asymptomatic organ damage or symptoms at any time during pregnancy. Methyldopa is the drug of choice in pregnancy. Atenolol and metoprolol appear to be

  20. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  1. Phentermine induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Emily Ximin; Wilson, Gregory John; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2017-03-09

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication. The patient underwent a renal biopsy that showed a predominantly lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate with a moderate number of eosinophils consistent with AIN. Phentermine is increasingly used for weight loss in obese patients. This is the first case implicating phentermine as the causative agent for drug-induced AIN. While rare, phentermine-induced AIN is a possible adverse reaction of phentermine. Physicians and patients need to be aware of this risk.

  2. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Drug-induced lupus erythematosus is similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is an autoimmune disorder. This means ... 2015:chap 132. Wright B, Bharadwaj S, Abelson A. Systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Carey WD, ed. Cleveland Clinic: Current Clinical ...

  3. Drug-induced urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary.

  4. Groundwater: Climate-induced pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdak, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater resources are directly affected by climate variability via precipitation, evapotranspiration and recharge. Analyses of US and India trends reveal that climate-induced pumping indirectly influences groundwater depletion as well.

  5. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  6. [Medical induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  7. Dress syndrome induced by levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Eleni, K

    2015-02-01

    The tremendous increase in the use of drugs has considerably increased their side effects. The aim of this work is to demonstrate Dress syndrome induced by levetiracetam an anti-epileptic drug. We describe a skin eruption observed in an-hospitalized in an intensive care unit patient who received levetiracetam. According to morphology of the rash and the laboratory findings the rash fulfills the criteria for Dress syndrome. Levetiracetam may induce Dress syndrome. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Murty, Prof K.L.; Eapen, Dr. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

  9. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  10. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    about the probable effects on the administration of criminal justice. These are pragmatic problems; there is a third problem which may at this time seem speculative, but is, nevertheless, quite important. 3) To what extent will a particular proposal for victim compensation contribute to a temptation-opportunity pattern in victim behavior? In previous studies it has been pointed out that large numbers of our fellow Americans have tended to acquire casual money-handling habits-generically designated "carelessness"-which contribute to the national growth of criminality. How the victim helps the criminal was sketched in reports of those studies (10). It was made abundantly clear that human beings in our affluent society cannot be assumed to be prudent or self-protective against the hazards of crime. Even when the "victim" is not overtly acting to commit a crime-as in the case of the property owner who hires an arsonist-he often tempts the offender. Among the victims of burglary-statistically the most prevalent crime in the United States-are a substantial number of Americans who keep cash, jewelry, and other valuables carelessly at home or in hotel rooms to which the burglar has easy access through door or window. Victims of automobile theft-one of the fastest growing classes of crime-include drivers who leave the vehicle or its contents invitingly accessible to thieves. And so on with other classes of crime. As pointed out in previous studies, when victim behavior follows a temptation-opportunity pattern, it (i) contributes to a "climate of criminal inducements," (ii) adds to the economic resources available to criminal societies, and (iii) detracts from the ability of lawenforcement agencies to suppress the growth of crime.

  11. Inducible NOS mediates CNP-induced relaxation of intestinal myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yishi; Chitapanarux, Taned; Wu, Jianfeng; Soon, Russell K.; Melton, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Contraction of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF) contributes to the development of strictures and fistulas seen in inflammatory bowel disease, but the mechanisms that regulate tension within these cells are poorly understood. In this study we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-induced relaxation of IMF. We found that treatment with ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, or NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) or NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), inhibitors of NO production, all impaired the relaxation of human and mouse IMF in response to CNP. ODQ, l-NNA, and l-NMMA also prevented CNP-induced elevations in cGMP concentrations, and l-NNA or l-NMMA blocked CNP-induced decreases in myosin light phosphorylation. IMF isolated from transgenic mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) had reduced relaxation responses to CNP compared with IMF from control mice and were insensitive to the effects of ODQ, l-NNA, and l-NMMA on CNP treatment. Together these data indicate that stimulation of sGC though NO produced by iNOS activation is required for maximal CNP-induced relaxation in IMF. PMID:23348803

  12. Reprogramming with defined factors: from induced pluripotency to induced transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Masip, Manuel; Veiga, Anna; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Simón, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    Ever since work on pluripotency induction was originally published, reporting the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) by the ectopic expression of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, high expectations regarding their potential use for regenerative medicine have emerged. Very recently, the direct conversion of fibroblasts into functional neurons with no prior pluripotent stage has been described. Interconversion between adult cells from ontogenically different lineages by an induced transdifferentiation process based on the overexpression of a cocktail of transcription factors, while avoiding transition through an embryonic stem cell-like state, provides a new impetus in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we review the induced reprogramming of somatic cells with defined factors and analyze their potential clinical use. Beginning with induced pluripotency, we summarize the initial objections including their extremely low efficiency and the risk of tumor generation. We also review recent reports describing iPS cells' capacity to generate viable offspring through tetraploid complementation, the most restrictive pluripotency criterion. Finally, we explore the available evidence for 'induced transdifferentiated cells' as a novel tool for adult cell fate modification.

  13. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  14. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Shoja, Mohammad Ali Mohajjel

    2006-11-01

    Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia is a serious concern both for the patient and the clinician. A 45 year-old Caucasian male patient with hypertension, who received amlodipine (10 mg/day, single dose orally) for two months, sought medical attention because of the new-onset gingival enlargement. On clinical examination a generalized and firm overgrowth of the gingival throughout the maxilla and the mandible were evident. The lack of gingival inflammation and purulent discharge were other features of the clinical scenario. Histological assessment of the biopsy specimen revealed the hyperplasia of connective tissue, epithelial acanthosis, and elongated rete ridges along with few inflammatory cells. The histological and the clinical evidences were consistent with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. We believe that the present report indicates the most rapidly developed case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia reported to date. The related literature is reviewed and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of this rare side-effect are discussed here.

  15. Risperidone-induced cholestatic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Krebs, S; Dormann, H; Muth-Selbach, U; Hahn, E G; Brune, K; Schneider, H T

    2001-01-01

    Risperidone, a widely used atypical and potent neuroleptic drug, is assumed to induce fewer hepatic side-effects than phenothiazine anti-psychotics. Recently, we observed a case of risperidone-induced cholestatic hepatotoxicity. A 37-year-old male developed a rapid increase in liver enzymes and cholestatic parameters after starting treatment with risperidone for paranoid psychosis. Work-up for other potential aetiologies was negative. The results of a percutaneous liver biopsy were consistent with drug-induced liver injury and cholestasis. Over the course of one month after the discontinuance of all anti-psychotic agents, the liver function test results returned to near-normal values. This observation supports the need to monitor cholestatic parameters in addition to liver function enzymes during initiation and the first weeks of risperidone intake.

  16. Jet-Induced Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Fragile, C; Anninos, P; Murray, S

    2003-12-16

    Jets from radio galaxies can have dramatic effects on the medium through which they propagate. We review observational evidence for jet-induced star formation in low ('FR-I') and high ('FR-II') luminosity radio galaxies, at low and high redshifts respectively. We then discuss numerical simulations which are aimed to explain a jet-induced starburst ('Minkowski's Object') in the nearby FR-I type radio galaxy NGC 541. We conclude that jets can induce star formation in moderately dense (10 cm{sup -3}), warm (10{sup 4} K) gas; that this may be more common in the dense environments of forming, active galaxies; and that this may provide a mechanism for 'positive' feedback from AGN in the galaxy formation process.

  17. Persistent nicorandil induced oral ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Healy, C M; Smyth, Y; Flint, S R

    2004-01-01

    Four patients with nicorandil induced ulceration are described, and the literature on the subject is reviewed. Nicorandil induced ulcers are very painful and distressing for patients. Clinically they appear as large, deep, persistent ulcers that have punched out edges. They are poorly responsive to topical steroids and usually require alteration of nicorandil treatment. The ulceration tends to occur at high doses of nicorandil and all four cases reported here were on doses of 40 mg per day or greater. In these situations reduction of nicorandil dose may be sufficient to promote ulcer healing and prevent further recurrence. However, nicorandil induced ulcers have been reported at doses as low as 10 mg daily and complete cessation of nicorandil may be required. PMID:15201264

  18. Touch-induced visual illusion.

    PubMed

    Violentyev, Artem; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Shams, Ladan

    2005-07-13

    Although vision is considered the dominant modality, recent studies demonstrate the influence of other modalities on visual perception. For example, in the sound-induced flash illusion, two auditory stimuli cause one visual flash to be perceived as two. We report an extension of the sound-induced flash illusion to the tactile-visual domain, yielding the touch-induced flash illusion. Observers reported seeing two flashes on the majority of trials when a single flash was presented concurrently with two task-irrelevant brief tactile stimuli. Somatosensory stimulation changed the sensitivity (d') of detecting visual stimuli, which suggests that the observed effect is at least partly due to perceptual interactions. Together with other recent findings, these results challenge the notion that the processing of visual information is independent of activity in other modalities.

  19. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  20. Validating induced seismicity forecast models—Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király-Proag, Eszter; Zechar, J. Douglas; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SaSS forecasts the spatial distribution better and gives better seismicity rate estimates before shut-in. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in.

  1. Diapir-Induced Reorientation of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Nimno, Francis

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the diapir-induced reorientation of Enceladus is shown. The contents include: 1) Activity on Enceladus; 2) Miranda's Coronae: Origin above Diapirs; 3) Reorientation of Miranda; 4) Planetary Reorientation; 5) Modeling Diapir-Induced Reorientation; 6) Diapir-Induced Reorientation: Results; 7) Tectonic Implications of Reorientation; 8) Additional Tests of Reorientation; 9) Diapir-Induced Reorientation of Enceladus: Conclusions; and 10) Diapir-Induced Reorientation: Future Work

  2. Diapir-Induced Reorientation of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Nimno, Francis

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the diapir-induced reorientation of Enceladus is shown. The contents include: 1) Activity on Enceladus; 2) Miranda's Coronae: Origin above Diapirs; 3) Reorientation of Miranda; 4) Planetary Reorientation; 5) Modeling Diapir-Induced Reorientation; 6) Diapir-Induced Reorientation: Results; 7) Tectonic Implications of Reorientation; 8) Additional Tests of Reorientation; 9) Diapir-Induced Reorientation of Enceladus: Conclusions; and 10) Diapir-Induced Reorientation: Future Work

  3. Baboon syndrome induced by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Yavuzcan, Gizem; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2014-12-01

    A 27-year-old male patient presented with a maculopapular eruption on the flexural areas and buttocks after using oral ketoconazole. The patient was diagnosed with drug-induced baboon syndrome based on his history, which included prior sensitivity to topical ketoconazole, a physical examination, and histopathological findings. Baboon syndrome is a drug- or contact allergen-related maculopapular eruption that typically involves the flexural and gluteal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ketoconazole-induced baboon syndrome in the English literature.

  4. Plasma rotation induced by RF

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698; Omelchenko, Y. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698

    1999-09-20

    Plasma rotation has many beneficial effects on tokamak operation including stabilization of MHD and microturbulence to improve the beta limit and confinement. Contrary to present-day tokamaks, neutral beams may not be effective in driving rotation in fusion reactors; hence the investigation of radiofrequency (RF) induced plasma rotation is of great interest and potential importance. This paper reviews the experimental results of RF induced rotation and possible physical mechanisms, suggested by theories, to explain the observations. This subject is only in the infancy of its research and many challenging issues remained to be understood and resolved. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  6. Key aspects governing induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buijze, Loes; Wassing, Brecht; Fokker, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the past decades numerous examples of earthquakes induced by human-induced changes in subsurface fluid pressures have been reported. This poses a major threat to the future development of some of these operations and calls for an understanding and quantification of the seismicity generated. From geomechanical considerations and insights from laboratory experiments the factors controlling induced seismicity may be grouped into 4 categories; the magnitude of the stress disturbance, the pre-existing stress conditions, the reservoir/fault rock properties and the local geometry. We investigated whether the (relative) contributions of these factors and their influence on magnitudes generated could be recognized by looking at the entire dataset of reported cases of induced seismicity as a whole, and what this might imply for future developments. An extensive database has been built out of over a 160 known cases of induced seismicity worldwide, incorporating the relevant geological, seismological and fluid-related parameters. The cases studied include hydrocarbon depletion and secondary recovery, waste water injection, (enhanced) geothermal systems and hydraulic fracturing with observed magnitudes ranging from less than -1.5 to 7. The parameters taken into account were based on the theoretical background of the mechanisms of induced seismicity and include the injection/depletion-related parameters, (spatial) characteristics of seismicity, lithological properties and the local stress situation. Correlations between the seismic response and the geological/geomechanical characteristics of the various sites were investigated. The injected/depleted volumes and the scale of the activities are major controlling factors on the maximum magnitudes generated. Spatial signatures of seismicity such as the depth and lateral spread of the seismicity were observed to be distinct for different activities, which is useful when considering future operations. Where available the local

  7. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    PubMed

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  8. Drug-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  9. Graphene with geometrically induced vorticity.

    PubMed

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Stone, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2008-04-18

    At half filling, the electronic structure of graphene can be modeled by a pair of free two-dimensional Dirac fermions. We explicitly demonstrate that in the presence of a geometrically induced gauge field an everywhere-real Kekulé modulation of the hopping matrix elements can correspond to a nonreal Higgs field with nontrivial vorticity. This provides a natural setting for fractionally charged vortices with localized zero modes. For fullerenelike molecules we employ the index theorem to demonstrate the existence of six low-lying states that do not depend strongly on the Kekulé-induced mass gap.

  10. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  11. Induced activation in accelerator components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungau, Cristian; Bungau, Adriana; Cywinski, Robert; Barlow, Roger; Edgecock, Thomas Robert; Carlsson, Patrick; Danared, Hâkan; Mezei, Ferenc; Holm, Anne Ivalu Sander; Møller, Søren Pape; Thomsen, Heine Dølrath

    2014-08-01

    The residual activity induced in particle accelerators is a serious issue from the point of view of radiation safety as the long-lived radionuclides produced by fast or moderated neutrons and impact protons cause problems of radiation exposure for staff involved in the maintenance work and when decommissioning the facility. This paper presents activation studies of the magnets and collimators in the High Energy Beam Transport line of the European Spallation Source due to the backscattered neutrons from the target and also due to the direct proton interactions and their secondaries. An estimate of the radionuclide inventory and induced activation are predicted using the GEANT4 code.

  12. Efavirenz-induced exfoliative dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Sun, Yong-Tao

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at higher risk of developing adverse drug reactions. Multiple drugs are usually prescribed to patients with HIV infection for preventing the replication of HIV and for the treatment of the associated opportunistic infections. We report here the first case of an HIV-1-infected patient who developed an exfoliative dermatitis induced by efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of efavirenz-induced skin eruptions from the start of antiviral treatment of HIV infection.

  13. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  14. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  15. Adrafinil-induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Thobois, Stéphane; Xie, Jing; Mollion, Helena; Benatru, Isabelle; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    We describe the first case of orofacial abnormal movements induced by adrafinil, a vigilance promoting agent of the same pharmacological class as modafinil. The dyskinesias did not spontaneously recover despite adrafinil withdrawal for a 4-month period. They were secondly dramatically improved by tetrabenazine, a presynaptic dopaminergic depleting drug which was introduced after the 4-month adrafinil-free period.

  16. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  17. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    Gold Bond Powder Allopurinol (PIM 020F, French) Aluminum ophorite explosive. Methanol Aspirin Alphaprodine (PIM 878) Amatex. Aluminum Phosphide...can, directly or indirectly, change the electric charges of atoms or molecules . It is produced when radionuclides decay. LASER-INDUCED BREAKDOWN

  19. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  20. Oxaliplatin-induced lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arpan; Udwadia, Zarir F.; Almel, Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Oxaliplatin has been approved for use as an adjuvant treatment in stage III colorectal carcinoma by the US-FDA. The majority of toxicity caused by this drug is manageable. However, rare, isolated cases of pulmonary fibrosis induced by this drug have been reported in literature. We report one such case of rapidly evolving pulmonary fibrosis following treatment with oxaliplatin. PMID:20838550

  1. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  2. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. Calotropis procera-induced keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera-induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops. PMID:19075415

  4. Palatine perforation induced by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Rosas, Miguel; Jimenez-Santos, Cecilia Irene; García-González, Claudia Lorena

    2006-05-01

    Worldwide, the use of cocaine has an increased over the years, various secondary effects have been described. Here we present a 48 years old female with a 2-month evolution bucconasal ulcer in the hard palate induced by cocaine usage accompanied by swallow and phonation dysfunctions. Ethiopathogenesis, differential diagnoses and treatment are discussed.

  5. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  6. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  7. Effect of cell-derived growth factors and cytokines on the clonal outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells and established lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, P; Zhang, X M; Ohlin, M; Zeuthen, J; Borrebaeck, C A

    1993-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent inducer of polyclonal B lymphocyte proliferation and is widely used as a tool for the establishment of B cell lines producing human monoclonal antibodies. However, because of low transformability, low clonability, and the inherent instability of EBV-infected B cells, valuable antibody-producing B cells are often lost during this procedure. We have here examined various cell-derived cytokines for their ability to enhance both the cellular outgrowth of newly infected B cells and the clonability of infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our results show that the murine thymoma cell line EL-4 is superior to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in both cellular outgrowth and cloning experiments, whereas monocyte-derived factors and monocyte cell lines were less capable than peripheral blood mononuclear cells in enhancing cellular outgrowth and cloning. Furthermore, the human T cell hybridoma cell line MP6 that secretes a B cell growth and differentiation factor, recently identified as an isoform of thioredoxin, is also capable of stimulating EBV-infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Co-cultivation of EBV-infected B cells with MP6 cells significantly enhanced the cloning efficiency at the 1 cell/well level. The present results also suggest that one potential role of the MP6-derived thioredoxin could be the up regulation of IL-6 receptor expression in EBV-infected B cells.

  8. An inducible offense: carnivore morph tadpoles induced by tadpole carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Nicholas A; de la Serna Buzón, Sofia; Pfennig, David W

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace, and plasticity theory predicts that organisms should often evolve mechanisms to detect and respond to environmental cues that accurately predict future environmental conditions. Here, we test this prediction in tadpoles of spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata. These tadpoles develop into either an omnivore ecomorph, which is a dietary generalist, or a carnivore ecomorph, which specializes on anostracan shrimp and other tadpoles. We investigated a novel proximate cue – ingestion of Scaphiopus tadpoles – and its propensity to produce carnivores by rearing tadpoles on different diets. We found that diets containing tadpoles from the genus Scaphiopus produced more carnivores than diets without Scaphiopus tadpoles. We discuss why Scaphiopus tadpoles are an excellent food source and why it is therefore advantageous for S. multiplicata tadpoles to produce an inducible offense that allows them to better utilize this resource. In general, such inducible offenses provide an excellent setting for investigating the proximate and evolutionary basis of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25897380

  9. Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia inducing torsades de pointes.

    PubMed

    Chvilicek, J P; Hurlbert, B J; Hill, G E

    1995-12-01

    Torsades de pointes (TP), an unique polymorphous type of ventricular tachycardia, is associated with either an acquired or congenitally prolonged QT interval. Several reports have demonstrated TP to follow an acquired prolonged QT interval secondary to chronic hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, or hypokalaemia. We report a rapid onset, acute extracellular hypokalaemia not associated with other electrolyte disturbances inducing a prolonged QT interval followed by TP. This is the first case report of a rapid onset isolated acute extracellular hypokalaemia inducing TP. Since anaesthetists are involved in therapies that will rapidly reduce extracellular potassium (diuretic, catecholamine, and/or insulin administration, hyperventilation), this cae report serves as a warning that such therapy may have the risk of arrhythmia induction.

  10. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  11. Hydromechanics of Reservoir Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura-Gomez, Inmaculada

    Data from five reservoirs were analyzed to investigate the various factors and possible pore pressure thresholds associated with Reservoir Induced Seismicity (RIS). Data was obtained from the following reservoirs: Koyna and Warna Reservoirs in India, Itoiz Reservoir in the western Pyrenees, Spain, and Jocassee and Monticello Reservoirs in South Carolina, U.S.A. Koyna Reservoir is one out of four reservoirs in the world where M≥6.0 induced earthquakes have occurred, whereas Warna Reservoir accounts for one out of ten cases with 5.0≤M≤5.9 induced earthquakes. Induced seismicity in the Koyna-Warna region is associated with annual filling cycles in the two reservoirs, large water level changes (30 to 45 m) and the presence of regional scale fractures. The Koyna-Warna case includes 19 M≥5.0 earthquakes at non-repeating hypocenters. The calculation of excess pore pressures associated with these earthquakes suggests values >300 kPa or >600 kPa, before or after 1993 respectively. The need for larger pore pressures from 1993 suggests that M≥5 earthquakes were induced on stronger faults in the region. The exceedance of the previous water level maxima (stress memory) is the most important, although not determining factor in inducing these M≥5.0 earthquakes. Itoiz Reservoir is one of twenty nine reservoirs with 4.0≤M≤4.9 induced earthquakes. The analysis of the RIS associated with the Itoiz Reservoir impoundment, between January 2004 and the end of 2008, shows that that pore pressures diffuse away from Itoiz Reservoir through the carbonate megabreccia systems of the Early to Middle Eocene Hecho Group, and a series of near-vertical thrust faults above the gently dipping Gavarnie thrust. Excess diffused pore pressures destabilize saturated critically stressed seismogenic fractures where RIS takes place. In particular, M≥3.0 earthquakes in the region are associated with excess pore pressures of the order of 100 to 200 kPa. Jocassee and Monticello Reservoirs in

  12. Does a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia induce vestigial cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Reumer, Barbara M.; Mouton, Laurence; Kremer, Natacha; Vavre, Fabrice; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising the possibility that latent CI may be widespread among Wolbachia. Here, we investigate whether a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain can also induce CI. Parthenogenetic females of the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica regularly produce a small number of males that may be either infected or not. Uninfected males were further obtained through removal of the Wolbachia using antibiotics and from a naturally uninfected strain. Uninfected females that had mated with infected males produced a slightly, but significantly more male-biased sex ratio than uninfected females that had mated with uninfected males. This effect was strongest in females that mated with males that had a relatively high Wolbachia titer. Quantitative PCR indicated that infected males did not show higher ratios of nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA content. Wolbachia therefore does not cause diploidization of cells in infected males. While these results are consistent with CI, other alternatives such as production of abnormal sperm by infected males cannot be completely ruled out. Overall, the effect was very small (9%), suggesting that if CI is involved it may have degenerated through the accumulation of mutations.

  13. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  14. Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Triveni, M. G.; Rudrakshi, C.; Mehta, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth represents an over-exuberant response to a variety of local and systemic conditions. Certain anticonvulsants, immuno-suppressive drugs and a number of calcium channel blockers have been shown to produce similar gingival overgrowths in certain susceptible patients. Amlodipine is a comparatively new calcium channel blocker and has been used with increasing frequency in the management of hypertension and angina. Although amlodipine is considered as a safe drug, very rarely it may induce gingival overgrowth also. A rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth has been reported herein in a 50-year-old female patient. The treatment aspect included Phase-1 therapy, substitution of the drug, the surgical excision and the maintenance and supportive therapy resulting in excellent clinical outcome. PMID:20379416

  15. Disorder induced Floquet Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Paraj; Lindner, Netanel; Rechtsman, Mikael; Refael, Gil

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of realizing a disorder induced topological state in two dimensional periodically driven systems. This phenomenon is akin to the topological Anderson insulator (TAI) in equilibrium systems. We focus on graphene band structures, where in the presence of the driving electromagnetic field, but in the absence of disorder, the system starts off in a trivial state due to the presence of a sublattice potential. We show that by adding on-site disorder a topological state is induced in this system. We numerically compute the average Bott index (the analog of the Chern number for disordered systems) to show that starting from a trivial phase, topological behavior can be observed at finite disorder strength. In the topological phase, we detect chiral edge states by a numerical time evolution of wavepackets at the edge of the system. We propose an experimental set-up in photonic lattices to observe this phenomenon.

  16. Metformin-induced hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kirkiz, Serap; Yarali, Nese; Arman Bilir, Ozlem; Tunc, Bahattin

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare side effect of metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 17-year-old boy was hospitalized for receiving acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment that was composed of vincristine, L-asparaginase, daunorubicin, and prednisone. Hyperglycemia was determined without any clinical sign and metformin was started for steroid-induced insulin resistance. On the second day of metformin treatment, the patient's hemoglobin level decreased, and a direct Coombs test was positive for immunoglobulin G but negative for complement. An indirect Coombs test was negative. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level was within the normal range. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia was suspected and metformin was discontinued. The jaundice gradually disappeared and there was no requirement for red blood cell transfusions. This case showed that physicians should be aware of the potential side effect of metformin although it is infrequent. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Toxin-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Annette M; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Toxins such as pharmaceuticals, herbals, foods, and supplements may lead to hepatic damage. This damage may range from nonspecific symptoms in the setting of liver test abnormalities to acute hepatic failure. The majority of severe cases of toxin-induced hepatic injury are caused by acetaminophen and ethanol. The most important step in the patient evaluation is to gather an extensive history that includes toxin exposure and exclude common causes of liver dysfunction. Patients whose hepatic dysfunction progresses to acute liver failure may benefit from transfer to a transplant service for further management. Currently, the mainstay in management for most exposures is discontinuing the offending agent. This manuscript will review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of the different forms of toxin-induced hepatic injury and exam in-depth the most common hepatic toxins.

  18. Dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency.

    PubMed

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Atabek, Osman; Charron, Eric

    2014-10-17

    We determine the optical response of a thin and dense layer of interacting quantum emitters. We show that, in such a dense system, the Lorentz redshift and the associated interaction broadening can be used to control the transmission and reflection spectra. In the presence of overlapping resonances, a dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency (DIET) regime, similar to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), may be achieved. DIET relies on destructive interference between the electromagnetic waves emitted by quantum emitters. Carefully tuning material parameters allows us to achieve narrow transmission windows in, otherwise, completely opaque media. We analyze in detail this coherent and collective effect using a generalized Lorentz model and show how it can be controlled. Several potential applications of the phenomenon, such as slow light, are proposed.

  19. Yessotoxin as an apoptotic inducer.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Mónica Suárez; Espenes, Arild

    2011-06-01

    This work summarises current knowledge on how the marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) induces apoptosis in different types of cells. The work also addresses perspectives for future research on this topic. YTX triggers apoptosis in a variety of cellular systems including cancer cells. The actual apoptotic pathways are not fully understood and seem to be cell-specific. YTX can induce the mitochondrial pathway in myoblast cell lines, but its potential to activate other signalling pathways and possible cross-talk between them has not been reported. Improvement in our understanding of death signalling induction by YTX may contribute to identifying novel molecular mechanisms of interest for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  1. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  2. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  3. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pezzani, Maria Diletta; Resnati, Chiara; Di Cristo, Valentina; Riva, Agostino; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  4. Indoxyl sulfate induces nephrovascular senescence.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshimitsu; Shimizu, Hidehisa

    2012-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate is markedly accumulated in the serum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum levels of indoxyl sulfate in CKD patients by adsorbing indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestine. Indoxyl sulfate is taken up by proximal tubular cells through organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), and it induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) with impairment of cellular antioxidative system. Indoxyl sulfate stimulates progression of CKD by increasing renal expression of profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1. Further, it promotes the expression of p53 by ROS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B, thereby accelerating senescence of proximal tubular cells with progression of CKD. Administration of indoxyl sulfate to hypertensive rats reduces renal expression of Klotho and promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, accompanied by kidney fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates Klotho expression in the kidneys through production of ROS and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in proximal tubular cells. It promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, in the aorta of hypertensive rats. It also promotes aortic calcification and aortic wall thickening in hypertensive rats with expression of osteoblast-specific proteins, induces ROS in vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells, stimulates proliferation and osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibits viability and nitric oxide production of vascular endothelial cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate accelerates the progression of not only CKD but also of cardiovascular disease by inducing nephrovascular cell senescence. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Entanglement-induced quantum radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Satoshi; Tatsukawa, Rumi; Ueda, Kazushige; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Quantum entanglement of the Minkowski vacuum state between left and right Rindler wedges generates thermal behavior in the right Rindler wedge, which is known as the Unruh effect. In this paper, we show that there is another consequence of this entanglement, namely entanglement-induced quantum radiation emanating from a uniformly accelerated object. We clarify why it is in agreement with our intuition that incoming and outgoing energy fluxes should cancel each other out in a thermalized state.

  6. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  7. Etanercept-induced cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Maria; Caretti, Katherine; Kado, Jessica

    2014-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α antagonists are potent biologics used to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn disease, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. These medications are known to have many side effects (eg, infusion reactions, cytopenia, risk for infection, heart failure); however, only a few cases of acne vulgaris have been associated with the use of these biologics, particularly infliximab and adalimumab. We report a rare case of etanercept-induced cystic acne.

  8. Acyclovir-induced thrombotic microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goli, R.; Mukku, K. K.; Devaraju, S. B. R.; Uppin, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Acyclovir is a commonly used antiviral drug. Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to intratubular crystal precipitation and interstitial nephritis is well known. Here we present a case of acyclovir induced AKI in a 61 year old male with herpes zoster, which presented like thrombotic microangiopathy with acute interstitial nephritis. This is the first case report on acyclovir causing thrombotic microaniopathy with partial improvement in renal function after plasmapharesis. PMID:28356666

  9. Nanostructure-induced DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ting; Llizo, Axel; Wang, Chen; Xu, Guiying; Yang, Yanlian

    2013-08-01

    The control of the DNA condensation process is essential for compaction of DNA in chromatin, as well as for biological applications such as nonviral gene therapy. This review endeavours to reflect the progress of investigations on DNA condensation effects of nanostructure-based condensing agents (such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, cationic polymer and peptide agents) observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques. The environmental effects on structural characteristics of nanostructure-induced DNA condensates are also discussed.

  10. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  11. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, {le}{approximately}{ovr J} {times} {approximately}{ovr B}{ge}, has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  12. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, [le][approximately][ovr J] [times] [approximately][ovr B][ge], has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  13. [Drug-induced lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Camus, Philippe

    2007-12-31

    Drug-induced interstitial pneumonias are systematically considered in the differential diagnosis of the interstitial pneumonias. The presentation may be acute, sub-acute or chronic, with the same drug possibly leading to either acute or subacute/chronic interstitial lung disease (e.g. amiodarone). There is no definite diagnostic criterion, the final diagnosis relying on the clinical and imaging features, the chronology of pulmonary manifestations, and the prevalence of reported cases with the suspected drug.

  14. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Charakorn, Natamon; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is an upper airway evaluation technique in which fiberoptic examination is performed under conditions of unconscious sedation. Unique information obtained from this 3-dimensional examination of the airway potentially provides additive benefits to other evaluation methods to guide treatment selection. This article presents recommendations regarding DISE technique and the VOTE Classification system for reporting DISE findings and reviews the evidence concerning DISE test characteristics and the association between DISE findings and treatment outcomes.

  15. [Drug-induced bronchospasm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strumeliev, S

    1978-01-01

    A detailed review of drug-induced bronchospasm is presented. Four types of reactions are described. Furthermore, pathogenesis, clinical picture, treatment and prophylaxis of the "Aspirin-induced asthma" are demonstrated.

  16. Aerospace Sensor Component and Subsystem Investigation and Innovation-2 Component Exploration and Development (ASCSII-2 CED). Delivery Order 0002: Volume 1. Reconfigurable Aperture Antenna Virtual Prototyping (RFIC Radar-on-a Chip Component Design and Re-Use Development)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    and MP6 . Test results on the MP5 run indicated a design error that was corrected on the MP6 run. Test results were not performed on the MP6 devices...and fabricated in two versions of the MITLL Silicon on Insulator (SOI) process. These two versions of the process were referred to as MP5 and MP6 ...Test results on the MP5 run indicated a design error that was corrected on the MP6 run. Test results were not performed on the MP6 devices. The main

  17. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy.

  18. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The systematics of induced radioactivity on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied in a wide range of materials using low level background facilities for detection of gamma rays. Approx. 400 samples of materials processed from structural parts of the spacecraft, as well as materials from onboard experiments, were analyzed at national facilities. These measurements show the variety of radioisotopes that are produced with half-lives greater than 2 wks, most of which are characteristic of proton induced reactions above 20 MeV. For the higher activity, long lived isotopes, it was possible to map the depth and directional dependences of the activity. Due to the stabilized configuration of the LDEF, the induced radioactivity data clearly show contributions from the anisotropic trapped proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly. This effect is discussed, along with evidence for activation by galactic protons and thermal neutrons. The discovery of Be-7 was made on leading side parts of the spacecraft, although this was though not to be related to the in situ production of radioisotopes from external particle fluxes.

  19. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  20. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  1. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles

    PubMed Central

    Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-01

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the “direct” approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  2. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  3. Chromium-induced kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P. ); Qian, Lifen )

    1991-05-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent). The chromate is selectively accumulated in the convoluted proximal tubule where necrosis occurs. An adverse long-term effect of low-dose chromium exposure on the kidneys is suggested by reports of low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria in chromium workers. Excessive urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, a specific proximal tubule brush border protein, and retinol-binding protein has been reported among chrome palters and welders. However, LMW proteinuria occurs after a variety of physiologic stresses, is usually reversible, and cannot by itself be considered evidence of chromic renal disease. Chromate-induced ATN and LMW proteinuria in chromium workers, nevertheless, raise the possibility that low-level, long-term exposure may produce persistent renal injury. The absence of evidence of chromate-induced chromic renal disease cannot be interpreted as evidence of the absence of such injury.

  4. [Secondary osteoporosis induced by anticoagulants?].

    PubMed

    Riess, H; Loew, A; Himmelreich, G

    2001-07-01

    Generalized osteoporosis is a result of different causes and pathogenic mechanisms, which often combine forces to become clinically relevant. Among the different exogenic factors, drugs play an important role, frequently in connection with other factors such as immobilization or pregnancy. It has been suggested that anticoagulation therapy with heparins or coumarins may induce osteoporotic changes or enhance the development of osteoporosis for other reasons. According to in vitro experiments, preclinical trials, and clinical investigations, it seems reasonable to assume that heparins induce increased bone loss in a time- and dose-related manner. Low-molecular-weight heparins most likely have less effect on bone turnover when compared to unfractionated heparin. Oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists is believed to have a weak effect on induction of osteoporosis, but clinical studies are contradictory. In spite of the fact that a relevant effect of these drugs on the induction of osteoporosis is questionable, it must be taken into consideration that anticoagulant drugs may enhance the negative effects on bone density of other risk factors capable of inducing osteoporosis such as immobilization, pregnancy, or endocrinological disorders.

  5. Interferon-induced Raynaud's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Daniel; Nahir, Abraham Menahem; Hadad, Nuhad

    2002-12-01

    To review the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of interferon-induced Raynaud's phenomenon. The medical literature was reviewed from 1967 to November 2001 with the assistance of a MEDLINE search using the key words: Raynaud, Interferon, ischemia, thrombosis and necrosis. A qualitative review was performed after the articles were abstracted and the relevant information was summarized. Twenty-four cases of interferon-induced Raynaud's phenomenon (including our patient) are described. Interpheron-alpha was the most common causative agent (14 cases). The symptoms appeared weeks to years after beginning treatment and varied from mild vasospasm to occlusion of digital arteries and tissue necrosis (14 cases), sometimes necessitating finger amputation (6 patients). Digital plethysmography, arteriography and capillaroscopy were valuable diagnostic tools. In 4 cases, cardiac, ophthalmic, or central nervous system drug-induced ischemia accompanied the peripheral Raynaud's phenomenon. Of the 15 cases with a documented outcome, withdrawal of the drug alone resulted in complete (6 patients) or partial (1 patient) recovery. In the others, supportive therapy was needed. The recovery period lasted from 2 weeks to 3 months. In 2 patients, continuation of treatment was possible. Raynaud's phenomenon and related complications must be recognized as possible side effects of interferon therapy. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the drug may prevent unnecessary morbidity and disability. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  6. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  7. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  8. New insights into cold-induced sweetening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tubers accumulate sugars when exposed to low temperatures. This process is referred to as cold-induced sweetening or low-temperature sweetening. The importance of cold-induced sweetening to the potato processing industry cannot be overemphasized. Cold-induced sweetening decreases potato tuber...

  9. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 × 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 × 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 × 103, 10 × 106, and 35 × 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 ± 5 nm, 320 ± 5 nm and 340 ± 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  10. Interleukin 4 strongly augments or inhibits DNA synthesis and differentiation of B-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells depending on the co-stimulatory activation and progression signals.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M; Sundström, C; Bengtsson, M; Tötterman, T H; Rosén, A; Nilsson, K

    1989-05-01

    This study describes the opposing effects that interleukin (IL) 4 exerts on the B cell stimulatory factor (BSF-MP6) and IL 2-dependent proliferation and differentiation of cells of one selected B-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell clone (I83), which depend on the nature of the activation inducer. In I83 cells activated by a 1-h pulse of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the BSF-MP6-dependent DNA synthesis was strongly enhanced by 50-100 U/ml of recombinant IL 4. Recombinant IL 2 stimulation was necessary only when a suboptimal dose of BSF-MP6 was used. The differentiation was also markedly enhanced by IL 4 as measured by quantitation of IgM secretion both at the population (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses of the supernatant) and single-cell level (enzyme-linked immunospot technique), by morphological examination of the maturation stage and flow cytometric analysis of differentiation-associated surface antigens (CD11c, FMC7, PCA-1 and CD38). No Ig isotype switch was found. In contrast, DNA synthesis and differentiation of I83 cells, activated by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) and co-stimulated with BSF-MP6 plus IL 2, were strongly inhibited by IL 4, both when it was added simultaneously with SAC or after 2 days of SAC exposure. Analysis of the cell-cycle progression of SAC and BSF-MP6 plus IL 2 and IL 4-stimulated cells by acridine orange staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated an arrest of a minor cell population in G0 and a block of the transition of G1 cells to S phase. Neither the enhancing nor the inhibitory effect of IL 4 on the proliferation and differentiation of I83 cells was an indirect effect via IL 4-induced activation of contaminating T cells, monocytes or natural killer cells, as shown by experiments where these cell types were depleted by FACS sorting. Furthermore the expression of CD23 and CD25 was not inhibited by IL 4. The results thus demonstrate contrasting biological effects of

  11. Homocysteine induces inflammatory transcriptional signaling in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Ciment, Stephen; Jan, Michael; Tran, Tran; Pham, Hung; Cueto, Ramon; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Here, we studied transcriptional regulation in homocysteine (Hcy)-induced gene expression in monocytes (MC). We identified 11 Hcy-induced genes, 17 anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10-induced, 8 pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN gamma)-induced and 8 pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)-induced genes through literature search. Binding frequency of 36 transcription factors (TFs) implicated in inflammation and MC differentiation were analyzed within core promoter regions of identified genes, and classified into 3 classes based on the significant binding frequency to the promoter of Hcy-induced genes. Class 1 TFs exert high significant binding frequency in Hcy-induced genes. Class 2 and 3 TFs have low and no significant binding frequency, respectively. Class 1 TF binding occurrence in Hcy-induced genes is similar to that in IFN gamma -induced genes, but not that in TNF alpha -induced. We conclude that Hcy is a pro-inflammatory amino acid and induces inflammatory transcriptional signal pathways mediated by class 1 TF. We term class 1 TF as putative Hcy-responsive TFs.

  12. Homocysteine induces inflammatory transcriptional signaling in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shu; Ciment, Stephen; Jan, Michael; Tran, Tran; Pham, Hung; Cueto, Ramón; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study is to investigate transcriptional mechanism underlying homocysteine (Hcy)-induced and monocytes (MC)-derived inflammatory response. We identified 11 Hcy-induced genes, 17 anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10-induced, 8 pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced and 8 pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced genes through literature search. Binding frequency of 36 transcription factors (TFs) implicated in inflammation and MC differentiation were analyzed within core promoter regions of identified genes, and classified into 3 classes based on the significant binding frequency to the promoter of Hcy-induced genes. Class 1 TFs exert high significant binding frequency in Hcy-induced genes. Class 2 and 3 TFs have low and no significant binding frequency, respectively. Class 1 TF binding occurrence in Hcy-induced genes is similar to that in IFNγ-induced genes, but not that in TNFα-induced. We conclude that Hcy is a pro-inflammatory amino acid and induces inflammatory transcriptional signal pathways mediated by class 1 TF. We term class 1 TF, which includes heat shock factor, MC enhancer factor-2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells and Krueppel-like factor 4, as putative Hcy-responsive TFs. PMID:23276953

  13. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion.

    PubMed

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J

    2015-04-28

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI-LC-MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte.

  14. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics.

  15. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion

    PubMed Central

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI—LC–MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte. PMID:26182429

  16. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  17. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Petrof, Basil J; Jaber, Samir; Matecki, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Diaphragmatic function is a major determinant of the ability to successfully wean patients from mechanical ventilation. There is increasing recognition of a condition termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. The purpose of the present review is to present evidence that mechanical ventilation can itself be a cause of diaphragmatic dysfunction, to outline our current understanding of the cellular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, and to discuss the implications of recent research for future therapeutic strategies. Many critically ill patients demonstrate diaphragmatic weakness. A large body of evidence from animal models, and more limited data from humans, indicates that mechanical ventilation can cause muscle fiber injury and atrophy within the diaphragm. Current data support a complex underlying pathophysiology involving oxidative stress and the activation of several intracellular proteolytic pathways involved in degradation of the contractile apparatus. This includes the calpain, caspase, and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. In addition, there is a simultaneous downregulation of protein synthesis pathways. Studies in animal models suggest that future therapies may be able to specifically target these processes, whereas for the time being current preventive measures in humans are primarily based upon allowing persistent diaphragmatic activation during mechanical ventilation. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is common in mechanically ventilated patients and is a likely cause of weaning failure. Recently, there has been a great expansion in our knowledge of how mechanical ventilation can adversely affect diaphragmatic structure and function. Future studies need to better define the evolution and mechanistic basis for ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in humans, in order to allow the development of mechanical ventilation strategies and pharmacologic agents that will decrease the incidence of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.

  18. Antidepressant-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    DeSanty, Kevin P; Amabile, Celene M

    2007-07-01

    To review principles of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), summarize characteristics of antidepressant-mediated liver injury, and provide recommendations for monitoring and management. A search relating to antidepressant-induced liver injury was performed using MEDLINE (1966-March 2007). Search terms included antidepressant, cholestasis, hepatotoxicity, jaundice, liver injury, toxic hepatitis, and transaminases. Reference citations not identified in the initial database search were also utilized. All English-language case reports, letters, and review articles identified from the data sources were used. Case reports and letters relating to hepatotoxicity from antidepressant overdose were excluded. Antidepressant-induced liver injury described in published cases were of the idiopathic type and, by definition, cannot be predicted based on dose or specific risk factors. Paroxetine had the largest number of cases within the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor class. Nefazodone, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, appeared to have the most serious cases and is the only antidepressant agent that carries a Food and Drug Administration Black Box Warning regarding hepatotoxicity. The tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are capable of producing hepatotoxicity, but fewer cases with these agents have been reported in the past 15 years, possibly due to a decline in their use. Causality has not been well established in all reports due to the concurrent use of other drugs and/or underlying liver disease. Most antidepressant agents have the potential to produce idiopathic liver injury. There is no way to prevent idiopathic DILI, but the severity of the reaction may be minimized with prompt recognition and early withdrawal of the agent. The clinician must be careful to provide ongoing therapy of the underlying depressive disorder and be aware of possible drug discontinuation syndromes should potential hepatotoxicity be suspected.

  19. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  20. Metabolic Stress Induced by Arginine Deprivation Induces Autophagy Cell Death in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Arginine deiminase as a novel therapy for prostate cancer induces autophagy and caspase-independent apoptosis. Cancer Research, 69(2):700-708...TITLE: Metabolic stress induced by arginine deprivation induces autophagy cell death in prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard Bold, MD...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabolic stress induced by arginine deprivation induces autophagy cell 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER death in prostate cancer 5b

  1. Ketotifen-induced nocturnal bruxism.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Bramanti, Placido; Militi, David; Mondello, Stefania; Calabro, Rocco Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is a common oromandibular movement disorder highly prevalent in children, but its pathophysiological mechanism has not been fully explained. Iatrogenic sleep bruxism has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. However, no case of antihistamine-induced bruxism has been reported to date. Herein, we describe a 4-year-old child who experienced nocturnal bruxism during treatment for bronchospasm and rhinitis with the antihistamine ketotifen. Drug rechallenge was also performed. The present case adds useful information to our knowledge of bruxism. Complex and poorly understood interactions between multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters, such as histamine, serotonin, and dopamine, are involved.

  2. Metronidazole-Induced Cerebellar Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Sabat, Shyam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is a very common antibacterial and antiprotozoal with wide usage across the globe, including the least developed countries. It is generally well-tolerated with a low incidence of serious side-effects. Neurological toxicity is fairly common with this drug, however majority of these are peripheral neuropathy with very few cases of central nervous toxicity reported. We report the imaging findings in two patients with cerebellar dysfunction after Metronidazole usage. Signal changes in the dentate and red nucleus were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in these patients. Most of the cases reported in literature reported similar findings, suggesting high predilection for the dentate nucleus in metronidazole induced encephalopathy. PMID:27127600

  3. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  5. Fidelity based measurement induced nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuganesan, R.; Sankaranarayanan, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) using a metric based on fidelity to capture global nonlocal effect of a quantum state due to locally invariant projective measurements. This quantity is a remedy for local ancilla problem in the original definition of MIN. We present an analytical expression of the proposed version of MIN for pure bipartite state and 2 × n dimensional mixed state. We also provide an upper bound of the MIN for general mixed state. Finally, we compare this quantity with MINs based on Hilbert-Schmidt norm and skew information for higher dimensional Werner and isotropic states.

  6. Sertraline-induced ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nishit H; Golwala, Harsh; Stavrakis, Stavros; Schechter, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which is a commonly used drug for major depressive disorder. Most frequently reported adverse effects of sertraline in patients receiving 50-150 mg/d are dry mouth, headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and dizziness. We hereby report one of the few cases of sertraline-induced ventricular tachycardia, which has been for the first time objectively assessed by the Naranjo scale. We therefore urge the primary care physicians and the cardiologists to keep sertraline as a possible precipitating factor for evaluation of ventricular tachycardia.

  7. Electric current induced ultrafast demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Richard B.; Yang, Yang; Gorchon, Jon; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    We report the magnetic response of Co/Pt multilayers to picosecond electrical heating. Using photoconductive Auston switches, we generate electrical pulses with 5.5 ps duration and hundreds of pico-Joules to pass through Co/Pt multilayers. The electrical pulse heats the electrons in the Co/Pt multilayers and causes an ultrafast reduction in the magnetic moment. A comparison between optical and electrically induced demagnetization of the Co/Pt multilayers reveals significantly different dynamics for optical vs electrical heating. We attribute the disparate dynamics to the dependence of the electron-phonon interaction on the average energy and the total number of initially excited electrons.

  8. Fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Tam, P K; Ho, Carmen T K

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Achilles tendinitis after intake of ciprofloxacin for treatment of respiratory tract infection. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy is an uncommon but increasingly recognised adverse effect of this antibiotic class. Most of the cases occur in the Achilles tendon and may lead to tendon rupture. Possible predisposing risk factors include use of steroid, patients with renal impairment or renal transplant, old age, and being an athlete. The drug should be stopped once this condition is suspected. Symptomatic treatment should be given and orthopaedic referral is desirable if tendon rupture occurs.

  9. Longitudinal melanonychia induced by capecitabine.

    PubMed

    Paravar, Taraneh; Hymes, Sharon R

    2009-10-15

    Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), used in the treatment of metastatic colon and breast cancers; it is also under investigation for use in gastric cancers. Multiple cutaneous adverse effects have been reported with the use of capecitabine including acral erythema, pyogenic granulomas, inflammation of actinic keratoses, cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation, leopardlike vitiligo, radiation recall, onycholysis, onychomadesis, and subacute cutaneous lupus. To our knowledge, no cases of capecitabine-induced linear melanonychia have been reported to date in the literature.

  10. Spallation-induced fission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlliure, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    During the last decade spallation-induced fission reactions have received particular attention because of their impact in the design of spallation-neutron sources or radioactive beam facilities, but also in the understanding of the fission process at high excitation energy. In this paper, we review the main progress brought by modern experimental techniques, in particular those based in the inverse kinematic, as well as the achievements in modelling these reactions. We will also address future possibilities for improving the investigation of fission dynamics.

  11. Cocaine-induced mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J; Farreras, N; Ortiz De Zárate L; Bachs, E

    2000-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old man with distal ileum infarction after intravenous abuse of cocaine. He underwent resection of a gangrenous bowel segment and survived. We review the literature regarding intestinal ischaemia related to cocaine. To date, 19 cases have been published. Like most previously reported cases, our patient was young and had no previous history of arteriosclerosis. He suffered cocaine-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic abdominal pain in cocaine consumers.

  12. Break-Induced DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ranjith P.; Lovett, Susan T.; Haber, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Recombination-dependent DNA replication, often called break-induced replication (BIR), was initially invoked to explain recombination events in bacteriophage but it has recently been recognized as a fundamentally important mechanism to repair double-strand chromosome breaks in eukaryotes. This mechanism appears to be critically important in the restarting of stalled and broken replication forks and in maintaining the integrity of eroded telomeres. Although BIR helps preserve genome integrity during replication, it also promotes genome instability by the production of loss of heterozygosity and the formation of nonreciprocal translocations, as well as in the generation of complex chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:23881940

  13. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  14. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-04-03

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients.

  15. Airway management: induced tension pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khedher; Amine, El Ghali Mohamed; Abdelbaki, Azouzi; Jihene, Ayachi; Khaoula, Meddeb; Yamina, Hamdaoui; Mohamed, Boussarsar

    2016-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum is not always associated with hollow viscus perforation. Such condition is called non-surgical or spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. Intrathoracic causes remain the most frequently reported mechanism inducing this potentially life threatening complication. This clinical condition is associated with therapeutic dilemma. We report a case of a massive isolated pneumoperitoneum causing acute abdominal hypertension syndrome, in a 75 year female, which occurred after difficult airway management and mechanical ventilation. Emergent laparotomy yielded to full recovery. The recognition of such cases for whom surgical management can be avoided is primordial to avoid unnecessary laparotomy and its associated morbidity particularly in the critically ill.

  16. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Laser-Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy ( LSCE ). The essential features of LSCE as applied to CdTe epitaxy involve: coadsorption of DMCd and DMTe on a GaAs...DIAGRAM OF THE LSCE PROCESS UHV environment 1M substra1e 9 /X Adsorbed thin film produced CH 3 -Cd-GH 3 CH 3 -Te-CH, by molecular beam source hv ’ CH...with Anneal W/// substraIe %/"/,’ Figure 1.1. Schematic of the LSCE process. (1-2) t I 2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 2.1 Experimental Apparatus The

  17. HYPOGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ANTIDIABETIC SULFONYLUREAS.

    PubMed

    Confederat, Luminiţa; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Hăncianu, Monica; Profire, Lenuţa

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and life-threatening complications. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas represent the first-line drugs in type 2 diabetes even though the most common associated risk is pharmacologically-induced hypoglycemia. In the development of this side effect are involved several factors including the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, patient age and behavior, hepatic or renal dysfunctions, or other drugs associated with a high risk of interactions. If all these are controlled, the risk-benefit balance can be equal to other oral antidiabetic drugs.

  18. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  19. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  20. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3–5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was <0.2 ng/dL (nl. 0.8–1.8 ng/dL). He received intravenous fluids, vasopressor therapy and stress dose steroids; he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. He received 500 μg of intravenous levothyroxine in the first 18 h of therapy, and 150 µg intravenous daily thereafter. Haemodynamic improvement, along with complete recovery of mental status, occurred after 48 h. Twelve hours after the initiation of therapy, FT4 was 0.96 ng/dL. The patient was maintained on levothyroxine 175 (g POorally daily. A thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse heterogeneity. The 24 hour excretion of iodine was 3657 (mcg (25–756 ( mcg). The only two cases of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease. PMID:24729111

  1. Coalescence-induced nanodroplet jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyeongyun; Xu, Chenyu; Sotelo, Jesus; Chun, Jae Min; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-10-01

    Water vapor condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces has received much attention in recent years due to the ability of such surfaces to shed microscale water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping, resulting in heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance enhancement. Here we report the coalescence-induced removal of water nanodroplets (R ≈500 nm ) from superhydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. The two-droplet coalescence time is measured for varying droplet Ohnesorge numbers, confirming that coalescence prior to jumping is governed by capillary-inertial dynamics. By varying the conformal hydrophobic coating thickness on the CNT surface, the minimum jumping droplet radius is shown to increase with increasing solid fraction and decreasing apparent advancing contact angle, allowing us to explore both hydrodynamic limitations stemming from viscous dissipation and surface adhesion limitations. We find that, even for the smallest nanostructure length scale (≤100 nm) and lowest surface adhesions, nonideal surface interactions and the evolved droplet morphology play defining roles in limiting the minimum size for jumping on real surfaces. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the ability to passively shed nanometric water droplets, which has the potential to further increase the efficiency of systems that can harness jumping droplets for a wide range of energy and water applications.

  2. Wind-induced ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  3. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  4. Stress proteins induced by arsenic.

    PubMed

    Del Razo, L M; Quintanilla-Vega, B; Brambila-Colombres, E; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Manno, M; Albores, A

    2001-12-01

    The elevated expression of stress proteins is considered to be a universal response to adverse conditions, representing a potential mechanism of cellular defense against disease and a potential target for novel therapeutics. Exposure to arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo in a variety of model systems has been shown to cause the induction of a number of the major stress protein families such as heat shock proteins (Hsp). Among them are members with low molecular weight, such as metallotionein and ubiquitin, as well as ones with masses of 27, 32, 60, 70, 90, and 110 kDa. In most of the cases, the induction of stress proteins depends on the capacity of the arsenical to reach the target, its valence, and the type of exposure, arsenite being the biggest inducer of most Hsp in several organs and systems. Hsp induction is a rapid dose-dependent response (1-8 h) to the acute exposure to arsenite. Thus, the stress response appears to be useful to monitor the sublethal toxicity resulting from a single exposure to arsenite. The present paper offers a critical review of the capacity of arsenicals to modulate the expression and/or accumulation of stress proteins. The physiological consequences of the arsenic-induced stress and its usefulness in monitoring effects resulting from arsenic exposure in humans and other organisms are discussed.

  5. Neutrino induced light element synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.H.; Mathews, G.; Weaver, T.A. ); Haxton, W.C. . Dept. of Physics); Woosley, S.E. California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA . Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics)

    1990-01-01

    As the core of a massive star collapses to form a neutron star, the flux of neutrinos in the overlying shells of heavy elements becomes so great that, despite the small cross section, substantial nuclear transmutation is induced. Neutrinos, especially the higher energy {mu}- and {tau}-neutrinos, excite heavy elements and even helium to particle unbound levels. The evaporation of a single neutron or proton, and the back reaction of these nucleons on other species present, significantly alters the outcome of traditional nucleosynthesis calculations leading to a new process: {nu}-nucleosynthesis. The process was first studied by Domogatsky et al. and Woosley. Recent work by Epstein, Colgate, and Haxton and Woosley and Haxton suggested that a large number of elements could owe their existence in nature to {nu}-induced reactions in supernovae. A parametrized study of this process including shock wave propagation was carried out by Woosley et al. for selected zones of a 20 M{sub {circle dot}} star. Here we give preliminary results for a 25 M{sub {circle dot}} star, including all {nu}-reactions in all stellar zones.

  6. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement.

  7. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Neutrino-Induced Meson Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi X.

    We develop a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model for neutrino-nucleon reactions in the resonance region, by extending the DCC model that we have previously developed through an analysis of π N,γ N to π N,η N,KΛ ,KΣ reaction data for W ≤ 2.1 GeV. We analyze electron-induced reaction data for both proton and neutron targets to determine the vector current form factors up to Q2 ≤ 3.0 (GeV/c)2. Axial-current matrix elements are derived in accordance with the Partially Conserved Axial Current (PCAC) relation to the πN interactions of the DCC model. As a result, we can uniquely determine the interference pattern between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes. Our calculated cross sections for neutrino-induced single-pion productions are compared with available data, and are found to be in reasonable agreement with the data. We also calculate the double-pion production cross sections in the resonance region, for the first time, with relevant resonance contributions and channel couplings. The result is compared with the double-pion production data. For a future development of a neutrino-nucleus reaction model and/or a neutrino event generator for analyses of neutrino experiments, the DCC model presented here can give a useful input.

  9. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  10. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that mechanical ventilation can injure the lung, producing an entity known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). There are various forms of VILI, including volutrauma (i.e., injury caused by overdistending the lung), atelectrauma (injury due to repeated opening/closing of lung units), and biotrauma (release of mediators that can induce lung injury or aggravate pre-existing injury, potentially leading to multiple organ failure). Experimental data in the pediatric context are in accord with the importance of VILI, and appear to show age-related susceptibility to VILI, although a conclusive link between use of large Vts and mortality has not been demonstrated in this population. The relevance of VILI in the pediatric intensive care unit population is thus unclear. Given the physiological and biological differences in the respiratory systems of infants, children, and adults, it is difficult to directly extrapolate clinical practice from adults to children. This Critical Care Perspective analyzes the relevance of VILI to the pediatric population, and addresses why pediatric patients might be less susceptible than adults to VILI. PMID:25003705

  11. Induced polarization imaging of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, Andre; Soueid Ahmed, Abdellahi

    2017-04-01

    The first part of the presentation is related to the petrophysics of induced polarization of volcanic rocks. We described induced polarization of these rocks using a dynamic Stern layer model describing the polarization of the electrical double layer around the mineral grains. This model shows that the normalized chargeability and quadrature conductivity of volcanic rocks is sensitive to the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of these materials and therefore to their alteration. In the second part pf the presentation, we use a geostatistical inversion framework to image chargeability in 2.5D or in 3D. This new framework is benchmarked using synthetic data and data from various volcanoes (Kilaua, Furnas, Yellowstone). We show that chargeability tomography is very complementary to the now classical electrical resistivity tomography in order to image volcanic structures and to separate the conduction in the bulk pore network from interfacial effects such as surface conductivity. This approach appears to be promising as a first step toward joint inversion with seismic and gravity data.

  12. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Adeva, María M; Souto, Gema

    2011-08-01

    The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting. Low urine pH predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria are risk factors for calcium stone disease. Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance to the insulin action and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure. High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH.

  13. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  14. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  15. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kaswala, DH; Shah, S; Patel, N; Raisoni, S; Swaminathan, S

    2014-01-01

    In the recent era, use of various nutritional supplements is highly encouraged amongst the people of United States. Weight loss supplements are major part of the nutritional supplements and their usage is unregulated in the US. Obesity is a major health concern in the US and Americans spend around $30 billion a year for weight loss supplements. At times, these supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The health consequences related to these supplements are often overlooked by the general public, even though FDA issues advisories regarding them. One common supplement used for weight loss was Hydroxycut (Iovate Health Sciences Research, Oakville, Ontario, Canada). Hydroxycut was recalled from the market after a FDA warning in May 2009 because of 23 reports of serious health problems ranging from jaundice and elevated liver enzymes to liver damage. 1 This case report adds evidence for Hydroxycut - induced hepatotoxicity. A 27 year old man with right upper quadrant pain and jaundice was found to have elevated liver enzymes and was taking Hydroxycut along with other supplements. Liver biopsy showed drug induced hepatotoxicity. Discontinuation of Hydroxycut dramatically improved liver functions and related symptoms. PMID:24669349

  16. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2016-05-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  17. Experimental test of induced rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fincher, Curtis R.; Gochanour, Craig R.

    1987-02-01

    Recent theoretical models for the nematic phase of semiflexible polymer chains predict a strong coupling between order and the conformational degrees of freedom of the chain. The presence of order in the nematic phase results in a strong preference for linear or rod-like conformations over flexible, random coil conformations. This conformational selection or induced rigidity is predicted to be general phenomenon associated with semiflexible chains. We have tested these predictions using a soluble polydiacetylene (4BCMU) as a probe. The 4BCMU chain undergoes a conformational transition (rod-coil) as a function of temperature in toluene which is accompanied by a large change in optical properties allowing the conformational transition to be followed spectroscopically in extremely dilute solutions. 4BCMU is miscible with both isotropic and nematic solutions of poly-(n-hexyl isocyanate) in toluene. If current models of induced rigidity are accurate, there should be a large shift in the transition temperature for the 4BCMU transition in nematic poly-(n-hexyl isocyanate) solutions. Experimentally we find no shift in the transition for nematic solutions when compared to dilute isotropic solutions. Possible explanations for the discrepancy between theory and experiment are discussed.

  18. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  19. Chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss occurs with an estimated incidence of 65%. Forty-seven percent of female patients consider hair loss to be the most traumatic aspect of chemotherapy and 8% would decline chemotherapy due to fears of hair loss. At present, no approved pharmacologic intervention exists to circumvent this side-effect of anticancer treatment, though a number of agents have been investigated on the basis of the current understanding of the underlying pathobiology. Among the agents that have been evaluated, topical minoxidil was able to reduce the severity or shorten the duration, but it did not prevent hair loss. The major approach to minimize chemotherapy-induced hair loss is by scalp cooling, though most published data on this technique are of poor quality. Fortunately, the condition is usually reversible, and appropriate hair and scalp care along with temporarily wearing a wig may represent the most effective coping strategy. However, some patients may show changes in color and/or texture of regrown hair, and in limited cases the reduction in density may persist.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  1. Wetting-induced electrorheological effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Cai; Wen, Weijia; Yang, Shihe; Sheng, Ping

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate the role of particle-fluid wetting in inducing the electrorheological (ER) effect. Nanoparticles of barium titanyl oxalate coated with urea (BTRU) were suspended in either silicone oil or hydrocarbon oil. In the former, a high yield stress of more than 250 kPa can be attained at an electric field of 5 kV/mm, while for the latter no measurable ER effect can be obtained. The two suspensions exhibit completely different appearances. Whereas the silicone oil suspension has the consistency of light cream, in the case of hydrocarbon oil with the same solid concentration the appearance is that of a lumpy paste. This clear visual distinction is attributed to the wetting characteristic between the solid BTRU particles and the suspending oil. We found that by adding a controlled, small amount of surfactant additive to the hydrocarbon oil suspension (oleic acid), the consistency can change drastically to resemble that of the silicone oil suspension, with a yield stress of 260 kPa attained at an electric field of 3 kV/mm. We give a simple physical picture of wetting-induced giant electrorheological effect.

  2. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  3. Shear-Induced Reactive Gelation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav

    2015-11-24

    In this work, we describe a method for the production of porous polymer materials in the form of particles characterized by narrow pore size distribution using the principle of shear-induced reactive gelation. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) primary particles with diameter ranging from 80 to 200 nm are used as building blocks, which are assembled into fractal-like clusters when exposed to high shear rates generated in a microchannel. It was found that independent of the primary particle size, it is possible to modulate the internal structure of formed fractal-like aggregates having fractal dimension ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 by varying the residence time in the microchannel. Thermally induced postpolymerization was used to increase the mechanical resilience of such formed clusters. Primary particle interpenetration was observed by SEM and confirmed by light scattering resulting in an increase of fractal dimension. Nitrogen sorption measurements and mercury porosimetry confirmed formation of a porous material with surface area ranging from 20 to 40 m(2)/g characterized by porosity of 70% and narrow pore size distribution with an average diameter around 700 nm without the presence of any micropores. The strong perfusive character of the synthesized material was confirmed by the existence of a plateau of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate measured at high reduced velocities using a chromatographic column packed with the synthesized microclusters.

  4. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  5. Anion adsorption induced surface reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    2005-11-01

    Surface stress plays an important role in the behavior of solid surfaces. Potential-controlled anion adsorption in electrolytes alters the surface stress of the electrode and results in morphology changes to the surfaces. With a combination of potential-induced surface stress measurement and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it is demonstrated that anion adsorption induces changes in structure of thin films and modifies the growth morphology and stress evolution in epitaxially grown films. Surface structural transitions in the heteroepitaxial system consisting of one to two gold monolayers on platinum substrates were observed. By increasing the potential, structural transitions, from (1 x 1), to a striped phase, to a hexagonal structure, occurred in the gold bilayer. This hexagonal structure was related to the formation of an ordered sulfate adlayer with a ( 3x7 ) structure. Such transitions were repeatable by cycling the potential. Furthermore, the transitions between various dislocation structures were affected by anion adsorption. The surface composition of the gold bilayer on Pt was measured by underpotential deposition of copper. By subtracting the contribution of a pure Pt surface from the gold bi-layer on Pt, a stress change of -2.4 N/m was observed, which agrees with the stress change of -2.46 N/m predicted to accompany formation of 1.5 MLs of coherent Au on Pt(111) from epitaxy theory. The Cu monolayer deposited on Au(111) from an acid sulfate electrolyte was found to be pseudomorphic while the Cu monolayer formed on Au(111) in vacuum was incoherent. The stress-thickness change associated with the coherent monolayer of copper on Au(111) in electrolyte was -0.6 N/m, while conventional epitaxy theories predict a value of +7.76 N/m. STM results elucidated the sulfate adsorption on the copper monolayer caused an expansion of the layer as evidenced by a Moire Structure. For the Cu monolayer on Au(111), the sulfate-induced expansion

  6. Local lesions and induced resistance.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, G

    2009-01-01

    The local lesion phenomenon is one of the most notable resistance mechanisms where virus after multiplying in several hundred cells around the point of entry, does not continue to spread and remains in a local infection. Several types of local lesions are known, inter alia, necrotic, chlorotic, and starch lesions. Cells inside the lesion generally contain much less virus than cells in a systemic infection. Cytopathic changes accompany the local lesion development. Proteases that may have properties similar to caspases, which promote programmed cell death (PCD) in animals, seem to participate in PCD during the hypersensitive response. Salicylic acid seems to be associated with the HR and may play a role in localizing the virus. The functions and properties of the N gene of Nicotiana, which was the first plant virus resistance gene to be isolated by transposon tagging, are discussed and compared with other plant genes for disease resistance. The Inhibitor of Virus Replication (IVR) associated with the local lesion response is mainly a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein. TPR motifs are also present in inducible interferons found in animal cells. Transformation of N. tabacum cv. Samsun nn, in which Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) spreads systemically, with the NC330 gene sequence, encoding an IVR-like protein, resulted in a number of transgenic plant lines, expressing variable resistance to TMV and the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Transformation of tomato plants with the IVR gene became also partially resistant to B. cinerea (Loebenstein et al., in press). IVR-like compounds were found in the interspecific hybrid of N. glutinosa x N. debneyi that is highly resistant to TMV, and in the "green island" tissue of tobacco, cv. Xanthi-nc, infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infection in one part of the plant often induces resistance in other non-invaded tissues. Local (LAR) or systemic (SAR) acquired resistance can be activated by viruses, bacterial, and fungal

  7. The mechanism of PDT-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiongwei; Liu, Timon C.; Ding, Xin-Min; Gu, Ying; Liu, Fan-Guang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2003-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can induce apoptosis in many cancer cells in vitro and in tumors in vivo. Cells become more oxidation with PDT, and maintain differentiation and proliferation, go apoptosis and necrosis with the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. ROS can induce apoptosis through mitochondria by inhibiting respiration chain or oxidative phosphorylation or damaging mitochondrial membrane. ROS can initiate apoptosis through endoplamic reticulum(ER) by opening Ca2+ channel or starting unfold protein response (UPR). ROS can also induce apoptosis through Golgi by producing ganglioside GD3 by use of ceramide, which induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. It can also induce apoptosis by activating Bip (mitochondria-dependant) or preocaspase-12 (mitochondria- independent) or inhibiting protein synthesizing. There are so complicated cross-talking among different signal pathways or organnells that we think PDT-induced apoptosis is mediated by multiplex pathways and excessive levels in a refined network.

  8. Numerical calculation for cavitation flow of inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, C.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Z. T.; Xie, S. F.; Zhao, L. F.; Liu, Z. C.

    2015-01-01

    Inducer has significant effect on improving the cavitation characteristic of centrifugal pump. Several inducers were designed and modeled by Pro/E software. The mesh of flow field was done by ICEM and then was imported to ANSYS CFX to analyze the inducer's cavitation characteristic. Effects of the blade number on the performance of an inducer are investigated in the present paper. The inducers were designed on the basis of identical design flow rate and identical pressure elevation at nominal flow rate. The study focuses on the steady behavior of the inducers in cavitating conditions. Evolutions of performance, torque, mass flow rate, and amplitude of radial forces on the shaft according to the inlet pressure are considered. Furthermore, cavitation instabilities are analyzed in the study. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the pressure distribution and vapour volume fraction distribution through numerical simulations using the Navier-stokes solver with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code.

  9. Itch induces conditioned place aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Mu, Di; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-24

    Itch sensation consists of both sensory and emotional components. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the transduction and transmission of itch sensation have been studied extensively in rodents. However, whether itch induces emotional responses in mice still remains unknown. We found that pruritogens induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice, and that the CPA lasted for at least two weeks. Disruption of itch signal transmission by depletion of peripheral sensory fibers expressing TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) attenuated chloroquine-induced CPA. Consistently, ablation of itch-specific neurons that express gastrin-releasing peptide receptor in the spinal cord also abolished itch-induced CPA, confirming that itch-induced CPA is dependent on the spinal itch circuit. Thus, these results demonstrate that itch can induce CPA in mice, which requires peripheral itch signal inputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Kunal; Mittal, Hema Gupta; Maria, Arti

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal thrombocytopenia is common and is frequently seen in neonatal sepsis. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is likely to be missed unless a high index of suspicion is present. Changing of antibiotics for assumed nonresolution of sepsis may lead to persistent thrombocytopenia in a neonate if drug-induced thrombocytopenia is missed. Vancomycin-induced neonatal thrombocytopenia is rarely described in scientific literature. We describe a newborn who was diagnosed with early onset sepsis and vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia. Other causes of thrombocytopenia such as sepsis, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, thrombosis etc. were excluded. The platelet counts normalized within 72 h of stopping vancomycin. Vancomycin-induced IgM platelet antibodies could not be done in our case (due to financial constraints), but their absence does not exclude the diagnosis of vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  11. Front interaction induces excitable behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Matías, M. A.; Colet, P.; Gelens, L.; Walgraef, D.; Gomila, D.

    2017-02-01

    Spatially extended systems can support local transient excitations in which just a part of the system is excited. The mechanisms reported so far are local excitability and excitation of a localized structure. Here we introduce an alternative mechanism based on the coexistence of two homogeneous stable states and spatial coupling. We show the existence of a threshold for perturbations of the homogeneous state. Subthreshold perturbations decay exponentially. Superthreshold perturbations induce the emergence of a long-lived structure formed by two back to back fronts that join the two homogeneous states. While in typical excitability the trajectory follows the remnants of a limit cycle, here reinjection is provided by front interaction, such that fronts slowly approach each other until eventually annihilating. This front-mediated mechanism shows that extended systems with no oscillatory regimes can display excitability.

  12. Pressure induced polymerization of Formates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, Oliver

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of pressure induced polymerization of CO2 inspired us to search for C-O based chain structures forming at high pressure. We used salts of carboxylic acids as starting materials and exposed them to pressures between 10 and 30 GPa. Upon heating to temperatures above 1800 K we observed deprotonation and significant changes in the Raman shifts of C-O streching modes. Structure analysis based on powder diffraction patterns collected at sector 16 of the APS showed formation of extended C-O chain structures with the cations of the salts residing in the interchain spaces. These new high pressure polymers are interesting by their mechanical strength and provide basic molecular patterns of organic metallic conductors.

  13. Tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Gupta, Heena; Gupta, Anish

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse reactions are a common complication of anti-retroviral therapy. Tenofovir is a newer anti-retroviral drug belonging to the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor group. Systemic adverse effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity are common with tenofovir but cutaneous adverse effects are rare. Lichenoid drug eruptions are a common adverse effect seen with a large variety of drugs including antimalarials, antihypertensives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and diuretics. Lichenoid drug eruption is a rare cutaneous adverse effect of tenofovir with only a single case reported till date. Here, we report a case of tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 54-year-old human immunodeficiency virus affected male who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption after 6 weeks of initiation of tenofovir and complete clearance on cessation of the drug.

  14. Candesartan cilexetil induced pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Ai; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2003-01-01

    Pustular eruptions caused by anti-hypertension drugs are relatively rare. They have been reported with beta-adrenergic blocking agents, calcium channel blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Angiotensin II type 1 (AT 1) receptor antagonists, as a new class of drug for hypertension, has become an established and popular treatment. We describe a patient with generalized pustular psoriasis induced by candesartan cilexetil (AT1 receptor antagonist), who was previously diagnosed as flexural psoriasis. It is known that AT1 receptor antagonists do not increase the bradykinin level, inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system more potently than ACE inhibitor. But our results suggest that AT 1 receptor antagonists could have some ACE inhibitor potency as an up-regulator for bradykinin in our patient, with pustular eruptions developing on the psoriatic background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of pustular psoriasis associated with AT1 receptor antagonists.

  15. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  16. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  17. [Antipsychotic-induced tardive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Hofer, Alex; Jagsch, Christian; Pirker, Walter; Psota, Georg; Rittmannsberger, Hans; Seppi, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a relevant clinical problem despite the increasing use of new-generation antipsychotics. Antipsychotic-induced tardive syndromes are difficult to treat and have a low tendency of remission. Therefore, prophylaxis is of utmost importance, with the responsible use of antipsychotics as a prime desideratum. With respect to managing tardive dyskinesia, discontinuing the antipsychotic, if possible, albeit not backed up by unequivocal evidence, is still the main recommendation. If this is not possible, the switch to an antipsychotic with a lower TD risk is the next-preferred option. Other symptomatic treatments have been explored, but clinical trials have provided inhomogeneous results and only very few compounds are approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. This manuscript summarizes the current evidence with respect to the phenomenology, course, prevention and treatment of tardive syndromes.

  18. Capecitabine-Induced Coronary Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Danish; Rudzik, Francine; Butts, Allison; Mathew, Aju

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is approved for early-stage and advanced colorectal cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity of 5-FU is well described in the literature. However, cardiac adverse effects of capecitabine are poorly described. We report a case of coronary vasospasm induced by capecitabine. A 41-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presented with chest pain 3 days after starting capecitabine. The chest pain was relieved by rest and exacerbated by exertion. Her physical examination was unremarkable except for a rapid heart rate of 100 bpm. Electrocardiogram test showed no acute ischemic changes. Troponin tests were negative. CT angiography of the chest was negative for acute pulmonary embolism. An echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% without any wall motion abnormalities. The chest pain resolved with aspirin and analgesic use. She was discharged following an inconclusive cardiac workup. Further use of capecitabine was discontinued. PMID:27920693

  19. Laser-induced magnetization curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayoshi, Shintaro; Sato, Masahiro; Oka, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    We propose an all optical ultrafast method to highly magnetize general quantum magnets using a circularly polarized terahertz laser. The key idea is to utilize a circularly polarized laser and its chirping. Through this method, one can obtain magnetization curves of a broad class of quantum magnets as a function of time even without any static magnetic field. We numerically demonstrate the laser-induced magnetization process in realistic quantum spin models and find a condition for the realization. The onset of magnetization can be described by a many-body version of Landau-Zener mechanism. In a particular model, we show that a plateau state with topological properties can be realized dynamically.

  20. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  1. Levetiracetam-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Aisling; Fuld, Jonathan; Soon, Elaine

    2017-03-08

    Levetiracetam is widely regarded as a benign antiepileptic drug, compared to older antiepileptic medication. We report a case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to levetiracetam use in a non-smoking woman aged 59 years with no previous respiratory history. Our patient presented with exertional breathlessness and marked desaturation on exertion. She displayed 'reverse bat-wing' infiltrates on her chest radiograph and peripheral eosinophilia on a complete blood count. Her symptoms, radiology and peripheral eosinophilia resolved completely with cessation of levetiracetam and a course of prednisolone. This is the first report of isolated eosinophilic pneumonia due to levetiracetam. Other reports of levetiracetam-induced eosinophilia describe drug rash, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome). Detection of pulmonary drug reactions requires a careful drug history and high index of suspicion. Identifying and reporting a causative agent is crucially important, as cessation of the drug is essential for resolution of the syndrome.

  2. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation after cessation of warfarin and heparinization stopped expanding. Warfarin was reintroduced at 2 mg daily, initially together with low molecular weight heparin. Autolytic debridement of the necrotic tissue was followed by healing of the cutaneous deficit by secondary intention. Prompt diagnosis and discontinuation of warfarin are crucial for the prognosis. PMID:24648693

  3. Black cohosh-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Bruce C; O'Connor, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    Herbal products are widely used by American consumers. Herbal remedies are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, but they are not immune from serious medication side-effects. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. The patient had begun the popular postmenopausal herbal remedy black cohosh two weeks prior to presentation. Laboratory results revealed acute hepatitis. After other causes of liver failure were ruled out, the patient was diagnosed with black cohosh-induced hepatitis. She recovered uneventfully following withdrawal of the herb. There are five prior reports of hepatitis or hepatic failure likely caused by the herbal remedy black cohosh in the English literature. This case illustrates the importance of a broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain and highlights the importance of a complete medication list, including herbs.

  4. Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases are presented of radiation-induced bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.

  5. Statin induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy.

    PubMed

    Babu, Suma; Li, Yuebing

    2015-04-15

    Statin induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (SINAM) is a recently characterized entity belonging to the spectrum of statin myotoxicity. It is a more severe form, and is usually associated with significant proximal muscle weakness, strikingly elevated creatine kinase levels and persistent symptoms despite statin discontinuation. The characteristic pathological finding is a marked muscle fiber necrosis with minimal or no inflammation on muscle biopsy. SINAM is an autoimmune disorder associated with an antibody against 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and the antibody titer is a useful marker for assessing treatment response. However, anti-HMGCR positive myopathies are also caused by unknown etiologies other than statin exposure, especially in the younger population. SINAM should be promptly recognized as immunosuppressive therapy can improve its clinical outcome significantly. Further research is needed to elucidate its pathogenesis and provide evidence based guidelines for management.

  6. Radiocontrast-Induced Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Robert T.; Cutler, Ralph E.

    1985-01-01

    Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretic advantages over the presently used agents. PMID:4013281

  7. Phenytoin-induced Lyell's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lobão, Bárbara; Martins, Claúdio; Sousa, Manuel; Marques, Susana; Pedroso, Ermelinda

    2012-01-01

    Lyell's syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare dermatological disease that causes serious morbidity and mortality. It is most commonly drug induced. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital with severe rash all over the body. She had been previously submitted to brain surgery for total resection of a large meningioma and medicated with phenytoin for seizures prophylaxis. During this treatment, erythematous lesions and blisters were observed first on her face and trunk and then spreading to the entire body. Detachment of the skin, as well as mucous involvement especially of mouth and conjunctiva, was also observed. TEN was diagnosed, and phenytoin was discontinued. Intravenous fluids, systemic steroids and tightened infection control measures were implemented. After 10 days, skin recovery and re-epithelialisation were established, temperature decreased and mucosal complications stabilised. The patient was discharged after 1 month of hospitalisation. PMID:23230258

  8. Hemolysis induced by PMIVSD occluder.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra; Siva Prasad, Akula

    2016-09-01

    Hemolysis related to occluder, prosthetic valve, and prosthetic ring used for mitral valve annuloplasty are not very unusual. However, hemolysis related to transcathetor closure of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (PMIVSD) is infrequent. A close follow-up for spontaneous resolution with or without blood transfusion has been reported in a few cases. Occasionally, surgical retrieval is unavoidable or lifelong blood transfusion is required if surgery cannot be done because of higher risk. In this illustration, we have showed a close follow-up of a case of hemolysis induced by atrial septal occluder used for VSD closure after myocardial infarction. Despite successful device closure of PMIVSD which is difficult, a close watch is needed for complications like residual leak, device embolization, and hemolysis.

  9. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080

  10. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    PubMed

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  11. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  12. Regeneration inducers in limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki

    2015-08-01

    Limb regeneration ability, which can be observed in amphibians, has been investigated as a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration. Recently, an alternative experimental system called the accessory limb model was developed to investigate early regulation of amphibian limb regeneration. The accessory limb model contributed to identification of limb regeneration inducers in urodele amphibians. Furthermore, the accessory limb model may be applied to other species to explore universality of regeneration mechanisms. This review aims to connect the insights recently gained to emboss universality of regeneration mechanisms among species. The defined molecules (BMP7 (or2) + FGF2 + FGF8) can transform skin wound healing to organ (limb) regeneration responses. The same molecules can initiate regeneration responses in some species.

  13. Inducible models of bone loss.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Casey R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-12-11

    Bone is an essential organ that not only confers structural stability to the organism, but also serves as a reservoir for hematopoietic elements and is thought to affect systemic homeostasis through the release of endocrine factors as well as calcium. The loss of bone mass due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption leads to increased fragility that can result in devastating fractures. Further understanding of the effects of environmental stimuli on the development of bone disease in humans is needed, and they can be studied using animal models. Here, we present established and novel methods for the induction of bone loss in mice, including manipulation of diet and environment, administration of drugs, irradiation, and surgically induced hormone deficiency. All of these models are directly related to human cases, and thus, can be used to investigate the causes of bone loss resulting from these interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Nanoparticle-induced pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jasmine Jia'en; Muralikrishnan, Sindu; Ng, Cheng-Teng; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, advances in nanotechnology engineering have given rise to the rapid development of many novel applications in the biomedical field. However, studies into the health and safety of these nanomaterials are still lacking. The main concerns are the adverse effects to health caused by acute or chronic exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), especially in the workplace environment. The lung is one of the main routes of entry for NPs into the body and, hence, a likely site for accumulation of NPs. Once NPs enter the interstitial air spaces and are quickly taken up by alveolar cells, they are likely to induce toxic effects. In this review, we highlight the different aspects of lung toxicity resulting from NP exposure, such as generation of oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis and pneumoconiosis, and the underlying mechanisms causing pulmonary toxicity.

  15. UV-B induced morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marcel A.K.; Coffey, Aoife M.; Prinsen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Low levels of ultraviolet (UV)-radiation alter the morphology of plants. UV-B exposure can lead to shorter petioles and shorter, narrower and/or thicker leaf blades. The resulting decrease in leaf area has been associated with inhibitory UV-B effects on biomass accumulation. In Arabidopsis, UV-B effects on leaf area have variously been attributed to altered cell division, cell expansion or combinations of these two processes. A dedicated UV-B sensory system, crosstalk between flavonoids and auxins, endoreduplication and generic Stress Induced Morphogenic Responses (SIMR) have all been proposed to contribute to the UV-B phenotype. Here, we propose that UV-mediated morphogenesis, rather than being controlled by a single regulatory pathway, is controlled by a regulatory blur involving multiple compensatory molecular and physiological feedback interactions. PMID:22899069

  16. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  17. Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Leslie A; Collins-Yoder, Angela; Collins, Rachel E

    2016-10-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can result from both idiosyncratic and intrinsic mechanisms. This article discusses the clinical impact of DILI from a broad range of medications as well as herbal and dietary supplements. Risk factors for idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI) are the result of multiple host, environmental, and compound factors. Some triggers of IDILI often seen in critical care include antibiotics, antiepileptic medications, statins, novel anticoagulants, proton pump inhibitors, inhaled anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine. The mechanism of IDILI due to these medications varies, and the resulting damage can be cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed. The primary treatment of IDILI is to discontinue the causative agent. DILI due to acetaminophen is intrinsic because the liver damage is predictably aligned with the dose ingested. Acute acetaminophen ingestion can be treated with activated charcoal or N-acetylcysteine. Future areas of research include identification of mitochondrial stress biomarkers and of the patients at highest risk for DILI.

  18. Metoclopramide-induced Serotonin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harada, Taku; Hirosawa, Takanobu; Morinaga, Kouhei; Shimizu, Taro

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was taking mirtazapine presented with mydriasis, abnormal diaphoresis, myoclonus and muscle rigidity after taking metocloplamide. Her medical history, which included the use of serotonergic agents, and the presence of symptoms including myoclonus and muscle rigidity were consistent with a diagnosis of serotonin syndrome (SS) according to the Hunter criteria. The symptoms diminished following three days of treatment with oral lorazepam and cyproheptadine and a reduced dose of mirtazapine. Metoclopramide is frequently used to various gastric symptom. Metoclopramide is not widely known to induce SS. This potentially fatal condition should be avoided by exercising care in the use of drugs that have the potential to cause drug-drug interactions.

  19. Metoclopramide-induced Serotonin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Taku; Hirosawa, Takanobu; Morinaga, Kouhei; Shimizu, Taro

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was taking mirtazapine presented with mydriasis, abnormal diaphoresis, myoclonus and muscle rigidity after taking metocloplamide. Her medical history, which included the use of serotonergic agents, and the presence of symptoms including myoclonus and muscle rigidity were consistent with a diagnosis of serotonin syndrome (SS) according to the Hunter criteria. The symptoms diminished following three days of treatment with oral lorazepam and cyproheptadine and a reduced dose of mirtazapine. Metoclopramide is frequently used to various gastric symptom. Metoclopramide is not widely known to induce SS. This potentially fatal condition should be avoided by exercising care in the use of drugs that have the potential to cause drug-drug interactions. PMID:28321081

  20. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jessica; Begum, Tahmina; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature. PMID:27635409

  1. Pressure induced metallization of Germane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Canales, M.; Bergara, A.; Feng, J.; Grochala, W.

    2006-09-01

    Recently reported superconductivity in lithium under pressure has renewed the interest on hydrogen and hydrogen-rich systems in the long standing quest for room temperature superconductivity. Although the required metallization of pure hydrogen cannot be achieved within correct experimental capabilities, chemical precompression exerted by heavier atoms in compounds with a large hydrogen content is expected to imply that lower pressures might be required to attain the metallic transition in these alloys. In this article, we present an ab initio analysis of pressure induced metallization of germane, as a particular case between group IVa hydrides. According to our calculations, metallization of germane is predicted to occur at an experimentally accessible pressure of around 70 GPa, which corresponds to a compression factor of 3.4.

  2. Ciprofloxacin-induced erythema multiforme.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, H S; Sarapur, Shriprasad

    2012-10-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. One of the side effects of ciprofloxacin is erythema multiforme (EM). EM is an acute, self -limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome. It exhibits a diverse etiology, often recurs, has unusual clinical features and is of uncertain etiopathogenesis. It usually exhibits a distinctive skin or mucosal lesions that are characterized by combination of bullae, papules, macules or ulcers. It is most probably an immunologically mediated process. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind. In this article we present a case of ciprofloxacin induced erythema multiforme in 40 year old woman.

  3. Halothane induced hepatitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Otedo, A E O

    2004-10-01

    Halothane as a cause of hepatitis is rare and may be overlooked when evaluating a patient with sudden onset jaundice. A 34-year-old lady, a nurse, presented to the liver clinic with sudden onset non-pruritic jaundice. Viral and collagen serological tests were all normal, malaria and sickling tests were negative, but transaminases were elevated. She reported inadvertent exposure to halothane in surgical theatre where she works. She improved on conservative management, then had a re-exposure to halothane after three weeks and developed a similar clinical picture, which improved on conservative management. In an area endemic of malaria, hepatitis and haemolysing conditions like sickle cell anaemia, the diagnosis of halothane hepatitis requires high index of suspicion. The mechanism of halothane-induced hepatic damage in this patient is very likely idiosyncratic. This is because of the modest dose at first exposure and more severe clinical picture at re-exposure.

  4. Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, Kirk A.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a cancellation of absorption occurs on resonance for two (or any even number of) coupled optical resonators, due to mode splitting and classical destructive interference, particularly when the resonator finesse is large and the loss in the resonator furthest from the excitation waveguide is small. The linewidth and group velocity of a collection of such coupled-resonator structures may be decreased by using larger resonators of equal size, using larger resonators of unequal size where the optical path length of the larger resonator is an integer multiple of that of the smaller one, or by using a larger number of resonators per structure. We explore the analogy between these effects and electromagnetically induced transparency in an atomic system.

  5. The induced magnetosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    No evidence was found for an intrinsic magnetic field, nor for the development of a bow shock wave, as the corotating Saturnian magnetoplasma convected past Titan during the Voyager 1 close encounter of November 12, 1980. The observation of a well-developed, induced bipolar magnetic tail is evidence, however, of a strong electrodynamic interaction. Three thin, current-carrying regions were crossed which correspond to the inbound and outbound tail magnetopause and an imbedded tail neutral sheet. The interaction is unique among those observed to date in the solar system, in that it is intermediate with respect to sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers by comparison with Titan in the solar wind and Io in the Jovian magnetosphere. The draping of the Saturnian magnetic field around the ionosphere of Titan is suggested by results of the analysis of magnetic field data.

  6. Seborrheic dermatitis in neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L; Jonelis, F J

    1983-06-01

    An increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis has previously been noted in idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in postencephalitic parkinsonism. Our study of 42 hospitalized patients with drug-induced parkinsonism and 47 hospitalized psychiatric patients without that disorder showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of clinically diagnosed seborrheic dermatitis in the group with drug-induced parkinsonism (59.5% v 15%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of an increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis with drug-induced parkinsonism.

  7. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  8. Greywater-induced soil hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Gross, Amit; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-10-01

    Greywater (GW) reuse for irrigation is a common method of reducing domestic consumption of fresh water. Most of the scientific research and legislation efforts have focused on GW's health risks, while less attention has been given to its environmental outcomes. One of the environmental risks of GW irrigation is its possible effect on soil hydraulic properties. This research examined the ability of GW to induce soil hydrophobicity, as well as its degree and persistence. Fresh water (control) and three model GW solutions representing raw, treated and highly treated GW were used to wet fine-grained sand. Every treatment was subjected to five cycles of wetting, incubation (at 5 °C or 30 °C) and drying (60 °C). After each cycle, capillary rise was measured and the contact angle (CA) was calculated. Samples were also tested by the Wilhelmy plate method to retrieve advancing and receding CA and reservoir surface tension. Water repellence of the sand, as implied from the CA, increased with increasing GW concentration and was highest in the sand coated with the model raw GW and incubated at 5 °C. However, none of the treatments resulted in what is considered to be "water-repellent soil". Furthermore, when raw GW-coated sand was immersed in water, its surface tension was significantly reduced relative to the other treatments, implying a release of surface-active compounds from the sand into the water. It was postulated that untreated GW may induce sub-critical water repellence in sand. However, this effect is sensitive to biodegradation and washing processes and is therefore temporary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Induced activation study of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is continuing with extraction of specific activities for various spacecraft materials. Data and results of activation measurements from eight facilities are being collected for interpretation at Eastern Kentucky University and NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The major activation mechanism in LDEF components is the proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). This flux is highly anisotropic, and could be sampled by taking advantage of the gravity-gradient stabilization of the LDEF. The directionally-dependent activation due to these protons was clearly observed in the data from aluminum experiment tray clamps (reaction product Na-22), steel trunnions (reaction product Mn-54 and others) and is also indicated by the presence of a variety of nuclides in other materials. A secondary production mechanism, thermal neutron capture, was observed in cobalt, indium, and tantalum, which are known to have large capture cross sections. Experiments containing samples of these metals and significant amounts of thermalizing low atomic number (Z) material showed clear evidence of enhanced activation of Co-60, In-114m, and Ta-182. Other mechanisms which activate spacecraft material that are not as easily separable from SAA proton activation, such as galactic proton bombardment and secondary production by fast neutrons, are being investigated by comparison to radiation environmental calculations. Deviations from one-dimensional radiation models indicate that these mechanisms are more important at greater shielding depths. The current status of the induced radioactivity measurements as of mid-year 1992 are reviewed. Specific activities for a number of materials which show SAA effects and thermal neutron capture are presented. The results for consistency by combining data from the participating institutions is also examined.

  10. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible.

  11. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  12. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:28225086

  13. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  14. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-02-22

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity.

  15. Dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Report chronicles advances in understanding and predicting unsteady dynamic characteristics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps. It includes bibliography of 19 papers authored between 1972 and 1980.

  16. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  17. Geldanamycin Prevents Hemorrhage-Induced ATP Loss by Overexpressing Inducible HSP70 and Activating Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-24

    levels were determined using the ATP Bioluminescence Assay Kit HS II (Roche; Mannheim, Germany). Luminescence was measured with a TD-20/20...Geldanamycin prevents hemorrhage-induced ATP loss by overexpressing inducible HSP70 and activating pyruvate dehydrogenase Juliann G. Kiang,1,2,3...Geldanamycin prevents hemorrhage-induced ATP loss by overexpressing inducible HSP70 and activating pyruvate dehy- drogenase. Am J Physiol Gastrointest

  18. Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.

    Graphenes transport properties have been extensively studied in the 10 years since its discovery in 2004, with ground-breaking experimental observations such as Klein tunneling, fractional quantum Hall effect and Hofstadters butterfly. Though, so far, it turned out to be rather poor on complex correlated electronic ground states and phase transitions, despite various theoretical predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to help understanding the underlying theoretical and experimental reasons for the lack of strong electronic interactions in graphene, and, employing graphenes high tunability and versatility, to identify and alter experimental parameters that could help to induce stronger correlations. In particular graphene holds one last, not yet experimentally discovered prediction, namely exhibiting intrinsic superconductivity. With its vanishingly small Fermi surface at the Dirac point, graphene is a semi-metal with very weak electronic interactions. Though, if it is doped into the metallic regime, where the size of the Fermi surface becomes comparable to the size of the Brillouin zone, the density of states becomes sizeable and electronic interactions are predicted to be dramatically enhanced, resulting in competing correlated ground states such as superconductivity, magnetism and charge density wave formation. Following these predictions, this thesis first describes the creation of metallic graphene at high carrier doping via electrostatic doping techniques based on electrolytic gates. Due to graphenes surface only properties, we are able to induce carrier densities above n>1014 cm-2 (epsilonF>1eV) into the chemically inert graphene. While at these record high carrier densities we yet do not observe superconductivity, we do observe fundamentally altered transport properties as compared to semi-metallic graphene. Here, detailed measurements of the low temperature resistivity reveal that the electron-phonon interactions are governed by a reduced, density

  19. Hydralazine-induced cholestatic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahad; Hammad, Raza; Cucco, Robert; Niranjan, Selva

    2009-01-01

    Hydralazine has been widely used for treating hypertension, particularly in patients with renal failure. We report a case on a patient in whom we believe the drug was implicated in an otherwise unexplained disturbance of liver function. A 63-year-old African-American female with medical history of hypertension and end-stage renal disease (on hemodialysis) was admitted to the hospital with epigastric pain and jaundice. The symptoms started about 1 week ago. Initial laboratory tests showed abnormal liver enzymes with elevated conjugated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase suggestive of cholestatic jaundice. Amylase and lipase were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal caliber common bile duct without evidence of obstruction. Abdominal CT scan does not show any evidence of intra- or extrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation, and no mass lesions were seen in the pancreas. Further blood chemistry showed worsening of liver enzymes and increased bilirubin over the next 2-3 days. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography failed to show any evidence of intra- or extrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation. No other laboratory evidence of cholestatic jaundice was found. Before proceeding for invasive diagnostic procedure, that is, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, the patient's drug history was reviewed. She was on hydralazine 75 mg 3 times per day, started 5 months ago. At that time, her liver function tests were normal. As we could not find any other cause of cholestatic jaundice, we attributed this as a side effect of hydralazine. A trial was given by stopping the hydralazine. It was seen that there was significant improvement in the liver function enzymes over the next week. Complete clinical and biochemical recovery occurred over the next 4 weeks. Liver injury after long-term therapy with hydralazine and after short-term therapy with hydralazine (2-10 days) has been described. Hydralazine-induced hepatotoxicity may manifest as hypersensitivity-type injury

  20. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    PubMed

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  1. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  2. Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marcello; Moretto, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare toxicity resulting from exposure to certain organophosphorus (OP) esters. It is characterised by distal degeneration of some axons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems occurring 1-4 weeks after single or short-term exposures. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness and paraesthesiae occur, followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. Signs include high-stepping gait associated with bilateral foot drop and, in severe cases, quadriplegia with foot and wrist drop as well as pyramidal signs. In time, there might be significant recovery of the peripheral nerve function but, depending on the degree of pyramidal involvement, spastic ataxia may be a permanent outcome of severe OPIDP. Human and experimental data indicate that recovery is usually complete in the young. At onset, the electrophysiological changes include reduced amplitude of the compound muscle potential, increased distal latencies and normal or slightly reduced nerve conduction velocities. The progression of the disease, usually over a few days, may lead to non-excitability of the nerve with electromyographical signs of denervation. Nerve biopsies have been performed in a few cases and showed axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination. Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is thought to be the target of OPIDP initiation. The ratio of inhibitory powers for acetylcholinesterase and NTE represents the crucial guideline for the aetiological attribution of OP-induced peripheral neuropathy. In fact, pre-marketing toxicity testing in animals selects OP insecticides with cholinergic toxicity potential much higher than that to result in OPIDP. Therefore, OPIDP may develop only after very large exposures to insecticides, causing severe cholinergic toxicity. However, this was not the case with certain triaryl phosphates that were not used as

  3. Induced Accelerated Aging in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Birgitt Schuele CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Induced Accelerated Aging in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease 5b. GRANT...induced pluripotent stem cells , cellular model, accelerated aging, lamin A, progerin 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Mechanisms of chemical-induced porphyrinopathies

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. Fowler, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 45 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic Regulation of the Heme Pathway; Porphyrins in Urine as an Indication of Exposure to Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; Mechanisms of PCB-induced Porphyria and Yusho Disease; and Lead-Induced Abnormalities of Porphyrin Metabolism: The Relationship with Iron Deficiency.

  5. Reversing Breast Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    4], prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) [5], IL-1β [6, 7], IL-6 [8], S100A8/A9 [9, 10], the complement component C5a [11], and endotoxin [12] induce the...by complement. Nat Immunol, 2008. 9(11): p. 1225-35. 9 12. De Wilde, V., et al., Endotoxin -induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit

  6. Reversing Breast Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    6, 7], IL-6 [8], S100A8/A9 [9, 10], the complement component C5a [11], and endotoxin [12] induce the accumulation of MDSC. MDSC block adaptive anti...11 12. De Wilde, V., et al., Endotoxin -induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit alloimmune responses via heme oxygenase-1. Am J

  7. Dynamically induced Zeeman effect in massless QED.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Efrain J; de la Incera, Vivian

    2009-02-06

    It is shown that in nonperturbative massless QED an anomalous magnetic moment is dynamically induced by an applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic moment produces a Zeeman splitting for electrons in Landau levels higher than l=0. The expressions for the nonperturbative Lande g factor and Bohr magneton are obtained. Possible applications of this effect are outlined.

  8. Dynamically Induced Zeeman Effect in Massless QED

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J.; Incera, Vivian de la

    2009-02-06

    It is shown that in nonperturbative massless QED an anomalous magnetic moment is dynamically induced by an applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic moment produces a Zeeman splitting for electrons in Landau levels higher than l=0. The expressions for the nonperturbative Lande g factor and Bohr magneton are obtained. Possible applications of this effect are outlined.

  9. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  10. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon.

  11. Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

  12. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the leading cause of occupationally induced hearing loss in industrialized countries. It discusses causes of NIHL and compelling evidence that reactive oxygen metabolites and cochlear hypoprefusion are responsible for the destruction of cochlear hair cells. Prevention is also…

  13. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the leading cause of occupationally induced hearing loss in industrialized countries. It discusses causes of NIHL and compelling evidence that reactive oxygen metabolites and cochlear hypoprefusion are responsible for the destruction of cochlear hair cells. Prevention is also…

  14. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  15. Photo-induced Defects in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, David; Bube, Richard H.

    2006-03-01

    1. Introduction: metastable defects; 2. III-V compounds: DX2 and EL2 centers; 3. Other crystalline materials; 4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: properties of defects; 5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: photo-induced defect kinetics and processes; 6. Other amorphous semiconductors; 7. Photo-induced defect effects in devices; References; Index.

  16. Light-induced Ethylene Production in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Craker, L. E.; Abeles, F. B.; Shropshire, W.

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene production was induced in sections of dark-grown Sorghum vulgare L. seedlings by treatment with light in the blue and far red regions of the light spectrum. The action spectrum closely resembled the previously reported spectra for high irradiance response; thus, light-induced ethylene production is probably a high irradiance response with phytochrome as the initial photoreceptor. PMID:16658470

  17. Studies of positron induced luminescence from polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.; Tolk, N.H.

    1994-06-01

    Light emission from polymers (anthracene dissolved in polystryrene) induced by low-energy positrons and electrons has been studied. Results indicate a clear difference between optical emissions under positron and electron bombardment. The positron-induced luminescence spectrum is believed to be generated by both collisional and annihilation processes.

  18. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  19. Induced topological pressure for topological dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Zhitao; Chen, Ercai

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, inspired by the article [J. Jaerisch et al., Stochastics Dyn. 14, 1350016, pp. 1-30 (2014)], we introduce the induced topological pressure for a topological dynamical system. In particular, we prove a variational principle for the induced topological pressure.

  20. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  1. Methods for determining Myc-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Littlewood, Trevor D

    2013-01-01

    Although many oncoproteins promote cell growth and proliferation, some also possess the potential to induce cell death by apoptosis. Deregulated expression of the myc oncogene promotes apoptosis in both cultured cells and in some tissues in vivo. Here we describe techniques to detect Myc-induced apoptosis in vitro using flow cytometry and microscopy and in vivo using immunohistochemical staining.

  2. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there…

  3. Heart failure and tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ethan R; Josephson, Mark E

    2013-12-01

    Congestive heart failure is a major health care concern affecting almost six million Americans and an estimated 23 million people worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing with time. Long-standing tachycardia is a well-recognized cause of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction and has led to the nomenclature, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is generally a reversible cardiomyopathy with effective treatment of the causative arrhythmia, either with medications, surgery, or catheter ablation. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood and is likely under-diagnosed. A better understanding of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy and improved recognition of its presence in clinical practice is vital to the health of patients with this disorder. The goal of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, as well as approaches to its diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Uridine Prevents Fenofibrate-Induced Fatty Liver

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuc T.; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver. PMID:24475249

  5. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  6. Induced gauge theories and W gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Schoutens, K. . Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Sevrin, A. ); van Nieuwenhuizen, P. . Theory Div. State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Inst. for Theoretical Physics)

    1991-11-01

    We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}(h,b) for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.

  7. Induced gauge theories and W gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Schoutens, K.; Sevrin, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P. |

    1991-11-01

    We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}[h,b] for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus_minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.

  8. Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Setti, Sharay E; Littlefield, Alyssa M; Johnson, Samantha W; Kohman, Rachel A

    2015-03-15

    Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system. Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility.

    PubMed

    Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-11-16

    The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  10. Saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jibrin, Ismaila; Erinle, Ayodele; Saidi, Abdulfattah; Aliyu, Zakari Y

    2006-06-01

    Saw palmetto is a frequently used botanical agent in benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). Although it has been reported to cause cholestatic hepatitis and many medical conditions, Saw palmetto has not been implicated in acute pancreatitis. We report a case of a probable Saw palmetto induced acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. A 55-year-old reformed alcoholic, sober for greater than 15 years, presented with severe non-radiating epigastric pain associated with nausea and vomiting. His only significant comorbidity is BPH for which he intermittently took Saw palmetto for about four years. Physical examination revealed normal vital signs, tender epigastrium without guarding or rebound tenderness. Cullen and Gray Turner signs were negative. Complete blood count and basic metabolic profile were normal. Additional laboratory values include a serum amylase: 2,152 mmol/L, lipase: 39,346 mmol/L, serum triglyceride: 38 mmol/L, AST: 1265, ALT: 1232 and alkaline phosphatase was 185. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed sludge without stones. A hepatic indole diacetic acid scan was negative. Patient responded clinically and biochemically to withdrawal of Saw palmetto. Two similar episodes of improvements followed by recurrence were noted with discontinuations and reinstitution of Saw Palmetto. Simultaneous and sustained response of hepatitis and pancreatitis to Saw palmetto abstinence with reoccurrence on reinstitution strongly favors drug effect. "Natural" medicinal preparations are therefore not necessarily safe and the importance of detailed medication history (including "supplements") cannot be over emphasized.

  11. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  12. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident.

  15. Motility-Induced Phase Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Michael E.; Tailleur, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Self-propelled particles include both self-phoretic synthetic colloids and various microorganisms. By continually consuming energy, they bypass the laws of equilibrium thermodynamics. These laws enforce the Boltzmann distribution in thermal equilibrium: The steady state is then independent of kinetic parameters. In contrast, self-propelled particles tend to accumulate where they move more slowly. They may also slow down at high density for either biochemical or steric reasons. This creates positive feedback, which can lead to motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) between dense and dilute fluid phases. At leading order in gradients, a mapping relates variable-speed, self-propelled particles to passive particles with attractions. This deep link to equilibrium phase separation is confirmed by simulations but generally breaks down at higher order in gradients: New effects, with no equilibrium counterpart, then emerge. We give a selective overview of the fast-developing field of MIPS, focusing on theory and simulation but including a brief speculative survey of its experimental implications.

  16. Photo induced three body decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, Christof; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    The photo induced three body decay : ABC hnu A B C, where a molecule ABC decays into three fragments A, B and C upon irradiation, is reviewed. Various experimental and theoretical techniques for the investigation of this reaction and their application to a wide range of molecular species are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the distinction between concerted and stepwise processes, consisting of one single or two consecutive kinetic events, respectively. The concerted fragmentation scheme is further classified as being of either synchronous or asynchronous character, depending on whether or not the bond breaking processes take place in unison. The three body decays of acetone, azomethane and s-tetrazine are discussed in detail as prototypes for these mechanisms. A novel kinematic analysis approach, based on the evaluation of fragment kinetic energy distributions, is presented and applied to the ultraviolet photodissociation of phosgene. Competing pathways are found to be operative, dominated by the asynchronous concerted mechanism with preferential forward scattering of the carbon monoxide fragment. The synchronous concerted decay plays a minor role under significant excitation of the in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes of the parent molecule. Finally the power of the newly developed method for the analysis of the three body decay of a small polyatomic molecule is highlighted.

  17. Peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Radi, R; Cosgrove, T P; Beckman, J S; Freeman, B A

    1993-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, neutrophils, Kupffer cells and other diverse cell types generate superoxide (O2.-) and nitric oxide (.NO), which can react to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Peroxynitrite reacted with luminol to yield chemiluminescence which was greatly enhanced by bicarbonate. The quantum chemiluminescence yield of the ONOO- reaction with luminol in bicarbonate was approx. 10(-3). Chemiluminescence was superoxide dismutase-inhibitable, indicating that O2.- was a key intermediate for chemiexcitation. O2.- appears to be formed secondarily to the reaction of a bicarbonate-peroxynitrite complex with luminol, yielding luminol radical and O2.-. Luminol radical reacts with O2.- to form the unstable luminol endoperoxide, which follows the light-emitting pathway. Neither .NO nor O2.- alone were capable of directly inducing significant luminol chemiluminescence in our assay systems. These results suggest that ONOO- can be a critical unrecognized mediator of cell-derived luminol chemiluminescence reported in previous studies. In addition, it is shown that bicarbonate can participate in secondary oxidation reactions after reacting with ONOO-. PMID:8382481

  18. Comparative Markedness and Induced Opacity*

    PubMed Central

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.; Farris-Trimble, Ashley W.

    2011-01-01

    Results are reported from a descriptive and experimental study that was intended to evaluate comparative markedness (McCarthy 2002, 2003) as an amendment to optimality theory. Two children (aged 4;3 and 4;11) with strikingly similar, delayed phonologies presented with two independent, interacting error patterns of special interest, i.e., Deaffrication ([tɪn] ‘chin’) and Consonant Harmony ([ɡɔɡ] ‘dog’) in a feeding interaction ([kik] ‘cheek’). Both children were enrolled in a counterbalanced treatment study employing a multiple base-line single-subject experimental design, which was intended to induce a grandfather effect in one case ([dɔɡ] ‘dog’ and [kik] ‘cheek’) and a counterfeeding interaction in the other ([ɡɔɡ] ‘dog’ and [tik] ‘cheek’). The results were largely supportive of comparative markedness, although some anomalies were observed. The clinical implications of these results are also explored. PMID:21666872

  19. Eupatilin ameliorates collagen induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juryun; Kim, Youngkyun; Yi, Hyoju; Jung, Hyerin; Rim, Yeri Alice; Park, Narae; Jung, Seung Min; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2015-03-01

    Eupatilin is the main active component of DA-9601, an extract from Artemisia. Recently, eupatilin was reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the anti-arthritic effect of eupatilin in a murine arthritis model and human rheumatoid synoviocytes. DA-9601 was injected into collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Arthritis score was regularly evaluated. Mouse monocytes were differentiated into osteoclasts when eupatilin was added simultaneously. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and then manually counted. Rheumatoid synoviocytes were stimulated with TNF-α and then treated with eupatilin, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expression in synoviocytes were measured by RT-PCR. Intraperitoneal injection of DA-9601 reduced arthritis scores in CIA mice. TNF-α treatment of synoviocytes increased the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β mRNAs, which was inhibited by eupatilin. Eupatilin decreased the number of osteoclasts in a concentration dependent manner. These findings, showing that eupatilin and DA-9601 inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the differentiation of osteoclasts, suggest that eupatilin and DA-9601 is a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.

  20. Solitons induced by boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although soliton phenomena have attracted wide attention since 1965, there are still not enough efforts paid to mixed-boundary - initial-value problems that are important in real physical cases. The main purpose of this thesis is to study carefully the various boundary-induced soliton under different initial conditions. The author states with three sets of nonlinear equations: KdV equations and Boussinesq equations (for water); two-fluid equations for cold-ion plasma. He was interested in four types of problems involved with water solitons: excitation by different time-dependent boundary conditions under different initial conditions; head-on and over-taking collisions; reflection at a wall and the excitation by pure initial conditions. For KdV equations, only cases one and four are conducted. The results from two fully nonlinear KdV and Boussinesq equations are compared, and agree extremely well. The Boussinesq equations permit solition head-on collisions and reflections, studied the first time. The results from take-over collision agree with KdV results. For the ion-acoustic plasma, a set of Boussinesq-type equations was derived from the standard two-fluid equations for the ion-acoustic plasma. It theoretically proves the essential nature of the solitary wave solutions of the cold-ion plasma. The ion acoustic solitons are also obtained by prescribing a potential phi/sub 0/ at one grid point.

  1. Polydopamine-induced tooth remineralization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-Zhi; Cao, Ying; Liu, Wei; Chu, Chun Hung; Li, Quan-Li

    2012-12-01

    Inspired by mussel bioadhesion in nature, dopamine is extensively used for biomaterial surface modification. In this study, we coated dopamine on demineralized enamel and dentin surfaces to evaluate the effect of polydopamine coating on dental remineralization. Dental slices containing enamel and dentin were first etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 2 min, followed by immersion in a 2 mg/mL freshly prepared solution of dopamine (10 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.5) for approximately 24 h at room temperature in the dark to obtain polydopamine coating. Then, the dental slices with and without polydopamine coating were immersed in the supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate at 37 °C for 2 and 7 days. The supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate was refreshed each day. The precipitates were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, microhardness, and nanoscratch analyses. No significant difference was observed in the remineralization of enamel whether it was coated with polydopamine or not. However, a significant difference was found in dentin remineralization between dentin with and without polydopamine coating. Polydopamine coating remarkably promoted demineralized dentin remineralization, and all dentin tubules were occluded by densely packed hydroxyapatite crystals. Thus, coating polydopamine on dental tissue surface may be a simple universal technique to induce enamel and dentin remineralization simultaneously.

  2. Induced activation study of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the induced radioactivity of LDEF is continuing with extraction of specific activities for various spacecraft materials. Data and results of activation measurements from eight national facilities are being collected for interpretation. The major activation mechanisms in LDEF components is the proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) inner radiation belt. This flux is highly anisotropic, and exposes the west side of the spacecraft to higher radiation doses. The directionally dependent activation due to these protons has clearly been observed in the data from Al experiment tray clamps, steel trunnions, and is also indicated by the presence of a variety of radioisotopes in other materials. A secondary production mechanism, thermal neutron capture, was observed in two materials having large capture cross sections, Co and Ta. The neutrons could be thermalized in nearby low Z material, although this has yet to be verified. Specific activities are presented for a number of materials which show SAA effects and thermal neutron capture. Trends are examined in the measured results that show the effect of shielding and non-SAA related activation.

  3. Syntax-induced pattern deafness.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-12-08

    Perceptual systems often force systematically biased interpretations upon sensory input. These interpretations are obligatory, inaccessible to conscious control, and prevent observers from perceiving alternative percepts. Here we report a similarly impenetrable phenomenon in the domain of language, where the syntactic system prevents listeners from detecting a simple perceptual pattern. Healthy human adults listened to three-word sequences conforming to patterns readily learned even by honeybees, rats, and sleeping human neonates. Specifically, sequences either started or ended with two words from the same syntactic category (e.g., noun-noun-verb or verb-verb-noun). Although participants readily processed the categories and learned repetition patterns over nonsyntactic categories (e.g., animal-animal-clothes), they failed to learn the repetition pattern over syntactic categories, even when explicitly instructed to look for it. Further experiments revealed that participants successfully learned the repetition patterns only when they were consistent with syntactically possible structures, irrespective of whether these structures were attested in English or in other languages unknown to the participants. When the repetition patterns did not match such syntactically possible structures, participants failed to learn them. Our results suggest that when human adults hear a string of nouns and verbs, their syntactic system obligatorily attempts an interpretation (e.g., in terms of subjects, objects, and predicates). As a result, subjects fail to perceive the simpler pattern of repetitions--a form of syntax-induced pattern deafness that is reminiscent of how other perceptual systems force specific interpretations upon sensory input.

  4. Drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Katarey, Dev; Verma, Sumita

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the western world. Excluding paracetamol overdose, nearly all DILI encountered in the clinical setting is idiosyncratic in nature because affected individuals represent only a small proportion of those treated with such drugs. In many cases, the mechanism for idiosyncrasy is immune-mediation and is often identified by genetic risk determined by human leukocyte antigen variants. In the absence of diagnostic tests and/or biomarkers, the diagnosis of DILI requires a high index of suspicion after diligently excluding other causes of abnormal liver tests. Antibiotics are the class of drugs most frequently associated with idiosyncratic DILI, although recent studies indicate that herbal and dietary supplements are an increasingly recognised cause. It is imperative that upon development of DILI the culprit drug be discontinued, especially in the presence of elevated transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio ≥5 times the upper limit of normal) and/or jaundice. Risk factors for the development ALF include hepatocellular DILI and female gender, the treatment being supportive with some benefit of N-acetylcysteine in the early stages. In view of the poor transplant-free survival in idiosyncratic DILI, early consideration for liver transplant is mandatory.

  5. Sepsis-induced brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Adam, Nicolas; Kandelman, Stanislas; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Sharshar, Tarek

    2013-02-01

    Systemic infection is often revealed by or associated with brain dysfunction, which is characterized by alteration of consciousness, ranging from delirium to coma, seizure or focal neurological signs. Its pathophysiology involves an ischemic process, secondary to impairment of cerebral perfusion and its determinants and a neuroinflammatory process that includes endothelial activation, alteration of the blood-brain barrier and passage of neurotoxic mediators. Microcirculatory dysfunction is common to these two processes. This brain dysfunction is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and long-term cognitive disability. Its diagnosis relies essentially on neurological examination that can lead to specific investigations, including electrophysiological testing or neuroimaging. In practice, cerebrospinal fluid analysis is indisputably required when meningitis is suspected. Hepatic, uremic or respiratory encephalopathy, metabolic disturbances, drug overdose, sedative or opioid withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal delirium or Wernicke's encephalopathy are the main differential diagnoses. Currently, treatment consists mainly of controlling sepsis. The effects of insulin therapy and steroids need to be assessed. Various drugs acting on sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction, brain oxidative stress and inflammation have been tested in septic animals but not yet in patients.

  6. Iloprost induces tertiary dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Limjeerajarus, Chalida Nakalekha; Chanarattanubol, Thichaporn; Trongkij, Panruethai; Rujiwanichkul, Mirantee; Pavasant, Prasit

    2014-11-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2), a member of the prostaglandin family, can promote angiogenesis and cell proliferation. In this study, the effect of the application of a PGI2 analog (iloprost) on dentin repair was examined in vitro and in vivo. Iloprost significantly stimulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and osteo-/odontogenic marker messenger RNA in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) under osteoinductive conditions in vitro. In addition, iloprost enhanced HDPC alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity and mineral deposition. An in vivo study was performed using a rat molar mechanical pulp exposure model. After 30 days, histologic analysis revealed that there was a dramatic tertiary dentin formation in the iloprost-treated group compared with the calcium hydroxide and the untreated control groups. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression in dental pulp tissue was increased in the iloprost-treated group as determined by immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, the present study, for the first time, shows that iloprost induces the expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers in vitro and promotes angiogenic factor expression and enhances tertiary dentin formation in vivo. This implies the potential clinical usefulness of iloprost in vital pulp therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ibuprofen-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2010-06-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug.

  8. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. B.; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.; Bruus, H.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2012-09-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by “current-induced membrane discharge” (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to electro-osmotic instability, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC.

  9. What induces watts in WAT?

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Claude; Joffin, Nolwenn; Jaubert, Anne-Marie; Noirez, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Excess calories stored in white adipose tissue (WAT) could be reduced either through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the development of brown-like cells (“beige” or “brite”) in WAT, a process named “browning.” Calorie dissipation in brown and beige adipocytes might rely on the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is absent in white fat cells. Any increase in UCP1 is commonly considered as the trademark of energy expenditure. The intracellular events involved in the recruitment process of beige precursors were extensively studied lately, as were the effectors, hormones, cytokines, nutrients and drugs able to modulate the route of browning and theoretically affect fat mass in rodents and in humans. The aim of this review is to update the characterization of the extracellular effectors that induce UCP1 in WAT and potentially provoke calorie dissipation. The potential influence of metabolic cycling in energy expenditure is also questioned. PMID:27386158

  10. Inflammation-Induced Cell Proliferation Potentiates DNA Damage-Induced Mutations In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Orsolya; Gong, Guanyu; Olipitz, Werner; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations are a critical driver of cancer initiation. While extensive studies have focused on exposure-induced mutations, few studies have explored the importance of tissue physiology as a modulator of mutation susceptibility in vivo. Of particular interest is inflammation, a known cancer risk factor relevant to chronic inflammatory diseases and pathogen-induced inflammation. Here, we used the fluorescent yellow direct repeat (FYDR) mice that harbor a reporter to detect misalignments during homologous recombination (HR), an important class of mutations. FYDR mice were exposed to cerulein, a potent inducer of pancreatic inflammation. We show that inflammation induces DSBs (γH2AX foci) and that several days later there is an increase in cell proliferation. While isolated bouts of inflammation did not induce HR, overlap between inflammation-induced DNA damage and inflammation-induced cell proliferation induced HR significantly. To study exogenously-induced DNA damage, animals were exposed to methylnitrosourea, a model alkylating agent that creates DNA lesions relevant to both environmental exposures and cancer chemotherapy. We found that exposure to alkylation damage induces HR, and importantly, that inflammation-induced cell proliferation and alkylation induce HR in a synergistic fashion. Taken together, these results show that, during an acute bout of inflammation, there is a kinetic barrier separating DNA damage from cell proliferation that protects against mutations, and that inflammation-induced cell proliferation greatly potentiates exposure-induced mutations. These studies demonstrate a fundamental mechanism by which inflammation can act synergistically with DNA damage to induce mutations that drive cancer and cancer recurrence. PMID:25647331

  11. Methylphenidate Actively Induces Emergence from General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Ken; Cotten, Joseph F.; Cimenser, Aylin; Wong, Kin F.K.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methods Using adult rats we tested the effect of methylphenidate IV on time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then performed experiments to test separately for methylphenidate-induced changes in arousal and changes in minute ventilation. A dose-response study was performed to test for methylphenidate–induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. Surface electroencephalogram recordings were performed to observe neurophysiological changes. Plethysmography recordings and arterial blood gas analysis were performed to assess methylphenidate-induced changes in respiratory function. Droperidol IV was administered to test for inhibition of methylphenidate's actions. Results Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence from 280 to 91 s. The median difference in time to emergence without compared to with methylphenidate was 200 [155, 331] s (median, [95% confidence interval]). During continuous inhalation of isoflurane, methylphenidate induced return of righting in a dose-dependent manner, induced a shift in electroencephalogram power from delta to theta, and induced an increase in minute ventilation. Administration of droperidol (0.5 mg/kg IV) prior to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg IV) largely inhibited methylphenidate-induced emergence behavior, electroencephalogram changes, and changes in minute ventilation. Conclusions Methylphenidate actively induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia by increasing arousal and respiratory drive, possibly through activation of dopaminergic and adrenergic arousal circuits. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be clinically

  12. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R.; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphine-induced reductions in tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory force and expiratory force, but did not affect morphine-induced reductions in respiratory rate. Minocycline attenuation of respiratory depression was also paralleled with significant attenuation by minocycline of morphine-induced reductions in blood oxygen saturation. Minocycline also attenuated morphine conditioned place preference. Minocycline did not simply reduce all actions of morphine, as morphine analgesia was significantly potentiated by minocycline co-administration. Lastly, morphine dose-dependently increased cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression in a rat microglial cell line, an effect that was dose-dependently blocked by minocycline. Together, these data support that morphine can directly activate microglia in a minocycline-suppressible manner and suggest a pivotal role for minocycline-sensitive processes in the mechanisms of morphine-induced respiration depression, reward, and pain modulation. PMID:18706994

  13. The timing of induced resistance and induced susceptibility in the soybean-Mexican bean beetle system.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Nora C

    1998-04-01

    Induced plant responses to herbivory have been demonstrated in many systems. It has been suggested that the timing of these responses may influence the impact of induced resistance on herbivore populations, and may affect the evolution of induced defenses. This study used a bioassay to characterize the time course of systemic induced responses to Mexican bean beetle herbivory in four genotypes of soybeans. The results suggest that the time course of induced responses in this system is more complex than most previous studies have indicated. Herbivory provoked both rapid induced resistance and subsequent induced susceptibility to beetle feeding. All four genotypes of soybean induced significant resistance to beetle damage (beetles preferred undamaged to damaged plants) by 3 days after damage. By 15 days after damage, this resistance had decayed (beetles showed no preference for undamaged over damaged plants), and by 20 days after damage, all four genotypes exhibited significant induced susceptibility (beetles preferred previously damaged plants over undamaged plants). The magnitude of induced resistance in each genotype correlated strongly with the magnitude of induced susceptibility in that genotype.

  14. Vibration-Induced Droplet Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. K.; James, A.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal management is critical to a number of technologies used in a microgravity environment and in Earth-based systems. Examples include electronic cooling, power generation systems, metal forming and extrusion, and HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) systems. One technique that can deliver the large heat fluxes required for many of these technologies is two-phase heat transfer. This type of heat transfer is seen in the boiling or evaporation of a liquid and in the condensation of a vapor. Such processes provide very large heat fluxes with small temperature differences. Our research program is directed toward the development of a new, two-phase heat transfer cell for use in a microgravity environment. In this paper, we consider the main technology used in this cell, a novel technique for the atomization of a liquid called vibration-induced droplet atomization. In this process, a small liquid droplet is placed on a thin metal diaphragm that is made to vibrate by an attached piezoelectric transducer. The vibration induces capillary waves on the free surface of the droplet that grow in amplitude and then begin to eject small secondary droplets from the wave crests. In some situations, this ejection process develops so rapidly that the entire droplet seems to burst into a small cloud of atomized droplets that move away from the diaphragm at speeds of up to 50 cm/s. By incorporating this process into a heat transfer cell, the active atomization and transport of the small liquid droplets could provide a large heat flux capability for the device. Experimental results are presented that document the behavior of the diaphragm and the droplet during the course of a typical bursting event. In addition, a simple mathematical model is presented that qualitatively reproduces all of the essential features we have seen in a burst event. From these two investigations, we have shown that delayed droplet bursting results when the system passes through a resonance

  15. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    PubMed

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  16. Hyperthermia-induced drug targeting.

    PubMed

    May, Jonathan P; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2013-04-01

    Specific delivery of a drug to a target site is a major goal of drug delivery research. Using temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) is one way to achieve this; the liposome acts as a protective carrier, allowing increased drug to flow through the bloodstream by minimizing clearance and non-specific uptake. On reaching microvessels within a heated tumor, the drug is released and quickly penetrates. A major advance in the field is ThermoDox® (Celsion), demonstrating significant improvements to the drug release rates and drug uptake in heated tumors (∼ 41°C). Most recently, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been combined with TSL drug delivery to provide localized chemotherapy with simultaneous quantification of drug release within the tumor. In this article the field of hyperthermia-induced drug delivery is discussed, with an emphasis on the development of TSLs and their combination with hyperthermia (both mild and ablative) in cancer therapy. State-of-the-art image-guided heating technologies used with this combination strategy will also be presented, with examples of real-time monitoring of drug delivery and prediction of efficacy. The specific delivery of drugs by combining hyperthermia with TSLs is showing great promise in the clinic and its potential will be even greater as the use of image-guided focused ultrasound becomes more widespread - a technique capable of penetrating deep within the body to heat a specific area with improved control. In conjunction with this, it is anticipated that multifunctional TSLs will be a major topic of study in this field.

  17. Neutrino-recoil induced desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Avci, R.; Lapeyre, G.J. ); Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L.; Robinson, S.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear decay induced [sup 37]Cl ion desorption from the electron capture decay [sup 37]Ar[r arrow][sup 37]Cl+[nu] is reported for the first time. A mixture of one part [sup 36]Ar and [similar to]5[times]10[sup [minus]5] parts [sup 37]Ar ([sup 36/37]Ar) is physisorbed on a gold-plated Si wafer kept at 16 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The time of flight (TOF) of recoiled [sup 37]Cl ions is measured using coincidence techniques. The observed kinetic energy distribution of the [sup 37]Cl ions is approximately Gaussian in shape, with a maximum at [approx]9.0 eV and a full width at half-maximum of [similar to]3 eV. Considering the binding energy of physisorbed [sup 37]Ar is [similar to]80 meV, the 9-eV peak energy compares well with that of the gas-phase value, where conservation of the energy and momentum fixes the kinetic energy of [sup 37]Cl ions at 9.54 eV. Using a combination of TOF and retarding field energy analysis, the charge states of detected ions for 1 ML (monolayer) of [sup 36/37]Ar are determined as 53%+1[ital e], 21%+2[ital e], and 26%+[ital ne], where [ital n][ge]3. The fraction of decaying [sup 37]Ar atoms which emerge from the surface as positive [sup 37]Cl ions is found to be 10%. Finally, a strong charge exchange reaction between a [sup 37]Cl ion and near-neighbor atoms causes a Coulomb explosion within the multilayers, increasing the kinetic energy of desorbing ions by as much as [similar to]7 eV.

  18. Bubble-Induced Cave Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned “natural” instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a “collapse”. We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  19. Continental subduction induced tremor activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, H. J.; Chen, K. H.; Ide, S.; Mouyen, M.; Byrne, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Central Range of Taiwan, a place where deep-seated tectonic tremors (a proxy of slow slip) and earthquake swarms are closely located in space and highly correlated in time, provides rare opportunity towards the understanding of physical mechanisms governing different style of slip. To identify tremor events, we used the identification scheme similar to Ide et al. (2015) but applied slightly different techniques: (1) Higher waveform cross-correlation coefficient (>0.6) (2) careful visual inspection for excluding local earthquakes and short-lasted event (duration < 60 s) (3) Signal to noise ratio higher than 1.2 and lower than 30 (4) No spatio-temporal clustering technique used. During the study period of 2007-2012, we identified 2320 tremor events with duration ranging from 60 s to 1550 s. They are located underneath southern Central Range, forming a NS-striking and SE-dipping pipe-like structure at a depth of 20-40 km. The up-dip extension of this tremor structure reaches an aseismic zone under the western flank of Central Range at shallow depths, where is an area characterized by high heat flow, low Vp and Vs anomaly. Such seismic gap was explained by the buoyancy induced crust detachment during continental subduction of Eurasian Plate. This detachment may open a new channel for hot and ductile material ascending to shallow depth, producing high temperatures along the way. This provides a common mechanism for down-dip tremor and up-dip shallow seismic gap along the same eastern dipping channel. In addition, the tremor events are found to be mostly occurred in high tides and exhibit higher correlation with tide data from west coast of Taiwan. This may again imply the association between tremor activity and subduction of Eurasian Plate.

  20. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.

  1. [Acneiform eruptions induced by cetuximab].

    PubMed

    Walon, L; Gilbeau, C; Lachapelle, J-M

    2003-04-01

    Many drugs may induce acneiform eruptions: vitamine B12, corticosteroids, androgens, lithium, tuberculostatics, halogens, some antidepressants, anticonvulsives and immunosuppressors. Many cases of acneiform eruptions can be observed following treatment with cetuximab, a drug used for solid cancers at advanced stages in experimental protocols. Case 1. A 56 year-old woman, suffering from a colorectal cancer, developed a sudden acneiform eruption after 6 cures of cetuximab, at a one-week interval. She was treated with bisoprolol hemifumarate, sodium levothyroxin, cyproterone acetate and estradiol valerate. Clinical examination revealed inflammatory and follicular papulopustules localized on the face and upper chest. Comedos were absent. Itching sensations were discrete. Histopathological examination of a papulopustule revealed a folliculitis with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. PAS staining did not reveal the presence of bacteria or yeasts. Bacterial and fungal cultures were negative. Lesions faded in approximately 2 weeks following minocycline treatment (100 mg/day). Case 2. A 65 year-old man, treated by cetuximab for a colorectal adenocarcinoma, suddenly developped follicular inflammatory papulopustules on the face, trunk and extensor surfaces of both arms, after 3 weeks of treatment. Itching was discrete. Comedos were absent. Histopathology revealed the presence of a folliculitis with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Bacteriology and mycology were negative. Lesions were partly controlled by administration of minocycline (100 mg/day) but worsened again in the days following each cure of cetuximab. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody binding to the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor. It is used in the treatment of solid cancers at advanced stages. Both case reports share some similarities: the development of follicular inflammatory papulopustules distributed on the face and trunk typical, of acneiform drug eruptions. Itching is discrete. Comedos are absent. Quick onset of

  2. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  3. Mastication-induced vertigo and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Koo, Ja-Won; Oh, Seo Won; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Joon-Tae; Welgampola, Miriam; Deriu, Franca

    2014-03-01

    Even though trigeminovestibular connections are well established in animals, mastication-induced dizziness has been described only as a vascular steal phenomenon in humans. We determined induction or modulation of nystagmus in two index patients with mastication-induced vertigo, 12 normal controls, and 52 additional patients with peripheral (n = 38, 26 with vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis and 12 with Meniere's disease) or central (n = 14, 11 with Wallenberg syndrome, two with cerebellar infarction, and one with pontine infarction) vestibulopathy during their acute or compensated phase. Both index patients developed mastication-induced vertigo after near complete resolution of the spontaneous vertigo from presumed acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. The nystagmus and vertigo gradually built up during mastication and dissipated slowly after cessation of mastication. Brain MRI and cerebral angiography were normal in these patients. Mastication did not induce nystagmus in normal controls. However, mastication induced nystagmus in five (24 %) of the 21 patients without spontaneous nystagmus (SN) but with a previous history of a vestibular syndrome, and either increased (21/31, 68 %) or decreased (7/31, 23 %) the SN in almost all the patients (28/31, 90 %) with SN. Mastication may induce significant vertigo and nystagmus in patients with a prior history of acute vestibulopathy. The induction or modulation of nystagmus by mastication in both peripheral and central vestibulopathies supports trigeminal modulation of the vestibular system in human. The gradual build-up and dissipation suggest a role of the velocity storage mechanism in the generation of mastication-induced vertigo and nystagmus.

  4. Hypocentre estimation of induced earthquakes in Groningen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetzler, Jesper; Dost, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Induced earthquakes due to gas production have taken place in the province of Groningen in the northeast of The Netherlands since 1986. In the first years of seismicity, a sparse seismological network with large station distances from the seismogenic area in Groningen was used. The location of induced earthquakes was limited by the few and wide spread stations. Recently, the station network has been extended significantly and the location of induced earthquakes in Groningen has become routine work. Except for the depth estimation of the events. In the hypocentre method used for source location by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), the depth of the induced earthquakes is by default set to 3 km which is the average depth of the gas-reservoir. Alternatively, a differential traveltime for P-waves approach for source location is applied on recorded data from the extended network. The epicentre and depth of 87 induced earthquakes from 2014 to July 2016 have been estimated. The newly estimated epicentres are close to the induced earthquake locations from the current method applied by the KNMI. It is observed that most induced earthquakes take place at reservoir level. Several events in the same magnitude order are found near a brittle anhydrite layer in the overburden of mainly rock salt evaporites.

  5. Research on cavitation characteristic of inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, N.; Wang, L. Q.; Y Kong, F.; Wu, D. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The inducer has significant effect on improving the cavitation characteristic of a centrifugal pump. The fact which can not be neglected is that the inducer itself is a kind of axial pump. Research on inducer's cavitation characteristic is very important. Several inducers were designed and modeled by Pro/E software. The mesh of flow field was done by ICEM and imported to ANSYS CFX to analyze the inducer's cavitation characteristic. The relationship between cavity length and head breakdown was discussed. With the decrease of NPSH, there is a slight increase in the head just prior to the decrease associated with head breakdown. This conclusion coincides with experimental results. The influence of backflow eddy on the inducer's cavitation characteristic was analyzed, and the change of backflow eddy in the process of cavitation was illustrated. It can be concluded that the correlation between the inducer head breakdown and the relative cavity length is very close which agrees well with the theoretical and experimental results. As the inlet pressure is decreased, inception almost always occurs in the tip vortex generated by the corner where the leading edge meets the tip. And backflow vortex gradually disappears in the process of cavitation.

  6. Induced Power of the Helicopter Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A simplified rotor model was used to explore fundamental behavior of lifting rotor induced power at moderate and high advance ratios. Several rotor inflow theories, including dynamic inflow theory and prescribed-wake vortex theory, together with idealized notional airfoil stall models were employed. A number of unusual results were encountered at high advance ratios including trim control reversal and multiple trim solutions. Significant increases in rotor induced power (torque) above the ideal minimum were observed for moderately high advance ratio. Very high induced power was observed near and above unity advance ratio. The results were sensitive to the stall characteristics of the airfoil models used. An equivalent wing analysis was developed to determine induced power from Prandtl lifting line theory and help interpret the rotor induced power behavior in terms of the spanwise airload distribution. The equivalent wing approach was successful in capturing the principal variations of induced power for different configurations and operating conditions. The effects blade root cutout were found to have a significant effect on rotor trim and induced power at high advance ratios.

  7. Hypocenter Estimation of Induced Earthquakes in Groningen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetzler, Jesper; Dost, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Induced earthquakes due to gas production have taken place in the province of Groningen in the North-East of the Netherlands since 1986. In the first years of seismicity, a sparse seismological network with large station distances from the seismogenic area in Groningen was used. The location of induced earthquakes was limited by the few and wide spread stations. Recently, the station network has been extended significantly and the location of induced earthquakes in Groningen has become routine work. Except for the depth estimation of the events. In the hypocenter method used for source location by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), the depth of the induced earthquakes is by default set to 3 km which is the average depth of the gas-reservoir. Alternatively, a differential travel time for P-waves approach for source location is applied on recorded data from the extended network. The epicenter and depth of 87 induced earthquakes from 2014 to July 2016 have been estimated. The newly estimated epicentres are close to the induced earthquake locations from the current method applied by the KNMI. It is observed that most induced earthquakes take place at reservoir level. Several events in the same magnitude order are found near a brittle anhydrite layer in the overburden of mainly rock salt evaporites.

  8. Terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiyan; Lai, Wei; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-03-01

    Drug-induced lichen planus has been induced by antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antitubercular drugs, antihypertensives, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretic, heavy metals, NSAIDs, etc. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent, is widely used for dermatophyte infections and onychomycosis. Cutaneous adverse effects of terbinafine are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 22-year-old who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption 2 weeks after terbinafine initiation of. The body and lip cleared completely after 8 weeks of drug withdrawal; nail change cleared after 12 weeks.

  9. Induced lactation: gaining a better understanding.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Sarah L; Spatz, Diane L

    2008-01-01

    Although a small minority in the United States, a number of adoptive mothers continue to seek information regarding the induction of lactation. Because of the level of support needed by these women to successfully induce lactation, it is necessary for nurses and other healthcare workers to gain a thorough understanding of the various processes and medications frequently used. Often, women who induce lactation cannot produce enough milk to exclusively breastfeed their infant but find satisfaction in this rigorous process because of the maternal-infant bonding it promotes. The adoptive mother seeking to induce lactation is a unique client in need of highly tailored and personalized care.

  10. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anil C; Prapa, Matina; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Mabote, Thato; Nasir, Mansoor; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure in pregnancy is rare, but usually ascribed to peripartum cardiomyopathy in the absence of other possible diagnoses. However, heart failure can develop solely due to a tachycardia, so-called 'tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy'. The incidence of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in pregnancy is unknown, but it is a treatable and potentially reversible cause of heart failure. Clinically, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy during pregnancy might present in a similar manner, but its management has to be individualized according to the arrhythmic substrate and usually involve multidisciplinary input from specialists in obstetrics, cardiac electrophysiology and heart failure.

  11. Spiderweb deformation induced by electrostatically charged insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Capture success of spider webs has been associated with their microstructure, ornamentation, and wind-induced vibrations. Indirect evidence suggests that statically charged objects can attract silk thread, but web deformations induced by charged insects have not yet been described. Here, we show under laboratory conditions that electrostatically charged honeybees, green bottle flies, fruit flies, aphids, and also water drops falling near webs of cross-spiders (Araneus diadematus) induce rapid thread deformation that enhances the likelihood of physical contact, and thus of prey capture.

  12. Local bias-induced phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Katyayani; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Nikiforov, Maxim; Proksch, Roger; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2008-11-27

    Electrical bias-induced phase transitions underpin a wide range of applications from data storage to energy generation and conversion. The mechanisms behind these transitions are often quite complex and in many cases are extremely sensitive to local defects that act as centers for local transformations or pinning. Furthermore, using ferroelectrics as an example, we review methods for probing bias-induced phase transitions and discuss the current limitations and challenges for extending the methods to field-induced phase transitions and electrochemical reactions in energy storage, biological and molecular systems.

  13. Local bias-induced phase transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Seal, Katyayani; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2008-11-27

    Electrical bias-induced phase transitions underpin a wide range of applications from data storage to energy generation and conversion. The mechanisms behind these transitions are often quite complex and in many cases are extremely sensitive to local defects that act as centers for local transformations or pinning. Furthermore, using ferroelectrics as an example, we review methods for probing bias-induced phase transitions and discuss the current limitations and challenges for extending the methods to field-induced phase transitions and electrochemical reactions in energy storage, biological and molecular systems.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide induces calcium waves in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yasuo; Tsugane, Mamiko; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modifies hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and functions as a neuromodulator. Here, we show that H2S increases intracellular Ca2+ and induces Ca2+ waves in primary cultures of astrocytes as well as hippocampal slices. H2S increases the influx of Ca2+ and to a lesser extent causes the release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ waves induced by neuronal excitation as well as responses to exogenously applied H2S are potently blocked by La3+ and Gd3+, inhibitors of Ca2+ channels. These observations suggest that H2S induces Ca2+ waves that propagate to neighboring astrocytes.

  15. Fixed drug eruption induced by atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Belhadjali, H; Trimech, O; Youssef, M; Elhani, I; Zili, J

    2008-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. We report here a case of multiple FDE induced by atenolol in a 48-year-old woman confirmed by positive patch test in previously affected sites. Beta-blockers-induced FDE are very rare. Only two cases had been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of atenolol-induced FDE confirmed by a positive patch test. PMID:21437137

  16. Fixed drug eruption induced by atenolol.

    PubMed

    Belhadjali, H; Trimech, O; Youssef, M; Elhani, I; Zili, J

    2009-04-24

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. We report here a case of multiple FDE induced by atenolol in a 48-year-old woman confirmed by positive patch test in previously affected sites. Beta-blockers-induced FDE are very rare. Only two cases had been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of atenolol-induced FDE confirmed by a positive patch test.

  17. Observation of density-induced tunneling.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Meinert, Florian; Mark, Manfred J; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2014-11-07

    We study the dynamics of bosonic atoms in a tilted one-dimensional optical lattice and report on the first direct observation of density-induced tunneling. We show that the interaction affects the time evolution of the doublon oscillation via density-induced tunneling and pinpoint its density and interaction dependence. The experimental data for different lattice depths are in good agreement with our theoretical model. Furthermore, resonances caused by second-order tunneling processes are studied, where the density-induced tunneling breaks the symmetric behavior for attractive and repulsive interactions predicted by the Hubbard model.

  18. Characterization of Deoxyribonucleases Induced by Poxviruses 1

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, C.; Launer, J.; Dombrowski, G.; Horák, I.

    1969-01-01

    Increases in deoxyribonuclease activity assayed at alkaline pH can be observed in poxvirus-infected cells when native or denatured deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is used as substrate. The deoxyribonuclease assayable with native DNA as substrate, induced in HeLa cells by cowpoxvirus or vaccinia virus WR, can be separated from the corresponding enzyme present in normal cells by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose. In addition, the two enzymes induced in the virus-infected cells differ from each other in their chromatographic properties. The two induced enzymes have been further characterized with respect to properties of enzymatic reaction. PMID:16789119

  19. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    PubMed

    Bey, Ayoub; Botti, Sophie; Coutier-Marie, Laurianne; Bonabel, Claude; Metche, Stéphanie; Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Schweitzer, Cyril Etienne; Marchal, François; Coffinet, Laurent; Ioan, Iulia

    2017-01-01

    A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs) after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  20. Treatment of Radiation-Induced Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Matthias D; Liu, Joceline S; Morey, Allen F

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy may result in urethral strictures from vascular damage. Most radiation-induced urethral strictures occur in the bulbomembranous junction, and urinary incontinence may result as a consequence of treatment. Radiation therapy may compromise reconstruction due to poor tissue healing and radionecrosis. Excision and primary anastomosis is the preferred urethroplasty technique for radiation-induced urethral stricture. Principles of posterior urethroplasty for trauma may be applied to the treatment of radiation-induced urethral strictures. Chronic management with suprapubic tube is an option based on patient comorbidities and preference.

  1. [Skull vibration induced nystagmus test].

    PubMed

    Dumas, G; De Waele, C; Hamann, K F; Cohen, B; Negrevergne, M; Ulmer, E; Schmerber, S

    2007-09-01

    To establish during a consensus meeting the fundamental basis, the validity criteria, the main indications and results of the skull vibration induced nystagmus test (SVINT) which explores the vestibule high frequencies. The SVINT is applied on the mastoid process (right and left sides) at 100 Hz during 10 seconds on a sitting upright subject. Total unilateral peripheral lesions (tUVL: operated vestibular shwannomas, vestibular neurectomies) and partial unilateral peripheral lesions (pUVL: preoperative neuromas, Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, chemical labyrinthectomies) were studied. Thirty-six patients had brainstem lesions and 173 normal subjects were used as controls. The SVINT is considered positive when the application of the vibrator produces a reproducible sustained nystagmus always beating in the same direction following several trials in various stimulation topographies (on the right and left mastoid). The skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) begins and ends with the stimulation; the direction of the nystagmus has no secondary reversal. The slow phase velocity (SPV) is>2 degrees /second. In tUVL the SVINT always reveals a lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side at all frequencies. The mean SVN SPV is 10.8 degrees /s+/-7.5 SD (N=45). The mastoid site was more efficient than the cervical or vertex sites. Mastoïd stimulation efficiency is not correlated with the side of stimulation. The SVN SPV is correlated with the total caloric efficiency on the healthy ear. In pUVL the SVINT is positive in 71 to 76% of cases; the mean SVN. SPV (6.7 degrees /s+/-4.7 SD)(N=30) is significantly lower than in tUVL (P=0.0004). SVINT is positive in 6 to 10% of the normal population, 31% of brain stem lesions and negative in total bilateral vestibular peripheral lesions. SVINT is an effective, rapid and non invasive test used to detect vestibular asymmetry between 20 to 150 Hz stimulation. This test used in important cohorts of patients during the ten last years has

  2. Ligand-induced Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800

  3. Vibration-induced droplet atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukasinovic, Bojan

    The atomization of liquid drops is investigated experimentally using laser vibrometry, high-speed imaging, and particle tracking techniques. The spray is generated by a novel vibration-induced droplet atomization (VIDA) process in which a sessile drop is atomized by an underlying vibrating thin metal diaphragm, resulting in rapid ejection of small secondary droplets from the free surface of the primary drop. Under some conditions, the primary drop can be atomized extremely rapidly by a bursting-like mechanism (e.g., a 0.1 ml water drop can be atomized in 0.4 seconds). The present research has focused on four major areas: global characteristics of VIDA process, instability modes and free surface dynamics of the forced drop, mechanisms of the interface breakup, and parametric characterization of the ensuing spray. Prior to atomization, the drop free surface undergoes three transitions: from axisymmetric standing waves to azimuthal waves, to a newly-observed lattice mode, and to a disordered pre-ejection state. The droplet ejection results from localized collapse of surface troughs and initiation and ultimate breakup of momentary liquid spikes. Breakup begins with capillary pinch-off from spike tips and can be followed by additional pinching of liquid droplets. For a relatively low-viscosity liquid, e.g., water, a capillary-wave instability of the spike is observed in some cases, while for a very viscous liquid, e.g., a glycerin/water solution, the first breakup occurs near the stem of the spike, with or without subsequent breakup of the detached, elongated thread. Different mechanisms dominating the primary breakup of the spike are operative in the low- and high-viscosity ejection regimes. When ejection of the secondary droplets is triggered, the evolution and rate of atomization depend on the coupled dynamics of the primary drop and the vibrating diaphragm. Due to these dynamics, the process can be either self-intensifying or self-decaying. The resulting VIDA spray

  4. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions cold-induced sweating syndrome cold-induced sweating syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Cold-induced sweating syndrome is characterized by problems with regulating body ...

  5. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  6. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A ... a breastfeeding relationship while further stimulating milk production. Nursing Supplement While there is no way to predict ...

  7. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  8. Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

    1987-01-01

    With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

  9. Autophagy in light-induced retinal damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    Vision is reliant upon converting photon signals to electrical information which is interpreted by the brain and therefore allowing us to receive information about our surroundings. However, when exposed to excessive light, photoreceptors and other types of cells in the retina can undergo light-induced cell death, termed light-induced retinal damage. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding molecular events in the retina after excessive light exposure and mechanisms of light-induced retinal damage. We also introduce works which investigate potential roles of autophagy, an essential cellular mechanism required for maintaining homeostasis under stress conditions, in the illuminated retina and animal models of light-induced retinal damage.

  10. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-10-15

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  11. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG.

  12. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a general review.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Joseph M

    2007-01-01

    Unfractionated heparin is widely used for numerous clinical situations. A well-known adverse effect of heparin exposure is thrombocytopenia. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a clinicopathologic syndrome that can be associated with severe complications and significant mortality. The pathophysiology of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia includes an immune-mediated reaction to heparin that activates platelets and results in an acquired hypercoagulability. Diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia should incorporate clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. Therapy should include discontinuation of heparin, initiation of a direct thrombin inhibitor, and eventually therapy with warfarin (only after the platelet count is at least 100 x 10(9)/L).

  13. More physicians: improved availability or induced demand?

    PubMed

    Carlsen, F; Grytten, J

    1998-09-01

    A number of empirical studies have shown that there is a negative association between population:physician ratio and utilization of medical services. However, it is not clear whether this relationship reflects supplier-inducement, the effect of lower prices on patient demand, a supply response to variation in health status, or improved availability. In Norway, patient fees and state reimbursement fees are set centrally. Therefore, the correlation between utilization and population:physician ratio either reflects supplier-inducement, a supply response or an availability effect. We applied a theoretical model which distinguished between an inducement and an availability effect. The model was implemented on a cross-sectional data set which contained information about patient visits and laboratory tests for all fee-for-service primary care physicians in Norway. Since population:physician ratio is potentially endogenous, an instrumental variable approach is used. We found no evidence for inducement either for number of visits or for provision of laboratory services.

  14. Hypercritical Accretion in the Induced Gravitational Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, L. M.; Fryer, C. L.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2017-07-01

    We presented the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm that have been applied to explain the long gamma ray burst (GRB) associated with type Ic supernova, and recently the X-ray flashes (XRFs)

  15. Radiation-induced accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.

    1986-07-01

    There is a paucity of information on radiation-induced coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.

  16. Charge Induced by Displacement of an Ion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokas, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Tries to clarify and explain some inaccuracies that appeared in a recent article dealing with a current induced in an external circuit due to charges moving within a device, an ionization chamber of planar geometry, in the circuit. (GA)

  17. Autophagy in light-induced retinal damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Perusek, Lindsay; Maeda, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Vision is reliant upon converting photon signals to electrical information which is interpreted by the brain and therefore allowing us to receive information about our surroundings. However, when exposed to excessive light, photoreceptors and other types of cells in the retina can undergo light-induced cell death, termed light-induced retinal damage. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding molecular events in the retina after excessive light exposure and mechanisms of light-induced retinal damage. We also introduce works which investigate potential roles of autophagy, an essential cellular mechanism required for maintaining homeostasis under stress conditions, in the illuminated retina and animal models of light-induced retinal damage. PMID:26325327

  18. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  19. Bioelectromagnetic effects measurements - SAR and induced current.

    PubMed

    Dlugosz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses several theoretical and practical aspects of the application of currents flowing through the body of a radiotelephone operator and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR is known as the physical quantity which is a perfect solution for biological experiments. Unfortunately, SAR cannot be measured directly. Contrary to SAR, which is limited to the penetration depth, a current induced in a point of a body is measurable in any other point of the body. The main objective of this paper is to show that the current induced in a human body when using a radiotelephone or mobile phone is significant and should be analyzed as widely as SAR is. Computer simulations of a human's hand with a radiotelephone were made. Experiments were also conducted. The results of the experiments show that induced current is also as important as SAR and it cannot be omitted in bioelectromagnetic experiments. In biomedical studies both parameters: induced current and SAR play a major role.

  20. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.