Science.gov

Sample records for message passing programs

  1. Automated Performance Prediction of Message Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Mehra, Pankaj; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    As the trend toward massively parallel processing continues, the need for tools that can predict scalability trends becomes greater. While high level languages Eke HPF have come into greater use, explicit message-passing programs proliferate, and will probably do so for some time, thanks to the onslaught of standards such as MPI. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require a substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The YAPP ("Yet Another Performance Predictor") tool is an attempt to automate the formation of first-order expressions for completion time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. The content of this paper is as follows: First, we explore the implementation details of YAPP, and illustrate with examples some of the reasons that automatic prediction is difficult. In the following sections, we present the results of four applications, using execution traces on the Intel i860, analyze the error in YAPP's predictions, explain the limitations of our implementation, and mention possible future additions. In particular, we illustrate techniques used to identify pipeline communication patterns, and demonstrate how compiler analysis and regression are combined to automate the prediction process.

  2. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  3. Message passing in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Maccabe, A.B. |; Wheat, S.R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the message passing primitives provided by PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture). Message passing in PUMA is based on the concept of a portal--an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the memory associated with the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is not need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel. This simplifies the design of the kernel, increasing its reliability and portability. Moreover, because messages are mapped directly into the address space of the application process, the application can manage the messages that it receives without needing direct support from the kernel.

  4. Automated Performance Prediction of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Mehra, Pankaj; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The increasing use of massively parallel supercomputers to solve large-scale scientific problems has generated a need for tools that can predict scalability trends of applications written for these machines. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The NIK toolkit described in this paper is the result of an on-going effort to automate the formation of analytic expressions of program execution time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, by extending previous work to detect and model communication patterns automatically, with and without overlapped computations. The predictions derived from these models agree, within reasonable limits, with execution times of programs measured on the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon. Further, we demonstrate the use of MK in selecting optimal computational grain size and studying various scalability metrics.

  5. Message Passing on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the challenges in implementing a message passing interface usable on systems with data-parallel processors, and more specifically GPUs. As a case study, we design and implement the ``DCGN'' API on NVIDIA GPUs that is similar to MPI and allows full access to the underlying architecture. We introduce the notion of data-parallel thread-groups as a way to map resources to MPI ranks. We use a method that also allows the data-parallel processors to run autonomously from user-written CPU code. In order to facilitate communication, we use a sleep-based polling system to store and retrieve messages. Unlike previous systems, our method provides both performance and flexibility. By running a test suite of applications with different communication requirements, we find that a tolerable amount of overhead is incurred, somewhere between one and five percent depending on the application, and indicate the locations where this overhead accumulates. We conclude that with innovations in chipsets and drivers, this overhead will be mitigated and provide similar performance to typical CPU-based MPI implementations while providing fully-dynamic communication.

  6. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  7. Incremental Parallelization of Non-Data-Parallel Programs Using the Charon Message-Passing Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2000-01-01

    Message passing is among the most popular techniques for parallelizing scientific programs on distributed-memory architectures. The reasons for its success are wide availability (MPI), efficiency, and full tuning control provided to the programmer. A major drawback, however, is that incremental parallelization, as offered by compiler directives, is not generally possible, because all data structures have to be changed throughout the program simultaneously. Charon remedies this situation through mappings between distributed and non-distributed data. It allows breaking up the parallelization into small steps, guaranteeing correctness at every stage. Several tools are available to help convert legacy codes into high-performance message-passing programs. They usually target data-parallel applications, whose loops carrying most of the work can be distributed among all processors without much dependency analysis. Others do a full dependency analysis and then convert the code virtually automatically. Even more toolkits are available that aid construction from scratch of message passing programs. None, however, allows piecemeal translation of codes with complex data dependencies (i.e. non-data-parallel programs) into message passing codes. The Charon library (available in both C and Fortran) provides incremental parallelization capabilities by linking legacy code arrays with distributed arrays. During the conversion process, non-distributed and distributed arrays exist side by side, and simple mapping functions allow the programmer to switch between the two in any location in the program. Charon also provides wrapper functions that leave the structure of the legacy code intact, but that allow execution on truly distributed data. Finally, the library provides a rich set of communication functions that support virtually all patterns of remote data demands in realistic structured grid scientific programs, including transposition, nearest-neighbor communication, pipelining

  8. Comparative Study of Message Passing and Shared Memory Parallel Programming Models in Neural Network Training

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.; Gordillo, J.; Cortina, L; Hanebutte, U.

    1999-12-14

    It is presented a comparative performance study of a coarse grained parallel neural network training code, implemented in both OpenMP and MPI, standards for shared memory and message passing parallel programming environments, respectively. In addition, these versions of the parallel training code are compared to an implementation utilizing SHMEM the native SGI/CRAY environment for shared memory programming. The multiprocessor platform used is a SGI/Cray Origin 2000 with up to 32 processors. It is shown that in this study, the native CRAY environment outperforms MPI for the entire range of processors used, while OpenMP shows better performance than the other two environments when using more than 19 processors. In this study, the efficiency is always greater than 60% regardless of the parallel programming environment used as well as of the number of processors.

  9. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  10. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  11. MPICH. Portable Implementation of the Standard Message Passing Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Doss, N.; Skjellum, A.

    1992-12-01

    MPICH is a portable implementation of the MPI Message Passing Interface standard. A general-purpose library, it contains routines with which to write message-passing programs for a variety of parallell computers and workstation networks.

  12. Efficient Tracing for On-the-Fly Space-Time Displays in a Debugger for Message Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robert; Matthews, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the implementation of a practical mechanism for collecting and displaying trace information in a debugger for message passing programs. We introduce a trace format that is highly compressible while still providing information adequate for debugging purposes. We make the mechanism convenient for users to access by incorporating the trace collection in a set of wrappers for the MPI (message passing interface) communication library. We implement several debugger operations that use the trace display: consistent stoplines, undo, and rollback. They all are implemented using controlled replay, which executes at full speed in target processes until the appropriate position in the computation is reached. They provide convenient mechanisms for getting to places in the execution where the full power of a state-based debugger can be brought to bear on isolating communication errors.

  13. Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    We propose novel compressive imaging algorithms that employ approximate message passing (AMP), which is an iterative signal estimation algorithm that...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing The views, opinions and/or findings...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 approximate message passing , compressive imaging, compressive sensing, hyperspectral imaging, signal reconstruction

  14. Study of parallel efficiency in message passing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    1996-03-01

    A benchmark test using the Message Passing Interface (MPI, an emerging standard for writing message passing programs) has been developed, to study parallel performance in message passing environments. The test is comprised of a computational task of independent calculations followed by a round-robin data communication step. Performance data as a function of computational granularity and message passing requirements are presented for the IBM SPx at Argonne National Laboratory and for a cluster of quasi-dedicated SUN SPARC Station 20`s. In the later portion of the paper a widely accepted communication cost model combined with Amdahl`s law is used to obtain performance predictions for uneven distributed computational work loads.

  15. Active messages versus explicit message passing under SUNMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    In the past few years much effort has been devoted to finding faster and more convenient ways to exchange data between nodes of massively parallel distributed memory machines. One such approach, taken by Thorsten von Eicken et al. is called Active Messages. The idea is to hide message passing latency and continue to compute while data is being sent and delivered. The authors have implemented Active Messages under SUNMOS for the Intel Paragon and performed various experiments to determine their efficiency and utility. In this paper they concentrate on the subset of the Active Message layer that is used by the implementation of the Split-C library. They compare performance to explicit message passing under SUNMOS and explore new ways to support Split-C without Active Messages. They also compare the implementation to the original one on the Thinking Machines CM-5 and try to determine what the effects of low latency and low band-width versus high latency and high bandwidth are on user codes.

  16. Message-passing performance of various computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    This report compares the performance of different computer systems message passing. Latency and bandwidth are measured on Convex, Cray, IBM, Intel, KSR, Meiko, nCUBE, NEC, SGI, and TMC multiprocessors. Communication performance is contrasted with the computational power of each system. The comparison includes both shared a memory computers as well as networked workstation cluster.

  17. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  18. Development of Message Passing Routines for High Performance Parallel Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Edward K.

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations require a great deal of computing power for completing the detailed computations involved. In an effort shorten the time it takes to complete such calculations they are implemented on a parallel computer. In the case of a parallel computer some sort of message passing structure must be used to communicate between the computers because, unlike a single machine, each computer in a parallel computing cluster does not have access to all the data or run all the parts of the total program. Thus, message passing is used to divide up the data and send instructions to each machine. The nature of my work this summer involves programming the "message passing" aspect of the parallel computer. I am working on modifying an existing program, which was written with OpenMP, and does not use a multi-machine parallel computing structure, to work with Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines. The actual code is being written in the FORTRAN 90 programming language. My goal is to write a parameterized message passing structure that could be used for a variety of individual applications and implement it on Silicon Graphics Incorporated s (SGI) IRIX operating system. With this new parameterized structure engineers would be able to speed up computations for a wide variety of purposes without having to use larger and more expensive computing equipment from another division or another NASA center.

  19. Extensible message passing application development and debugging with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1996-09-19

    The authors describe how they have parallelized Python, an interpreted object oriented scripting language, and used it to build an extensible message-passing C/C++ applications for the CM-5, Cray T3D, and Sun multiprocessor servers running MPI. Using a parallelized Python interpreter, it is possible to interact with large-scale parallel applications, rapidly prototype new features, and perform application specific debugging. It is even possible to write message passing programs in Python itself. The authors describe some of the tools they have developed to extend Python and applications of this approach.

  20. MPF: A portable message passing facility for shared memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.; Mcguire, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a message passing facility (MPF) for shared memory multiprocessors are presented. The MPF is based on a message passing model conceptually similar to conversations. Participants (parallel processors) can enter or leave a conversation at any time. The message passing primitives for this model are implemented as a portable library of C function calls. The MPF is currently operational on a Sequent Balance 21000, and several parallel applications were developed and tested. Several simple benchmark programs are presented to establish interprocess communication performance for common patterns of interprocess communication. Finally, performance figures are presented for two parallel applications, linear systems solution, and iterative solution of partial differential equations.

  1. Gene-network inference by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Pagnani, A.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2008-01-01

    The inference of gene-regulatory processes from gene-expression data belongs to the major challenges of computational systems biology. Here we address the problem from a statistical-physics perspective and develop a message-passing algorithm which is able to infer sparse, directed and combinatorial regulatory mechanisms. Using the replica technique, the algorithmic performance can be characterized analytically for artificially generated data. The algorithm is applied to genome-wide expression data of baker's yeast under various environmental conditions. We find clear cases of combinatorial control, and enrichment in common functional annotations of regulated genes and their regulators.

  2. Generalized communicators in the message passing interface

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselmman, C.; Snir, M.

    1996-12-31

    We propose extensions to the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that generalize the MPI communicator concept to allow multiple communication endpoints per process, dynamic creation of endpoints, and the transfer of endpoints between processes. The generalized communicator construct can be used to express a wide range of interesting communication structures, including collective communication operations involving multiple threads per process, communications between dynamically created threads, and object- oriented applications in which communications are directed to specific objects. Furthermore. this enriched functionality can be provided in a manner that preserves backward compatibility with MPI. We describe the proposed extensions, illustrate their use with examples, and discuss implementation issues.

  3. CT reconstruction via denoising approximate message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelli, Alessandro; Lexa, Michael A.; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we adapt and apply a compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm to the problem of computed tomography reconstruction for luggage inspection. Specifically, we propose a variant of the denoising generalized approximate message passing (D-GAMP) algorithm and compare its performance to the performance of traditional filtered back projection and to a penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) based reconstruction method. D-GAMP is an iterative algorithm that at each iteration estimates the conditional probability of the image given the measurements and employs a non-linear "denoising" function which implicitly imposes an image prior. Results on real baggage show that D-GAMP is well-suited to limited-view acquisitions.

  4. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  5. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Kroc, Lukas; Zdeborova, Lenka; Krakala, Florent; Vergassola, M

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  6. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOEpatents

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    In an embodiment, a send thread receives an identifier that identifies a destination node and a pointer to data. The send thread creates a first send request in response to the receipt of the identifier and the data pointer. The send thread selects a selected channel from among a plurality of channels. The selected channel comprises a selected hand-off queue and an identification of a selected message unit. Each of the channels identifies a different message unit. The selected hand-off queue is randomly accessible. If the selected hand-off queue contains an available entry, the send thread adds the first send request to the selected hand-off queue. If the selected hand-off queue does not contain an available entry, the send thread removes a second send request from the selected hand-off queue and sends the second send request to the selected message unit.

  7. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngarrt, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  8. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  9. Direct Deposit -- When Message Passing Meets Shared Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-19

    by H. Karl in [64]. The paper implements the pure DSM code, the pure message passing code and a few intermediate forms on the Charlotte DSM system [8...ASPLOS VI), pages 51–60, San Jose, October 1994. ACM. [64] H. Karl . Bridging the gap between distributed shared memory and message passing. Concurrency...pages 94 – 101, 1988. [73] P.N. Loewenstein and D.L. Dill. Verification of a multiprocessor cache protocol using simulation relations and higher-order

  10. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOEpatents

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burkhard

    2013-02-19

    In an embodiment, a reception thread receives a source node identifier, a type, and a data pointer from an application and, in response, creates a receive request. If the source node identifier specifies a source node, the reception thread adds the receive request to a fast-post queue. If a message received from a network does not match a receive request on a posted queue, a polling thread adds a receive request that represents the message to an unexpected queue. If the fast-post queue contains the receive request, the polling thread removes the receive request from the fast-post queue. If the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue does not match the receive request on the unexpected queue, the polling thread adds the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue to the posted queue. The reception thread and the polling thread execute asynchronously from each other.

  11. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  12. MICA, a facility to achieve portability for message-passing and dynamic memory management in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.C.; Mirin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    MICA, which stands for Macro Interface for Communication and Allocation, is a macro facility for message passing and dynamic memory management for Fortran programs on Unix platforms. A combination of CPP and M4 preprocessing is used to provide the macro interface. CPP is used for conditional compilation according to machine architecture and selected memory management and message passing options. M4 is used for translating the macro calls into the appropriate Fortran code sequences. Several supporting Fortran subprograms are included.

  13. A Message-Passing Algorithm for Wireless Network Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Huang, Fuzhuo; Lai, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We consider scheduling in wireless networks and formulate it as Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem on a "conflict" graph that captures interference among simultaneous transmissions. We propose a novel, low-complexity, and fully distributed algorithm that yields high-quality feasible solutions. Our proposed algorithm consists of two phases, each of which requires only local information and is based on message-passing. The first phase solves a relaxation of the MWIS problem using a gradient projection method. The relaxation we consider is tighter than the simple linear programming relaxation and incorporates constraints on all cliques in the graph. The second phase of the algorithm starts from the solution of the relaxation and constructs a feasible solution to the MWIS problem. We show that our algorithm always outputs an optimal solution to the MWIS problem for perfect graphs. Simulation results compare our policies against Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and other alternatives and show excellent performance.

  14. Standards for message-passing in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main ideas presented at the First CRPC Work-shop on Standards for Message Passing in a Distributed Memory Environment, held April 29-30, 1992, in Williamsburg, Virginia. This workshop attracted 68 attendees including representative from major hardware and software vendors, and was the first in a series of workshops sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation. The aim of this series of workshops is to develop and implement a standard for message passing on distributed memory concurrent computers, thereby making it easier to develop efficient, portable application codes for such machines. The report discusses the main issues raised in the CRPC workshop, and describes proposed desirable features of a message passing standard for distributed memory environments.

  15. Efficiently passing messages in distributed spiking neural network simulation.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Corey M; Minkovich, Kirill; O'Brien, Michael J; Harris, Frederick C; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently passing spiking messages in a neural model is an important aspect of high-performance simulation. As the scale of networks has increased so has the size of the computing systems required to simulate them. In addition, the information exchange of these resources has become more of an impediment to performance. In this paper we explore spike message passing using different mechanisms provided by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A specific implementation, MVAPICH, designed for high-performance clusters with Infiniband hardware is employed. The focus is on providing information about these mechanisms for users of commodity high-performance spiking simulators. In addition, a novel hybrid method for spike exchange was implemented and benchmarked.

  16. Physics/computer science. Passing messages between disciplines.

    PubMed

    Mézard, Marc

    2003-09-19

    Problems in computer science, such as error correction in information transfer and "satisfiability" in optimization, show phase transitions familiar from solid-state physics. In his Perspective, Mézard explains how recent advances in these three fields originate in similar "message passing" procedures. The exchange of elaborate messages between different variables and constraints, used in the study of phase transitions in physical systems, helps to make error correction and satisfiability codes more efficient.

  17. Message passing in fault-tolerant quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Zachary W. E.; Stephens, Ashley M.

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by Knill’s scheme for message passing error detection, here we develop a scheme for message passing error correction for the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor code. We show that for two levels of concatenated error correction, where classical information obtained at the first level is used to help interpret the syndrome at the second level, our scheme will correct all cases with four physical errors. This results in a reduction of the logical failure rate relative to conventional error correction by a factor proportional to the reciprocal of the physical error rate.

  18. Parallelization of a hydrological model using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Li, Tiejian; Sun, Liqun; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the natural processes, hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are becoming larger and more complex with increasing computation time. Additionally, other procedures such as model calibration, which may require thousands of model iterations, can increase running time and thus further reduce rapid modeling and analysis. Using the widely-applied SWAT as an example, this study demonstrates how to parallelize a serial hydrological model in a Windows® environment using a parallel programing technology—Message Passing Interface (MPI). With a case study, we derived the optimal values for the two parameters (the number of processes and the corresponding percentage of work to be distributed to the master process) of the parallel SWAT (P-SWAT) on an ordinary personal computer and a work station. Our study indicates that model execution time can be reduced by 42%–70% (or a speedup of 1.74–3.36) using multiple processes (two to five) with a proper task-distribution scheme (between the master and slave processes). Although the computation time cost becomes lower with an increasing number of processes (from two to five), this enhancement becomes less due to the accompanied increase in demand for message passing procedures between the master and all slave processes. Our case study demonstrates that the P-SWAT with a five-process run may reach the maximum speedup, and the performance can be quite stable (fairly independent of a project size). Overall, the P-SWAT can help reduce the computation time substantially for an individual model run, manual and automatic calibration procedures, and optimization of best management practices. In particular, the parallelization method we used and the scheme for deriving the optimal parameters in this study can be valuable and easily applied to other hydrological or environmental models.

  19. Clandestine Message Passing in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 as managerial software to set up person to person matches for any one of the hundreds of titles. The business world has...million units sold worldwide up to and including the month of June 2008, the Nintendo Wii has outsold both the Xbox (19 million units) and PlayStation 3...their distribution. Installation of the executable places three programs on the hard drive - Wonderland Server, Wonderland Client, and Wonderland

  20. Asynchronous Message Passing in the JPL Flight System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The flight mission simulation software in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flight System Testbed (FST) is a heterogeneous, distributed system that is built on an interprocess communication model of asynchronous message passing rather than remote procedure calls (RPCs). The reasoning behind this design decision is discussed; the mechanism used to implement it (.

  1. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  2. A test implementation of the MPI draft message-passing standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1992-12-01

    Message passing is a common method for programming parallel computers. The lack of a standard has significantly impeded the development of portable software libraries for these machines. Recently, an ad-hoc committee was formed to develop a standard for message-passing software for parallel computers. This group first met in April 1992 at a workshop sponsored in part by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC). Four of the attendees at that meeting produced a draft standard, henceforth referred to as the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) draft standard. After review by a larger group, and significant changes in the document, a meeting was held in November to discuss the MPI draft standard. This document is a result of those discussions; it describes a running implementation of in most of the proposed standard,plus additional routines that were suggested by the discussions at the November meeting.

  3. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Charon is a library, callable from C and Fortran, that aids the conversion of structured-grid legacy codes-such as those used in the numerical computation of fluid flows-into parallel, high- performance codes. Key are functions that define distributed arrays, that map between distributed and non-distributed arrays, and that allow easy specification of common communications on structured grids. The library is based on the widely accepted MPI message passing standard. We present an overview of the functionality of Charon, and some representative results.

  4. Hybrid approximate message passing for generalized group sparsity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Alyson K.; Rangan, Sundeep

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of estimating a group sparse vector x ∈ Rn under a generalized linear measurement model. Group sparsity of x means the activity of different components of the vector occurs in groups - a feature common in estimation problems in image processing, simultaneous sparse approximation and feature selection with grouped variables. Unfortunately, many current group sparse estimation methods require that the groups are non-overlapping. This work considers problems with what we call generalized group sparsity where the activity of the different components of x are modeled as functions of a small number of boolean latent variables. We show that this model can incorporate a large class of overlapping group sparse problems including problems in sparse multivariable polynomial regression and gene expression analysis. To estimate vectors with such group sparse structures, the paper proposes to use a recently-developed hybrid generalized approximate message passing (HyGAMP) method. Approximate message passing (AMP) refers to a class of algorithms based on Gaussian and quadratic approximations of loopy belief propagation for estimation of random vectors under linear measurements. The HyGAMP method extends the AMP framework to incorporate priors on x described by graphical models of which generalized group sparsity is a special case. We show that the HyGAMP algorithm is computationally efficient, general and offers superior performance in certain synthetic data test cases.

  5. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  6. Approximate message passing with restricted Boltzmann machine priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramel, Eric W.; Drémeau, Angélique; Krzakala, Florent

    2016-07-01

    Approximate message passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problems. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernoulli prior which utilizes a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple i.i.d. priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.

  7. Passing messages between biological networks to refine predicted interactions.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kimberly; Huttenhower, Curtis; Quackenbush, John; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory network reconstruction is a fundamental problem in computational biology. There are significant limitations to such reconstruction using individual datasets, and increasingly people attempt to construct networks using multiple, independent datasets obtained from complementary sources, but methods for this integration are lacking. We developed PANDA (Passing Attributes between Networks for Data Assimilation), a message-passing model using multiple sources of information to predict regulatory relationships, and used it to integrate protein-protein interaction, gene expression, and sequence motif data to reconstruct genome-wide, condition-specific regulatory networks in yeast as a model. The resulting networks were not only more accurate than those produced using individual data sets and other existing methods, but they also captured information regarding specific biological mechanisms and pathways that were missed using other methodologies. PANDA is scalable to higher eukaryotes, applicable to specific tissue or cell type data and conceptually generalizable to include a variety of regulatory, interaction, expression, and other genome-scale data. An implementation of the PANDA algorithm is available at www.sourceforge.net/projects/panda-net.

  8. A Fine-Grain, Message-Passing Processing Node,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    is 2Ons. Wormhole routing (71 [8] [19] is used to give an idle-network latency of 201)+80L ns, where D is the distance in channels and L is the message...The NDFs deliver a message using wormhole routing. Buffering com- presses the message when blockage occurs. to (4,2) is in use). The tail of the message

  9. A message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  10. Containing Epidemic Outbreaks by Message-Passing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Wakeling, J. R.; Zecchina, R.

    2014-04-01

    The problem of targeted network immunization can be defined as the one of finding a subset of nodes in a network to immunize or vaccinate in order to minimize a tradeoff between the cost of vaccination and the final (stationary) expected infection under a given epidemic model. Although computing the expected infection is a hard computational problem, simple and efficient mean-field approximations have been put forward in the literature in recent years. The optimization problem can be recast into a constrained one in which the constraints enforce local mean-field equations describing the average stationary state of the epidemic process. For a wide class of epidemic models, including the susceptible-infected-removed and the susceptible-infected-susceptible models, we define a message-passing approach to network immunization that allows us to study the statistical properties of epidemic outbreaks in the presence of immunized nodes as well as to find (nearly) optimal immunization sets for a given choice of parameters and costs. The algorithm scales linearly with the size of the graph, and it can be made efficient even on large networks. We compare its performance with topologically based heuristics, greedy methods, and simulated annealing on both random graphs and real-world networks.

  11. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for message-passing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  12. A proposal for a user-level, message passing interface in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Hempel, R. ); Hey, A.J.G. . Dept. of Electronics and Computer Science); Walker, D.W. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking, nonblocking, and synchronized message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited, and is a useful abstraction in controlling certain types of collective communication.

  13. High-level message-passing constructs for Zipcode 1.0: Design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Falgout, R.D.; Still, C.H.; Skjellum, A.

    1993-10-01

    Zipcode is a message passing system that was initially designed for multicomputers and homogeneous networks of computers. This paper describes Zipcode ``invoices,`` which raise the message-passing interface of Zipcode to a higher level of abstraction. The ``gather-send`` and ``receive-scatter`` semantics enable heterogeneous communication. The higher level of abstraction also simplifies message passing and reveals more optimizations. We explain the utility of these features and give examples of the calling sequences that implement them. All of these features are seen as enablers for parallel library development and large applications.

  14. Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilotto, Concetta; White, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    We present a library of Prototype Verification System (PVS) meta-theories that verifies a class of distributed systems in which agent commu nication is through message-passing. The theoretic work, outlined in, consists of iterative schemes for solving systems of linear equations , such as message-passing extensions of the Gauss and Gauss-Seidel me thods. We briefly review that work and discuss the challenges in formally verifying it.

  15. Is Your Drug Program Sending Deadly Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1989-01-01

    Many drug education programs send a mixed and confusing message to students. Others are clearly wrong. Cites examples and advises administrators to conduct a critical review of all drug education programs. (MLF)

  16. A grid-enabled MPI : message passing in heterogeneous distributed computing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Karonis, N. T.

    2000-11-30

    Application development for high-performance distributed computing systems, or computational grids as they are sometimes called, requires grid-enabled tools that hide mundate aspects of the heterogeneous grid environment without compromising performance. As part of an investigation of these issues, they have developed MPICH-G, a grid-enabled implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that allows a user to run MPI programs across multiple computers at different sites using the same commands that would be used on a parallel computer. This library extends the Argonne MPICH implementation of MPI to use services provided by the globus grid toolkit. In this paper, they describe the MPICH-G implementation and present preliminary performance results.

  17. A study of application sensitivity to variation in message passing latency and bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P.H.; Mackay, D.R.; Robinson, A.C.; Barragy, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    This study measures the effects of changes in message latency and bandwidth for production-level codes on a current generation tightly coupled MPP, the Intel Paragon. Messages are sent multiple times to study the application sensitivity to variations in band - width and latency. This method preserves the effects of contention on the interconnection network. Two applications are studied, PCTH, a shock physics code developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and PSTSWM, a spectral shallow water code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. These codes are significant in that PCTH is a {open_quote}full physics{close_quotes} application code in production use, while PSTSWM serves as a parallel algorithm test bed and benchmark for production codes used in atmospheric modeling. They are also significant in that the message-passing behavior differs significantly between the two codes, each representing an important class of scientific message-passing applications.

  18. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  19. Algorithms for parallel flow solvers on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to identify and test suitable technologies for implementation of fluid flow solvers -- possibly coupled with structures and heat equation solvers -- on MIMD parallel computers. In the course of this investigation much attention has been paid to efficient domain decomposition strategies for ADI-type algorithms. Multi-partitioning derives its efficiency from the assignment of several blocks of grid points to each processor in the parallel computer. A coarse-grain parallelism is obtained, and a near-perfect load balance results. In uni-partitioning every processor receives responsibility for exactly one block of grid points instead of several. This necessitates fine-grain pipelined program execution in order to obtain a reasonable load balance. Although fine-grain parallelism is less desirable on many systems, especially high-latency networks of workstations, uni-partition methods are still in wide use in production codes for flow problems. Consequently, it remains important to achieve good efficiency with this technique that has essentially been superseded by multi-partitioning for parallel ADI-type algorithms. Another reason for the concentration on improving the performance of pipeline methods is their applicability in other types of flow solver kernels with stronger implied data dependence. Analytical expressions can be derived for the size of the dynamic load imbalance incurred in traditional pipelines. From these it can be determined what is the optimal first-processor retardation that leads to the shortest total completion time for the pipeline process. Theoretical predictions of pipeline performance with and without optimization match experimental observations on the iPSC/860 very well. Analysis of pipeline performance also highlights the effect of uncareful grid partitioning in flow solvers that employ pipeline algorithms. If grid blocks at boundaries are not at least as large in the wall-normal direction as those

  20. Some Aspects of Parallel Implementation of the Finite Element Method on Message Passing Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Method on Message Passing Architecturest I. Babuvka Department of Mathematics and 4 Institute for Physical Science and Technology S H. C. Elman Institute ...for Advanced Computer Studies and Department of Computer Science University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 4, ABSTRACT We discuss some aspects of...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PRO0GRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKC Depart. of Math and 21nst. for Advanced AE OKUI UBR Institute for Physical Science

  1. The design of a standard message passing interface for distributed memory concurrent computers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of MPI, a proposed standard message passing interface for MIMD distributed memory concurrent computers. The design of MPI has been a collective effort involving researchers in the United States and Europe from many organizations and institutions. MPI includes point-to-point and collective communication routines, as well as support for process groups, communication contexts, and application topologies. While making use of new ideas where appropriate, the MPI standard is based largely on current practice.

  2. Cloud Middleware Combining the Functionalities of Message Passing and Scaling Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakushkin, O.

    2016-02-01

    The paper is focused on a solution providing middleware control over both message passing and scaling in a cloud environment. We provide a detailed analysis of the issue and present the restrictions particular to the load-balancing and communications systems. We also justify the need of such middleware development for a cloud infrastructure. The paper describes the problems emerged while working on a concrete project and presents the results obtained so far.

  3. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  4. Monitors, messages, and clusters : the p4 parallel programming system.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. M.; Lusk, E. T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of North Florida

    1994-01-01

    p4 is a portable library of C and Fortran subroutines for programming parallel computers. It is the current version of a system that has been in use since 1984. It includes features for explicit parallel programming of shared-memory machines, distributed-memory machines (including heterogeneous networks of workstations), and clusters, by which we mean shared-memory multiprocessors communicating via message passing. We discuss here the design goals, history, and system architecture of p4 and describe briefly a diverse collection of applications that have demonstrated the utility of p4.

  5. Unsupervised feature learning from finite data by message passing: Discontinuous versus continuous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2016-12-01

    Unsupervised neural network learning extracts hidden features from unlabeled training data. This is used as a pretraining step for further supervised learning in deep networks. Hence, understanding unsupervised learning is of fundamental importance. Here, we study the unsupervised learning from a finite number of data, based on the restricted Boltzmann machine where only one hidden neuron is considered. Our study inspires an efficient message-passing algorithm to infer the hidden feature and estimate the entropy of candidate features consistent with the data. Our analysis reveals that the learning requires only a few data if the feature is salient and extensively many if the feature is weak. Moreover, the entropy of candidate features monotonically decreases with data size and becomes negative (i.e., entropy crisis) before the message passing becomes unstable, suggesting a discontinuous phase transition. In terms of convergence time of the message-passing algorithm, the unsupervised learning exhibits an easy-hard-easy phenomenon as the training data size increases. All these properties are reproduced in an approximate Hopfield model, with an exception that the entropy crisis is absent, and only continuous phase transition is observed. This key difference is also confirmed in a handwritten digits dataset. This study deepens our understanding of unsupervised learning from a finite number of data and may provide insights into its role in training deep networks.

  6. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  7. Educational Programs for By-Passed Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don A., Ed.

    The objective of the symposium from which this document resulted was to give visibility to some worthwhile programs for mobile and "by-passed" populations, in order to allow those in attendance at the symposium and those exposed to the published proceedings to capitalize on what has been learned through these programs. The conference report points…

  8. Implementation of a Message Passing Interface into a Cloud-Resolving Model for Massively Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Hann-Ming Henry; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zeng, Xi-Ping; Shie, Chung-Lin; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The capability for massively parallel programming (MPP) using a message passing interface (MPI) has been implemented into a three-dimensional version of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The design for the MPP with MPI uses the concept of maintaining similar code structure between the whole domain as well as the portions after decomposition. Hence the model follows the same integration for single and multiple tasks (CPUs). Also, it provides for minimal changes to the original code, so it is easily modified and/or managed by the model developers and users who have little knowledge of MPP. The entire model domain could be sliced into one- or two-dimensional decomposition with a halo regime, which is overlaid on partial domains. The halo regime requires that no data be fetched across tasks during the computational stage, but it must be updated before the next computational stage through data exchange via MPI. For reproducible purposes, transposing data among tasks is required for spectral transform (Fast Fourier Transform, FFT), which is used in the anelastic version of the model for solving the pressure equation. The performance of the MPI-implemented codes (i.e., the compressible and anelastic versions) was tested on three different computing platforms. The major results are: 1) both versions have speedups of about 99% up to 256 tasks but not for 512 tasks; 2) the anelastic version has better speedup and efficiency because it requires more computations than that of the compressible version; 3) equal or approximately-equal numbers of slices between the x- and y- directions provide the fastest integration due to fewer data exchanges; and 4) one-dimensional slices in the x-direction result in the slowest integration due to the need for more memory relocation for computation.

  9. The Portals 3.0 Message Passing Interface Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGHTWELL,RONALD B.; HUDSON,TRAMMELL B.; RIESEN,ROLF E.; MACCABE,ARTHUR B.

    1999-12-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 3.0 message passing interface. Portals 3.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Specifically, it is designed to support a parallel computing platform composed of clusters of commodity workstations connected by a commodity system area network fabric. In addition, Portals 3.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 3.0 represents an adoption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine.

  10. The Physics After School Special (PASS) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James; Dunham, Hardin; Sauncy, Toni

    2012-10-01

    The Physics After School Special program, or PASS program, funded by the Marsh White award, was a collaborative enrichment program between Angelo State University's SPS chapter and the local YMCA. The overall goal of this program was to educate young children in physical concepts, educate through hands on activities, to build a mentor-mentee relationship between the children and our SPS volunteers, and to encourage interest in scientific fields. Originally planned to for second to fifth grade students the program was implemented with kindergarten to fourth grade students. This proved to challenge the curriculum but adjustments were made to become more suitable to the age group. We present the program specifics and share results of this outreach program.

  11. ERIK: An Expert Ship Message Interpreter New Mechanisms For Flexible Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, J.

    1985-04-01

    ERIK (Evaluating Reports using Integrated Knowledge) is a working system that was developed for the U.S. Coast Guard to parse ship messages. ERIK is capable of parsing at an impressive rate of 1000 to 2000 messages per day, sent from merchant vessels in all parts of the world. Since these reports contain vital information it is important that the system can parse and correct them quickly and accurately, and furthermore know when it has failed to do so. This paper will focus on the following three algorithms: The IntaaLatad spaliaL/ReqQanizeL integrates the tasks of recognizing items on the input stream and spelling correction. Traditionally these tasks were separated, with items that could not be recognized passed on to a separate speller. We will describe the process that allows fast expectation-based spelling correction and recognition in one unit. The InteLRLatara is a general control structure that allows parsing of the various fields even when the reports fail to follow a fixed format, contains various types of ambiguities (both structurely and conceptually) and can handle the intrusion of noisy and irrelevant information. Changing Contaxta without laking has the ability to recover from wrong assumptions due to erroneous information and correct the previously parsed structures without the need to reparse what has already been processed. These three algorithms provided the core of the ERIK system allowing it to accurately parse and correct ship messages with confidence in a real time, real world situation.

  12. Mean-field message-passing equations in the Hopfield model and its generalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mézard, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by recent progress in using restricted Boltzmann machines as preprocessing algorithms for deep neural network, we revisit the mean-field equations [belief-propagation and Thouless-Anderson Palmer (TAP) equations] in the best understood of such machines, namely the Hopfield model of neural networks, and we explicit how they can be used as iterative message-passing algorithms, providing a fast method to compute the local polarizations of neurons. In the "retrieval phase", where neurons polarize in the direction of one memorized pattern, we point out a major difference between the belief propagation and TAP equations: The set of belief propagation equations depends on the pattern which is retrieved, while one can use a unique set of TAP equations. This makes the latter method much better suited for applications in the learning process of restricted Boltzmann machines. In the case where the patterns memorized in the Hopfield model are not independent, but are correlated through a combinatorial structure, we show that the TAP equations have to be modified. This modification can be seen either as an alteration of the reaction term in TAP equations or, more interestingly, as the consequence of message passing on a graphical model with several hidden layers, where the number of hidden layers depends on the depth of the correlations in the memorized patterns. This layered structure is actually necessary when one deals with more general restricted Boltzmann machines.

  13. Multi-partitioning for ADI-schemes on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1994-01-01

    A kind of discrete-operator splitting called Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) has been found to be useful in simulating fluid flow problems. In particular, it is being used to study the effects of hot exhaust jets from high performance aircraft on landing surfaces. Decomposition techniques that minimize load imbalance and message-passing frequency are described. Three strategies that are investigated for implementing the NAS Scalar Penta-diagonal Parallel Benchmark (SP) are transposition, pipelined Gaussian elimination, and multipartitioning. The multipartitioning strategy, which was used on Ethernet, was found to be the most efficient, although it was considered only a moderate success because of Ethernet's limited communication properties. The efficiency derived largely from the coarse granularity of the strategy, which reduced latencies and allowed overlap of communication and computation.

  14. Parallelization of the TRIGRS model for rainfall-induced landslides using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvioli, M.; Baum, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a parallel implementation of TRIGRS, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability Model for the timing and distribution of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. We have parallelized the four time-demanding execution modes of TRIGRS, namely both the saturated and unsaturated model with finite and infinite soil depth options, within the Message Passing Interface framework. In addition to new features of the code, we outline details of the parallel implementation and show the performance gain with respect to the serial code. Results are obtained both on commercial hardware and on a high-performance multi-node machine, showing the different limits of applicability of the new code. We also discuss the implications for the application of the model on large-scale areas and as a tool for real-time landslide hazard monitoring.

  15. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zdeborova, Lenka; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  16. Effective Compiler Error Message Enhancement for Novice Programming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Brett A.; Glanville, Graham; Iwashima, Ricardo; McDonnell, Claire; Goslin, Kyle; Mooney, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Programming is an essential skill that many computing students are expected to master. However, programming can be difficult to learn. Successfully interpreting compiler error messages (CEMs) is crucial for correcting errors and progressing toward success in programming. Yet these messages are often difficult to understand and pose a barrier to…

  17. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  18. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. PMID:26236773

  19. Supporting the Development of Soft-Error Resilient Message Passing Applications using Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Naughton III, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bit flip faults are of particular concern in extreme-scale high-performance computing systems. This paper presents a simulation-based tool that enables the development of soft-error resilient message passing applications by permitting the investigation of their correctness and performance under various fault conditions. The documented extensions to the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) enable the injection of bit flip faults at specific of injection location(s) and fault activation time(s), while supporting a significant degree of configurability of the fault type. Experiments show that the simulation overhead with the new feature is ~2,325% for serial execution and ~1,730% at 128 MPI processes, both with very fine-grain fault injection. Fault injection experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the new feature by injecting bit flips in the input and output matrices of a matrix-matrix multiply application, revealing vulnerability of data structures, masking and error propagation. xSim is the very first simulation-based MPI performance tool that supports both, the injection of process failures and bit flip faults.

  20. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of either message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.

  1. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    DOE PAGES

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of eithermore » message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.« less

  2. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  3. Two-Dimensional Pattern-Coupled Sparse Bayesian Learning via Generalized Approximate Message Passing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Zhang, Lizao; Li, Hohgbin

    2016-04-20

    We consider the problem of recovering twodimensional (2-D) block-sparse signals with unknown cluster patterns. Two-dimensional block-sparse patterns arise naturally in many practical applications such as foreground detection and inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging. To exploit the underlying block-sparse structure, we propose a 2-D pattern-coupled hierarchical Gaussian prior model. The proposed pattern-coupled hierarchical Gaussian prior model imposes a soft coupling mechanism among neighboring coefficients through their shared hyperparameters. This coupling mechanism enables effective and automatic learning of the underlying irregular cluster patterns, without requiring any a priori knowledge of the block partition of sparse signals. We develop a computationally efficient Bayesian inference method which integrates the generalized approximate message passing (GAMP) technique with the proposed prior model. Simulation results show that the proposed method offers competitive recovery performance for a range of 2-D sparse signal recovery and image processing applications over existing method, meanwhile achieving a significant reduction in computational complexity.

  4. Message passing interface and multithreading hybrid for parallel molecular docking of large databases on petascale high performance computing machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-04-30

    A mixed parallel scheme that combines message passing interface (MPI) and multithreading was implemented in the AutoDock Vina molecular docking program. The resulting program, named VinaLC, was tested on the petascale high performance computing (HPC) machines at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To exploit the typical cluster-type supercomputers, thousands of docking calculations were dispatched by the master process to run simultaneously on thousands of slave processes, where each docking calculation takes one slave process on one node, and within the node each docking calculation runs via multithreading on multiple CPU cores and shared memory. Input and output of the program and the data handling within the program were carefully designed to deal with large databases and ultimately achieve HPC on a large number of CPU cores. Parallel performance analysis of the VinaLC program shows that the code scales up to more than 15K CPUs with a very low overhead cost of 3.94%. One million flexible compound docking calculations took only 1.4 h to finish on about 15K CPUs. The docking accuracy of VinaLC has been validated against the DUD data set by the re-docking of X-ray ligands and an enrichment study, 64.4% of the top scoring poses have RMSD values under 2.0 Å. The program has been demonstrated to have good enrichment performance on 70% of the targets in the DUD data set. An analysis of the enrichment factors calculated at various percentages of the screening database indicates VinaLC has very good early recovery of actives.

  5. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C. Ben; Spiro, Emma S.; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials’ Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events. PMID:26295584

  6. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI/ISO C and uses the MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive. This work is supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Order No. S-13811-G, which was awarded by the Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) of NASA's Office of Space Science (NRA 01-OSS-01).

  7. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry Based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2004-07-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 (http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/qlwfpc2) which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit-Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI C and uses MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive, and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze the WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive.

  8. A Struggle for Dominance: Relational Communication Messages in Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatsis, Gretchen S.; And Others

    Television's messages about sex role behavior were analyzed by collecting and coding spot samples of the ten top ranked programs in prime viewing time and proportionate numbers of daytime soap operas and Saturday morning children's programs. The content analysis was based on a relational coding system developed to assess interpersonal…

  9. The development and performance of a message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.R.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-10-01

    A message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computers. PAGOSA is an explicit, Eulerian code for modeling the three-dimensional, high-speed hydrodynamic flow of fluids and the dynamic deformation of solids under high rates of strain. It was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) Connection Machine parallel computers. The performance of Sandia`s message-passing version of PAGOSA has been measured on two MIMD machines, the nCUBE 2 and the Intel Paragon XP/S. No special efforts were made to optimize the code for either machine. The measured scaled speedup (computational time for a single computational node divided by the computational time per node for fixed computational load) and grind time (computational time per cell per time step) show that the MIMD PAGOSA code scales linearly with the number of computational nodes used on a variety of problems, including the simulation of shaped-charge jets perforating an oil well casing. Scaled parallel efficiencies for MIMD PAGOSA are greater than 0.70 when the available memory per node is filled (or nearly filled) on hundreds to a thousand or more computational nodes on these two machines, indicating that the code scales very well. Thus good parallel performance can be achieved for complex and realistic applications when they are first implemented on MIMD parallel computers.

  10. PENN PASS: A Program for Graduates of Foreign Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthold, Peter; Lopez, Naty

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the University of Pennsylvania's School of Dental Medicine's Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) which provides graduates of foreign dental schools with an intensive summer program to prepare them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. A survey of 72 PASS…

  11. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  12. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    DOE PAGES

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; ...

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed formore » the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.« less

  13. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed for the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.

  14. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Crowley, Kathleen; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  15. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1989-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  16. Quantifying statistical interdependence by message passing on graphs-part II: multidimensional point processes.

    PubMed

    Dauwels, J; Vialatte, F; Weber, T; Musha, T; Cichocki, A

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic event synchrony is a technique to quantify the similarity of pairs of signals. First, events are extracted from the two given time series. Next, one tries to align events from one time series with events from the other. The better the alignment, the more similar the two time series are considered to be. In Part I, the companion letter in this issue, one-dimensional events are considered; this letter concerns multidimensional events. Although the basic idea is similar, the extension to multidimensional point processes involves a significantly more difficult combinatorial problem and therefore is nontrivial. Also in the multidimensional case, the problem of jointly computing the pairwise alignment and SES parameters is cast as a statistical inference problem. This problem is solved by coordinate descent, more specifically, by alternating the following two steps: (1) estimate the SES parameters from a given pairwise alignment; (2) with the resulting estimates, refine the pairwise alignment. The SES parameters are computed by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation (step 1), in analogy to the one-dimensional case. The pairwise alignment (step 2) can no longer be obtained through dynamic programming, since the state space becomes too large. Instead it is determined by applying the max-product algorithm on a cyclic graphical model. In order to test the robustness and reliability of the SES method, it is first applied to surrogate data. Next, it is applied to detect anomalies in EEG synchrony of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Numerical results suggest that SES is significantly more sensitive to perturbations in EEG synchrony than a large variety of classical synchrony measures.

  17. Message Passing Semantics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    IAP WorkshoD on Electronic Office of the Future, January 1979. 19. Hewitt, C. "Design of the APIARY for VLSI support of knowledge-based systems," MIT...AAAI Conference Stanford, Ca., August 1980, 157-164. 10. Hewitt, C.E. "The Apiary network architecture for knowledgeable systems," Proceedings of Lisp...Conference, Stanford, Ca., August 1980, 107-118. 11. Hewitt, C. " Apiary multiprocessor architecture knowlecigo system," 23 Proceedinas of the Joint

  18. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    PubMed

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  19. Developing and Pretesting a Text Messaging Program for Health Behavior Change: Recommended Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mendel Van Alstyne, Judith; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence demonstrates that text messaging-based programs (short message service [SMS]) on mobile phones can help people modify health behaviors. Most of these programs have consisted of automated and sometimes interactive text messages that guide a person through the process of behavior change. Objective This paper provides guidance on how to develop text messaging programs aimed at changing health behaviors. Methods Based on their collective experience in designing, developing, and evaluating text messaging programs and a review of the literature, the authors drafted the guide. One author initially drafted the guide and the others provided input and review. Results Steps for developing a text messaging program include conducting formative research for insights into the target audience and health behavior, designing the text messaging program, pretesting the text messaging program concept and messages, and revising the text messaging program. Conclusions The steps outlined in this guide may help in the development of SMS-based behavior change programs. PMID:26690917

  20. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  1. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, John L.; Gonzalo, Jed D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency programs, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman’s rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Results Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of ≥80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (ρ=0.19, p<0.001). The area underneath the receiver operative characteristic curve was 0.69 (95% Confidence Interval [0.63-0.75]), suggesting programs with less than 12 examinees/year are less likely to meet the minimum Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard (sensitivity 63.8%, specificity 60.4%, positive predictive value 82.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Although a majority of Internal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance. PMID:25341205

  2. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  3. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers

    SciTech Connect

    Collignon, Barbara C; Schultz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  4. Can rare SAT formulae be easily recognized? On the efficiency of message-passing algorithms for K-SAT at large clause-to-variable ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Monasson, Rémi; Zamponi, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm.

  5. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking.

  6. Text4Peds: Feasibility of an Educational Text-Messaging Program for Pediatrics Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Gregory T.; Draper, Lauren R.; Broom, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing effort to maximize educational material provided to residents who are in a time-constrained work environment. Mobile technology, principally smartphone applications and online modules, has shown educational promise. Intervention We developed a text-messaging program, Text4Peds, to assist residents with preparation for their pediatric board examinations. Goals were to assess (1) the feasibility of texting educational messages to residents, and (2) resident satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a texting program. Methods We conducted a prospective study of pediatrics and combined internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Messages derived from the most missed pediatric in-training examination questions were sent daily to residents. After 3 months, residents completed surveys that gauged their perception on the educational value of the text messages and the effect on their pediatric board preparation. Feasibility of the system was assessed as a total percentage of messages successfully received by residents. Results Of 55 residents, 35 (64%) participated in the program. Of 2534 messages sent out to participants, 2437 (96.2%) were delivered successfully. Positive comments cited the texting of board facts as a quick, helpful, daily study tool. Residents liked that messages were sent at 2:00 pm, and most felt that 1 to 5 messages per week was appropriate. Drawbacks included character restrictions of messages, content limitations, and the lack of a question-answer format. Conclusions An educational text message–based program was successfully implemented in our residency program. Messages were delivered with a high success rate, and residents found educational value in the messages. PMID:26140130

  7. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  8. Factors Influencing Engagement, Perceived Usefulness and Behavioral Mechanisms Associated with a Text Message Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Julie; Santo, Karla; Coorey, Genevieve; Thakkar, Jay; Hackett, Maree; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of text messaging in positively changing behaviours. We aimed to identify features and factors that explain the effectiveness of a successful text messaging program in terms of user engagement, perceived usefulness, behavior change and program delivery preferences. Methods Mixed methods qualitative design combining four data sources; (i) analytic data extracted directly from the software system, (ii) participant survey, (iii) focus groups to identify barriers and enablers to implementation and mechanisms of effect and (iv) recruitment screening logs and text message responses to examine engagement. This evaluation was conducted within the TEXT ME trial—a parallel design, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 710 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Qualitative data were interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results 307/352 (87% response rate) of recruited patients with CHD completed the program evaluation survey at six months and 25 participated in a focus group. Factors increasing engagement included (i) ability to save and share messages, (ii) having the support of providers and family, (iii) a feeling of support through participation in the program, (iv) the program being initiated close to the time of a cardiovascular event, (v) personalization of the messages, (vi) opportunity for initial face-to-face contact with a provider and (vii) that program and content was perceived to be from a credible source. Clear themes relating to program delivery were that diet and physical activity messages were most valued, four messages per week was ideal and most participants felt program duration should be provided for at least for six months or longer. Conclusions This study provides context and insight into the factors influencing consumer engagement with a text message program aimed at improving health-related behavior. The study suggests program components that may enhance

  9. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience.

  10. Effective Practices for Implementing Local Climate and Energy Programs: Effective Messaging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communities learn how to best implement effective messaging for local climate and energy programs by focusing on what it is, why they should do it, what they should look for, what resources other projects have found to be useful.

  11. Surveying through Text Message: Planning, Programming, and Analyzing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    While the Survey is in the Field ................................................ 15 Analysis ...software. The final stage, Analysis , includes some software specific information as well as suggestions for analyzing the data returned and sample...text message lingo (see, for example, http://www.lingo2word.com/index.php), but it is possible that most of those receiving the survey will not be

  12. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  13. Message-passing-interface-based parallel FDTD investigation on the EM scattering from a 1-D rough sea surface using uniaxial perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B

    2009-06-01

    A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.

  14. Malnutrition: role of the TwoCal HN Med Pass program.

    PubMed

    Bender, S; Pusateri, M; Cook, A; Ferguson, M; Hall, J C

    2000-12-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with poor outcomes. The causes and outcomes of malnutrition are discussed, and the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, designed to overcome poor dietary intake, is described. Benefits of the program, role of the pharmacist, identification of candidates for the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, and health care team roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

  15. Promoting Quality of Program Delivery via an Internet Message Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dana C.; Dusenbury, Linda; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a study that evaluated an online message system designed to improve the delivery of prevention programs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with 32 agencies and schools that implemented substance use prevention programs and examined differences between the comparison and intervention groups. We also examined…

  16. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Messaging Program for Smoking Cessation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien; Hershcovitz, Ronit; Boal, Ashley; Levine, Hagai

    2015-08-01

    Text messaging programs on mobile phones have been shown to promote smoking cessation. This study investigated whether a text-messaging program for smoking cessation, adapted from QuitNowTXT, is feasible in Israel and acceptable to Israeli smokers. Participants (N = 38) were given a baseline assessment, enrolled in the adapted text messaging program, and followed-up with at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after their quit date. The authors used an intent-to-treat analysis and found that 23.7% of participants reported having quit smoking at the 4-week follow-up. Participants sent an average of 12.9 text replies during the study period, and the majority reported reading most or all of the texts. However, 34.2% of participants had unsubscribed by the 4-week follow-up. Moderate levels of satisfaction were reported; more than half agreed that they would recommend the program. Suggestions for improvement included adding advice by an expert counselor, website support, and increased customization. Results indicate that a text messaging smoking cessation program developed by modifying the content of QuitNowTXT is feasible and could be acceptable to smokers in Israel. The experience adapting and pilot testing the program can serve as a model for using QuitNowTXT to develop and implement such programs in other countries.

  17. PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

  18. First-time NCLEX-RN pass rate: measure of program quality or something else?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Heidi; Loftin, Collette; Reyes, Helen

    2014-06-01

    The first-time NCLEX-RN(®) pass rate is considered by many to be the primary, if not sole, indicator of the quality of prelicensure nursing education programs. Used by state boards of nursing, educational program accreditors, and nursing faculty, the first-time NCLEX-RN pass rate influences important decisions about overall program quality, admission and progression policies, curricula, and teaching and learning practices. In this article, the authors call for a professional dialogue about the use of first-time pass rate (F-TPR) as an indicator of program quality, offer alternative methods for using the F-TPR as one measure of program quality, and suggest further research. One program's experience with low F-TPRs is offered as an exemplar of the unintended negative consequences that occur when the F-TPR is used as a sole criterion by a state board of nursing in judging a program's quality.

  19. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation Using CAPTools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During that same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expend great efforts into migrating and re-coding our applications. As applications and machine architectures become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. In this paper, we present the first set of results in our evaluation of interactive parallelization tools. In particular, we evaluate CAPTool's ability to parallelize computational aeroscience applications. CAPTools was tested on serial versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and ARC3D, a computational fluid dynamics application, on two platforms: the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. This evaluation includes performance, amount of user interaction required, limitations and portability. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of computer aided parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  20. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation Using CAPTools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Yan, Jerry C.; Jin, Haoqiang; Saini, Subhah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During that same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expend great efforts into migrating and re-coding our applications. As applications and machine architectures become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. In this paper, we present the first set of results in our evaluation of interactive parallelization tools. In particular, we evaluate CAPTool's ability to parallelize computational aeroscience applications. CAPTools was tested on serial versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and ARC3D, a computational fluid dynamics application, on two platforms: the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. This evaluation includes performance, amount of user interaction required, limitations and portability. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of computer aided parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  1. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation of CAPTools using NAS Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry C.; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During the same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expand great efforts into migrating and receding our applications. As applications and machine architectures continue to become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. Various attempts to exploit software tools to assist and automate the parallelization process have not produced favorable results. In this paper, we evaluate an interactive parallelization tool, CAPTools, for parallelizing serial versions of the NAB Parallel Benchmarks. Finally, we compare the performance of the resulting CAPTools generated code to the hand-coded benchmarks on the Origin 2000 and IBM SP2. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of automated parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  2. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  3. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  4. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n = 38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n = 10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey.

  5. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  6. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  7. A Text Messaging-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Adult Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bağcı Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. Objective This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. Methods This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content “paths” based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. Results The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ2 1=1.4, P=.24; R2=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ2 1=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day

  8. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group.

  9. P.A.S.S. Program (Portable Assisted Study Sequence) Summer Report, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Jane E.

    The 1981 summer Portable Assisted Study Sequence (PASS) Program, designed to provide self-directed learning packages whereby high school migrant students throughout California can receive credits toward graduation requirements, provided instructional materials to 2,306 students. Student transcripts were sent to 159 California high schools.…

  10. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Viitanen, Amanda P.; Colvin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the ‘costs of masculinity’ men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender

  11. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Amanda P; Colvin, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the 'costs of masculinity' men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender equality

  12. Baseline Motivation Type as a Predictor of Dropout in a Healthy Eating Text Messaging Program

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that text messaging programs are effective in facilitating health behavior change. However, high dropout rates limit the potential effectiveness of these programs. Objective This paper describes patterns of early dropout in the HealthyYou text (HYTxt) program, with a focus on the impact of baseline motivation quality on dropout, as characterized by Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Methods This analysis included 193 users of HYTxt, a diet and physical activity text messaging intervention developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics were computed, and logistic regression models were run to examine the association between baseline motivation type and early program dropout. Results Overall, 43.0% (83/193) of users dropped out of the program; of these, 65.1% (54/83; 28.0% of all users) did so within the first 2 weeks. Users with higher autonomous motivation had significantly lower odds of dropping out within the first 2 weeks. A one unit increase in autonomous motivation was associated with lower odds (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.81) of early dropout, which persisted after adjusting for level of controlled motivation. Conclusions Applying SDT-based strategies to enhance autonomous motivation might reduce early dropout rates, which can improve program exposure and effectiveness. PMID:27688034

  13. Feasibility of the SMART Project: A Text Message Program for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Mehta, Priya; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated response rates to the Self-Management and Research Technology Project, a 6-week text message program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes designed to provide diabetes self-management reminders and education. The rate of response to texts was high, with 78% of texts responded to during the 6-week period. Girls and participants who self-reported sending a large number of personal daily texts had higher response rates; other demographic and medical variables were unrelated to text response rates. Inclusion of mobile health technologies such as text messages in clinical care may be a unique, relevant method of intervention for youths with type 1 diabetes, regardless of age, socioeconomic status, or glycemic control.

  14. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  15. Effective Utilization of Computerized Curricular Assistive Tools in Improving NCLEX-RN Pass Rates for a Baccalaureate Nursing Program.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Joy R; Chavez, Ruth A; Keane, Patricia; Butz, Susan; Yowler, Susan K

    2016-11-10

    Achieving satisfactory first-time pass rates on the national nursing licensure examination represents a challenge for nursing programs across the United States. The consequences of examination failure for first-time test takers can be devastating, both emotionally and financially. Nursing programs are evaluated by national higher-education credentialing bodies and state boards of nursing based on the first-time pass rate of their students. One Midwestern nursing program faced unsatisfactory first-time pass rates and developed strategies for improving first-time pass rates over a 3-year period. The nursing program utilized several strategies documented in the literature but found implementing computerized curricular assistive tools that complemented the nursing program's curriculum to be most effective. In addition, changing faculty and student culture on preparation for the national licensure examination was beneficial to all involved in the process.

  16. Participation Rates in a Worksite Wellness Program Using E-Mail Wellness Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anenson, Larry W.; Brunt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna J.; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which days of the work week had the largest rate of opened e-health messages, whether detailed or basic e-health messages were more likely to be opened, if motivation influenced the rate of message opening, and if the rate of opening messages declined over time. Ninety-one city employees (52 male and 39…

  17. Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a…

  18. Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program, and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Sharon; Schmiege, Sara J.; Pickard, Leslie; Campbell, Jon; Shlay, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. Methods. In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations to ensure each club would serve as a treatment site for 2 years and a control site for 2 years. Control intervention consisted of the Teen Outreach Program only. We enrolled 852 youths (aged 14–18 years), and 632 were retained at follow-up, with analytic samples ranging from 50 to 624 across outcomes. We examined program costs, and whether the intervention increased condom and contraceptive use, access to care, and pregnancy prevention. Results. Control program costs were $1184 per participant, and intervention costs were an additional $126 per participant (+10.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes for the full sample. Hispanic participants in the intervention condition had fewer pregnancies at follow-up (1.79%) than did those in the control group (6.72%; P = .02). Conclusions. Youth All Engaged is feasible, low cost, and could have potential benefits for Hispanic youths. PMID:27689478

  19. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam.

    PubMed

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) are related to the pass rate. Results Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC). Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  20. Designing text-messaging (SMS) in HIV programs: ethics-framed recommendations from the field

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Hwang, Bella; Bygrave, Helen; Venables, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Text messages (SMS) are being increasingly integrated into HIV programs across Southern Africa to improve patient adherence, linkage to care and provide psycho-social support. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design of SMS-based interventions for clients of HIV-care services to ensure that any potential harm, such as unwanted disclosure of HIV status, is minimized. In this article we propose a set of best practice recommendations to ensure that any SMS-based intervention considers ethical principles to safeguard safety, autonomy and confidentiality of its targeted HIV-positive beneficiaries. This analysis draws from our operational experience in Southern Africa in the design and conduct of mHealth interventions in the frame of HIV projects. The recommendations, framed in the context of the Belmont Report's three ethical pillars, may contribute to more safely operationalize any SMS service integrated into an HIV program if adopted by mHealth planners and implementers. We encourage actors to report on the ethical and methodological pathways followed when conducting SMS-based innovations to improve the wellbeing and quality provision of HIV-care for their targeted clients. PMID:26421096

  1. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  2. Residency program characteristics that are associated with pass rate of the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Background The US is home to almost 200 pediatrics residency programs; despite this, there is little information about the relationship between program characteristics and performance in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying exam. Objective To evaluate the relationship between pass rate of the ABP certifying exam with the characteristics of categorical pediatrics residency programs. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the ABP website and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All programs that reported pass rates were included. The analysis, comprising univariate and multivariate linear regression, involved determining how 69 factors (eg, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) related to the pass rate. Results Of 199 programs, 194 reported pass rates. The univariate analysis revealed 20 program characteristics with P-values <0.10. However, in the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with only three program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of US medical graduates, and average hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences. Conclusion Unlike in previous studies, location and program size were not significantly associated with the pass rate in this multivariate analysis. The finding regarding the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions highlighted the benefits of a well-supervised training environment, while that regarding the percentage of US medical graduates indicated the necessity of high competition in residency programs. Finally, longer hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences were associated with better academic outcomes, both statistically and intuitively. PMID:26316837

  3. Stepwise Development of a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown)

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. Objective To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. Methods We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Results Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Conclusions Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students. PMID:27296471

  4. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  5. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The Research of Message Bus Structure in LAMOST Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling-Zhe

    2008-09-01

    The LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope) has now come to its final completion of R&D stage. Major functions of the telescope have successfully passed serial site tests recently, and various kinds of applications integrated into the automation of the telescope chamber is being under vigorous tests too. The TCS (Telescope Control System) is built on multi-layer distributed network platform with many sub-systems at different levels. How to efficiently process the enormous amount of messages with particular implications running in and out of the TCS is one of the major issues of the TCS software programming. This paper describes the mechanism and methodology of the LAMOST message bus structure. The realisation of message bus structure as a result of years of research and site test is presented in general, and dealing with the message priority and manipulating smallest pieces of message in parallel or in serial sequence are elaborated in particular.

  7. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  8. A pilot test of the Self-Management and Research Technology project: A text message-based diabetes self-management program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Collier, Suzanne; Stern, Alexa; Monaghan, Maureen; Streisand, Randi

    2015-09-22

    The aims of this study are to: (1) examine the preliminary utility of the Self-Management and Research Technology (SMART) pilot project, (2) identify which adolescents were most likely to benefit from participation, and (3) examine interview feedback to inform future program iterations. Twenty-three adolescents (M age = 15.13 years) were enrolled in the six-week text message pilot program consisting of daily interactive blood glucose (BG) prompts and type 1 diabetes-related educational text messages. Medical charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c and to corroborate medical record and demographic data. Glucometer data were downloaded to calculate an average monthly BG level and daily BG monitoring frequency. No statistically significant improvements were observed pre-intervention to post-intervention in glycemic outcomes. Participants with a high text message response rate were more likely to demonstrate improvement in average monthly BG levels and daily BG monitoring frequency than those with a low text message response rate. Participants reported satisfaction with the text message program. The text message-based SMART pilot project demonstrated preliminary efficacy for a targeted subset of adolescents who were engaged with the program. Continued research with a larger sample and longer trial duration is warranted to evaluate the potential utility of text message-based interventions.

  9. Reducing barriers to nursing certification: an analysis of perceptions and impact of PNCB's No Pass, No Pay Program.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The number of board-certified RNs in the United States continues to increase, but cost and fear of failure inhibit many from seeking certification. In 2009, the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board developed a no-risk program called No Pass, No Pay (NPNP) for its Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN®) exam. In 2012, 49% of the 2299 nurses earning CPN certification did so through NPNP. This article explores program structure, successes, and findings from 2011 stakeholder surveys of NPNP hospital leaders, NPNP program facilitators, and nurses who attained CPN certification through NPNP. Aspects of NPNP may prove applicable to other certification boards.

  10. State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

  11. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  12. Reaching Hard to Reach Populations with Hard to Communicate Messages: Efficacy of a Breast Health Research Champion Training Program.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Carlin; Ayers, Antoinette; Cadet, Debbie; Quillin, John; Hackney, Mary H

    2015-09-01

    A Breast Health Research Champion training program was a developed targeting self-identified community breast health advocates from a predominant African-American community with a significant breast cancer mortality disparity. Twelve individuals completed the program that provided training in breast cancer risk and screening, breast cancer research, biospecimen in cancer research, and human research subject protection. The training emphasized four key messages to be disseminated to the community. Trainees hosted a minimum of two social chats with individuals from their social networks and functioned as community researchers, acquiring consent and gathering follow-up data from attendees. Trainees reached 199 individuals from their social networks, and chats were diverse in the venue selected, mode of message transmission, and the audience reached. Post/pre questionnaire data from attendees at the chats showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors as it relates to breast cancer screening, clinical research, and biospecimen in research. Forty percent of attendees provided 4-week follow-up information. Of respondents eligible for mammography, 38 % had taken action to be screened, and 86 % of respondents had spoken about the information to someone else in their social network. Trainees expressed feelings of empowerment after completing the project, "feeling like the expert," and all trainees were surprised at the enthusiastic response from attendees of their chats. Trainees continued to disseminate the information learned from the training program during the 6 months following the training, reaching an additional 786 individuals in the community.

  13. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy -Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation has shown the accomplishments of the PASS project over three decades and highlighted the lessons learned. Over the entire time, our goal has been to continuously improve our process, implement automation for both quality and increased productivity, and identify and remove all defects due to prior execution of a flawed process in addition to improving our processes following identification of significant process escapes. Morale and workforce instability have been issues, most significantly during 1993 to 1998 (period of consolidation in aerospace industry). The PASS project has also consulted with others, including the Software Engineering Institute, so as to be an early evaluator, adopter, and adapter of state-of-the-art software engineering innovations.

  14. Inter-Service/Agency Automated Message Processing Exchange Program. Functional Requirements Description and Interface Control Document.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    sustained basis is 50 KBPS (77 line blocks per second; which is expected to equate to 3 output messages per second, 3.5.1.1.1 Input Traffic...letter or letters that equate to the specific addressees »tor example NSA/DELTA or MSA/ALFA CHARLIE). A P D may contain more than...Special] SEC TCC Note that an error in R-Community TRC field is coded as -TRC whether or not a true TRC may have been intenced . The same is true of

  15. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thiha, Phyo; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for “upstream” youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer ‘opinion leader’ programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. Objective To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. Methods In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength–an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program–and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Results Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. Conclusions StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target

  16. A Text Message Program as a Booster to In-Person Brief Interventions for Mandated College Students to Prevent Weekend Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…

  17. College Library Directors Mentor Program: "Passing It On:" A Personal Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes the College Library Directors Mentor Program with the Council on Library Resources (CLR) which provides an opportunity for first-year college library directors to benefit from the advice and guidance of more experienced colleagues. Discusses the development of the program, the role of professional library organizations, cost, benefits,…

  18. The Application of a By-Pass Technique to Programmed Instruction for Managerial Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    The feasibility of using programed instruction materials for a session of a Management Training Conference conducted for first-level supervisory personnel of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation was studied. A programing format utilizing a series of gated segments, each preceded by a test item, was designed to accommodate the variability among…

  19. Pass the Flame: Tentative Programs of Cultural Heritage Education Among Teenagers in Yuanmingyuan Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Yin, L.; Liu, T.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Yuanmingyuan is a very important cultural heritage site in Beijing, China. In order to improve the conservation of Yuanmingyuan Site and increase communication between the cultural heritage site and the public, especially the teenagers, our institute initiated a serial of education programs in the past two years, cooperating with local schools, including courses on the base of school curriculums, independent cultural heritage summer camp, and special sessions in international cultural heritage symposium. All these programs have received positive feedback and shown promising future.

  20. Canada's New National Childcare Program: Ensuring the Rural Message Is Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Sue; Olfert, M. Rose; Tsetso, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The government of Canada announced in the October 2004 Speech from the Throne that it will move ahead with its long-awaited national childcare program. In early 2005, federal, provincial and territorial ministers will meet to forge a deal for a national childcare program. The national Advisory Committee on Rural Issues applauds this attention to…

  1. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  2. Medicaid Program; The Use of New or Increased Pass-Through Payments in Medicaid Managed Care Delivery Systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-18

    This rule finalizes changes to the pass-through payment transition periods and the maximum amount of pass-through payments permitted annually during the transition periods under Medicaid managed care contract(s) and rate certification(s). This final rule prevents increases in pass-through payments and the addition of new pass-through payments beyond those in place when the pass-through payment transition periods were established, in the final Medicaid managed care regulations effective July 5, 2016.

  3. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  4. The Message of Starlight, Book 4. The University of Illinois Astronomy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book four in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This document terms the analysis of light as an essential clue to understanding astronomical phenomena. Topics discussed include: thm behavior of light; the wave model and…

  5. The LIVE Network: a music-based messaging program to promote ART adherence self-management.

    PubMed

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Ofotokun, Igho; Higgins, Melinda; Logwood, Steven

    2013-11-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the efficacy, acceptability, and feasibility of a music program, The LIVE Network (LN), compared to standard care on outcomes of ART adherence, clinical indicators, and self-efficacy. The study was powered to detect differences at p < 0.1. We enrolled and followed 77 participants for 12 weeks (T3). Mean monthly pill counts (PC) declined over time in both groups. Although not significant, the LN had higher PC and a larger proportion had plasma antiretroviral trough levels within therapeutic range. The LN group did have significantly (p < 0.1) increased levels of adherence self-efficacy and decrease in viral loads.

  6. Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers’ Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Shuai; Sylvia, Sean; Yue, Ai; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China. Methods. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model. Results. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.12, −0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = −0.03; 95% CI = −0.09, 0.03). Conclusions. Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children’s nutrition. PMID:27077354

  7. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  8. Subtle Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  9. President's Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy

    2007-01-01

    In this message from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) president, Andy Stephenson stresses the need for technology, innovation, design, and engineering (TIDE) education. He cites the recent report--"Preparing for the Perfect Storm, a Report on the Forum, Taking Action Together: Developing a National Plan to Address the…

  10. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned Detail Historical Timeline Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) and the people who developed and maintained this system. One theme is to provide quantitative data on software quality and reliability over a 30 year period. Consistent data relates to code break discrepancies. Requirements were supplied from external sources. Requirement inspections and measurements not implemented until later, beginning in 1985. Second theme is to focus on the people and organization of PASS. Many individuals have supported the PASS project over the entire period while transitioning from company to company and contract to contract. Major events and transitions have impacted morale (both positively and negatively) across the life of the project.

  11. Deaf Children's Referential Messages to Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay-Soroka, Sherri; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examination of the nature and quality of deaf children's referential messages to their mothers, the outcome of such messages, and the reformulations of "failed" messages. Deaf children 6-10 years old, from oral or bimodal educational programs, were tested in two tasks involving identification and description of a picture. (Author/BN)

  12. Users manual for the Chameleon parallel programming tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1993-06-01

    Message passing is a common method for writing programs for distributed-memory parallel computers. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard for message passing has hampered the construction of portable and efficient parallel programs. In an attempt to remedy this problem, a number of groups have developed their own message-passing systems, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Chameleon is a second-generation system of this type. Rather than replacing these existing systems, Chameleon is meant to supplement them by providing a uniform way to access many of these systems. Chameleon`s goals are to (a) be very lightweight (low over-head), (b) be highly portable, and (c) help standardize program startup and the use of emerging message-passing operations such as collective operations on subsets of processors. Chameleon also provides a way to port programs written using PICL or Intel NX message passing to other systems, including collections of workstations. Chameleon is tracking the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) draft standard and will provide both an MPI implementation and an MPI transport layer. Chameleon provides support for heterogeneous computing by using p4 and PVM. Chameleon`s support for homogeneous computing includes the portable libraries p4, PICL, and PVM and vendor-specific implementation for Intel NX, IBM EUI (SP-1), and Thinking Machines CMMD (CM-5). Support for Ncube and PVM 3.x is also under development.

  13. Adapting a Database of Text Messages to a Mobile-Based Weight Loss Program: The Case of the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Behih, Nawal; Shahzad, Maahd; Anggraini, Aysha

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Qatar, a rapidly developing country in the Middle East, has seen a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity. The increase can be attributed to several reasons, including sedentary lifestyles imposed by a harsh climate and the introduction of Western fast food. Mobile technologies have been used and studied as a technology to support individuals' weight loss. The authors have developed a mobile application that implements three strategies drawn from proven theories of behavioral change. The application is localized to the cultural context of its proposed users. The objective of this paper is to present a method through which we adapted the messaging content of a weight loss application to the context of its users while retaining an effective degree of automation. The adaptation addressed body image, eating and physical exercise habits, and regional/cultural needs. The paper discusses how surveying potential users can be used to build a profile of a target population, find common patterns, and then develop a database of text messages. The text messages are automated and sent to the users at specific times of day, as suggested by the survey results. PMID:24511311

  14. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  15. Modularity, reuse and efficiency with message-driven libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, L.V.; Gursoy, A.

    1995-12-01

    Software re-use via libraries is a strategy that allows the cost of software to be amortized. A parallel programming system must support the ability to develop modules that can be {open_quotes}fitted together{close_quotes} in a variety of contexts. Although it is important to be able to reuse parallel libraries, it is also more difficult to use parallel modules in comparison to sequential module. We present a methodology for developing libraries that addresses these issues effectively. The methodology, which is embodied in the Charm system, employs message-driven execution (in contrast to traditional, receive based message passing), information sharing abstractions, the notion of branched objects, and explicit support for modules.

  16. Mixed messages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  17. A Text-Messaging and Pedometer Program to Promote Physical Activity in People at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Development of the PROPELS Follow-On Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Katie; Sutton, Stephen; Hardeman, Wendy; Troughton, Jacqui; Yates, Tom; Griffin, Simon; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represent a promising strategy for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. The PROPELS trial investigates whether structured group-based education alone or supplemented with a follow-on support program combining self-monitoring with pedometers and tailored text-messaging is effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity among people at high risk of T2DM. Objective This paper describes the iterative development of the PROPELS follow-on support program and presents evidence on its acceptability and feasibility. Methods We used a modified mHealth development framework with four phases: (1) conceptualization of the follow-on support program using theory and evidence, (2) formative research including focus groups (n=15, ages 39-79 years), (3) pre-testing focus groups using a think aloud protocol (n=20, ages 52-78 years), and (4) piloting (n=11). Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach, with findings from each phase informing subsequent phases. Results The first three phases informed the structure, nature, and content of the follow-on support program, including the frequency of text messages, the need for tailored content and two-way interaction, the importance of motivational messages based on encouragement and reinforcement of affective benefits (eg, enjoyment) with minimal messages about weight and T2DM risk, and the need for appropriate language. The refined program is personalized and tailored to the individual’s perceived confidence, previous activity levels, and physical activity goals. The pilot phase indicated that the program appeared to fit well with everyday routines and was easy to use by older adults. Conclusions We developed a feasible and innovative text messaging and pedometer program based on evidence and behavior change theory and grounded in the experiences, views, and needs of people at high diabetes risk. A large scale trial is testing the effectiveness of this 4-year

  18. The Effectiveness of Texas Teacher Certification Programs as Evidenced through Pass Rates on TExES PPR 160 Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouse, Scarlet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between alternative certification pathways, specifically those offered through a university-based, post baccalaureate certification program and a regional education service center certification program. A quantitative research design was implemented and archived scores on the TExES PPR…

  19. The Advanced Placement Program Benefits Mainly Well-Prepared Students Who Pass AP Exams. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Achievement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many policymakers and education leaders have embraced the Advanced Placement (AP) Program as a tool to strengthen the high school curriculum and prepare students for college. The popularity of the AP program among these policy leaders reflects their belief that the traditional high school curriculum has often failed to provide rigorous courses…

  20. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  1. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in "tween" television.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Courtney C; Kwitowski, Melissa; Boutte, Rachel; Gow, Rachel W; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-12-01

    Tweens (children ages ~8-14years) are a relatively recently defined age group, increasingly targeted by marketers. Individuals in this age group are particularly vulnerable to opinions and behaviors presented in media messages, given their level of cognitive and social development. However, little research has examined messages about appearance, food, weight, and exercise in television specifically targeting tweens, despite the popularity of this media type among this age group. This study used a content analytic approach to explore these messages in the five most popular television shows for tweens on the Disney Channel (as of 2015). Using a multiple-pass approach, relevant content in episodes from the most recently completed seasons of each show was coded. Appearance related incidents occurred in every episode; these most frequently mentioned attractiveness/beauty. Food related incidents were also present in every episode; typically, these situations were appearance and weight neutral. Exercise related incidents occurred in 53.3% of episodes; the majority expressed resistance to exercise. Weight related incidents occurred in 40.0% of the episodes; the majority praised the muscular ideal. Women were more likely to initiate appearance incidents, and men were more likely to initiate exercise incidents. These results suggest that programs specifically marketed to tweens reinforce appearance ideals, including stereotypes about female attractiveness and male athleticism, two constructs linked to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Given the developmental vulnerability of the target group, these findings are concerning, and highlight potential foci for prevention programming, including media literacy, for tweens.

  2. Alcohol Messages in Prime-Time Television Series

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA; RUSSELL, DALE W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol messages contained in television programming serve as sources of information about drinking. To better understand the ways embedded messages about alcohol are communicated, it is crucial to objectively monitor and analyze television alcohol depictions. This article presents a content analysis of an eight-week sample of eighteen prime-time programs. Alcohol messages were coded based on modalities of presentation, level of plot connection, and valence. The analysis reveals that mixed messages about alcohol often coexist but the ways in which they are presented differ: whereas negative messages are tied to the plot and communicated verbally, positive messages are associated with subtle visual portrayals. PMID:21188281

  3. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  4. Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans as a Strategy to Increase Pass Rates on the National Licensure Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Virginia S.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate…

  5. Self-Talk in Wheelchair Basketball: The Effects of an Intervention Program on Dribbling and Passing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…

  6. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  7. 78 FR 62657 - Proposed Information Collection; The Interagency Access Pass and Senior Pass Application Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; The Interagency Access Pass and Senior Pass... Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Pass Program covers recreation opportunities on public lands managed... U.S. Forest Service. The passes provide U.S. citizens and visitors an affordable and convenient...

  8. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  9. Parallel Ray Tracing Using the Message Passing Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Optica , which is a book on astronomy that contained the important principle that light rays travel from an object to an eye and not the other way around...this application. This interest is driven by commercial demands from the entertainment industry and a widespread in- terest in visualizing complex

  10. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for messagepassing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  11. Optimizing spread dynamics on graphs by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

    2013-09-01

    Cascade processes are responsible for many important phenomena in natural and social sciences. Simple models of irreversible dynamics on graphs, in which nodes activate depending on the state of their neighbors, have been successfully applied to describe cascades in a large variety of contexts. Over the past decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the typical behavior of the cascades arising from initial conditions extracted at random from some given ensemble. However, the problem of optimizing the trajectory of the system, i.e. of identifying appropriate initial conditions to maximize (or minimize) the final number of active nodes, is still considered to be practically intractable, with the only exception being models that satisfy a sort of diminishing returns property called submodularity. Submodular models can be approximately solved by means of greedy strategies, but by definition they lack cooperative characteristics which are fundamental in many real systems. Here we introduce an efficient algorithm based on statistical physics for the optimization of trajectories in cascade processes on graphs. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamics, even in the absence of submodularity, the spread optimization problem can be solved efficiently on large networks. Analytic and algorithmic results on random graphs are complemented by the solution of the spread maximization problem on a real-world network (the Epinions consumer reviews network).

  12. Sharing Memory Robustly in Message-Passing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-16

    ust: a very restricted form of communication. Chor and Moscovici ([20]) present a hierarchy of resiliency for problems in shared-memory systems and...1985. [20] B. Chor, and L. Moscovici , Solvability in Asynchronous Environments, Proc. 30th Syrup. on Foun- * dations of Comp. Sc~en ce, pp. 422-427, 1989

  13. Increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Riesen, Rolf E.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Kordenbrock, Todd; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-10-01

    Petaflops systems will have tens to hundreds of thousands of compute nodes which increases the likelihood of faults. Applications use checkpoint/restart to recover from these faults, but even under ideal conditions, applications running on more than 30,000 nodes will likely spend more than half of their total run time saving checkpoints, restarting, and redoing work that was lost. We created a library that performs redundant computations on additional nodes allocated to the application. An active node and its redundant partner form a node bundle which will only fail, and cause an application restart, when both nodes in the bundle fail. The goal of this library is to learn whether this can be done entirely at the user level, what requirements this library places on a Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) system, and what its impact on performance and run time is. We find that our redundant MPI layer library imposes a relatively modest performance penalty for applications, but that it greatly reduces the number of applications interrupts. This reduction in interrupts leads to huge savings in restart and rework time. For large-scale applications the savings compensate for the performance loss and the additional nodes required for redundant computations.

  14. Complementary Public Service Announcements as a Strategy for Enhancing the Impact of Health-Promoting Messages in Fictional Television Programs.

    PubMed

    Bavin, Lynda M; Owens, R Glynn

    2017-02-17

    Research suggests that health-promoting storylines in developed nations' fictional television programs can have a beneficial impact on viewers' beliefs, attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The sizes of the effects are generally modest; however, the audience reach is substantial. Given that many fictional programs may hold the prolonged attention of millions of viewers, it is of value to examine potential strategies for enhancing the persuasive impact of their health-promoting storylines. Complementary public service announcements may be a promising strategy. This randomized experimental study (N = 310) examined the effects of viewing a complementary public service announcement after an organ donation story in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. Results indicated that the public service announcement enhanced the beneficial impact of the story on viewers' discussion behavior (about one's organ donor wishes), discussion intention, and perceived learning. This experimental study is the first to examine the effects of viewing a non-character public service announcement after a health-related storyline in a developed nation's fictional program compared to viewing the same episode of the program on its own. It is important for future research to examine whether these findings replicate for different health issues and with a nationally representative sample.

  15. The Forgotten American. The President's Message to the Congress on Goals and Programs for American Indians (March 6, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyndon B.

    1968-01-01

    Emphasizing the need for a Federal-Indian partnership which promotes Indian self-help and Indian respect, this speech proposes: strengthened Federal leadership via a National Council on Indian Opportunity; Indian involvement in the determination of Indian problems and needs; enrollment of all Indian Children in a preschool program by 1971; funds…

  16. CHAIRMAN'S WELCOME MESSAGE Chairman's message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Every clinical physicist I have asked readily acknowledges the great desirability of a 3D dosimetry system for the verification of advanced radiation therapy treatments. An accurate and practical 3D dosimetry system would greatly strengthen the foundation of quality assurance in radiation therapy by enabling a rigorous and comprehensive whole system test. Such systems are now emerging, and the innovations and progress that led to them are remarkably captured in the proceedings of five prior DOSGEL conferences, the last three of which are freely available in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. These meetings included a focus on the technical challenges of various approaches to 3D dosimetry. When considering plans for the present 6th meeting, the scientific committee recognized that the field has matured, and a broader focus was desirable, including a strengthening of the clinical and applications component, while preserving a strong technical component. There was also the desire to embrace a variety of other semi-3D techniques which have also recently emerged to implementation in the clinic. In accordance with these sentiments, the committee approved changing the name of the conference from the International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) to the International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose) and to the following objectives - Conference Objectives: 1. To provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry. 2. To elevate the quality of radiation therapy treatments (quality assurance QA) through improved clinical dosimetry. 3. To explore the dosimetric challenges posed by modern radiation treatment techniques 4. To energize and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D, and semi-3D dosimetry techniques The scientific program of the IC3DDose2010 meeting has been crafted to meet the objectives listed above, and

  17. A new shared-memory programming paradigm for molecular dynamics simulations on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the use of shared memory emulation with DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) to simplify parallel programming on the Intel Paragon. A molecular dynamics application is used as an example to illustrate the use of the DOLIB shared memory library. SOTON-PAR, a parallel molecular dynamics code with explicit message-passing using a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, is rewritten using DOLIB primitives. The resulting code has no explicit message primitives and resembles a serial code. The new code can perform dynamic load balancing and achieves better performance than the original parallel code with explicit message-passing.

  18. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2010-11-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  19. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2009-09-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  20. SMC Message Browser Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    I work directly with the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software engineers who develop, test and release custom and commercial software in support of the Kennedy Space Center Spaceport Command and Control System. (SCCS). SMC uses Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Management Systems (EMS) software which provides a centralized subsystem for configuring, monitoring, and controlling SCCS hardware and software used in the Control Rooms. There are multiple projects being worked on using the COTS EMS software. I am currently working with the HP Operations Manager for UNIX (OMU) software which allows Master Console Operators (MCO) to access, view and interpret messages regarding the status of the SCCS hardware and software. The OMU message browser gets cluttered with messages which can make it difficult for the MCO to manage. My main project involves determining ways to reduce the number of messages being displayed in the OMU message browser. I plan to accomplish this task in two different ways: (1) by correlating multiple messages into one single message being displayed and (2) to create policies that will determine the significance of each message and whether or not it needs to be displayed to the MCO. The core idea is to lessen the number of messages being sent to the OMU message browser so the MCO can more effectively use it.

  1. The Argos seismic data message system.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derr, J.S.; Hunter, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A reliable, inexpensive method for sending limited daily seismic data messages from remote observatories to the National Earthquake Information Center has been developed for use with the Argos satellite system. Data messages are compressed on a microcomputer and passed automatically to a simple transmitter. About 4 hr later, the data are available at the National Earthquake Information Center, where they are decompressed and reformatted into standard telegrams for use in quick epicenter determinations. Epicenter data are available daily to the international scientific community.-Authors

  2. Scalable Replay with Partial-Order Dependencies for Message-Logging Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Meneses, Esteban; Menon, Harshita; Miller, Phil; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-09-22

    Deterministic replay of a parallel application is commonly used for discovering bugs or to recover from a hard fault with message-logging fault tolerance. For message passing programs, a major source of overhead during forward execution is recording the order in which messages are sent and received. During replay, this ordering must be used to deterministically reproduce the execution. Previous work in replay algorithms often makes minimal assumptions about the programming model and application in order to maintain generality. However, in many cases, only a partial order must be recorded due to determinism intrinsic in the code, ordering constraints imposed by the execution model, and events that are commutative (their relative execution order during replay does not need to be reproduced exactly). In this paper, we present a novel algebraic framework for reasoning about the minimum dependencies required to represent the partial order for different concurrent orderings and interleavings. By exploiting this theory, we improve on an existing scalable message-logging fault tolerance scheme. The improved scheme scales to 131,072 cores on an IBM BlueGene/P with up to 2x lower overhead than one that records a total order.

  3. Launching Family Message Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman-Bonilla, Julie

    This lesson introduces Family Message Journals, a tool for encouraging family involvement and supporting writing to reflect and learn. First and second graders are led into composing through demonstration, guided writing, and finally independent writing of messages that they will bring home for family to read and write a reply. During the three…

  4. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  5. Message in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-05-03

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively.

  6. Message in a molecule

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  7. A uGNI-Based Asynchronous Message-driven Runtime System for Cray Supercomputers with Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yanhua; Zheng, Gengbin; Olson, Ryan M; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Gemini as the network for new Cray XE/XT systems features low latency, high bandwidth and strong scalability. Its hardware support for remote direct memory access enables efficient implementation of the global address space programming languages. Although the Generic Network Interface (GNI) is designed to support message-passing applications, it is still challenging to attain good performance for applications written in alternative programming models, such as the message-driven programming model. In our earlier work we showed that CHARM++, an object-oriented message-driven programming model, scales up to the full Jaguar Cray machine. In this paper, we describe a general and light-weight asynchronous Low-level RunTime System (LRTS) for CHARM+, and its implementation on the uGNI software stack for Cray XE systems. Several techniques are presented to exploit the uGNI capability by reducing memory copy and registration overhead, taking advantage of persistent communication, and improving intra-node communication. Our micro-benchmark results demonstrate that the uGNI-based runtime system outperforms the MPI-based implementation by up to 50% in terms of message latency. For communication intensive applications such as N-Queens, this implementation scales up to 15,360 cores of a Cray XE6 machine and is 70% faster than an MPI-based implementation. In molecular dynamics application NAMD, the performance is also considerably improved by as high as 18%.

  8. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Pamela; Leggett, Sophia; Bhuiyan, Azad; Brown, David; Frye, Patricia; Williams, Bryman

    2017-03-29

    African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52). Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30). The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03), while the control group's exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  9. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  10. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  11. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  12. Instant Messaging by SIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Remote Memory Access (RMA) Programming on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of remote memory access (RMA) programming on shared memory parallel computers. We discuss different RMA based implementations of selected CFD application benchmark kernels and compare them to corresponding message passing based codes. For the message-passing implementation we use MPI point-to-point and global communication routines. For the RMA based approach we consider two different libraries supporting this programming model. One is a shared memory parallelization library (SMPlib) developed at NASA Ames, the other is the MPI-2 extensions to the MPI Standard. We give timing comparisons for the different implementation strategies and discuss the performance.

  14. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  15. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  16. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  17. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  18. LBNL SecureMessaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pery, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanent and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.

  19. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  20. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  1. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  2. Delivering the Starry Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Ed

    2009-05-01

    Although Galileo's telescopic revelations 400 years ago prompted the International Year of Astronomy, Galileo didn't just get a starry message at the instrument's eyepiece. He also sent one. He targeted a narrow audience_astronomers, philosphers, and scholars_with his account of his discoveries, but his report, his telescopes, and his observations became famous. Ordinary people were energized by astronomical discovery, and that continues today. The content of the astronomical messages has evolved, and so have the mechanisms of transmission. Public astronomy now helps sustain support for research, and like Galileo's telescope, it also transforms people personally and society broadly. The process is illustrated with a few highly subjective examples.

  3. Programming Models in HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M.

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  4. Making health messages interesting.

    PubMed

    Gebreel, A O; Butt, J

    1997-01-01

    In Afghanistan a radio drama serial carrying messages vital to the well-being of the population, backed up by more detailed information in reinforcing radio programmes and a cartoon magazine, is proving effective in increasing people's knowledge of immunization and other subjects.

  5. Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

  6. Research Messages 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Research messages 2010 is a collection of summaries of research projects published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). The summaries are clustered under five broad themes used by NCVER to organise its research and analysis: Industry and employers; Students and individuals; Teaching and learning: VET system; and VET in…

  7. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  8. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  9. Message in a Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a lesson that uses the Message in a Bottle concept. This lesson combines social studies, language arts, technology, and art, particularly studying and drawing portraits and utilizing values within a drawing. As part of their grade-four art curriculum, students are required to correctly proportion the face and the…

  10. Research Messages 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Research Messages 2014" is a collection of summaries of research published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2014 in the context of changing economic, industrial, social and education conditions, organised under the following broad categories: (1) Productivity: to sustain and build Australia's human…

  11. Research Messages 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and…

  12. President's Message: "Forward"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In this message from the ITEA president, he states that it is imperative that ITEA convey a shared mission and philosophy, foster leadership, and grow a large audience of supportive professional members while remaining agile enough to withstand generational and political changes that naturally occur over time. The strategic plan of ITEA focuses on…

  13. Understanding Telex Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitto, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Examines the problems of writing grammatical rules for the writing of telexes and makes some suggestions as to how to teach comprehension of telex messages. Emphasizes the inconsistency in style, length, and form of telexes, and the impact this has had on international correspondence, which involves many nonnative speakers of English. (SL)

  14. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  15. Challenges for Tailored Messaging in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael L.; Hanik, Bruce W.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2008-01-01

    It is a health education truism that instructional material will be more effective when audience characteristics are taken into account at the outset of program development. One strategy for disseminating relevant health information to individuals is known as "tailored messaging," which accounts for intra-individual information processing needs.…

  16. Business Professionals Workplace Message Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joy L.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of today's large amount of written workplace communication, this study attempted to reveal information regarding the quality in which business messages are encoded on the job. Data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to a sample of 1994-2004 MBA graduates of three AACSB-accredited programs. Findings suggest that business…

  17. Concurrent Smalltalk on the Message-Driven Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    NDPSim -x 2 -y 2 - maize Ox1O00 ::Coamoa:Coamoa.m NewFact.mdp Message-Driven Processor Simulator Version 7.0 Rev B Accompanies MDP Architecture Document...it could peel invocations of recursive functions forever. However, the sin- gle pass of inlining does not mean that functions are only inlined one

  18. Trust and Reactions to Messages of Intent in Social Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Craig D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines how low- and high-trust individuals (n=111) react to messages of intended behavior in a social dilemma situation. Subjects played a two-person prisoner's dilemma; the opponent was a reciprocal strategy programmed by the experimenter. During the game, subjects received a message status that the opponent planned to be cooperative or…

  19. Text to Move: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text-Messaging Program to Improve Physical Activity Behaviors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Lenny; Searl, Meghan; O’Keefe, Sandra; Kvedar, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messages are increasingly being used because of the low cost and the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones to engage patients in self-care behaviors. Self-care is particularly important in achieving treatment outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective This study examined the effect of personalized text messages on physical activity, as measured by a pedometer, and clinical outcomes in a diverse population of patients with T2DM. Methods Text to Move (TTM) incorporates physical activity monitoring and coaching to provide automated and personalized text messages to help patients with T2DM achieve their physical activity goals. A total of 126 English- or Spanish-speaking patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7 were enrolled in-person to participate in the study for 6 months and were randomized into either the intervention arm that received the full complement of the intervention or a control arm that received only pedometers. The primary outcome was change in physical activity. We also assessed the effect of the intervention on HbA1c, weight, and participant engagement. Results All participants (intervention: n=64; control: n=62) were included in the analyses. The intervention group had significantly higher monthly step counts in the third (risk ratio [RR] 4.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 19.92, P=.03) and fourth (RR 6.88, 95% CI 1.21 to 39.00, P=.03) months of the study compared to the control group. However, over the 6-month follow-up period, monthly step counts did not differ statistically by group (intervention group: 9092 steps; control group: 3722 steps; RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.68 to 8.74, P=.17). HbA1c decreased by 0.07% (95% CI –0.47 to 0.34, P=.75) in the TTM group compared to the control group. Within groups, HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline in the TTM group by –0.43% (95% CI –0.75 to –0.12, P=.01), but nonsignificantly in the control group by –0.21% (95% CI –0.49 to 0.06, P=.13). Similar changes were observed for other

  20. Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Across. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This lesson shows how the Inca communicated across the vast stretches of their mountain realm, the largest empire of the pre-industrial world. The lesson explains how couriers carried messages along mountain-ridge roads, up and down stone steps, and over chasm-spanning footbridges. It states that couriers could pass a message from Quito (Ecuador)…

  1. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  2. Components of US Associate Degree Nursing Programs and Their Relationship to the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Graduate Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    The nursing shortage has accelerated the need for nursing programs to discover program components related to success on the NCLEX-RN. As the demand for nurses is growing, nursing programs have been called upon to help find solutions to the problem. This study attempted to contribute to the resolution of the shortage and provide nursing educators…

  3. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  4. On "Passing" through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttermohlen, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…

  5. Parallel programming in Split-C

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E.; Dusseau, A.; Goldstein, S.C.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Lumetta, S.; Eicken, T. von; Yelick, K.

    1993-12-31

    The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote access. The language allows a mixture of shared memory, message passing, and data parallel programming styles while providing efficient access to the underlying machine. They demonstrate the basic language concepts using regular and irregular parallel programs and give performance results for various stages of program optimization.

  6. Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Zendejas, Silvino; Sadaqathulla, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions (EDM-RBS) is a framework integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB) to allow for role-based and subscription-based delivery of synchronous and asynchronous messages over JMS (Java Messaging Service), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), or SMS (Short Messaging Service). This allows for 24/7 operation with users in all parts of the world. The software classifies messages by triggering data type, application source, owner of data triggering event (mission), classification, sub-classification and various other secondary classifying tags. Messages are routed to applications or users based on subscription rules using a combination of the above message attributes. This program provides a framework for identifying connected users and their applications for targeted delivery of messages over JMS to the client applications the user is logged into. EDMRBS provides the ability to send notifications over e-mail or pager rather than having to rely on a live human to do it. It is implemented as an Oracle application that uses Oracle relational database management system intrinsic functions. It is configurable to use Oracle AQ JMS API or an external JMS provider for messaging. It fully integrates into the event-logging framework of SMDB (Subnet Management Database).

  7. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... UPARR funds may be passed through for Recovery Action Program grants. The decision on whether or not...

  8. Purdue Academic Student Scheduling. PASS. Goals, Guidelines, and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Victor A.

    PASS produces student schedules. This manual offers an operational record of the PASS system, and describes its structure within the total registration process. The primary goals of PASS, a "choice-course" system, are to satisfy student program requirements and equally distribute class load through the master schedule from a total…

  9. Multi-pass microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L. I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4+/-0.8 dB (11.6+/-0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8+/-0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9+/-0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering.

  10. Multi-pass microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L.I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4±0.8 dB (11.6±0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8±0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9±0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering. PMID:27670525

  11. Secret Message Science Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVita, Christina; Ruppert, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Light is radiation in wavelengths composed of many colors that are visible to the eyes. These wavelengths can be separated. One way to separate colors is with a filter. Filters keep certain wavelengths out and allow other wavelengths to pass through. In this article, the authors discuss an activity to provide students the opportunity to build a…

  12. Electronic Message Preservation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hodes, Paul W. [D-NH-2

    2009-03-09

    03/18/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-02

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  14. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness.

  15. Message Technology Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    for immediate sending or for further editing. New automatic HERMES-crcated fields are generated corresponding to the new sender and date. We also...are not copied, so that the new outgoing message receives a new SENDER field, a new DATE, and a new MESSAGE-ID. 2. Three new message-fields were...switches were installed a) STARTWITHINBOX (Ask-Yes-No) controls whether KERMES Gets the user’s Inbox , MESSAGE.TXT;1, when the user enters the system

  16. [Message from Lyme].

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, P

    1993-01-01

    The background to the discovery of Lyme disease teaches a salutary lesson. The symptoms and signs of this disease had been observed by doctors for a century, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, without anybody being able to draw the right conclusions. The first patients were identified in the USA by their relatives or by themselves. Recognition of their plight by the medical profession was chiefly due to the patients' tenacity. We must remember to pay attention to what patients tell us; they may often be right, even when they seem to be wrong. Where fact and theory are incompatible, it is theory, not fact, that needs to be amended. In all likelihood, we all from time to time observe disorders in our patients that are inconsistent with established scientific models, but which we nevertheless attempt to squeeze into these models. Such an approach is not uncommon in the history of medicine. The message from Lyme calls for humility and reflexion.

  17. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  18. Immediate Increase in Food Intake Following Exercise Messages

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., “active”). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent. PMID:19247284

  19. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  20. The Effectiveness of Heat Exchangers with One Shell Pass and Three Tube Passes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ COSTRUCTIONS 1. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD...COVERED 0 The Effectiveness of Heat Exchangers Master’s Thesis; With One Shell Pass and Three Tube June 1985 Passes S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...AUTHORa) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER (.) Mark S. O’Hare . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS t0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT

  1. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health.

  2. IBEX Beauty Pass

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the IBEX spacecraft as it orbits the Earth. IBEX was launched in October 2008 as a NASA “Small Explorer.” Explorers are NASA’s longest running program and Small Explorers are the...

  3. Do Not Pass Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the drop-out rate from online courses in corporate training programs. Topics include better measures of electronic learning success and return on investment (ROI); a modular approach; course completion needed for certification requirements; and focusing on job performance improvement that results from electronic courses. (LRW)

  4. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-11-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  5. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A

    2013-04-16

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  6. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  7. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  8. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    PubMed

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  9. DoD Message Protocol Report. Volume II. Message Transfer Protocol Requirements Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    transmission instructions. This assurance can, in principle, be provided by either the message service (where a message is prepared) or by the message...transfer protocol. This document does not assume it is always practical for a message service to assure message correctness and so prescribes... assure service and speed to urgent messages. The protocol must also ensure aginst unauthorized access to high precedence service . When a message

  10. 20 CFR 631.38 - State by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State by-pass authority. 631.38 Section 631.38 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.38 State by-pass authority....

  11. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  12. Streamlined one-pass modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.H.; Harne, R.L.; Firth, K.J.; Meyer, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Streamlined one-pass models provide an alternative to the standard type of one-pass models for departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) studies, which require a large number of computer simulations. The standard one-pass models simulate the limiting subchannel (subchannel in which minimum DNBR occurs), a ring of subchannels around the limiting subchannel, the remainder of the limiting bundle, and the remainder of the core. Typically, these standard models use from 8 to 12 channels and approx.20 cross-flow gaps. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed streamlined one-pass models that require approximately one-half the number of channels and approx.20% of the computer resources as the standard one-pass models. These streamlined models are applicable in one-pass analysis codes such as the B and W code LYNXT and the Electric Power Research Institute VIPRE code. Streamlined one-pass models are particularly suited to extensive studies wherein computer cost and turnaround are critical, without sacrificing DNBR accuracy. Examples of such studies are reactor protection operating limit determination, limiting transient selection, and scoping studies. Moreover, streamlined one-pass models make it possible to perform DNBR studies on personal computers (PCs) using PC-adapted codes such as COBRAPC.

  13. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  14. Boosting Achievement with Messages that Motivate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2007-01-01

    Almost everything educators say to their students sends a message. Some messages enhance students' motivation, but other messages undermine it. What should teachers say to students to send messages that motivate? In a survey given to parents, over 80% of them thought that it was necessary to praise their children's intelligence in order to give…

  15. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  16. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  17. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  18. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  19. Algorithms for TOC message transmission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Bian, Yu-Jing

    2001-12-01

    The algorithms and approach for TOC message broadcasting control are studied in this paper. The TOC message can be broadcasted, solely or alternating with DGNSS message, over one Loran-C channel. The availability of the messages in alternating broadcast mode is analyzed. The recurrence formulae of the sequence number of the header of the TOC message frames are given. The corresponding appraoch for braodcasting control is presented.

  20. Probabilistic Algorithm for Sampler Siting (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2007-05-29

    PASS (Probabilistic Approach to Sampler Siting) optimizes the placement of samplers in buildings. The program exhaustively checks every sampler-network that can be formed, evaluating against user-supplied simulations of the possible release scenarios. The program identifies the networks that maximize the probablity of detecting a release from among the suite of user-supllied scenarios. The user may specify how many networks to report, in order to provide a number of choices in cases where many networks have very similar behavior.

  1. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  2. Peddling Programs: Getting the Message Across.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commuter, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Publicity techniques for reaching commuter students are presented in this article. Following a discussion of the special problems associated with reaching commuter students with information, the difference between promotion, advertising, and publicity is explained. Publicity strategies are then provided for: (1) reaching adult students; (2)…

  3. The mushroom message.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  4. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students.

  5. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The end of 2008 cannot pass without remarking that the economic news has repeatedly strengthened the case for nuclear fusion; not perhaps to solve the immediate crises but to offer long-term security of energy supply. Although temporary, the passage of the price of oil through 100 per barrel is a portent of things to come and should bolster our collective determination to develop nuclear fusion into a viable energy source. It is with great pride, therefore, that I can highlight the contributions that the Nuclear Fusion journal has made to the research programme and the consolidation of its position as the lead journal in the field. Of course, the journal would be nothing without its authors and referees and I would like to pass on my sincere thanks to them all for their work in 2008 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2009. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most loyal referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least two different manuscripts during the period from November 2007 to November 2008 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! T. Hino (Hokkaido University, Japan) M. Sugihara (ITER Cadarache, France) M. Dreval (Saskatchewan University, Canada) M. Fenstermacher (General Atomics, USA) V.S. Marchenko (Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine) G.V. Pereverzev (Max-Planck-Institut fuer

  6. Re: Design Changing the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  7. [Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

  8. How Attention Partitions Itself during Simultaneous Message Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Lori; Grimes, Tom; Potter, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Television producers, across all types of programming, assume young viewers can parallel process simultaneously presented messages. For instance, television news producers appear to believe that young viewers can attend to weather icons, lexical news crawls, and sports scores while they also attend to news anchors who present the news.…

  9. WhatsApp Messaging: Achievements and Success in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Davidivitch; Roman, Yavich

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the use of technological means in general and in academic teaching in particular. Many programs have been developed that include computer-assisted teaching, as well as online courses at educational institutions. The current study focuses on WhatsApp messaging and its use in academia. Studies…

  10. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  11. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  12. Text Message Behavioral Interventions: From Here to Where?

    PubMed Central

    Suffoletto, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is an efficient and personal electronic form of communication, making it an ideal modality for remote delivery of behavioral interventions. The ubiquity of cell phones and short message service (SMS) worldwide allow the possibility of SMS behavioral inteventions to impact global health. Studies to date suggest that SMS interventions can effectively support health behaviors and may offer advantages compared to other forms of computerized interventions. Program features optimizing user engagament and persuasiveness are suggested to mediate SMS intervention effect. Future research is tasked with identifying what SMS features are useful to which individuals at what times to best help them initiate and maintain health behaviors. PMID:26665157

  13. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  14. Practice What You Preach about Goodwill Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Mona J.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways for students to experience the impact of written messages and for teachers to promote good public relations through the use of goodwill messages. Examples include the use of verbal compliments and personal business letters. (EL)

  15. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.

  16. Clinical data exchange standards and vocabularies for messages.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Motivation for the creation of electronic data interchange (message) standards is discussed. The ISO Open Systems Interface model is described. Clinical information models, message syntax and structure, and the need for a standardized coded vocabulary are explained. The HIPAA legislation and subsequent HHS transaction recommendations are reviewed. The history and mission statements of six of the most popular message development organizations (MDOs) are summarized, and the data exchange standards developed by these organizations are listed. The organizations described include Health Level Seven (HL7), American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E31, Digital Image Communication in Medicine (DICOM), European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation), Technical Committee for Health Informatics (CEN/TC 251), the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP), and Accredited Standards Committee X12 Insurance Subcommittee (X12N). The locations of Internet web sites for the six organizations are provided as resources for further information. PMID:9929183

  17. Comics: a medium for today's development messages.

    PubMed

    Opilas, E A

    1978-03-01

    Filipino illustrated magazines, or the comics, may yet prove to be the most effective media, if not the most effective, for spreading the country's development messages. Long criticized by intellectuals and the social elite, the comics have been grossly underrated in their potential to inform, persuade, and even influence the life-style of the people. The government's Commission on Population (Popcom) has developed an information-education-communication program using the comics, among other media, to disseminate stories on family planning, responsible parenthood, and related topics. Its best quality is popular appeal, and for publishers and distribution outlets, the comics provide good business. A review of these materials shows that their themes reflect the following topics or issues: 1) population trends and consequences; 2) socioeconomic benefits of family planning; 3) customs which influence family planning; 4) family planning concepts; 5) family planning methods; 6) human sexuality and reproduction; 7) the husband-wife relationship; 8) guides for family planning motivation or communication; and 9) guides for teaching family planning. The materials were developed with 4 qualities in mind so as to attract audience or reader interest: simplicity, familiarity, realism, and attractiveness of materials. The consensus is that in the comics, population and development agencies may have found a "secret weapon" in getting these messages across, and that this new-found use for the illustrated magazines may be giving them a new respectability without in any way diminishing their popular appeal.

  18. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  19. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  20. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  1. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  2. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  3. rMPI : increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Riesen, Rolf; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-04-01

    As High-End Computing machines continue to grow in size, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults, like checkpoint-restart, are unsuitable at these scale due to excessive overheads predicted to more than double an applications time to solution. Redundant computation, long used in distributed and mission critical systems, has been suggested as an alternative to checkpoint-restart on its own. In this paper we describe the rMPI library which enables portable and transparent redundant computation for MPI applications. We detail the design of the library as well as two replica consistency protocols, outline the overheads of this library at scale on a number of real-world applications, and finally outline the significant increase in an applications time to solution at extreme scale as well as show the scenarios in which redundant computation makes sense.

  4. Are You Experienced?: Teenagers' Perceptions of Edutainment Shows Featuring Anti-alcohol Messages.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-07-01

    This article examines how teenagers perceive a show that is both educational and entertaining. In classrooms, 970 students viewed and evaluated one of two videos of a commercial television program featuring an anti-alcohol message. Overall, the sample assessed the programs favorably, finding the messages interesting, credible and understandable. Firsthand experience with alcohol predicted variations in the perception of an anti-alcohol message, while contact with others who use alcohol did not. Regression analysis showed personal experience with alcohol had a strong relationship to interest, a modest relationship to credibility, but no significant relationship to knowledge. In contrast, social contact with those who use alcohol often (i.e. knowing friends and family members who drink) was not significantly associated with the perceptions of an alcohol message on television. Such results suggest that those creating and using mass-media health messages effectively must be aware of the actual firsthand experiences of their audiences.

  5. Interpreting a Museum Exhibit: The Message Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Audio Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Susan K.

    In this Masters Thesis, the message effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of costs and monetary benefits) of two interpretive audio messages were evaluated. Ninety-nine randomly selected visitors to a Central Ohio interpretive museum were exposed to one of two audio tape recorded messages. One message used interpretive technique; the…

  6. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  7. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress thermal lensing in the gain medium.

  8. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  9. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  10. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing or failing under SEA. 205.160... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... the sample passes or fails (See applicable tables in Appendix II). If the number of failing...

  11. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through...

  12. Getting Science Students to PASS-UIW: A Successful Collaboration between Students, Staff, and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Cristina; Davis, Julian M.; Frye, Michael; Harmsen, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the reasons that Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), commonly called PASS-UIW, has been successful in science courses at the University. The intent is to provide information for other institutions to launch, evaluate, or improve their own programs. PASS-UIW is a student-led…

  13. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.: Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6...

  14. An interactive parallel programming environment applied in atmospheric science

    SciTech Connect

    Laszewski, G. von

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an interactive parallel programming environment (IPPE) that simplifies the generation and execution of parallel programs. One of the tasks of the environment is to generate message-passing parallel programs for homogeneous and heterogeneous computing platforms. The parallel programs are represented by using visual objects. This is accomplished with the help of a graphical programming editor that is implemented in Java and enables portability to a wide variety of computer platforms. In contrast to other graphical programming systems, reusable parts of the programs can be stored in a program library to support rapid prototyping. In addition, runtime performance data on different computing platforms is collected in a database. A selection process determines dynamically the software and the hardware platform to be used to solve the problem in minimal wall-clock time. The environment is currently being tested on a Grand Challenge problem, the NASA four-dimensional data assimilation system.

  15. An interactive parallel programming environment applied in atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonLaszewski, G.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces an interactive parallel programming environment (IPPE) that simplifies the generation and execution of parallel programs. One of the tasks of the environment is to generate message-passing parallel programs for homogeneous and heterogeneous computing platforms. The parallel programs are represented by using visual objects. This is accomplished with the help of a graphical programming editor that is implemented in Java and enables portability to a wide variety of computer platforms. In contrast to other graphical programming systems, reusable parts of the programs can be stored in a program library to support rapid prototyping. In addition, runtime performance data on different computing platforms is collected in a database. A selection process determines dynamically the software and the hardware platform to be used to solve the problem in minimal wall-clock time. The environment is currently being tested on a Grand Challenge problem, the NASA four-dimensional data assimilation system.

  16. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  17. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each approved test is...

  18. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186

  19. Message Technology Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    and continue with your work. 5. New Mail Notice Before Quitting If you Quit HERMES and there is new mail in your INBOX , HERMES notifies you, then...uses the Mail Forwarding Data Base (MFDB) to check addresses. At present, an active MFDB is implemented only on the five BBN systems. The MFDB...names in the Tor-field of the original message. a i l ä I •5 + a a y 1. Host Names Supplied Correctly a) Replying to the From: and Sender

  20. Processes of incremental message planning during conversation.

    PubMed

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E

    2015-06-01

    Speaking begins with the formulation of an intended preverbal message and linguistic encoding of this information. The transition from thought to speech occurs incrementally, with cascading planning at subsequent levels of production. In this article, we aim to specify the mechanisms that support incremental message preparation. We contrast two hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for incorporating message-level information into a linguistic plan. According to the Initial Preparation view, messages can be encoded as fluent utterances if all information is ready before speaking begins. By contrast, on the Continuous Incrementality view, messages can be continually prepared and updated throughout the production process, allowing for fluent production even if new information is added to the message while speaking is underway. Testing these hypotheses, eye-tracked speakers in two experiments produced unscripted, conjoined noun phrases with modifiers. Both experiments showed that new message elements can be incrementally incorporated into the utterance even after articulation begins, consistent with a Continuous Incrementality view of message planning, in which messages percolate to linguistic encoding immediately as that information becomes available in the mind of the speaker. We conclude by discussing the functional role of incremental message planning in conversational speech and the situations in which this continuous incremental planning would be most likely to be observed.

  1. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  2. OMG Do Not Say LOL: Obese Adolescents’ Perspectives on the Content of Text Messages to Enhance Weight Loss Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, Susan J.; Barr, Kathryn L.C.; Derry, Holly A.; Jepson, Christina M.; Clark, Sarah J.; Strecher, Victor J.; Resnicow, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents participating in weight loss programs experience difficulty adhering to behavior change recommendations. Communications technology provides a low cost means to increase the frequency of contact with adolescents which can improve their engagement and also lead to behavior change. Within a larger project on the development of tailored text messages for adolescents enrolled in an existing multidisciplinary weight management program, this study explored participants’ perspectives about message content. A library of messages was developed focused on topics central to weight management. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 24 participants from the weight management program to gage their reactions to the messages. Detailed notes from the focus groups were analyzed to assess the acceptability of individual messages and to identify overriding themes. Results indicate that participants were very enthusiastic about receiving text messages. They preferred messages that provided recipe ideas, included successful weight loss strategies used by peers, and requested feedback regarding their progress. They preferred positive, encouraging, and direct messages. They were unanimous that messages should include encouraging symbols (e.g., exclamation points and “smiley faces”) as often as possible. They emphasized that any mention of unhealthy foods or behaviors would trigger them to eat those foods or engage in those behaviors. Text messaging acronyms (e.g., LOL) were considered too informal for messages from healthcare providers. This study suggests that including text messages in obesity interventions is acceptable to obese adolescents as a means of supporting their weight loss efforts, and it highlights the need for such messages to be carefully constructed. PMID:21869762

  3. OMG do not say LOL: obese adolescents' perspectives on the content of text messages to enhance weight loss efforts.

    PubMed

    Woolford, Susan J; Barr, Kathryn L C; Derry, Holly A; Jepson, Christina M; Clark, Sarah J; Strecher, Victor J; Resnicow, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Adolescents participating in weight loss programs experience difficulty adhering to behavior change recommendations. Communications technology provides a low cost means to increase the frequency of contact with adolescents which can improve their engagement and also lead to behavior change. Within a larger project on the development of tailored text messages for adolescents enrolled in an existing multidisciplinary weight management program, this study explored participants' perspectives about message content. A library of messages was developed focused on topics central to weight management. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 24 participants from the weight management program to gage their reactions to the messages. Detailed notes from the focus groups were analyzed to assess the acceptability of individual messages and to identify overriding themes. Results indicate that participants were very enthusiastic about receiving text messages. They preferred messages that provided recipe ideas, included successful weight loss strategies used by peers, and requested feedback regarding their progress. They preferred positive, encouraging, and direct messages. They were unanimous that messages should include encouraging symbols (e.g., exclamation points and "smiley faces") as often as possible. They emphasized that any mention of unhealthy foods or behaviors would trigger them to eat those foods or engage in those behaviors. Text messaging acronyms (e.g., LOL) were considered too informal for messages from healthcare providers. This study suggests that including text messages in obesity interventions is acceptable to obese adolescents as a means of supporting their weight loss efforts, and it highlights the need for such messages to be carefully constructed.

  4. Can exergames impart health messages? Game play, framing, and drivers of physical activity among children.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Malik, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of incorporating exergaming into physical education lessons as a platform for imparting health education messages and influencing children's beliefs about and attitudes toward physical activity. The authors launched a 6-week intervention program using Nintendo Wii games coupled with protection motivation theory-based health messaging among 5th-grade school children in Singapore. Results indicated that when children who were exposed to threat-framed messages played Wii exergames during physical education lessons, they reported more positive physical activity attitude, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control than did those who underwent regular physical education lessons and were exposed to the same message. In addition, among children playing Wii, the threat and coping frames had similar effects on the degree of message influence on physical activity attitudes and beliefs. The implications for schools, parents, and health policy are discussed.

  5. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  6. Strategies for Energy Efficient Resource Management of Hybrid Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Supinski, Bronis de; Schulz, Martin; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Cameron, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific applications are programmed using hybrid programming models that use both message-passing and shared-memory, due to the increasing prevalence of large-scale systems with multicore, multisocket nodes. Previous work has shown that energy efficiency can be improved using software-controlled execution schemes that consider both the programming model and the power-aware execution capabilities of the system. However, such approaches have focused on identifying optimal resource utilization for one programming model, either shared-memory or message-passing, in isolation. The potential solution space, thus the challenge, increases substantially when optimizing hybrid models since the possible resource configurations increase exponentially. Nonetheless, with the accelerating adoption of hybrid programming models, we increasingly need improved energy efficiency in hybrid parallel applications on large-scale systems. In this work, we present new software-controlled execution schemes that consider the effects of dynamic concurrency throttling (DCT) and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the context of hybrid programming models. Specifically, we present predictive models and novel algorithms based on statistical analysis that anticipate application power and time requirements under different concurrency and frequency configurations. We apply our models and methods to the NPB MZ benchmarks and selected applications from the ASC Sequoia codes. Overall, we achieve substantial energy savings (8.74% on average and up to 13.8%) with some performance gain (up to 7.5%) or negligible performance loss.

  7. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system, with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third

  8. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  9. Evaluation of sexual communication message strategies.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Umanzor, Cindy; Patel, Kajal; Khan, Munziba

    2011-05-20

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  10. Strategic Messaging to Promote Taxation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Lessons From Recent Political Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L.; Gollust, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. Methods. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. Results. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining “sugar-sweetened beverage” and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Conclusions. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates. PMID:24625177

  11. A Tool to Assess Family Medicine Residents' Patient Encounters Using Secure Messaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung G.; Morris, Carl G.; Heidrich, Fred E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secure messages exchanged between patients and family medicine residents via an electronic health record (EHR) could be used to assess residents' clinical and communication skills, but the mechanism is not well understood. Objective To design and test a secure messaging competency assessment for family medicine residents in a patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Methods Using the existing literature and evidence-based guidelines, we designed an assessment tool to evaluate secure messaging competency for family medicine residents training in a PCMH. Core faculty performed 2-stage validity and reliability testing (n = 2 and n = 9, respectively). A series of randomly selected EHR secure messages (n = 45) were assessed from a sample of 10 residents across all years of training. Results The secure message assessment tool provided data on a set of competencies and a framework for resident feedback. Assessment showed 10% (n = 2) of residents at the novice level, 50% (n = 10) as progressing, and 40% (n = 8) as proficient. The most common deficiencies for residents' secure messages related to communication rather than clinical competencies (n = 37 [90%] versus n = 4 [10%]). Interrater reliability testing ranged from 60% to 78% agreement and 20% to 44% disagreement. Disagreement centered on interpersonal communication factors. After 2 stages of testing, the assessment using residents' secure messages was incorporated into our existing evaluation process. Conclusions Assessing family medicine residents' secure messaging for patient encounters closed an evaluation gap in our family medicine program, and offered residents feedback on their clinical and communication skills in a PCMH. PMID:26692980

  12. ABM Drag_Pass Report Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    dragREPORT software was developed in parallel with abmREPORT, which is described in the preceding article. Both programs were built on the capabilities created during that process. This tool generates a drag_pass report that summarizes vital information from the MRO aerobreaking drag_pass build process to facilitate both sequence reviews and provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management. The script extracts information from the ENV, SSF, FRF, SCMFmax, and OPTG files, presenting them in a single, easy-to-check report providing the majority of parameters needed for cross check and verification as part of the sequence review process. Prior to dragReport, all the needed information was spread across a number of different files, each in a different format. This software is a Perl script that extracts vital summarization information and build-process details from a number of source files into a single, concise report format used to aid the MPST sequence review process and to provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management reference. This software could be adapted for future aerobraking missions to provide similar reports, review and summarization information.

  13. Checking for Circular Dependencies in Distributed Stream Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-29

    programming model with control messages through teleport messaging as implemented in the StreamIt framework. Unlike existing cyclic dependency analyses...we allow overlapped teleport messages. An overlapped teleport message is one that traverses actors that themselves transmit teleport messages, which...can complicate the stream graph topology with teleport messages. Therefore the challenge in this work is to decide whether such stream graphs are

  14. A systematic review of the effectiveness of remediation interventions to improve NCLEX-RN pass rates.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Tracy D; Spurlock, Darrell

    2010-09-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are important measures of educational quality in prelicensure nursing education programs. Licensure pass rate problems has been the subject of countless nursing education articles and studies over the past several decades. To improve NCLEX-RN pass rates, remediation is often prescribed for students who have academic performance deficits. This article presents a systematic review of studies on remediation interventions and their effects on NCLEX-RN pass rates. Most studies of remediation and its effects on licensure pass rates are descriptive program evaluation reports. The overall quality of studies included in this review is uneven but generally low. Nursing education researchers should focus on conducting higher quality intervention studies in which the fidelity of remediation interventions can be examined. Viewing licensure pass rates from a process improvement perspective and accounting for pass rate variations could also change the nature of scholarship on this topic.

  15. Diagnosing the Causes and Severity of One-sided Message Contention

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; van Dam, Hubertus; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-02-11

    Two trends suggest network contention for one-sided messages is poised to become a performance problem that concerns application developers: an increased interest in one-sided programming models and a rising ratio of hardware threads to network injection bandwidth. Unfortunately, it is difficult to reason about network contention and one-sided messages because one-sided tasks can either decrease or increase contention. We present effective and portable techniques for diagnosing the causes and severity of one-sided message contention. To detect that a message is affected by contention, we maintain statistics representing instantaneous (non-local) network resource demand. Using lightweight measurement and modeling, we identify the portion of a message's latency that is due to contention and whether contention occurs at the initiator or target. We attribute these metrics to program statements in their full static and dynamic context. We characterize contention for an important computational chemistry benchmark on InfiniBand, Cray Aries, and IBM Blue Gene/Q interconnects. We pinpoint the sources of contention, estimate their severity, and show that when message delivery time deviates from an ideal model, there are other messages contending for the same network links. With a small change to the benchmark, we reduce contention up to 50% and improve total runtime as much as 20%.

  16. User preferences for text message-delivered skin cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Finch, Linda; Youl, Philippa; Marshall, Alison L; Soyer, H Peter; Baade, Peter; Janda, Monika

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is needed for the acceptability and user preferences of receiving skin cancer-related text messages. We prepared 27 questions to evaluate attitudes, satisfaction with program characteristics such as timing and spacing, and overall satisfaction with the Healthy Text program in young adults. Within this randomised controlled trial (age 18-42 years), 546 participants were assigned to one of three Healthy Text message groups; sun protection, skin self-examination, or attention-control. Over a 12-month period, 21 behaviour-specific text messages were sent to each group. Participants' preferences were compared between the two interventions and control group at the 12-month follow-up telephone interview. In all three groups, participants reported the messages were easy to understand (98%), provided good suggestions or ideas (88%), and were encouraging (86%) and informative (85%) with little difference between the groups. The timing of the texts was received positively (92%); however, some suggestions for frequency or time of day the messages were received from 8% of participants. Participants in the two intervention groups found their messages more informative, and triggering behaviour change compared to control. Text messages about skin cancer prevention and early detection are novel and acceptable to induce behaviour change in young adults.

  17. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on... LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine Pass) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., construct, and operate additional liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities at the Sabine Pass...

  18. When you pass your due date

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  19. Maintaining High Assurance in Asynchronous Messaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-24

    assurance environment. Index Terms—Asynchronous Communication, Publish Subscribe, IT Security, Encryption, Key Management I. INTRODUCTION...synchronous communication take place in or how these relate to each other. It is possible to implement synchronous communication using an asynchronous...continuing its processing. At the completion of message transmission, the sender does not know when or whether the receiver received it . The message

  20. Persuasive email messages for patient communication.

    PubMed

    Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Johnson, Todd; Bernstam, Elmer; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    To improve health and reduce costs, we need to encourage patients to make better health care decisions. Since email is widely available, it may be useful for patient-directed interventions. However, we know little about how the contents of an email message can influence a health-related decision. We propose a model to understand how patients may process persuasive email messages.

  1. Memorable Messages for Navigating College Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Smith, Sandi W.; Cornacchione, Jennifer; Russell, Jessica; Stohl, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript details an investigation of memorable messages that help students navigate college life using a control theory framework. Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews with 61 undergraduate students who recalled a specific memorable message that helped them as they navigated college. Results of this formative study show the…

  2. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  3. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to... the survey as well as other qualitative research. Findings from the summary report will be used to... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION:...

  4. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  5. Text Messaging for Student Communication and Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morgan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…

  6. Hidden Messages: Instructional Materials for Investigating Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Barbara, Ed.; Eder, Elizabeth K., Ed.

    This book, intended to be used in the middle and high school classroom, provides teachers with unique ideas and lesson plans for exploring culture and adding a multicultural perspective to diverse subjects. "Hidden messages" are the messages of culture that are entwined in everyday lives, but which are seldom recognized or appreciated…

  7. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  8. Technology-Enhanced Maintenance of Treatment Gains in Eating Disorders: Efficacy of an Intervention Delivered via Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Stephanie; Okon, Eberhard; Meermann, Rolf; Kordy, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the lack of maintenance interventions for eating disorders, a program delivered via the short message service (SMS) and text messaging was developed to support patients after their discharge from inpatient treatment. Method: The efficacy of the intervention was studied in a randomized controlled trial. Additionally, its impact on…

  9. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37 Section 72.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grants for Recovery Action Program Development,...

  10. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37 Section 72.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grants for Recovery Action Program Development,...

  11. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37 Section 72.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grants for Recovery Action Program Development,...

  12. Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Whilst travelling to Vienna to hand over the Editorship of Nuclear Fusion to Ron Stambaugh, I jotted down a few ideas to put in a farewell message. Somewhat unsurprisingly, I find them almost identical to the remarks that Chris Schueller made in handing over to me five years ago. Both of us served in this role for five years, which seems like a good timescale to replace presidents and editors alike; just to allow a fresh approach. In addition, since I have been directly involved in ITER, I have found it increasingly difficult, due to time pressure, to give the journal the attention that it deserves. Therefore, I am very pleased that Ron Stambaugh has agreed to take over as Editor. Not only does he bring the experience as a leading figure in the US fusion programme but, in addition, he has all the contacts, worldwide, from his leadership of the ITPA. I am completely assured that the journal is in a highly competent pair of hands. Such a farewell should not lack my heartfelt thanks to all of those who have made being Editor of Nuclear Fusion so enjoyable and stimulating; readership, authors, referees, the Editorial Board and the NF Office alike. I wish Ron all the best for his tenure and have offered such help and support as I am able to give.

  13. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on Cray T3D1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.

  14. 33 CFR 117.311 - New Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Pass. 117.311 Section 117.311... REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.311 New Pass. The drawspan for the State Road 789 Drawbridge... must be passed at anytime....

  15. Effect of multiple extrusion passes on zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zein was repeatedly processed up to seven times using a single screw extruder at a temperature of 145 °C and at approximately 15 grams per minute to determine the extent of degradation that occurs with multiple extrusion passes. SDS-PAGE shows that with the second pass, and each additional pass, the...

  16. Coding for Parallel Links to Maximize the Expected Value of Decodable Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew A.; Chang, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    When multiple parallel communication links are available, it is useful to consider link-utilization strategies that provide tradeoffs between reliability and throughput. Interesting cases arise when there are three or more available links. Under the model considered, the links have known probabilities of being in working order, and each link has a known capacity. The sender has a number of messages to send to the receiver. Each message has a size and a value (i.e., a worth or priority). Messages may be divided into pieces arbitrarily, and the value of each piece is proportional to its size. The goal is to choose combinations of messages to send on the links so that the expected value of the messages decodable by the receiver is maximized. There are three parts to the innovation: (1) Applying coding to parallel links under the model; (2) Linear programming formulation for finding the optimal combinations of messages to send on the links; and (3) Algorithms for assisting in finding feasible combinations of messages, as support for the linear programming formulation. There are similarities between this innovation and methods developed in the field of network coding. However, network coding has generally been concerned with either maximizing throughput in a fixed network, or robust communication of a fixed volume of data. In contrast, under this model, the throughput is expected to vary depending on the state of the network. Examples of error-correcting codes that are useful under this model but which are not needed under previous models have been found. This model can represent either a one-shot communication attempt, or a stream of communications. Under the one-shot model, message sizes and link capacities are quantities of information (e.g., measured in bits), while under the communications stream model, message sizes and link capacities are information rates (e.g., measured in bits/second). This work has the potential to increase the value of data returned from

  17. Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-11-16

    Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers includes: receiving a buffer identifier specifying an application buffer having a message of a particular type for transmission to a target compute node through a network; selecting one of a plurality of shadow buffers for a DMA engine on the compute node for storing the message, each shadow buffer corresponding to a slot of an injection FIFO buffer maintained by the DMA engine; storing the message in the selected shadow buffer; creating a data descriptor for the message stored in the selected shadow buffer; injecting the data descriptor into the slot of the injection FIFO buffer corresponding to the selected shadow buffer; selecting the data descriptor from the injection FIFO buffer; and transmitting the message specified by the selected data descriptor through the data communications network to the target compute node.

  18. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  19. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... address: (1) Distress messages and distress traffic. (2) Messages concerning the safety of human life. (3) Flight safety messages concerning— (i) Air traffic control, including— (A) Messages concerning...

  20. Message Variability and Heterogeneity: A Core Challenge for Communication Research

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenberg, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Messages are central to human social experience, and pose key conceptual and methodological challenges in the study of communication. In response to these challenges, we outline a systematic approach to conceptualizing, operationalizing, and analyzing messages. At the conceptual level, we distinguish between two core aspects of messages: message variability (the defined and operationalized features of messages) and message heterogeneity (the undefined and unmeasured features of messages), and suggest preferred approaches to defining message variables. At the operational level, we identify message sampling, selection, and research design strategies responsive to issues of message variability and heterogeneity in experimental and survey research. At the analytical level, we highlight effective techniques to deal with message variability and heterogeneity. We conclude with seven recommendations to increase rigor in the study of communication through appropriately addressing the challenges presented by messages. PMID:26681816

  1. The Effects of Text Message Content on the Use of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention in Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Cai, Bo; Archer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text message content (generic vs. culturally tailored) on the login rate of an Internet physical activity program in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children. A convenience sample of 252 Hong Kong secondary school adolescents (51% female, 49% male; M age = 13.17 years, SD = 1.28 years) were assigned to one of 3 treatments for 8 weeks. The control group consisted of an Internet physical activity program. The Internet plus generic text message group consisted of the same Internet physical activity program and included daily generic text messages. The Internet plus culturally tailored text message group consisted of the Internet physical activity program and included daily culturally tailored text messages. Zero-inflated Poisson mixed models showed that the overall effect of the treatment group on the login rates varied significantly across individuals. The login rates over time were significantly higher in the Internet plus culturally tailored text message group than the control group (β = 46.06, 95% CI 13.60, 156.02; p = .002) and the Internet plus generic text message group (β = 15.80, 95% CI 4.81, 51.9; p = .021) after adjusting for covariates. These findings suggest that culturally tailored text messages may be more advantageous than generic text messages on improving adolescents' website login rate, but effects varied significantly across individuals. Our results support the inclusion of culturally tailored messaging in future online physical activity interventions.

  2. Creating a message for profit.

    PubMed

    Moser, M; Alpern, B B

    1985-01-01

    Advertising and marketing a medical group pose many problems and require detailed planning--but are well worth it. A medical group and an advertising agency chronicle their experience in forming a broad print communications program for the group, including the importance of knowing the target, setting a budget, and following up the program with market research.

  3. 33 CFR 110.196 - Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass, Tex. 110.196 Section 110.196 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.196 Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass,...

  4. 33 CFR 110.196 - Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass, Tex. 110.196 Section 110.196 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.196 Sabine Pass Channel, Sabine Pass,...

  5. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  6. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  7. A distributed program composition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical technique for creating distributed computer programs is investigated and a prototype implementation is described which serves as a testbed for the concepts. The type of programs under examination is restricted to those comprising relatively heavyweight parts that intercommunicate by passing messages of typed objects. Such programs are often presented visually as a directed graph with computer program parts as the nodes and communication channels as the edges. This class of programs, called parts-based programs, is not well supported by existing computer systems; much manual work is required to describe the program to the system, establish the communication paths, accommodate the heterogeneity of data types, and to locate the parts of the program on the various systems involved. The work described solves most of these problems by providing an interface for describing parts-based programs in this class in a way that closely models the way programmers think about them: using sketches of diagraphs. Program parts, the computational modes of the larger program system are categorized in libraries and are accessed with browsers. The process of programming has the programmer draw the program graph interactively. Heterogeneity is automatically accommodated by the insertion of type translators where necessary between the parts. Many decisions are necessary in the creation of a comprehensive tool for interactive creation of programs in this class. Possibilities are explored and the issues behind such decisions are presented. An approach to program composition is described, not a carefully implemented programming environment. However, a prototype implementation is described that can demonstrate the ideas presented.

  8. Understanding Messages in a Diagnostic Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciravegna, Fabio

    1995-01-01

    Introduces characteristics of the sublanguage found in diagnostic messages about automotive equipment failures and discusses a system for minimizing jargon. Proposes using general knowledge sources and evaluates levels of communication accuracy, robustness and efficiency. (AEF)

  9. Inoculating against reactance to persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Richards, Adam S; Banas, John A

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the possibility of decreasing psychological reactance to health campaigns through the use of inoculation messages. It was hypothesized that an inoculation message, which forewarned of the potential of subsequent reactance, would decrease participants' likelihood of reacting negatively to a freedom-threatening message aimed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Participants (N = 275) who were inoculated against potential reactance felt less threatened and experienced less reactance compared to those who did not read an inoculation message. Structural equation modeling showed that inoculation indirectly predicted lower intention to drink alcohol via the theorized mediated reactance process. This research suggests that it is possible to inoculate against self-generated cognitions that might otherwise lead toward negative health behaviors.

  10. Six-Message Electromechanical Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    A proposed electromechanical display system would be capable of presenting as many as six distinct messages. In the proposed system, each display element would include a cylinder having a regular hexagonal cross section.

  11. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Examines commonly held notions about writing negative messages and suggests that these notions could be improved by incorporating research in audience analysis and interpersonal communication. Argues that letter writing is not simply information transfer. (MS)

  12. Books about Teen Parents: Messages and Omissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joy B.; MacGillivray, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Examines narratives and novels written for young adults that deal with teenage pregnancy and parenting. Discusses eight common messages found in 17 such short stories and books, and notes three areas of significant silence. (SR)

  13. Send-side matching of data communications messages

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-06-17

    Send-side matching of data communications messages in a distributed computing system comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: issuing by a receiving node to source nodes a receive message that specifies receipt of a single message to be sent from any source node, the receive message including message matching information, a specification of a hardware-level mutual exclusion device, and an identification of a receive buffer; matching by two or more of the source nodes the receive message with pending send messages in the two or more source nodes; operating by one of the source nodes having a matching send message the mutual exclusion device, excluding messages from other source nodes with matching send messages and identifying to the receiving node the source node operating the mutual exclusion device; and sending to the receiving node from the source node operating the mutual exclusion device a matched pending message.

  14. Send-side matching of data communications messages

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-07-01

    Send-side matching of data communications messages includes a plurality of compute nodes organized for collective operations, including: issuing by a receiving node to source nodes a receive message that specifies receipt of a single message to be sent from any source node, the receive message including message matching information, a specification of a hardware-level mutual exclusion device, and an identification of a receive buffer; matching by two or more of the source nodes the receive message with pending send messages in the two or more source nodes; operating by one of the source nodes having a matching send message the mutual exclusion device, excluding messages from other source nodes with matching send messages and identifying to the receiving node the source node operating the mutual exclusion device; and sending to the receiving node from the source node operating the mutual exclusion device a matched pending message.

  15. Pass-transistor very large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K. (Inventor); Bhatia, Prakash R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Logic elements are provided that permit reductions in layout size and avoidance of hazards. Such logic elements may be included in libraries of logic cells. A logical function to be implemented by the logic element is decomposed about logical variables to identify factors corresponding to combinations of the logical variables and their complements. A pass transistor network is provided for implementing the pass network function in accordance with this decomposition. The pass transistor network includes ordered arrangements of pass transistors that correspond to the combinations of variables and complements resulting from the logical decomposition. The logic elements may act as selection circuits and be integrated with memory and buffer elements.

  16. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, M; Springston, S; Koontz, A; Aiken, A

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  17. Does administering a comprehensive examination affect pass rates on the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Marjorie H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether the administration of a comprehensive examination before graduation increases the percentage of students passing the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination. A t-test for independent means yielded a statistically significant difference between the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination pass rates of health information administration programs that administer a comprehensive examination and programs that do not administer a comprehensive examination. Programs with a high certification examination pass rate do not require a comprehensive examination when compared with those programs with a lower pass rate. It is concluded that health information administration faculty at the local level should perform program self-analysis to improve student progress toward achievement of learning outcomes and entry-level competencies.

  18. High prevalence of obesity among women who enrolled in HIV prevention trials in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: healthy diet and life style messages should be integrated into HIV prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Africa, poverty and the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis underscore the need for prevention efforts for obesity. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity in a cohort of South African women and discuss the implications for public health practices. Methods A total of 5,495 HIV-negative women from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa enrolled in three microbicide trials during the period of 2002–2008 were categorised as normal weight (body mass index (BMI: 18.6-<25), overweight (BMI: 25-<30) or obese (BMI: 30+). Incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia and gonorrhoea were also estimated and compared by BMI groups. Combined data was analysed using STATA 10.0. Results Approximately 70% of the sample population was classified as being overweight or obese. Older age and lack of education were determined to be significant predictors of obesity. Women who were 35 years or older were more than three times as likely to be overweight and more than 12 times as likely to be obese compared to the youngest group. The highest HIV and STI incidence rates were observed among those with BMI <25 kg/m2 (normal weight) compared to women with BMI more than 25 kg/m2 (8.1 and 19.8 per 100 person-year respectively, P<0.001, both). Conclusion Effective obesity prevention strategies are needed to re-formulate HIV prevention programmes by incorporating healthy diet and life style messages to target those who are at highest risk not just for HIV infection but also for non-communicable diseases. PMID:23432964

  19. SmartMom Text Messaging for Prenatal Education: A Qualitative Focus Group Study to Explore Canadian Women’s Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Sarah; Hui, Amber; Salmons, Vanessa; Solomon, Carolyn; Gemmell, Emily; Torabi, Nahal

    2017-01-01

    Background We engaged Canadian women in the development of a prenatal education program delivered via one-way text messaging called SmartMom. SmartMom is the first peer-reviewed, evidence-based mHealth program for prenatal education in Canada and the first to be endorsed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Objective To explore women’s preferences for a prenatal education program by text messaging. Methods We conducted a qualitative focus group study in three Canadian communities in the Northern Health Authority. Women completed a demographic questionnaire, participated in a guided discussion about their pregnancy information-seeking behavior, reviewed a printed copy of the SmartMom text messages, and then engaged in a moderated discussion about their perceptions of the usability of the SmartMom program. Open-ended questions explored women’s perceptions regarding the message content, acceptability of receiving information by text message, positive health behaviors they might engage in after receiving a message, modifiable program factors, and intention to use the program. Thematic analysis of transcribed audio recordings was undertaken and modifications were made to the SmartMom program based on these findings. Results A total of 40 women participated in seven focus groups in three rural northern communities. The vast majority had a mobile phone (39/40, 98%), used text messages “all the time” (28/40, 70%), and surfed the Internet on their phone (37/40, 93%). Participants perceived SmartMom to be highly acceptable and relevant. The text message modality reflected how participants currently sought pregnancy-related information and provided them with local information tailored to their gestational age, which they had not received through other pregnancy resources. Women recommended adding the opportunity to receive supplemental streams of messages tailored to their individual needs, for example, depression, pregnancy after previous

  20. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability... Sabine Pass Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. and Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced... construction at the existing Sabine Pass LNG terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The EA assesses...

  1. Framing Flames: The Structure of Argumentative Messages on the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the use of the strategic message structuring tactic known as framing. Analyzes 3,000 messages obtained from a diverse sampling of computer-mediated discussion groups and forums. Finds that a speaker's emotional involvement was significantly and curvilinearly related to two message framing devices (message dependency and coalition…

  2. Replacing the Message Service Component In an Integration Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    routine: add- eventO if (event->type == Message && event->tt~pattern 1= NULL) tt-pattern-register(event->tt~pattern); A..4 ToolTalk Message Pattern...Message Pattern Destruction A.5.1 routine: free- eventO if (event->type == Message && event->tt~pattern 1= NULL) tt-free (event->tt~pattern); A.6

  3. An Analysis of Normative Messages in Signs at Recreation Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Patricia L.; Cialdini, Robert B.; Bator, Renee J.; Rhoads, Kelton; Sagarin, Brad J.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of signs and messages at 42 recreation areas in California and Arizona focused on type of site, managing agency, density of message locales, sign attributes, and message content. The vast majority of messages presented behavioral commands and were negatively worded. This striking imbalance points to concerns in visitor…

  4. Gambling warning messages: The impact of winning and losing on message reception across a gambling session.

    PubMed

    Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Keating, Holly A; Meyers, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Gambling warning messages have been shown to lead to prevention and modification of risk-taking behaviors. Laboratory studies have shown messages can increase a player's knowledge about gambling specific risks, modify their gambling-related cognitive distortions, and even change play. In the present laboratory study, participants were randomly assigned to a winning or losing slot machine gambling experience where they either viewed periodic warning messages or not. It was hypothesized that those in the message conditions would place smaller bets, spend more time considering bets, and spend less time gambling than those in the control conditions. We also hypothesized participants would play differently across the contexts of winning or losing. The results showed those who received warning messages while winning made the fewest number of spins and did not speed up their bet rate over the course of play as much as those in other conditions. Players who received warning messages while losing decreased the size of their bets over the course of play compared to those who received messages while winning. Despite receiving warning messages, losing players did not decrease their number of spins or rate of betting. Winning or losing during slot machine play appears to have significant consequences on the impact of a warning message. Whereas a message to change gambling behavior may encourage a winning gambler to stop play, the same message for a losing player may lead to a small minimization in harm by helping them to decrease bet size, though not their rate of betting. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Computer Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    independent of the terminal front end, even if they are in the same physical machine. 2.2 User Programming Current mail systems within the ARPA...PMS through the network or through local connections to the PMS. By doing this, the secure users would have one point of contact with their network mail ...exists in the file system). Every DIR holds an AL named INBOX , the repository into which incoming messages are placed, like an IN-basket on one’s desk

  6. Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School (PASS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.; Hathaway, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project (PASS) Project was granted a one-year no cost extension for 2001-2002. In year three of the project, objectives and strategies were modified based on the previous year-end evaluation. The recommendations were incorporated and the program was replicated within most of the remaining elementary schools in Portsmouth, Virginia and continued in the four middle schools. The Portsmouth Atmospheric Science School Project is a partnership, which includes Norfolk State University, Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME), NASA Langley Research Center, and the City of Portsmouth, Virginia Public Schools. The project seeks to strengthen the knowledge of Portsmouth Public Schools students in the field of atmospheric sciences and enhance teacher awareness of hands on activities in the atmospheric sciences. The project specifically seeks to: 1) increase the interest and participation of elementary and middle school students in science and mathematics; 2) strengthen existing science programs; and 3) facilitate greater achievement in core subjects, which are necessary for math, science, and technical careers. Emphasis was placed on providing training activities, materials and resources for elementary students (grades 3 - 5) and middle school students (grades 6 - 8), and teachers through a CHROME club structure. The first year of the project focused on introducing elementary students to concepts and activities in atmospheric science. Year two of the project built on the first year's activities and utilizes advanced topics and activities appropriate for middle school students. During the third year of the project, in addition to the approaches used in years one and two, emphasis was placed on activities that enhanced the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL).

  7. 33 CFR 117.311 - New Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Pass. 117.311 Section 117.311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.311 New Pass. The drawspan for the State Road 789...

  8. Multifrequency, single pass free electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Szoke, Abraham; Prosnitz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    A method for simultaneous amplification of laser beams with a sequence of frequencies in a single pass, using a relativistic beam of electrons grouped in a sequence of energies corresponding to the sequence of laser beam frequencies. The method allows electrons to pass from one potential well or "bucket" to another adjacent bucket, thus increasing efficiency of trapping and energy conversion.

  9. 33 CFR 117.484 - Pass Manchac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pass Manchac. 117.484 Section 117.484 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.484 Pass Manchac. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.303 - Matlacha Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Matlacha Pass. 117.303 Section 117.303 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.303 Matlacha Pass. The draw of the...

  11. 33 CFR 117.487 - Pierre Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pierre Pass. 117.487 Section 117.487 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.487 Pierre Pass. The draw of the S70...

  12. Text Message-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: Findings From a Formative Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Linderoth, Catharina; Bendtsen, Marcus; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Background Drinking of alcohol among university students is a global phenomenon; heavy episodic drinking is accepted despite several potential negative consequences. There is emerging evidence that short message service (SMS) text messaging interventions are effective to promote behavior change among students. However, it is still unclear how effectiveness can be optimized through intervention design or how user interest and adherence can be maximized. Objective The objective of this study was to develop an SMS text message-based intervention targeting alcohol drinking among university students using formative research. Methods A formative research design was used including an iterative revision process based on input from end users and experts. Data were collected via seven focus groups with students and a panel evaluation involving students (n=15) and experts (n=5). Student participants were recruited from five universities in Sweden. A semistructured interview guide was used in the focus groups and included questions on alcohol culture, message content, and intervention format. The panel evaluation asked participants to rate to what degree preliminary messages were understandable, usable, and had a good tone on a scale from 1 (very low degree) to 4 (very high degree). Participants could also write their own comments for each message. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The SMS text messages and the intervention format were revised continuously in parallel with data collection. A behavior change technique (BCT) analysis was conducted on the final version of the program. Results Overall, students were positive toward the SMS text message intervention. Messages that were neutral, motivated, clear, and tangible engaged students. Students expressed that they preferred short, concise messages and confirmed that a 6-week intervention was an appropriate duration. However

  13. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  14. Scaffolding Collaborative Argumentation in Asynchronous Discussions with Message Constraints and Message Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Allan; Joung, Sunyoung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of message constraints and labels on collaborative argumentation in asynchronous online discussions. Thirty-eight undergraduate students in an introductory educational technology course were assigned to one of three groups. In one group, students posted specific types of messages using a prescribed set of message…

  15. Impact of Product Involvement, Message Format, and Receiver Sex on the Efficacy of Comparative Advertising Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the role and impact of receiver involvement in product class, comparative message format, and receiver sex on the relative effectiveness of comparative advertising messages. Indicates that females and males respond uniquely to comparative advertising, revealing consistent patterns regarding both circumstances and approaches. (SR)

  16. Can Messages Make a Difference? The Association between E-Mail Messages and Health Outcomes in Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jeanine Warisse; Robinson, James D.; Tian, Yan; Neustadtl, Alan; Angelus, Pam; Russell, Marie; Mun, Seong K.; Levine, Betty

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of social support messages on patient health outcomes. Forty-one American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian patients received a total of 618 e-mail messages from their healthcare provider (HCP). The e-mail messages were divided into 3,565 message units and coded for instances of emotional social…

  17. Promoting stair use: single versus multiple stair-riser messages.

    PubMed

    Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F

    2005-09-01

    Message banners attached to stair risers produced a significant increase in pedestrian stair use, exceeding effects previously reported for conventional posters. Multiple instances of the same message banner, however, were as effective as banners featuring different messages. Therefore, greater visibility, rather than message variety, appears to account for the superiority of the banner format. Our findings indicate the feasibility of simple stair-use promotion campaigns based around the repetition of a single message.

  18. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  19. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  20. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  1. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts.

  2. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  3. Development of macaronic Hindi-English ‘Hinglish’ text message content for a coronary heart disease secondary prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288

  4. Text message content preferences to improve buprenorphine maintenance treatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tofighi, Babak; Grossman, Ellie; Bereket, Sewit; D Lee, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated text message content preferences to support evidence-based treatment approaches for opioid use disorders, and none in primary care office-based buprenorphine treatment settings. This study assessed the acceptability and preferences for a tailored text message intervention in support of core office-based buprenorphine treatment medical management components (e.g., treatment adherence, encouraging abstinence, 12-step group participation, motivational interviewing, and patient-provider communication as needed). There were 97 patients enrolled in a safety net office-based buprenorphine treatment program who completed a 24-item survey instrument that consisted of multiple-choice responses, 7-point Likert-type scales, binomial "Yes/No" questions, and open-ended responses. The sample was predominately male (81%), had an average age of 46 years, and was diverse (64% ethnic/racial minorities); 56% lacked stable employment. Respondents were interested in receiving text message appointment reminders (90%), information pertaining to their buprenorphine treatment (76%), supportive content (70%), and messages to reduce the risk of relapse (88%). Participants preferred to receive relapse prevention text messages during all phases of treatment: immediately after induction into buprenorphine treatment (81%), a "few months" into treatment (57%), and after discontinuing buprenorphine treatment (72%). Respondents also expressed interest in text message content enhancing self-efficacy, social support, and frequent provider communication to facilitate unobserved "home" induction with buprenorphine. Older participants were significantly less receptive to receiving text message appointment reminders; however, they were as interested in receiving supportive, informational, and relapse prevention components compared to younger respondents. Implications for integrating a text message support system in office-based buprenorphine treatment are discussed.

  5. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate Hazardous Waste Passing Through Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    March 13, 2013. The EPA's OIG plans to start preliminary research to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPA’s programs in preventing and addressing contamination of surface water from hazardous wastes passing through publicly owned treatment works.

  6. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    PubMed

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models.

  7. Low Latency Messages on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Saltz, Joel

    1995-01-01

    This article describes many of the issues in developing an efficient interface for communication on distributed memory machines. Although the hardware component of message latency is less than 1 ws on many distributed memory machines, the software latency associated with sending and receiving typed messages is on the order of 50 μs. The reason for this imbalance is that the software interface does not match the hardware. By changing the interface to match the hardware more closely, applications with fine grained communication can be put on these machines. This article describes several tests performed and many of the issues involvedmore » in supporting low latency messages on distributed memory machines.« less

  8. Messages about physical attractiveness in animated cartoons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S

    2006-12-01

    Relying upon a content analysis of one specific type of medium to which young people are exposed beginning at an early age, on a regular basis, and for many years (i.e., animated cartoons), the present study examines what types of messages are provided about being physically unattractive, physically attractive, and ordinary-looking. This research concerns itself with identifying the characteristics that tend to be associated with being good-looking or unattractive, and then discussing the implications of the findings. Results indicate that many variables were found to differ based on cartoon characters' physical attractiveness, including gender, age, intelligence, body weight, emotional states experienced, prosocial behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and overall goodness/badness. Whenever differences were found, the overriding tendency was for cartoons to provide positive messages about being attractive and negative messages about being unattractive.

  9. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Jeremy E.; Faraj, Ahmad A.

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  10. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  11. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  12. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2010-02-01

    passing away of the following former members of the Board of Editors: Ravindra Sudan (1975 to 1984), Joe Di Marco (1984 to 1991) and Roy Bickerton (1975 to 1986). The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria Bergamini-Roedler, Katja Haslinger, Sophy Le Masurier, Yasmin McGlashan, Caroline Wilkinson, Sarah Ryder, Rachael Kriefman and Katie Gerrard for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings The January special edition delayed this editorial for a month. Nevertheless, I would like belatedly to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors the season's greetings and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2009.

  13. [The message from heroin overdoses].

    PubMed

    Pap, Ágota; Hegedűs, Katalin

    2015-03-01

    Drug use can be defined as a kind of self destruction, and it is directly linked to attitudes toward death and suicide occurring in a significant number of users of different narcotics. The aim of the authors was to look for the background of this relationship between drug and death and examine the origin, development, and motives behind heroin overdose based on an analysis of previous studies. It seems clear that pure heroin overdose increased gradually over the years. The fear of the police is the inhibitory factor of the overdose prevention and notification of emergency health care service. Signs of suicide could be the own home as the chosen location for heroin overdose and the presence of partners ("moment of death companion"). Interventions should include simple techniques such as first aid, naloxone administration, resuscitation, prevention of relapse of prisoners and social network extension involving maintenance programs.

  14. Development of targeted messages to promote smoking cessation among construction trade workers.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J R; Smock, N; Casey, C; Poor, T; Kreuter, M W; Evanoff, B A

    2015-02-01

    Blue-collar workers, particularly those in the construction trades, are more likely to smoke and have less success in quitting when compared with white-collar workers. Little is known about health communication strategies that might influence this priority population. This article describes our formative work to develop targeted messages to increase participation in an existing smoking cessation program among construction workers. Using an iterative and sequential mixed-methods approach, we explored the culture, health attitudes and smoking behaviors of unionized construction workers. We used focus group and survey data to inform message development, and applied audience segmentation methods to identify potential subgroups. Among 144 current smokers, 65% reported wanting to quit smoking in the next 6 months and only 15% had heard of a union-sponsored smoking cessation program, despite widespread advertising. We tested 12 message concepts and 26 images with the target audience to evaluate perceived relevance and effectiveness. Participants responded most favorably to messages and images that emphasized family and work, although responses varied by audience segments based on age and parental status. This study is an important step towards integrating the culture of a high-risk group into targeted messages to increase participation in smoking cessation activities.

  15. Development of targeted messages to promote smoking cessation among construction trade workers

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, J. R.; Smock, N.; Casey, C.; Poor, T.; Kreuter, M. W.; Evanoff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Blue-collar workers, particularly those in the construction trades, are more likely to smoke and have less success in quitting when compared with white-collar workers. Little is known about health communication strategies that might influence this priority population. This article describes our formative work to develop targeted messages to increase participation in an existing smoking cessation program among construction workers. Using an iterative and sequential mixed-methods approach, we explored the culture, health attitudes and smoking behaviors of unionized construction workers. We used focus group and survey data to inform message development, and applied audience segmentation methods to identify potential subgroups. Among 144 current smokers, 65% reported wanting to quit smoking in the next 6 months and only 15% had heard of a union-sponsored smoking cessation program, despite widespread advertising. We tested 12 message concepts and 26 images with the target audience to evaluate perceived relevance and effectiveness. Participants responded most favorably to messages and images that emphasized family and work, although responses varied by audience segments based on age and parental status. This study is an important step towards integrating the culture of a high-risk group into targeted messages to increase participation in smoking cessation activities. PMID:25231165

  16. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  17. Secure Web-Site Access with Tickets and Message-Dependent Digests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are various methods for restricting access to documents stored on a World Wide Web (WWW) site (a Web site), none of the widely used methods is completely suitable for restricting access to Web applications hosted on an otherwise publicly accessible Web site. A new technique, however, provides a mix of features well suited for restricting Web-site or Web-application access to authorized users, including the following: secure user authentication, tamper-resistant sessions, simple access to user state variables by server-side applications, and clean session terminations. This technique, called message-dependent digests with tickets, or MDDT, maintains secure user sessions by passing single-use nonces (tickets) and message-dependent digests of user credentials back and forth between client and server. Appendix 2 provides a working implementation of MDDT with PHP server-side code and JavaScript client-side code.

  18. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To... facilities for Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC and Sabine Pass LNG (Sabine Pass) in Cameron County, Louisiana... HRU, condensate storage, and metering facilities would be located within the existing Sabine Pass...

  19. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... and operate certain related facilities (Modification Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG...

  20. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  1. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 1, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  2. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 2, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  3. The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) Meeting: observations and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kigin, Colleen M; Rodgers, Mary M; Wolf, Steven L

    2010-11-01

    The construct of delivering high-quality and cost-effective health care is in flux, and the profession must strategically plan how to meet the needs of society. In 2006, the House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association passed a motion to convene a summit on "how physical therapists can meet current, evolving, and future societal health care needs." The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting on February 27-28, 2009, in Leesburg, Virginia, sent a clear message that for physical therapists to be effective and thrive in the health care environment of the future, a paradigm shift is required. During the PASS meeting, participants reframed our traditional focus on the physical therapist and the patient/client (consumer) to one in which physical therapists are an integral part of a collaborative, multidisciplinary health care team with the health care consumer as its focus. The PASS Steering Committee recognized that some of the opportunities that surfaced during the PASS meeting may be disruptive or may not be within the profession's present strategic or tactical plans. Thus, adopting a framework that helps to establish the need for change that is provocative and potentially disruptive to our present care delivery, yet prioritizes opportunities, is a critical and essential step. Each of us in the physical therapy profession must take on post-PASS roles and responsibilities to accomplish the systemic change that is so intimately intertwined with our destiny. This article offers a perspective of the dynamic dialogue and suggestions that emerged from the PASS event, providing further opportunities for discussion and action within our profession.

  4. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  5. Sending and searching for interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander L.

    2008-09-01

    There is a close interrelation between searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) and messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI). For example, the answers to the questions "Where to search" and "Where to send" are equivalent, in that both require an identical selection from the same target star lists. Similar considerations lead to a strategy of time synchronization between sending and searching. Both SETI and METI use large reflectors. The concept of "magic frequencies" may be applicable to both SETI and METI. Efforts to understand an alien civilization's interstellar messages (IMs), and efforts to compose our own IMs so they will be easily understood by unfamiliar extraterrestrials, are mutually complementary. Furthermore, the METI-question: "How can we benefit from sending IMs, if a response may come only thousands of years later?" begs an equivalent SETI-question: "How can we benefit from searching, if it is impossible now to perceive the motivations and feelings of those who may have sent messages in the distant past?" A joint consideration of the theoretical and the practical aspects of both sending and searching for IMs, in the framework of a unified, disciplined scientific approach, can be quite fruitful. We seek to resolve the cultural disconnect between those who advocate sending interstellar messages, and others who anathematize those who would transmit.

  6. Educational Messages in Tevfik Fikret's Poems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdal, Kelime

    2011-01-01

    Being in the education community for long years, Tevfik Fikret aims to educate children and teenagers with the works he has written while he is carrying out his profession. Knowing child's world very well, the poet gives messages which can be counted valid in today's education perception. Emphasizing the basic humanistic and moral values such as…

  7. Learning Messages Notification System to Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, M. Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    The work presents a new method to send educational messages in e-learning systems. The communication tools are one of the main characteristics of the virtual formative actions, in addition of the contents and the evaluation. The system must help to motivate the students, mainly those who do not leave the formative action and continue it until the…

  8. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    DOE PAGES

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residualsmore » contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.« less

  9. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residuals contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.

  10. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    PubMed

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  11. Message Integrity Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qleibo, Haider W.

    2009-01-01

    WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…

  12. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that textbook advice regarding buffers and negative messages is simplistic and frequently wrong, and analyses 22 job-refusal letters and their effectiveness. Claims that recent research on cognitive complexity and social perspective-taking suggests the need for more sophisticated audience analysis protocols for dealing with the negative…

  13. Type of Message and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John; Smith-Bandy, Kerry

    A study compared people's reactions to different types of assertions concerning social issues. For purposes of the study, assertion was defined as having three components: a reference to the issue itself, an attribute having evaluative implications and a verb phrase linking the issue with the attribute. Eight types of messages were composed…

  14. Sending Them a Message: Electronic Bulletin Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, James

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses similarities between the local bulletin board system (BBS) and the public library. Highlights include components of the small BBS (system operator, host computer, "messaging" software, auto-answer device, connection to one or more phone lines); uploading and downloading; notes from the board; and the role of the…

  15. Instant Messaging Reference: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    Compares a digital reference service that uses instant messaging with traditional, face-to-face reference based on experiences at the Southern Illinois University library. Addresses differences in reference questions asked, changes in the reference transaction, student expectations, bibliographic instruction, and librarian attitudes and procedures…

  16. Creating an Instant Messaging Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit; Calloway, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of library digital reference services focuses on the features of instant messaging reference systems and the in-house development of a system that incorporates them at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Summarizes and evaluates library chat system features and compares commercial software that is available. (Author/LRW)

  17. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... combines key findings from both the survey as well as other qualitative research. Findings from the summary... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... financial fraud as part of a consumer-facing anti-fraud campaign. This survey will follow...

  18. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  19. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  20. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  1. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  2. 47 CFR 2.401 - Distress messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Distress, Disaster, and Emergency Communications § 2.401 Distress messages. Each... aircraft in distress; shall cease all sending on frequencies which will interfere with hearing...

  3. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  4. Interactive source and message effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Siu, Wanda

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the influence of source and message frame on judgments of a public service announcement was examined. The participants in the experiment were 408 undergraduate students (126 men, 280 women, 2 unknown; M age=20.0, SD=2.5, range=18-23) of a Midwestern U.S. university. Message frame and source were manipulated in a between-subjects design. Two levels of the message frame were benefits of physical activity and costs of not engaging in regular physical activity; the source was a healthy or unhealthy individual. In the Healthy-source condition, "Kim Jones" set realistic goals for exercise and had a healthy lifestyle. Conversely, she was described as a sedentary individual who led an unhealthy lifestyle in the Sick-source condition. Results indicated that respondents in the conditions of gain frame-healthy source and cost frame-unhealthy source had more positive message judgment as compared to respondents in the conditions of gain frame-unhealthy source and cost frame-healthy source.

  5. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  6. Chaos pass filter: linear response of synchronized chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Steffen; Kestler, Johannes; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of the linear response. It is calculated numerically and, for some special cases, analytically. Depending on the model parameters this distribution has power law tails in the region of synchronization leading to diverging moments of distances. This is a consequence of multiplicative and additive noise in the corresponding linear equations due to chaos and external perturbations. The linear response can also be quantified by the bit error rate of a transmitted binary message which perturbs the synchronized system. The bit error rate is given by an integral over the distribution of distances and is calculated analytically and numerically. It displays a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the region of synchronization. For special cases the distribution of distances has a fractal structure leading to a devil's staircase for the bit error rate as a function of coupling strength. The response to small harmonic perturbations shows resonances related to coupling and feedback delay times. A bidirectionally coupled chain of three units can completely filter out the perturbation. Thus the second moment and the bit error rate become zero.

  7. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non

  8. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is

  9. A search for stars passing close to the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, J.; Preston, R. A.; Jones, D. L.; Weissman, P. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Latham, D. W.; Stefanik, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Hipparcos proper motion and parallax data are combined for nearby stars with ground-based radial velocity measurements in order to identify stars which may have passed, or will pass, close enough to the sun to perturb the Oort cloud. Close stellar encounters could deflect large numbers of comets into the inner solar system, with possible serious consequences for impact hazards on the earth. Only one star, Gliese 710 is found with a predicted closest approach of less than 0.5 pc, although several stars come within 1 pc during a 8.5 M year interval. In most cases, the uncertainty in closest approach distance is dominated by uncertainties in the barycenter motion of binary systems. A program to obtain new radial velocities for stars in the sample with no previously published values is underway.

  10. Experience with mixed MPI/threaded programming models

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M; Supinski, B R

    1999-04-01

    A shared memory cluster is a parallel computer that consists of multiple nodes connected through an interconnection network. Each node is a symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) unit in which multiple CPUs share uniform access to a pool of main memory. The SGI Origin 2000, Compaq (formerly DEC) AlphaServer Cluster, and recent IBM RS6000/SP systems are all variants of this architecture. The SGI Origin 2000 has hardware that allows tasks running on any processor to access any main memory location in the system, so all the memory in the nodes forms a single shared address space. This is called a nonuniform memory access (NUMA) architecture because it gives programs a single shared address space, but the access time to different memory locations varies. In the IBM and Compaq systems, each node's memory forms a separate address space, and tasks communicate between nodes by passing messages or using other explicit mechanisms. Many large parallel codes use standard MPI calls to exchange data between tasks in a parallel job, and this is a natural programming model for distributed memory architectures. On a shared memory architecture, message passing is unnecessary if the code is written to use multithreading: threads run in parallel on different processors, and they exchange data simply by reading and writing shared memory locations. Shared memory clusters combine architectural elements of both distributed memory and shared memory systems, and they support both message passing and multithreaded programming models. Application developers are now trying to determine which programming model is best for these machines. This paper presents initial results of a study aimed at answering that question. We interviewed developers representing nine scientific code groups at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All of these groups are attempting to optimize their codes to run on shared memory clusters, specifically the IBM and DEC platforms at LLNL. This paper will focus on ease

  11. Middleware for Processing Message Queues with Elasticity Support and Sequential Integrity of Asynchronous Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Teixeira, Eduardo; Patrícia Favacho de Araújo, Aletéia

    2015-10-01

    Elasticity in computing refers to dynamically adjusting the amount of allocated resources to process a distributed application. In order to achieve this, mechanisms are needed to avoid the phenomenon of the elasticity threshold detection moving constantly up or down. The existing work fails to deliver sequential integrity of asynchronous messages processing and the asymmetries of data distribution to achieve parallel consumption. This paper fills this gaps and proposes a middleware solution to dynamically analyze the flow of message queue, and a mechanism to increase the parallelized consumption based on the output behavior. An architecture for IOD (Increase On Demand) middleware is presented, with support for the increase and decrease of thread's to cope with the growth of message queues, using the technique of limit-based heuristics over a given period of time and grouping messages into sub-queues based on classification criteria.

  12. Symmetrical band-pass loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Grzegorz Piotr

    2001-12-01

    Loudspeaker systems are analyzed in a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation concerns loudspeaker systems, which are known as subwoofers or band-pass loudspeaker systems. Their advantages include: high- quality sound reproduction in the low-frequency range, small dimensions, small nonlinear distortions and the fact that they can be placed anywhere in a room or car. Band-pass loudspeaker systems are used widely in the so- called Home Theatre as well as to provide sound in cinema, theatre, concert, discotheque, opera, operetta, philharmonic and amphitheater halls, at open-air concerts, and so on. Various designs are mass-produced by a large number of manufacturers. The study covers an analysis of band-pass loudspeaker systems to which the frequency transformation, i.e. the reactance transformation, has been applied. Since this is a symmetrical transformation, amplitude frequency responses of the studied band-pass systems are also symmetrical (logarithmic scale of a frequency). As a result, the high-pass loudspeaker system design method, known as the Thiele-Small, Benson analysis, can be employed. The investigations include the formulation of band-pass system equations (fourth, sixth and eighth-order polynomials) and the subsequent derivation of relations for the calculation of system parameters. The obtained results enable the calculation of optimum designs for prescribed alignments, e.g. (Chebyshev) equal-ripple, (Butterworth) maximally flat, or quasi-maximally flat (QB). The analysis covers fourth, sixth and eighth-order symmetrical systems. Eighth-order systems have been divided into three kinds according to three ways of physical realization. The doctoral dissertation includes band-pass loudspeaker systems, which can be designed with active or passive filters or without the filter. Designed systems consist of a loudspeaker whose front of a diaphragm is loaded with a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an enclosure with a vent, which radiates sound outwards. The back is

  13. Assessing the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing to characterize fish community structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.; Pollock, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-pass backpack electrofishing data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing. A two-capture removal model was used to estimate, within 10 river basins across the United States, proportional fish species richness from one-pass electrofishing and probabilities of detection for individual fish species. Mean estimated species richness from first-pass sampling (ps1) ranged from 80.7% to 100% of estimated total species richness for each river basin, based on at least seven samples per basin. However, ps1 values for individual sites ranged from 40% to 100% of estimated total species richness. Additional species unique to the second pass were collected in 50.3% of the samples. Of these, cyprinids and centrarchids were collected most frequently. Proportional fish species richness estimated for the first pass increased significantly with decreasing stream width for 1 of the 10 river basins. When used to calculate probabilities of detection of individual fish species, the removal model failed 48% of the time because the number of individuals of a species was greater in the second pass than in the first pass. Single-pass backpack electrofishing data alone may make it difficult to determine whether characterized fish community structure data are real or spurious. The two-pass removal model can be used to assess the effectiveness of sampling species richness with a single electrofishing pass. However, the two-pass removal model may have limited utility to determine probabilities of detection of individual species and, thus, limit the ability to assess the effectiveness of single-pass sampling to characterize species relative abundances. Multiple-pass (at least three passes) backpack electrofishing at a large number of sites may not be cost-effective as part of a standardized sampling protocol for large-geographic-scale studies. However, multiple-pass

  14. User preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation intervention.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Heron, Kristin E; Jennings, Ernestine G; Magee, Joshua C; Morrow, Kathleen M

    2013-04-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants (N = 21, M age = 25.6 years, age range = 20-33 years) were current or recently quit smokers (M cigarettes/day = 12.8) who used text messaging. Participants completed questionnaires and participated in a 2-hour focus group. Focus groups were conducted using an a priori semistructured interview guide to promote discussion of the content and functionality of the intervention. Major themes from analysis of the focus groups included support for the acceptability of a text-based cessation program, suggestions for a more technologically broad-based program, and adjustments to the program structure. Participants recommended including social networking functions, user control of program output through an online profile, and text message features to promote interaction with the system. Interestingly, many participants suggested the program should begin on individuals' identified quit day, challenging the procedures used in most cessation programs, which begin by preparing participants for a future quit date. Overall, younger adult smokers appear to be interested in participating in a smoking cessation program that uses text messages and web-based elements. Qualitative feedback regarding the perceived optimal features and structure of a technology-based intervention challenged traditional methods of implementing smoking cessation interventions and will inform the development of future programs.

  15. Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2014-04-10

    12/11/2014 Message on House action received in Senate and at desk: House amendment to Senate bill. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. STS-135 Crew Tribute to the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-135 crew provided a recorded message as a tribute to Atlantis, the entire Space Shuttle Program and team. In the message, Ferguson spoke about the U.S. flag displayed behind them that was f...

  17. A comparison using APPL and PVM for a parallel implementation of an unstructured grid generation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Bockelie, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to parallelize the VGRIDSG unstructured surface grid generation program are described. The inherent parallel nature of the grid generation algorithm used in VGRIDSG was exploited on a cluster of Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D workstations using the message passing libraries Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) and Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM). Comparisons of speed up are presented for generating the surface grid of a unit cube and a Mach 3.0 High Speed Civil Transport. It was concluded that for this application, both APPL and PVM give approximately the same performance, however, APPL is easier to use.

  18. Skil: An imperative language with algorithmic skeletons for efficient distributed programming

    SciTech Connect

    Botorog, G.H.; Kuchen, H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present Skil, an imperative language enhanced with higher-order functions and currying, as well as with a polymorphic type system. The high level of Skil allows the integration of algorithmic skeletons, i.e. of higher-order functions representing parallel computation patterns. At the same time, the language can be efficiently implemented. After describing a series of skeletons which work with distributed arrays, we give two examples of parallel programs implemented on the basis of skeletons, namely shortest paths in graphs and Gaussian elimination. Runtime measurements show that we approach the efficiency of message-passing C up to a factor between 1 and 2.5.

  19. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  20. Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2014-01-14

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  1. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  2. Effects of Instant Messaging on School Performance in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students.

  3. 47 CFR 36.379 - Message processing expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Customer Operations Expenses § 36.379 Message processing expense. (a) This classification includes the... message tickets. (b) The expense assigned to this classification is divided into the subcategories...

  4. 47 CFR 36.379 - Message processing expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Customer Operations Expenses § 36.379 Message processing expense. (a) This classification includes the... message tickets. (b) The expense assigned to this classification is divided into the subcategories...

  5. 47 CFR 36.379 - Message processing expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Customer Operations Expenses § 36.379 Message processing expense. (a) This classification includes the... message tickets. (b) The expense assigned to this classification is divided into the subcategories...

  6. Improved multiple-pass Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kc, Utsav; Silver, Joel A.; Hovde, David C.; Varghese, Philip L.

    2011-08-01

    An improved Raman gain spectrometer for flame measurements of gas temperature and species concentrations is described. This instrument uses a multiple-pass optical cell to enhance the incident light intensity in the measurement volume. The Raman signal is 83 times larger than from a single pass, and the Raman signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in room-temperature air of 153 is an improvement over that from a single-pass cell by a factor of 9.3 when the cell is operated with 100 passes and the signal is integrated over 20 laser shots. The SNR improvement with the multipass cell is even higher for flame measurements at atmospheric pressure, because detector readout noise is more significant for single-pass measurements when the gas density is lower. Raman scattering is collected and dispersed in a spectrograph with a transmission grating and recorded with a fast gated CCD array detector to help eliminate flame interferences. The instrument is used to record spontaneous Raman spectra from N2, CO2, O2, and CO in a methane--air flame. Curve fits of the recorded Raman spectra to detailed simulations of nitrogen spectra are used to determine the flame temperature from the shapes of the spectral signatures and from the ratio of the total intensities of the Stokes and anti-Stokes signals. The temperatures measured are in good agreement with radiation-corrected thermocouple measurements for a range of equivalence ratios.

  7. 33 CFR 401.31 - Meeting and passing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meeting and passing. 401.31... passing. (a) The meeting and passing of vessels shall be governed by the Collision Regulations of Canada..., no vessel shall overtake and pass or attempt to overtake and pass another vessel— (1) In any...

  8. End-to-end Encryption for SMS Messages in the Health Care Domain.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Marko; Laitinen, Pertti

    2005-01-01

    The health care domain has a high level of expectation on security and privacy of patient information. The security, privacy, and confidentiality issues are consistent all over the domain. Technical development and increasing use of mobile phones has led us to a situation in which SMS messages are used in the electronic interactions between health care professionals and patients. We will show that it is possible to send, receive and store text messages securely with a mobile phone with no additional hardware required. More importantly we will show that it is possible to obtain a reliable user authentication in systems using text message communication. Programming language Java is used for realization of our goals. This paper describes the general application structure, while details for the technical implementation and encryption methods are described in the referenced articles. We also propose some crucial areas where the implementation of encrypted SMS can solve previous lack of security.

  9. Sex education and family planning messages in Greek school books.

    PubMed

    Frisiras, S; Lagiou, A; Sourtzi, P; Vidalaki, M

    1991-05-01

    The Greek Family Planning Association (GFPA) completed in march 1990 a 3-year effort to evaluate whether sex education was an integral part of the school curricula. It was reported by a representative of the Pedagogical Institute in the Ministry of Education and Religion that important efforts have been made. The findings were presented at the 2nd Sex Education and Health seminar in March, 1990. Greek primary schools have 1 teacher for all lessons; but specialists in various fields of the secondary school curricula. Primary school books have various references and pictures on human reproduction. Equality of the sexes socially and culturally is represented, as well as good health messages on nutrition and hygiene. Noticeably absent, however, is any reference to human sexuality, nude human body or sex organ pictures, or other non-traditional family models. Family planning and contraception are also missing; teacher training or special courses are needed. Secondary school books have clear but limited messages. For example, there is a whole page on the philosophy and aims of family planning, but parenthood is only presented in the context of traditional marriage without contraception. It is recommended that legislative support be engaged to insure that sex education programs are systematic, age-specific, and a continuous activity from the primary level. Another important role in the implementation and curriculum development of sex education is one played by teachers and health professionals, those in touch with young people. GFPA needs to compile basic guidelines for those teaching sex education.

  10. Experimental Investigation of By-pass Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Tapan; Lim, T. T.; Chattopadhyay, Manojit

    2000-11-01

    By-pass transition, a phenomenon often encountered in nature and engineering devices, is a complex flow instability caused by moving disturbances over bodies. To date this phenomenon is not fully explained. In the present research a controlled experiment is performed to show that the violent breakdown during by-pass transition is dominated by a two-dimensional mechanism and the resultant broadband energy spectrum of the corresponding turbulent flow is excited at the receptivity stage itself by the primary instability. The experiment is conducted in a water tunnel using dye visualisation technique, and the by-pass transition is created by controlled motion of captive vortices. In the presentation, apart from showing video images of the phenomenon, the similarity of the observed events with secondary instability and fully developed turbulent flows will be discussed.

  11. Over-under double-pass interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, R. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An over-under double pass interferometer in which the beamsplitter area and thickness can be reduced to conform only with optical flatness considerations was achieved by offsetting the optical center line of one cat's-eye retroreflector relative to the optical center line of the other in order that one split beam be folded into a plane distinct from the other folded split beam. The beamsplitter is made transparent in one area for a first folded beam to be passed to a mirror for doubling back and is made totally reflective in another area for the second folded beam to be reflected to a mirror for doubling back. The two beams thus doubled back are combined in the central, beamsplitting area of the beamsplitting and passed to a detector. This makes the beamsplitter insensitive to minimum thickness requirements and selection of material.

  12. Text Messaging as a Method for Health Ministry Leaders to Disseminate Cancer Information.

    PubMed

    Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M; Phillips, Janice M; Mohiuddin, M Omar

    2015-12-01

    Mobile phone-based interventions can play a significant role in decreasing health disparities by enhancing population and individual health. The purpose of this study was to explore health ministry leaders (HMLs) and congregation members' communication technology usage and to assess the acceptability of mobile technology for delivery of cancer information. Six focus groups were conducted in two urban African-American churches with trained HMLs (n=7) and congregation members (n=37) to determine mobile phone technology usage and identify barriers and facilitators to a mobile phone intervention. All participants were African-American, majority were female (80% of HMLs; 73% of congregation members), and the mean age was 54 (HMLs) and 41 (congregation members). All of the HMLs and 95% of congregation members indicated owning a mobile phone. All HMLs reported sending/receiving text messages, whereas of the congregation members, 85% sent and 91% received text messages. The facilitators of a text messaging system mentioned by participants included alternative form of communication, quick method for disseminating information, and accessibility. The overall main barriers reported by both groups to using mobile technology include receiving multiple messages, difficulty texting, and cost. Ways to overcome barriers were explored with participants, and education was the most proposed solution. The findings from this study indicate that HMLs and congregation members are interested in receiving text messages to promote healthy lifestyles and cancer awareness. These findings represent the first step in the development of a mobile phone-based program designed to enhance the work of health ministry leaders.

  13. The Message Reporting System in the ATLAS DAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprini, M.; Fedorko, I.; Kolos, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process communication is achieved using the CORBA technology. The design, architecture and the used technology of MRS are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Message First: Using Films to Power the Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gary H.

    2004-01-01

    Although students may aim for an oral presentation that is clearly organized, well supported, and effectively delivered, teachers recognize that the primary goal of a presentation is communication; that is, the message received should be as close as possible to the message sent. Tools of message transmission, such as PowerPoint, are just a means…

  15. Potential Nutrition Messages in Magazines Read by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzler, Ann A.; Grun, Ingolf

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed advertisements in magazines read by college students in nutrition class for hidden food and nutrition messages. Hidden messages for females could imply beauty through fashion products, beauty aids, and supplements but with nutrition slimming plan. Males may be receiving subtle message that food choices do not matter and that alcohol and…

  16. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.

    2010-01-01

    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  17. Children's Comprehension of Referential Communication: Decoding Ambiguous Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearison, David J.; Levey, Linda M.

    A sample of 90 children drawn from kindergarten, second grade, and fourth grade participated in a study of ability to decode ambiguous and unambiguous verbal messages. Subjects were read 12 message stems, each followed by a question pertaining to the contents of the stem. For half of the messages, the meaning of the questions was unambiguous; for…

  18. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  19. Content analysis of antismoking videos on YouTube: message sensation value, message appeals, and their relationships with viewer responses.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube's interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos' predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.

  20. Message passing for optimization and control of a power grid: model of a distribution system with redundancy.

    PubMed

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Decelle, Aurélien; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-10-01

    We use a power grid model with M generators and N consumption units to optimize the grid and its control. Each consumer demand is drawn from a predefined finite-size-support distribution, thus simulating the instantaneous load fluctuations. Each generator has a maximum power capability. A generator is not overloaded if the sum of the loads of consumers connected to a generator does not exceed its maximum production. In the standard grid each consumer is connected only to its designated generator, while we consider a more general organization of the grid allowing each consumer to select one generator depending on the load from a predefined consumer dependent and sufficiently small set of generators which can all serve the load. The model grid is interconnected in a graph with loops, drawn from an ensemble of random bipartite graphs, while each allowed configuration of loaded links represent a set of graph covering trees. Losses, the reactive character of the grid and the transmission-level connections between generators (and many other details relevant to realistic power grid) are ignored in this proof-of-principles study. We focus on the asymptotic limit, N-->infinity and N/M-->D=O(1)>1 , and we show that the interconnects allow significant expansion of the parameter domains for which the probability of a generator overload is asymptotically zero. Our construction explores the formal relation between the problem of grid optimization and the modern theory of sparse graphical models. We also design heuristic algorithms that achieve the asymptotically optimal selection of loaded links. We conclude discussing the ability of this approach to include other effects such as a more realistic modeling of the power grid and related optimization and control algorithms.

  1. Scaling and performance of a 3-D radiation hydrodynamics code on message-passing parallel computers: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J C; Norman, M

    1999-10-28

    This report details an investigation into the efficacy of two approaches to solving the radiation diffusion equation within a radiation hydrodynamic simulation. Because leading-edge scientific computing platforms have evolved from large single-node vector processors to parallel aggregates containing tens to thousands of individual CPU's, the ability of an algorithm to maintain high compute efficiency when distributed over a large array of nodes is critically important. The viability of an algorithm thus hinges upon the tripartite question of numerical accuracy, total time to solution, and parallel efficiency.

  2. Efficient, Narrow-Pass-Band Optical Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Stephen P.

    1996-01-01

    Optical filters with both narrow pass bands and high efficiencies fabricated to design specifications. Offer tremendous improvements in performance for number of optical (including infrared) systems. In fiber-optic and free-space communication systems, precise frequency discrimination afforded by narrow pass bands of filters provide higher channel capacities. In active and passive remote sensors like lidar and gas-filter-correlation radiometers, increased efficiencies afforded by filters enhance detection of small signals against large background noise. In addition, sizes, weights, and power requirements of many optical and infrared systems reduced by taking advantage of gains in signal-to-noise ratios delivered by filters.

  3. Act on travel passes, 11 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act provides that every Bulgarian citizen has a right to a travel pass in order freely to enter and leave the country, except for persons with state secrets, minors without parental approval, persons in the midst of legal proceedings or about to serve prison sentences, and persons with certain legal obligations that have not been fulfilled. The Act makes obtaining a pass easier by abolishing the requirement that persons wishing to leave the country prove that they have a certain amount of money for foreign currency. The offense of overstaying the authorized time of travel abroad has been reduced in seriousness and is henceforth punishable by fines set forth in the Act.

  4. House passes RCRA fix by wide margin

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-07

    The House of Representatives has passed a bill to prevent expensive, court-ordered tightening of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act`s (RCRA) land-disposal rules. The measure was initiated last March as part of the Clinton Administration`s {open_quotes}reinventing environmental regulation{close_quotes} initiative and was championed by House Republicans. It passed, 402 to 19, drawing overwhelming support from Democrats. CMA president and CEO Fred Webber hailed the bipartisan approach as the right way to legislate. {open_quotes}We hope this bill can serve as a model for Superfund and other pieces of unfinished business,{close_quotes} he says.

  5. Text messaging for addiction: a review.

    PubMed

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text-messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text-messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, four studies for reducing alcohol consumption, one pilot study in former methamphetamine (MA) users, and one study based on qualitative interviews with cannabis users. Abstinence outcome results in RCTs of smokers willing to make a quit attempt have been positive overall in the short term and as far out as at six and 12 months. Studies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption have been promising. More data are needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this approach for other substance use problems.

  6. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  7. Washington Commentary: Spinning the Message on NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2004-01-01

    This column is about a city with two tales--one of spin and the other of sputter. No matter who occupies the White House for the next four years, the past four have borne witness to some of the most ludicrous uses of taxpayer money ever, as the U.S. Department of Education (ED) has tried to spin its message on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) across…

  8. Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-21

    1 Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative ELAME MARSH, JUDIT FROMCIBZ RALPH GRISHMAN, 0 HENRY HAmBURGER AND JoAN RACHENKo (0 Naw~ COW fojr...such as date-time groups. 2 I IM II II NRL REPORT 883 P 162305Z AUG 82 FM USS XXXXXXXX TO RUCLBDA/COMINEGRU TWO RUCBSAAICOMNAVSURFLANT NORFOLK VA ...RUCBSAA/CINCLANTFLT NORFOLK VA RUENAAAICNO WASHINGTON DC RUEOALAINAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA RULSSAA/COMNAVSEASYSCOM WASHINGTON DC RULSSAA/CHNAVMAT WASHINGTON DC

  9. Overview of AMS (CCSDS Asynchronous Message Service)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Asynchronous Message Service (AMS). The topics include: 1) Key Features; 2) A single AMS continuum; 3) The AMS Protocol Suite; 4) A multi-continuum venture; 5) Constraining transmissions; 6) Security; 7) Fault Tolerance; 8) Performance of Reference Implementation; 9) AMS vs Multicast (1); 10) AMS vs Multicast (2); 11) RAMS testing exercise; and 12) Results.

  10. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced docket. Sabine... exportation of natural gas at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Import Terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  11. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... No. CP13-2 on August 2, 2013, in order to increase the total LNG production capacity of...

  12. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Golden Pass LNG Export Project and Golden Pass Export... operation of the Golden Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project and Golden Pass Export Pipeline Project, collectively called the Golden Pass LNG Export Project (Project) in Texas and Louisiana. The Project has...

  13. 75 FR 68347 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To... facilities by Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine... responsibilities. DOE proposes to authorize Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC to export liquefied natural gas...

  14. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... (Liquefaction Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  15. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, C. G.; Wiser, Ryan; Rai, Varun

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  16. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincar{acute e} sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser ({dot I}=0,{umlt I}{lt}0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system{close_quote}s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Message routing in HARTS with faulty components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Alan; Shin, Kang G.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to design a distributed system which is capable of delivering messages even in the presence of faulty components between their source and destination nodes. A routing scheme is developed in two steps for a wrapped hexagonal mesh, called HARTS (Hexagonal Architecture for Real-Time Systems), which assures the delivery of every message as long as there is a path between its source and destination. The proposed scheme can also detect the nonexistence of path between a pair of nodes in a finite amount of time. Moreover, the scheme requires each node in HARTS to know only the state (faulty or not) of each of its own links. The performance of the simple routing scheme is simulated for 3- and 5-dimensional H-meshes while varying the physical distribution of faulty components. It is shown that a shortest path between the source and destination of each message is taken with a high probability and a path, if it exists, is usually found very quickly.

  18. Low latency messages on distributed memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Saltz, Joel

    1993-01-01

    Many of the issues in developing an efficient interface for communication on distributed memory machines are described and a portable interface is proposed. Although the hardware component of message latency is less than one microsecond on many distributed memory machines, the software latency associated with sending and receiving typed messages is on the order of 50 microseconds. The reason for this imbalance is that the software interface does not match the hardware. By changing the interface to match the hardware more closely, applications with fine grained communication can be put on these machines. Based on several tests that were run on the iPSC/860, an interface that will better match current distributed memory machines is proposed. The model used in the proposed interface consists of a computation processor and a communication processor on each node. Communication between these processors and other nodes in the system is done through a buffered network. Information that is transmitted is either data or procedures to be executed on the remote processor. The dual processor system is better suited for efficiently handling asynchronous communications compared to a single processor system. The ability to send data or procedure is very flexible for minimizing message latency, based on the type of communication being performed. The test performed and the proposed interface are described.

  19. Leveraging messages and corporations: the Philippine experience.

    PubMed

    Rimon Jg

    1989-12-01

    A project using the entertainment media was developed to promote responsible sexual behavior of young people in the Philippines. Music videos by Lea Salonga and the group Menudo were used to sell the message of responsible sexual behavior and to encourage counseling for discussing and solving their problems. There were 2 parts: a commercial phase to make the songs hits with a social message, and an institutional phase to develop counseling centers and a telephone counseling service. The project was planned to use cost sharing with private corporations, and over $1.4 million was obtained from corporate sponsorship. Surveys after the project began showed that 92% of the young people heard the song and 90% like it. Over 51% stated that it had an impact on them, 44% talked to their parents about it, and 25% asked for contraceptive information. Of those surveyed, 83% said they were aware of the telephone counseling service offered. There were over 8,000 calls answered by the counselors. The lessons learned from this project were that the use of professionals and top materials can help gain corporate support and access to the media. By planning to use cost sharing and cost recovery methods, a challenge is presented to the staff to use creative approaches. The use of the right celebrities can aid visibility, credibility and excitement to the project. This approach can be a useful method to promote a social message and get the interest of the private sector.

  20. Strategies for lowering attrition rates and raising NCLEX-RN pass rates.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Bonnie

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to determine strategies to raise the NCLEX-RN pass rate and lower the attrition rate in a community college nursing program. Ex-post facto data were collected from 213 former nursing student records. Qualitative data were collected from 10 full-time faculty, 30 new graduates, and 45 directors of associate degree nursing programs in Texas. The findings linked the academic variables of two biology courses and three components of the preadmission test to completion of the nursing program. A relationship was found between one biology course, the science component of the preadmission test, the HESI Exit Examination score, and the nursing skills course to passing the NCLEX-RN. Qualitative data indicated preadmission requirements, campus counselors, remediation, faculty, test-item writing, and teaching method were instrumental in completion of the program and passing the NCLEX-RN.