Science.gov

Sample records for message passing programs

  1. Automated Performance Prediction of Message Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Mehra, Pankaj; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    As the trend toward massively parallel processing continues, the need for tools that can predict scalability trends becomes greater. While high level languages Eke HPF have come into greater use, explicit message-passing programs proliferate, and will probably do so for some time, thanks to the onslaught of standards such as MPI. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require a substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The YAPP ("Yet Another Performance Predictor") tool is an attempt to automate the formation of first-order expressions for completion time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. The content of this paper is as follows: First, we explore the implementation details of YAPP, and illustrate with examples some of the reasons that automatic prediction is difficult. In the following sections, we present the results of four applications, using execution traces on the Intel i860, analyze the error in YAPP's predictions, explain the limitations of our implementation, and mention possible future additions. In particular, we illustrate techniques used to identify pipeline communication patterns, and demonstrate how compiler analysis and regression are combined to automate the prediction process.

  2. Automated Performance Prediction of Message Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Mehra, Pankaj; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    As the trend toward massively parallel processing continues, the need for tools that can predict scalability trends becomes greater. While high level languages Eke HPF have come into greater use, explicit message-passing programs proliferate, and will probably do so for some time, thanks to the onslaught of standards such as MPI. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require a substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The YAPP ("Yet Another Performance Predictor") tool is an attempt to automate the formation of first-order expressions for completion time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. The content of this paper is as follows: First, we explore the implementation details of YAPP, and illustrate with examples some of the reasons that automatic prediction is difficult. In the following sections, we present the results of four applications, using execution traces on the Intel i860, analyze the error in YAPP's predictions, explain the limitations of our implementation, and mention possible future additions. In particular, we illustrate techniques used to identify pipeline communication patterns, and demonstrate how compiler analysis and regression are combined to automate the prediction process.

  3. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  4. Message passing in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Maccabe, A.B. |; Wheat, S.R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the message passing primitives provided by PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture). Message passing in PUMA is based on the concept of a portal--an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the memory associated with the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is not need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel. This simplifies the design of the kernel, increasing its reliability and portability. Moreover, because messages are mapped directly into the address space of the application process, the application can manage the messages that it receives without needing direct support from the kernel.

  5. Automated Scalability Analysis Tools for Message Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop scalable parallel applications, a number of programming decisions have to be made during the development of the program. Performance tools that help in making these decisions are few, if existent. Traditionally, performance tools have focused on exposing performance bottlenecks of small-scale executions of the program. However, it is common knowledge that programs that perform exceptionally well on small processor configurations, more often than not, perform poorly when executed on larger processor configurations. Hence, new tools that predict the execution characteristics of scaled-up programs are an essential part of an application developers toolkit. In this paper we discuss important issues that need to be considered in order to build useful scalability analysis tools for parallel programs. We introduce a simple tool that automatically extracts scalability characteristics of a class of deterministic parallel programs. We show with the help of a number of results on the Intel iPSC/860, that predictions are within reasonable bounds.

  6. Automated Performance Prediction of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Robert J.; Sarukkai, Sekhar; Mehra, Pankaj; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The increasing use of massively parallel supercomputers to solve large-scale scientific problems has generated a need for tools that can predict scalability trends of applications written for these machines. Much work has been done to create simple models that represent important characteristics of parallel programs, such as latency, network contention, and communication volume. But many of these methods still require substantial manual effort to represent an application in the model's format. The NIK toolkit described in this paper is the result of an on-going effort to automate the formation of analytic expressions of program execution time, with a minimum of programmer assistance. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, by extending previous work to detect and model communication patterns automatically, with and without overlapped computations. The predictions derived from these models agree, within reasonable limits, with execution times of programs measured on the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon. Further, we demonstrate the use of MK in selecting optimal computational grain size and studying various scalability metrics.

  7. Message Passing on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the challenges in implementing a message passing interface usable on systems with data-parallel processors, and more specifically GPUs. As a case study, we design and implement the ``DCGN'' API on NVIDIA GPUs that is similar to MPI and allows full access to the underlying architecture. We introduce the notion of data-parallel thread-groups as a way to map resources to MPI ranks. We use a method that also allows the data-parallel processors to run autonomously from user-written CPU code. In order to facilitate communication, we use a sleep-based polling system to store and retrieve messages. Unlike previous systems, our method provides both performance and flexibility. By running a test suite of applications with different communication requirements, we find that a tolerable amount of overhead is incurred, somewhere between one and five percent depending on the application, and indicate the locations where this overhead accumulates. We conclude that with innovations in chipsets and drivers, this overhead will be mitigated and provide similar performance to typical CPU-based MPI implementations while providing fully-dynamic communication.

  8. Hybrid Approximate Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Sundeep; Fletcher, Alyson K.; Goyal, Vivek K.; Byrne, Evan; Schniter, Philip

    2017-09-01

    The standard linear regression (SLR) problem is to recover a vector $\\mathbf{x}^0$ from noisy linear observations $\\mathbf{y}=\\mathbf{Ax}^0+\\mathbf{w}$. The approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm recently proposed by Donoho, Maleki, and Montanari is a computationally efficient iterative approach to SLR that has a remarkable property: for large i.i.d.\\ sub-Gaussian matrices $\\mathbf{A}$, its per-iteration behavior is rigorously characterized by a scalar state-evolution whose fixed points, when unique, are Bayes optimal. AMP, however, is fragile in that even small deviations from the i.i.d.\\ sub-Gaussian model can cause the algorithm to diverge. This paper considers a "vector AMP" (VAMP) algorithm and shows that VAMP has a rigorous scalar state-evolution that holds under a much broader class of large random matrices $\\mathbf{A}$: those that are right-rotationally invariant. After performing an initial singular value decomposition (SVD) of $\\mathbf{A}$, the per-iteration complexity of VAMP can be made similar to that of AMP. In addition, the fixed points of VAMP's state evolution are consistent with the replica prediction of the minimum mean-squared error recently derived by Tulino, Caire, Verd\\'u, and Shamai. The effectiveness and state evolution predictions of VAMP are confirmed in numerical experiments.

  9. Toward Automatic Scalability Analysis of Message Passing Programs: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Block, Robert; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Scalability analysis forms an important component of any performance debugging cycle, for massively parallel machines. However, tools that help in performing such analysis for parallel programs are non-existent. The primary reason for lack of such tools is the complexity involved in capturing program dynamics such as communication-computation overlap, communication latencies and memory hierarchy reference patterns. In this paper, we highlight some simple techniques that can be used to study scalability of explicit message-passing parallel programs that consider the above issues. We start from the high level source code and use a methodology for deducing communication characteristics and its impact on the total execution time of the program. The approach is validated with the help of a pipelined method for solving scalar tri-diagonal systems, using both simulations and symbolic cost models on the Intel hypercube.

  10. Incremental Parallelization of Non-Data-Parallel Programs Using the Charon Message-Passing Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2000-01-01

    Message passing is among the most popular techniques for parallelizing scientific programs on distributed-memory architectures. The reasons for its success are wide availability (MPI), efficiency, and full tuning control provided to the programmer. A major drawback, however, is that incremental parallelization, as offered by compiler directives, is not generally possible, because all data structures have to be changed throughout the program simultaneously. Charon remedies this situation through mappings between distributed and non-distributed data. It allows breaking up the parallelization into small steps, guaranteeing correctness at every stage. Several tools are available to help convert legacy codes into high-performance message-passing programs. They usually target data-parallel applications, whose loops carrying most of the work can be distributed among all processors without much dependency analysis. Others do a full dependency analysis and then convert the code virtually automatically. Even more toolkits are available that aid construction from scratch of message passing programs. None, however, allows piecemeal translation of codes with complex data dependencies (i.e. non-data-parallel programs) into message passing codes. The Charon library (available in both C and Fortran) provides incremental parallelization capabilities by linking legacy code arrays with distributed arrays. During the conversion process, non-distributed and distributed arrays exist side by side, and simple mapping functions allow the programmer to switch between the two in any location in the program. Charon also provides wrapper functions that leave the structure of the legacy code intact, but that allow execution on truly distributed data. Finally, the library provides a rich set of communication functions that support virtually all patterns of remote data demands in realistic structured grid scientific programs, including transposition, nearest-neighbor communication, pipelining

  11. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  12. Comparative Study of Message Passing and Shared Memory Parallel Programming Models in Neural Network Training

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.; Gordillo, J.; Cortina, L; Hanebutte, U.

    1999-12-14

    It is presented a comparative performance study of a coarse grained parallel neural network training code, implemented in both OpenMP and MPI, standards for shared memory and message passing parallel programming environments, respectively. In addition, these versions of the parallel training code are compared to an implementation utilizing SHMEM the native SGI/CRAY environment for shared memory programming. The multiprocessor platform used is a SGI/Cray Origin 2000 with up to 32 processors. It is shown that in this study, the native CRAY environment outperforms MPI for the entire range of processors used, while OpenMP shows better performance than the other two environments when using more than 19 processors. In this study, the efficiency is always greater than 60% regardless of the parallel programming environment used as well as of the number of processors.

  13. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  14. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  15. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  16. MPICH. Portable Implementation of the Standard Message Passing Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Doss, N.; Skjellum, A.

    1992-12-01

    MPICH is a portable implementation of the MPI Message Passing Interface standard. A general-purpose library, it contains routines with which to write message-passing programs for a variety of parallell computers and workstation networks.

  17. QMP: LQCD Message Passing API

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Chen; Robert Edwards; William Watson

    2003-03-01

    Recent changes are: (1) There is no longer a logical node number, only a node number which does not change as the logical machine is define. Thus there are two styles of messaging: messages are sent to a node by node number, or messages are sent to a relative (logical) node. (2) Methods related to node numbers have been changed (some dropped, some added). This note presents: (1) the requirements for message passing within Lattice QCD applications; (2) a draft message API for both C and C++; and (3) implementation design ideas. The API is intended to be sufficiently flexible to be used by all Lattice QCD applications, and execute efficiently on all existing and anticipated platforms, so that there is no need to directly call non-portable message passing routines. Because of the highly regular grid communications with LQCD, MPI calls (which are more general) impose some additional overhead that is predicted to be non-negligible for large machines. Depending upon demand, a subset of MPI could be implemented above this new API so that legacy codes which use MPI could function on the new architectures which implement (only) the new API. Further, the new API has been implemented atop MPI so that new applications using this new API can still be run on older machines for which only MPI is available. Interspersed with the API description are some descriptions for how the API could be implemented for myrinet clusters and the QCDOC machine. These are meant to more fully illustrate the functionality, and are not intended as the final design. At the time of writing, the following implementations exist: (1) QMP-GM -- Uses GM; (2) QMP-MPI -- Uses MPI; tested above MPICH-GM, MPICH-SM (shared memory), and MPICH-P4 (sockets).

  18. Efficient Tracing for On-the-Fly Space-Time Displays in a Debugger for Message Passing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robert; Matthews, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the implementation of a practical mechanism for collecting and displaying trace information in a debugger for message passing programs. We introduce a trace format that is highly compressible while still providing information adequate for debugging purposes. We make the mechanism convenient for users to access by incorporating the trace collection in a set of wrappers for the MPI (message passing interface) communication library. We implement several debugger operations that use the trace display: consistent stoplines, undo, and rollback. They all are implemented using controlled replay, which executes at full speed in target processes until the appropriate position in the computation is reached. They provide convenient mechanisms for getting to places in the execution where the full power of a state-based debugger can be brought to bear on isolating communication errors.

  19. Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    We propose novel compressive imaging algorithms that employ approximate message passing (AMP), which is an iterative signal estimation algorithm that...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing The views, opinions and/or findings...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 approximate message passing , compressive imaging, compressive sensing, hyperspectral imaging, signal reconstruction

  20. A Study on the Effect of Communication Performance on Message-Passing Parallel Programs: Methodology and Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Yan, Jerry; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    From a source-program perspective, the performance achieved on distributed/parallel systems is governed by the underlying message-passing library overhead and the network capabilities of the architecture. Studying the impact of changes in these features on the source-program. can have a significant influence in the development of next-generation system designs. In this paper we introduce a simple and robust tool that can be used for this purpose. This tool is based on event-driven simulation of programs that generates a new set of trace events - that preserves causality and partial order - corresponding to the expected execution of the program in the simulated environment. Trace events can be visualized and source-level profile information can be used to pin-point locations of program which are most significantly affected with changing system parameters in the simulated environment. We present a number of examples from the NAS benchmark suite, executed on the Intel Paragon and iPSC/860 that are used to identify and expose performance bottlenecks with varying system parameters. Specific aspects of the system that significantly effect these benchmarks are presented and discussed,

  1. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zdeborová, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2012-05-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers.

  2. Study of parallel efficiency in message passing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    1996-03-01

    A benchmark test using the Message Passing Interface (MPI, an emerging standard for writing message passing programs) has been developed, to study parallel performance in message passing environments. The test is comprised of a computational task of independent calculations followed by a round-robin data communication step. Performance data as a function of computational granularity and message passing requirements are presented for the IBM SPx at Argonne National Laboratory and for a cluster of quasi-dedicated SUN SPARC Station 20`s. In the later portion of the paper a widely accepted communication cost model combined with Amdahl`s law is used to obtain performance predictions for uneven distributed computational work loads.

  3. Active messages versus explicit message passing under SUNMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    In the past few years much effort has been devoted to finding faster and more convenient ways to exchange data between nodes of massively parallel distributed memory machines. One such approach, taken by Thorsten von Eicken et al. is called Active Messages. The idea is to hide message passing latency and continue to compute while data is being sent and delivered. The authors have implemented Active Messages under SUNMOS for the Intel Paragon and performed various experiments to determine their efficiency and utility. In this paper they concentrate on the subset of the Active Message layer that is used by the implementation of the Split-C library. They compare performance to explicit message passing under SUNMOS and explore new ways to support Split-C without Active Messages. They also compare the implementation to the original one on the Thinking Machines CM-5 and try to determine what the effects of low latency and low band-width versus high latency and high bandwidth are on user codes.

  4. Development of Message Passing Routines for High Performance Parallel Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Edward K.

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations require a great deal of computing power for completing the detailed computations involved. In an effort shorten the time it takes to complete such calculations they are implemented on a parallel computer. In the case of a parallel computer some sort of message passing structure must be used to communicate between the computers because, unlike a single machine, each computer in a parallel computing cluster does not have access to all the data or run all the parts of the total program. Thus, message passing is used to divide up the data and send instructions to each machine. The nature of my work this summer involves programming the "message passing" aspect of the parallel computer. I am working on modifying an existing program, which was written with OpenMP, and does not use a multi-machine parallel computing structure, to work with Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines. The actual code is being written in the FORTRAN 90 programming language. My goal is to write a parameterized message passing structure that could be used for a variety of individual applications and implement it on Silicon Graphics Incorporated s (SGI) IRIX operating system. With this new parameterized structure engineers would be able to speed up computations for a wide variety of purposes without having to use larger and more expensive computing equipment from another division or another NASA center.

  5. Development of Message Passing Routines for High Performance Parallel Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Edward K.

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations require a great deal of computing power for completing the detailed computations involved. In an effort shorten the time it takes to complete such calculations they are implemented on a parallel computer. In the case of a parallel computer some sort of message passing structure must be used to communicate between the computers because, unlike a single machine, each computer in a parallel computing cluster does not have access to all the data or run all the parts of the total program. Thus, message passing is used to divide up the data and send instructions to each machine. The nature of my work this summer involves programming the "message passing" aspect of the parallel computer. I am working on modifying an existing program, which was written with OpenMP, and does not use a multi-machine parallel computing structure, to work with Message Passing Interface (MPI) routines. The actual code is being written in the FORTRAN 90 programming language. My goal is to write a parameterized message passing structure that could be used for a variety of individual applications and implement it on Silicon Graphics Incorporated s (SGI) IRIX operating system. With this new parameterized structure engineers would be able to speed up computations for a wide variety of purposes without having to use larger and more expensive computing equipment from another division or another NASA center.

  6. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  7. Message-passing performance of various computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    This report compares the performance of different computer systems message passing. Latency and bandwidth are measured on Convex, Cray, IBM, Intel, KSR, Meiko, nCUBE, NEC, SGI, and TMC multiprocessors. Communication performance is contrasted with the computational power of each system. The comparison includes both shared a memory computers as well as networked workstation cluster.

  8. Extensible message passing application development and debugging with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.

    1996-09-19

    The authors describe how they have parallelized Python, an interpreted object oriented scripting language, and used it to build an extensible message-passing C/C++ applications for the CM-5, Cray T3D, and Sun multiprocessor servers running MPI. Using a parallelized Python interpreter, it is possible to interact with large-scale parallel applications, rapidly prototype new features, and perform application specific debugging. It is even possible to write message passing programs in Python itself. The authors describe some of the tools they have developed to extend Python and applications of this approach.

  9. MPF: A portable message passing facility for shared memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.; Mcguire, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The design, implementation, and performance evaluation of a message passing facility (MPF) for shared memory multiprocessors are presented. The MPF is based on a message passing model conceptually similar to conversations. Participants (parallel processors) can enter or leave a conversation at any time. The message passing primitives for this model are implemented as a portable library of C function calls. The MPF is currently operational on a Sequent Balance 21000, and several parallel applications were developed and tested. Several simple benchmark programs are presented to establish interprocess communication performance for common patterns of interprocess communication. Finally, performance figures are presented for two parallel applications, linear systems solution, and iterative solution of partial differential equations.

  10. Generalized communicators in the message passing interface

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselmman, C.; Snir, M.

    1996-12-31

    We propose extensions to the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that generalize the MPI communicator concept to allow multiple communication endpoints per process, dynamic creation of endpoints, and the transfer of endpoints between processes. The generalized communicator construct can be used to express a wide range of interesting communication structures, including collective communication operations involving multiple threads per process, communications between dynamically created threads, and object- oriented applications in which communications are directed to specific objects. Furthermore. this enriched functionality can be provided in a manner that preserves backward compatibility with MPI. We describe the proposed extensions, illustrate their use with examples, and discuss implementation issues.

  11. Gene-network inference by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Pagnani, A.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2008-01-01

    The inference of gene-regulatory processes from gene-expression data belongs to the major challenges of computational systems biology. Here we address the problem from a statistical-physics perspective and develop a message-passing algorithm which is able to infer sparse, directed and combinatorial regulatory mechanisms. Using the replica technique, the algorithmic performance can be characterized analytically for artificially generated data. The algorithm is applied to genome-wide expression data of baker's yeast under various environmental conditions. We find clear cases of combinatorial control, and enrichment in common functional annotations of regulated genes and their regulators.

  12. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  13. CT reconstruction via denoising approximate message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelli, Alessandro; Lexa, Michael A.; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we adapt and apply a compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm to the problem of computed tomography reconstruction for luggage inspection. Specifically, we propose a variant of the denoising generalized approximate message passing (D-GAMP) algorithm and compare its performance to the performance of traditional filtered back projection and to a penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) based reconstruction method. D-GAMP is an iterative algorithm that at each iteration estimates the conditional probability of the image given the measurements and employs a non-linear "denoising" function which implicitly imposes an image prior. Results on real baggage show that D-GAMP is well-suited to limited-view acquisitions.

  14. Message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Blech, R.A.; Quealy, A.; Cole, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  15. Tracking particles by passing messages between images

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Kroc, Lukas; Zdeborova, Lenka; Krakala, Florent; Vergassola, M

    2009-01-01

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on the simple criterion of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases because of the uncertainties on the trajectories that particles have followed during the acquisition time of the images. Here, we report efficient methods for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, also known in computer science, information theory and statistical physics under the name of Belief Propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant inter-machine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random-distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for its extensive range of applications.

  16. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOEpatents

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    In an embodiment, a send thread receives an identifier that identifies a destination node and a pointer to data. The send thread creates a first send request in response to the receipt of the identifier and the data pointer. The send thread selects a selected channel from among a plurality of channels. The selected channel comprises a selected hand-off queue and an identification of a selected message unit. Each of the channels identifies a different message unit. The selected hand-off queue is randomly accessible. If the selected hand-off queue contains an available entry, the send thread adds the first send request to the selected hand-off queue. If the selected hand-off queue does not contain an available entry, the send thread removes a second send request from the selected hand-off queue and sends the second send request to the selected message unit.

  17. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngarrt, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  18. Concurrent hypercube system with improved message passing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C. (Inventor); Tuazon, Jesus O. (Inventor); Lieberman, Don (Inventor); Pniel, Moshe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A network of microprocessors, or nodes, are interconnected in an n-dimensional cube having bidirectional communication links along the edges of the n-dimensional cube. Each node's processor network includes an I/O subprocessor dedicated to controlling communication of message packets along a bidirectional communication link with each end thereof terminating at an I/O controlled transceiver. Transmit data lines are directly connected from a local FIFO through each node's communication link transceiver. Status and control signals from the neighboring nodes are delivered over supervisory lines to inform the local node that the neighbor node's FIFO is empty and the bidirectional link between the two nodes is idle for data communication. A clocking line between neighbors, clocks a message into an empty FIFO at a neighbor's node and vica versa. Either neighbor may acquire control over the bidirectional communication link at any time, and thus each node has circuitry for checking whether or not the communication link is busy or idle, and whether or not the receive FIFO is empty. Likewise, each node can empty its own FIFO and in turn deliver a status signal to a neighboring node indicating that the local FIFO is empty. The system includes features of automatic message rerouting, block message transfer and automatic parity checking and generation.

  19. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael [Rochester, MN; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  20. Direct Deposit -- When Message Passing Meets Shared Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-19

    by H. Karl in [64]. The paper implements the pure DSM code, the pure message passing code and a few intermediate forms on the Charlotte DSM system [8...ASPLOS VI), pages 51–60, San Jose, October 1994. ACM. [64] H. Karl . Bridging the gap between distributed shared memory and message passing. Concurrency...pages 94 – 101, 1988. [73] P.N. Loewenstein and D.L. Dill. Verification of a multiprocessor cache protocol using simulation relations and higher-order

  1. Message passing with queues and channels

    DOEpatents

    Dozsa, Gabor J; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ratterman, Joseph D; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burkhard

    2013-02-19

    In an embodiment, a reception thread receives a source node identifier, a type, and a data pointer from an application and, in response, creates a receive request. If the source node identifier specifies a source node, the reception thread adds the receive request to a fast-post queue. If a message received from a network does not match a receive request on a posted queue, a polling thread adds a receive request that represents the message to an unexpected queue. If the fast-post queue contains the receive request, the polling thread removes the receive request from the fast-post queue. If the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue does not match the receive request on the unexpected queue, the polling thread adds the receive request that was removed from the fast-post queue to the posted queue. The reception thread and the polling thread execute asynchronously from each other.

  2. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Charon toolkit for piecemeal development of high-efficiency parallel programs for scientific computing is described. The portable toolkit, callable from C and Fortran, provides flexible domain decompositions and high-level distributed constructs for easy translation of serial legacy code or design to distributed environments. Gradual tuning can subsequently be applied to obtain high performance, possibly by using explicit message passing. Charon also features general structured communications that support stencil-based computations with complex recurrences. Through the separation of partitioning and distribution, the toolkit can also be used for blocking of uni-processor code, and for debugging of parallel algorithms on serial machines. An elaborate review of recent parallelization aids is presented to highlight the need for a toolkit like Charon. Some performance results of parallelizing the NAS Parallel Benchmark SP program using Charon are given, showing good scalability.

  3. MICA, a facility to achieve portability for message-passing and dynamic memory management in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.C.; Mirin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    MICA, which stands for Macro Interface for Communication and Allocation, is a macro facility for message passing and dynamic memory management for Fortran programs on Unix platforms. A combination of CPP and M4 preprocessing is used to provide the macro interface. CPP is used for conditional compilation according to machine architecture and selected memory management and message passing options. M4 is used for translating the macro calls into the appropriate Fortran code sequences. Several supporting Fortran subprograms are included.

  4. Concurrent Aggregates (CA): An Object-Oriented Language for Fine-Grained Message-Passing Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    MIMD computer. In IEEE Proceeding of the International Conference on Parallel Processing , pages 6-8. IEEE, 1978. [911 V. Strassen. Gaussian ... processing language message-passing massively parallel 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceee, and Identify by block nember) Fine-grained parallel...Parallel Programming, Object-oriented, Fine-grained, Parallel Processing , Language, Message-Passing, Massively Parallel. Concurrent Aggregates (CA): An

  5. A Message-Passing Algorithm for Wireless Network Scheduling *

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Huang, Fuzhuo; Lai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We consider scheduling in wireless networks and formulate it as Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem on a “conflict” graph that captures interference among simultaneous transmissions. We propose a novel, low-complexity, and fully distributed algorithm that yields high-quality feasible solutions. Our proposed algorithm consists of two phases, each of which requires only local information and is based on message-passing. The first phase solves a relaxation of the MWIS problem using a gradient projection method. The relaxation we consider is tighter than the simple linear programming relaxation and incorporates constraints on all cliques in the graph. The second phase of the algorithm starts from the solution of the relaxation and constructs a feasible solution to the MWIS problem. We show that our algorithm always outputs an optimal solution to the MWIS problem for perfect graphs. Simulation results compare our policies against Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and other alternatives and show excellent performance. PMID:26752942

  6. A Message-Passing Algorithm for Wireless Network Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Huang, Fuzhuo; Lai, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We consider scheduling in wireless networks and formulate it as Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem on a "conflict" graph that captures interference among simultaneous transmissions. We propose a novel, low-complexity, and fully distributed algorithm that yields high-quality feasible solutions. Our proposed algorithm consists of two phases, each of which requires only local information and is based on message-passing. The first phase solves a relaxation of the MWIS problem using a gradient projection method. The relaxation we consider is tighter than the simple linear programming relaxation and incorporates constraints on all cliques in the graph. The second phase of the algorithm starts from the solution of the relaxation and constructs a feasible solution to the MWIS problem. We show that our algorithm always outputs an optimal solution to the MWIS problem for perfect graphs. Simulation results compare our policies against Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and other alternatives and show excellent performance.

  7. Standards for message-passing in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main ideas presented at the First CRPC Work-shop on Standards for Message Passing in a Distributed Memory Environment, held April 29-30, 1992, in Williamsburg, Virginia. This workshop attracted 68 attendees including representative from major hardware and software vendors, and was the first in a series of workshops sponsored by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation. The aim of this series of workshops is to develop and implement a standard for message passing on distributed memory concurrent computers, thereby making it easier to develop efficient, portable application codes for such machines. The report discusses the main issues raised in the CRPC workshop, and describes proposed desirable features of a message passing standard for distributed memory environments.

  8. Efficiently passing messages in distributed spiking neural network simulation.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Corey M; Minkovich, Kirill; O'Brien, Michael J; Harris, Frederick C; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently passing spiking messages in a neural model is an important aspect of high-performance simulation. As the scale of networks has increased so has the size of the computing systems required to simulate them. In addition, the information exchange of these resources has become more of an impediment to performance. In this paper we explore spike message passing using different mechanisms provided by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A specific implementation, MVAPICH, designed for high-performance clusters with Infiniband hardware is employed. The focus is on providing information about these mechanisms for users of commodity high-performance spiking simulators. In addition, a novel hybrid method for spike exchange was implemented and benchmarked.

  9. Efficiently passing messages in distributed spiking neural network simulation

    PubMed Central

    Thibeault, Corey M.; Minkovich, Kirill; O'Brien, Michael J.; Harris, Frederick C.; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently passing spiking messages in a neural model is an important aspect of high-performance simulation. As the scale of networks has increased so has the size of the computing systems required to simulate them. In addition, the information exchange of these resources has become more of an impediment to performance. In this paper we explore spike message passing using different mechanisms provided by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A specific implementation, MVAPICH, designed for high-performance clusters with Infiniband hardware is employed. The focus is on providing information about these mechanisms for users of commodity high-performance spiking simulators. In addition, a novel hybrid method for spike exchange was implemented and benchmarked. PMID:23772213

  10. Physics/computer science. Passing messages between disciplines.

    PubMed

    Mézard, Marc

    2003-09-19

    Problems in computer science, such as error correction in information transfer and "satisfiability" in optimization, show phase transitions familiar from solid-state physics. In his Perspective, Mézard explains how recent advances in these three fields originate in similar "message passing" procedures. The exchange of elaborate messages between different variables and constraints, used in the study of phase transitions in physical systems, helps to make error correction and satisfiability codes more efficient.

  11. Message passing in fault-tolerant quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Zachary W. E.; Stephens, Ashley M.

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by Knill’s scheme for message passing error detection, here we develop a scheme for message passing error correction for the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor code. We show that for two levels of concatenated error correction, where classical information obtained at the first level is used to help interpret the syndrome at the second level, our scheme will correct all cases with four physical errors. This results in a reduction of the logical failure rate relative to conventional error correction by a factor proportional to the reciprocal of the physical error rate.

  12. Parallelization of a hydrological model using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Li, Tiejian; Sun, Liqun; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the natural processes, hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are becoming larger and more complex with increasing computation time. Additionally, other procedures such as model calibration, which may require thousands of model iterations, can increase running time and thus further reduce rapid modeling and analysis. Using the widely-applied SWAT as an example, this study demonstrates how to parallelize a serial hydrological model in a Windows® environment using a parallel programing technology—Message Passing Interface (MPI). With a case study, we derived the optimal values for the two parameters (the number of processes and the corresponding percentage of work to be distributed to the master process) of the parallel SWAT (P-SWAT) on an ordinary personal computer and a work station. Our study indicates that model execution time can be reduced by 42%–70% (or a speedup of 1.74–3.36) using multiple processes (two to five) with a proper task-distribution scheme (between the master and slave processes). Although the computation time cost becomes lower with an increasing number of processes (from two to five), this enhancement becomes less due to the accompanied increase in demand for message passing procedures between the master and all slave processes. Our case study demonstrates that the P-SWAT with a five-process run may reach the maximum speedup, and the performance can be quite stable (fairly independent of a project size). Overall, the P-SWAT can help reduce the computation time substantially for an individual model run, manual and automatic calibration procedures, and optimization of best management practices. In particular, the parallelization method we used and the scheme for deriving the optimal parameters in this study can be valuable and easily applied to other hydrological or environmental models.

  13. Asynchronous Message Passing in the JPL Flight System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The flight mission simulation software in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flight System Testbed (FST) is a heterogeneous, distributed system that is built on an interprocess communication model of asynchronous message passing rather than remote procedure calls (RPCs). The reasoning behind this design decision is discussed; the mechanism used to implement it (.

  14. Asynchronous Message Passing in the JPL Flight System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The flight mission simulation software in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flight System Testbed (FST) is a heterogeneous, distributed system that is built on an interprocess communication model of asynchronous message passing rather than remote procedure calls (RPCs). The reasoning behind this design decision is discussed; the mechanism used to implement it (.

  15. Statistics of Epidemics in Networks by Passing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Munik Kumar

    Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result

  16. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2017-07-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical-quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels.

  17. A test implementation of the MPI draft message-passing standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1992-12-01

    Message passing is a common method for programming parallel computers. The lack of a standard has significantly impeded the development of portable software libraries for these machines. Recently, an ad-hoc committee was formed to develop a standard for message-passing software for parallel computers. This group first met in April 1992 at a workshop sponsored in part by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC). Four of the attendees at that meeting produced a draft standard, henceforth referred to as the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) draft standard. After review by a larger group, and significant changes in the document, a meeting was held in November to discuss the MPI draft standard. This document is a result of those discussions; it describes a running implementation of in most of the proposed standard,plus additional routines that were suggested by the discussions at the November meeting.

  18. A test implementation of the MPI draft message-passing standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1992-12-01

    Message passing is a common method for programming parallel computers. The lack of a standard has significantly impeded the development of portable software libraries for these machines. Recently, an ad-hoc committee was formed to develop a standard for message-passing software for parallel computers. This group first met in April 1992 at a workshop sponsored in part by the Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC). Four of the attendees at that meeting produced a draft standard, henceforth referred to as the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) draft standard. After review by a larger group, and significant changes in the document, a meeting was held in November to discuss the MPI draft standard. This document is a result of those discussions; it describes a running implementation of in most of the proposed standard,plus additional routines that were suggested by the discussions at the November meeting.

  19. Charon Message-Passing Toolkit for Scientific Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Charon is a library, callable from C and Fortran, that aids the conversion of structured-grid legacy codes-such as those used in the numerical computation of fluid flows-into parallel, high- performance codes. Key are functions that define distributed arrays, that map between distributed and non-distributed arrays, and that allow easy specification of common communications on structured grids. The library is based on the widely accepted MPI message passing standard. We present an overview of the functionality of Charon, and some representative results.

  20. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  1. Approximate message passing with restricted Boltzmann machine priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramel, Eric W.; Drémeau, Angélique; Krzakala, Florent

    2016-07-01

    Approximate message passing (AMP) has been shown to be an excellent statistical approach to signal inference and compressed sensing problems. The AMP framework provides modularity in the choice of signal prior; here we propose a hierarchical form of the Gauss-Bernoulli prior which utilizes a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) trained on the signal support to push reconstruction performance beyond that of simple i.i.d. priors for signals whose support can be well represented by a trained binary RBM. We present and analyze two methods of RBM factorization and demonstrate how these affect signal reconstruction performance within our proposed algorithm. Finally, using the MNIST handwritten digit dataset, we show experimentally that using an RBM allows AMP to approach oracle-support performance.

  2. Passing Messages between Biological Networks to Refine Predicted Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kimberly; Huttenhower, Curtis; Quackenbush, John; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory network reconstruction is a fundamental problem in computational biology. There are significant limitations to such reconstruction using individual datasets, and increasingly people attempt to construct networks using multiple, independent datasets obtained from complementary sources, but methods for this integration are lacking. We developed PANDA (Passing Attributes between Networks for Data Assimilation), a message-passing model using multiple sources of information to predict regulatory relationships, and used it to integrate protein-protein interaction, gene expression, and sequence motif data to reconstruct genome-wide, condition-specific regulatory networks in yeast as a model. The resulting networks were not only more accurate than those produced using individual data sets and other existing methods, but they also captured information regarding specific biological mechanisms and pathways that were missed using other methodologies. PANDA is scalable to higher eukaryotes, applicable to specific tissue or cell type data and conceptually generalizable to include a variety of regulatory, interaction, expression, and other genome-scale data. An implementation of the PANDA algorithm is available at www.sourceforge.net/projects/panda-net. PMID:23741402

  3. Passing messages between biological networks to refine predicted interactions.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kimberly; Huttenhower, Curtis; Quackenbush, John; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory network reconstruction is a fundamental problem in computational biology. There are significant limitations to such reconstruction using individual datasets, and increasingly people attempt to construct networks using multiple, independent datasets obtained from complementary sources, but methods for this integration are lacking. We developed PANDA (Passing Attributes between Networks for Data Assimilation), a message-passing model using multiple sources of information to predict regulatory relationships, and used it to integrate protein-protein interaction, gene expression, and sequence motif data to reconstruct genome-wide, condition-specific regulatory networks in yeast as a model. The resulting networks were not only more accurate than those produced using individual data sets and other existing methods, but they also captured information regarding specific biological mechanisms and pathways that were missed using other methodologies. PANDA is scalable to higher eukaryotes, applicable to specific tissue or cell type data and conceptually generalizable to include a variety of regulatory, interaction, expression, and other genome-scale data. An implementation of the PANDA algorithm is available at www.sourceforge.net/projects/panda-net.

  4. A Fine-Grain, Message-Passing Processing Node,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    is 2Ons. Wormhole routing (71 [8] [19] is used to give an idle-network latency of 201)+80L ns, where D is the distance in channels and L is the message...The NDFs deliver a message using wormhole routing. Buffering com- presses the message when blockage occurs. to (4,2) is in use). The tail of the message

  5. A message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  6. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for message-passing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  7. Containing Epidemic Outbreaks by Message-Passing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Wakeling, J. R.; Zecchina, R.

    2014-04-01

    The problem of targeted network immunization can be defined as the one of finding a subset of nodes in a network to immunize or vaccinate in order to minimize a tradeoff between the cost of vaccination and the final (stationary) expected infection under a given epidemic model. Although computing the expected infection is a hard computational problem, simple and efficient mean-field approximations have been put forward in the literature in recent years. The optimization problem can be recast into a constrained one in which the constraints enforce local mean-field equations describing the average stationary state of the epidemic process. For a wide class of epidemic models, including the susceptible-infected-removed and the susceptible-infected-susceptible models, we define a message-passing approach to network immunization that allows us to study the statistical properties of epidemic outbreaks in the presence of immunized nodes as well as to find (nearly) optimal immunization sets for a given choice of parameters and costs. The algorithm scales linearly with the size of the graph, and it can be made efficient even on large networks. We compare its performance with topologically based heuristics, greedy methods, and simulated annealing on both random graphs and real-world networks.

  8. A proposal for a user-level, message passing interface in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Hempel, R. ); Hey, A.J.G. . Dept. of Electronics and Computer Science); Walker, D.W. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking, nonblocking, and synchronized message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited, and is a useful abstraction in controlling certain types of collective communication.

  9. A proposal for a user-level, message passing interface in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Hempel, R.; Hey, A.J.G.; Walker, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking, nonblocking, and synchronized message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited, and is a useful abstraction in controlling certain types of collective communication.

  10. A real-time MPEG software decoder using a portable message-passing library

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Man Kam; Tang, P.T. Peter; Lin, Biquan

    1995-12-31

    We present a real-time MPEG software decoder that uses message-passing libraries such as MPL, p4 and MPI. The parallel MPEG decoder currently runs on the IBM SP system but can be easil ported to other parallel machines. This paper discusses our parallel MPEG decoding algorithm as well as the parallel programming environment under which it uses. Several technical issues are discussed, including balancing of decoding speed, memory limitation, 1/0 capacities, and optimization of MPEG decoding components. This project shows that a real-time portable software MPEG decoder is feasible in a general-purpose parallel machine.

  11. Fine-Grain Message-Passing Concurrent Computers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    bisetion widths their channels are typically Wormhole Routing inrwr and dowe than the channels in a low-dimensional metwork. When these factors are...entire message is received before forwarding the packoet to the mic Cube (281). As -ay 2-cube with 16-bit wide channels next node. Uzing wormhole routing...gives a network laecy, has the same wiring complexity. With wormhole routing and Twjr, that as the sum of a component due to message lenigth 256-bit

  12. High-level message-passing constructs for Zipcode 1.0: Design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Falgout, R.D.; Still, C.H.; Skjellum, A.

    1993-10-01

    Zipcode is a message passing system that was initially designed for multicomputers and homogeneous networks of computers. This paper describes Zipcode ``invoices,`` which raise the message-passing interface of Zipcode to a higher level of abstraction. The ``gather-send`` and ``receive-scatter`` semantics enable heterogeneous communication. The higher level of abstraction also simplifies message passing and reveals more optimizations. We explain the utility of these features and give examples of the calling sequences that implement them. All of these features are seen as enablers for parallel library development and large applications.

  13. Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilotto, Concetta; White, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    We present a library of Prototype Verification System (PVS) meta-theories that verifies a class of distributed systems in which agent commu nication is through message-passing. The theoretic work, outlined in, consists of iterative schemes for solving systems of linear equations , such as message-passing extensions of the Gauss and Gauss-Seidel me thods. We briefly review that work and discuss the challenges in formally verifying it.

  14. Shared Memory versus Message Passing Architectures: An Application Based Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-09

    Driven Processor [3.9]. things are rapidly changing. Using specialized routing chips and the technique of wormhole routing [6]. the network latencies...between the two which force tradeoffs between the two architectures. The shared memory architecture considered in this paper has a single global...application programmer to control the degree of consistency explicitly. In this paper . we explore several such tradeoffs between shared-memory and message

  15. A grid-enabled MPI : message passing in heterogeneous distributed computing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Karonis, N. T.

    2000-11-30

    Application development for high-performance distributed computing systems, or computational grids as they are sometimes called, requires grid-enabled tools that hide mundate aspects of the heterogeneous grid environment without compromising performance. As part of an investigation of these issues, they have developed MPICH-G, a grid-enabled implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that allows a user to run MPI programs across multiple computers at different sites using the same commands that would be used on a parallel computer. This library extends the Argonne MPICH implementation of MPI to use services provided by the globus grid toolkit. In this paper, they describe the MPICH-G implementation and present preliminary performance results.

  16. Is Your Drug Program Sending Deadly Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1989-01-01

    Many drug education programs send a mixed and confusing message to students. Others are clearly wrong. Cites examples and advises administrators to conduct a critical review of all drug education programs. (MLF)

  17. A study of application sensitivity to variation in message passing latency and bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P.H.; Mackay, D.R.; Robinson, A.C.; Barragy, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    This study measures the effects of changes in message latency and bandwidth for production-level codes on a current generation tightly coupled MPP, the Intel Paragon. Messages are sent multiple times to study the application sensitivity to variations in band - width and latency. This method preserves the effects of contention on the interconnection network. Two applications are studied, PCTH, a shock physics code developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and PSTSWM, a spectral shallow water code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. These codes are significant in that PCTH is a {open_quote}full physics{close_quotes} application code in production use, while PSTSWM serves as a parallel algorithm test bed and benchmark for production codes used in atmospheric modeling. They are also significant in that the message-passing behavior differs significantly between the two codes, each representing an important class of scientific message-passing applications.

  18. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  19. Algorithms for parallel flow solvers on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to identify and test suitable technologies for implementation of fluid flow solvers -- possibly coupled with structures and heat equation solvers -- on MIMD parallel computers. In the course of this investigation much attention has been paid to efficient domain decomposition strategies for ADI-type algorithms. Multi-partitioning derives its efficiency from the assignment of several blocks of grid points to each processor in the parallel computer. A coarse-grain parallelism is obtained, and a near-perfect load balance results. In uni-partitioning every processor receives responsibility for exactly one block of grid points instead of several. This necessitates fine-grain pipelined program execution in order to obtain a reasonable load balance. Although fine-grain parallelism is less desirable on many systems, especially high-latency networks of workstations, uni-partition methods are still in wide use in production codes for flow problems. Consequently, it remains important to achieve good efficiency with this technique that has essentially been superseded by multi-partitioning for parallel ADI-type algorithms. Another reason for the concentration on improving the performance of pipeline methods is their applicability in other types of flow solver kernels with stronger implied data dependence. Analytical expressions can be derived for the size of the dynamic load imbalance incurred in traditional pipelines. From these it can be determined what is the optimal first-processor retardation that leads to the shortest total completion time for the pipeline process. Theoretical predictions of pipeline performance with and without optimization match experimental observations on the iPSC/860 very well. Analysis of pipeline performance also highlights the effect of uncareful grid partitioning in flow solvers that employ pipeline algorithms. If grid blocks at boundaries are not at least as large in the wall-normal direction as those

  20. QMP-MVIA: a message passing system for Linux clusters with gigabit Ethernet mesh connections

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Chen; W. Watson III; Robert Edwards; Weizhen Mao

    2004-09-01

    Recent progress in performance coupled with a decline in price for copper-based gigabit Ethernet (GigE) interconnects makes them an attractive alternative to expensive high speed network interconnects (NIC) when constructing Linux clusters. However traditional message passing systems based on TCP for GigE interconnects cannot fully utilize the raw performance of today's GigE interconnects due to the overhead of kernel involvement and multiple memory copies during sending and receiving messages. The overhead is more evident in the case of mesh connected Linux clusters using multiple GigE interconnects in a single host. We present a general message passing system called QMP-MVIA (QCD Message Passing over M-VIA) for Linux clusters with mesh connections using GigE interconnects. In particular, we evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of TCP and M-VIA (an implementation of the VIA specification) software for a mesh communication architecture to demonstrate the feasibility of using M-VIA as a point-to-point communication software, on which QMP-MVIA is based. Furthermore, we illustrate the design and implementation of QMP-MVIA for mesh connected Linux clusters with emphasis on both point-to-point and collective communications, and demonstrate that QMP-MVIA message passing system using GigE interconnects achieves bandwidth and latency that are not only better than systems based on TCP but also compare favorably to systems using some of the specialized high speed interconnects in a switched architecture at much lower cost.

  1. Educational Programs for By-Passed Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don A., Ed.

    The objective of the symposium from which this document resulted was to give visibility to some worthwhile programs for mobile and "by-passed" populations, in order to allow those in attendance at the symposium and those exposed to the published proceedings to capitalize on what has been learned through these programs. The conference report points…

  2. Smokefree Text Messaging Programs | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Smokefree.gov offers free text messaging programs that give 24/7 encouragement, advice, and tips for becoming smokefree and being healthier. Find the program that meets your needs. You can sign up or opt-out at any time.

  3. The Edge-Disjoint Path Problem on Random Graphs by Message-Passing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a message-passing algorithm to solve a series of edge-disjoint path problems on graphs based on the zero-temperature cavity equations. Edge-disjoint paths problems are important in the general context of routing, that can be defined by incorporating under a unique framework both traffic optimization and total path length minimization. The computation of the cavity equations can be performed efficiently by exploiting a mapping of a generalized edge-disjoint path problem on a star graph onto a weighted maximum matching problem. We perform extensive numerical simulations on random graphs of various types to test the performance both in terms of path length minimization and maximization of the number of accommodated paths. In addition, we test the performance on benchmark instances on various graphs by comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms and results found in the literature. Our message-passing algorithm always outperforms the others in terms of the number of accommodated paths when considering non trivial instances (otherwise it gives the same trivial results). Remarkably, the largest improvement in performance with respect to the other methods employed is found in the case of benchmarks with meshes, where the validity hypothesis behind message-passing is expected to worsen. In these cases, even though the exact message-passing equations do not converge, by introducing a reinforcement parameter to force convergence towards a sub optimal solution, we were able to always outperform the other algorithms with a peak of 27% performance improvement in terms of accommodated paths. On random graphs, we numerically observe two separated regimes: one in which all paths can be accommodated and one in which this is not possible. We also investigate the behavior of both the number of paths to be accommodated and their minimum total length. PMID:26710102

  4. The design of a standard message passing interface for distributed memory concurrent computers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of MPI, a proposed standard message passing interface for MIMD distributed memory concurrent computers. The design of MPI has been a collective effort involving researchers in the United States and Europe from many organizations and institutions. MPI includes point-to-point and collective communication routines, as well as support for process groups, communication contexts, and application topologies. While making use of new ideas where appropriate, the MPI standard is based largely on current practice.

  5. Cloud Middleware Combining the Functionalities of Message Passing and Scaling Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakushkin, O.

    2016-02-01

    The paper is focused on a solution providing middleware control over both message passing and scaling in a cloud environment. We provide a detailed analysis of the issue and present the restrictions particular to the load-balancing and communications systems. We also justify the need of such middleware development for a cloud infrastructure. The paper describes the problems emerged while working on a concrete project and presents the results obtained so far.

  6. Unsupervised feature learning from finite data by message passing: Discontinuous versus continuous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2016-12-01

    Unsupervised neural network learning extracts hidden features from unlabeled training data. This is used as a pretraining step for further supervised learning in deep networks. Hence, understanding unsupervised learning is of fundamental importance. Here, we study the unsupervised learning from a finite number of data, based on the restricted Boltzmann machine where only one hidden neuron is considered. Our study inspires an efficient message-passing algorithm to infer the hidden feature and estimate the entropy of candidate features consistent with the data. Our analysis reveals that the learning requires only a few data if the feature is salient and extensively many if the feature is weak. Moreover, the entropy of candidate features monotonically decreases with data size and becomes negative (i.e., entropy crisis) before the message passing becomes unstable, suggesting a discontinuous phase transition. In terms of convergence time of the message-passing algorithm, the unsupervised learning exhibits an easy-hard-easy phenomenon as the training data size increases. All these properties are reproduced in an approximate Hopfield model, with an exception that the entropy crisis is absent, and only continuous phase transition is observed. This key difference is also confirmed in a handwritten digits dataset. This study deepens our understanding of unsupervised learning from a finite number of data and may provide insights into its role in training deep networks.

  7. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  8. Monitors, messages, and clusters : the p4 parallel programming system.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. M.; Lusk, E. T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of North Florida

    1994-01-01

    p4 is a portable library of C and Fortran subroutines for programming parallel computers. It is the current version of a system that has been in use since 1984. It includes features for explicit parallel programming of shared-memory machines, distributed-memory machines (including heterogeneous networks of workstations), and clusters, by which we mean shared-memory multiprocessors communicating via message passing. We discuss here the design goals, history, and system architecture of p4 and describe briefly a diverse collection of applications that have demonstrated the utility of p4.

  9. The Physics After School Special (PASS) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James; Dunham, Hardin; Sauncy, Toni

    2012-10-01

    The Physics After School Special program, or PASS program, funded by the Marsh White award, was a collaborative enrichment program between Angelo State University's SPS chapter and the local YMCA. The overall goal of this program was to educate young children in physical concepts, educate through hands on activities, to build a mentor-mentee relationship between the children and our SPS volunteers, and to encourage interest in scientific fields. Originally planned to for second to fifth grade students the program was implemented with kindergarten to fourth grade students. This proved to challenge the curriculum but adjustments were made to become more suitable to the age group. We present the program specifics and share results of this outreach program.

  10. Implementation of a Message Passing Interface into a Cloud-Resolving Model for Massively Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Hann-Ming Henry; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zeng, Xi-Ping; Shie, Chung-Lin; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The capability for massively parallel programming (MPP) using a message passing interface (MPI) has been implemented into a three-dimensional version of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The design for the MPP with MPI uses the concept of maintaining similar code structure between the whole domain as well as the portions after decomposition. Hence the model follows the same integration for single and multiple tasks (CPUs). Also, it provides for minimal changes to the original code, so it is easily modified and/or managed by the model developers and users who have little knowledge of MPP. The entire model domain could be sliced into one- or two-dimensional decomposition with a halo regime, which is overlaid on partial domains. The halo regime requires that no data be fetched across tasks during the computational stage, but it must be updated before the next computational stage through data exchange via MPI. For reproducible purposes, transposing data among tasks is required for spectral transform (Fast Fourier Transform, FFT), which is used in the anelastic version of the model for solving the pressure equation. The performance of the MPI-implemented codes (i.e., the compressible and anelastic versions) was tested on three different computing platforms. The major results are: 1) both versions have speedups of about 99% up to 256 tasks but not for 512 tasks; 2) the anelastic version has better speedup and efficiency because it requires more computations than that of the compressible version; 3) equal or approximately-equal numbers of slices between the x- and y- directions provide the fastest integration due to fewer data exchanges; and 4) one-dimensional slices in the x-direction result in the slowest integration due to the need for more memory relocation for computation.

  11. The Portals 3.0 Message Passing Interface Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGHTWELL,RONALD B.; HUDSON,TRAMMELL B.; RIESEN,ROLF E.; MACCABE,ARTHUR B.

    1999-12-01

    This report presents a specification for the Portals 3.0 message passing interface. Portals 3.0 is intended to allow scalable, high-performance network communication between nodes of a parallel computing system. Specifically, it is designed to support a parallel computing platform composed of clusters of commodity workstations connected by a commodity system area network fabric. In addition, Portals 3.0 is well suited to massively parallel processing and embedded systems. Portals 3.0 represents an adoption of the data movement layer developed for massively parallel processing platforms, such as the 4500-node Intel TeraFLOPS machine.

  12. Inferring the origin of an epidemic with a dynamic message-passing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhov, Andrey Y.; Mézard, Marc; Ohta, Hiroki; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-07-01

    We study the problem of estimating the origin of an epidemic outbreak: given a contact network and a snapshot of epidemic spread at a certain time, determine the infection source. This problem is important in different contexts of computer or social networks. Assuming that the epidemic spread follows the usual susceptible-infected-recovered model, we introduce an inference algorithm based on dynamic message-passing equations and we show that it leads to significant improvement of performance compared to existing approaches. Importantly, this algorithm remains efficient in the case where the snapshot sees only a part of the network.

  13. ERIK: An Expert Ship Message Interpreter New Mechanisms For Flexible Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, J.

    1985-04-01

    ERIK (Evaluating Reports using Integrated Knowledge) is a working system that was developed for the U.S. Coast Guard to parse ship messages. ERIK is capable of parsing at an impressive rate of 1000 to 2000 messages per day, sent from merchant vessels in all parts of the world. Since these reports contain vital information it is important that the system can parse and correct them quickly and accurately, and furthermore know when it has failed to do so. This paper will focus on the following three algorithms: The IntaaLatad spaliaL/ReqQanizeL integrates the tasks of recognizing items on the input stream and spelling correction. Traditionally these tasks were separated, with items that could not be recognized passed on to a separate speller. We will describe the process that allows fast expectation-based spelling correction and recognition in one unit. The InteLRLatara is a general control structure that allows parsing of the various fields even when the reports fail to follow a fixed format, contains various types of ambiguities (both structurely and conceptually) and can handle the intrusion of noisy and irrelevant information. Changing Contaxta without laking has the ability to recover from wrong assumptions due to erroneous information and correct the previously parsed structures without the need to reparse what has already been processed. These three algorithms provided the core of the ERIK system allowing it to accurately parse and correct ship messages with confidence in a real time, real world situation.

  14. Mean-field message-passing equations in the Hopfield model and its generalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mézard, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by recent progress in using restricted Boltzmann machines as preprocessing algorithms for deep neural network, we revisit the mean-field equations [belief-propagation and Thouless-Anderson Palmer (TAP) equations] in the best understood of such machines, namely the Hopfield model of neural networks, and we explicit how they can be used as iterative message-passing algorithms, providing a fast method to compute the local polarizations of neurons. In the "retrieval phase", where neurons polarize in the direction of one memorized pattern, we point out a major difference between the belief propagation and TAP equations: The set of belief propagation equations depends on the pattern which is retrieved, while one can use a unique set of TAP equations. This makes the latter method much better suited for applications in the learning process of restricted Boltzmann machines. In the case where the patterns memorized in the Hopfield model are not independent, but are correlated through a combinatorial structure, we show that the TAP equations have to be modified. This modification can be seen either as an alteration of the reaction term in TAP equations or, more interestingly, as the consequence of message passing on a graphical model with several hidden layers, where the number of hidden layers depends on the depth of the correlations in the memorized patterns. This layered structure is actually necessary when one deals with more general restricted Boltzmann machines.

  15. Multi-partitioning for ADI-schemes on message passing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwijngaart, Rob F.

    1994-01-01

    A kind of discrete-operator splitting called Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) has been found to be useful in simulating fluid flow problems. In particular, it is being used to study the effects of hot exhaust jets from high performance aircraft on landing surfaces. Decomposition techniques that minimize load imbalance and message-passing frequency are described. Three strategies that are investigated for implementing the NAS Scalar Penta-diagonal Parallel Benchmark (SP) are transposition, pipelined Gaussian elimination, and multipartitioning. The multipartitioning strategy, which was used on Ethernet, was found to be the most efficient, although it was considered only a moderate success because of Ethernet's limited communication properties. The efficiency derived largely from the coarse granularity of the strategy, which reduced latencies and allowed overlap of communication and computation.

  16. Parallelization of the TRIGRS model for rainfall-induced landslides using the message passing interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvioli, M.; Baum, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a parallel implementation of TRIGRS, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability Model for the timing and distribution of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. We have parallelized the four time-demanding execution modes of TRIGRS, namely both the saturated and unsaturated model with finite and infinite soil depth options, within the Message Passing Interface framework. In addition to new features of the code, we outline details of the parallel implementation and show the performance gain with respect to the serial code. Results are obtained both on commercial hardware and on a high-performance multi-node machine, showing the different limits of applicability of the new code. We also discuss the implications for the application of the model on large-scale areas and as a tool for real-time landslide hazard monitoring.

  17. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zdeborova, Lenka; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  18. How My Program Passed the Turing Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrys, Mark

    In 1989, the author put an ELIZA-like chatbot on the Internet. The conversations this program had can be seen - depending on how one defines the rules (and how seriously one takes the idea of the test itself) - as a passing of the Turing Test. This is the first time this event has been properly written. This chatbot succeeded due to profanity, relentless aggression, prurient queries about the user, and implying that they were a liar when they responded. The element of surprise was also crucial. Most chatbots exist in an environment where people expectto find some bots among the humans. Not this one. What was also novel was the onlineelement. This was certainly one of the first AI programs online. It seems to have been the first (a) AI real-time chat program, which (b) had the element of surprise, and (c) was on the Internet. We conclude with some speculation that the future of all of AI is on the Internet, and a description of the "World- Wide-Mind" project that aims to bring this about.

  19. Effective Compiler Error Message Enhancement for Novice Programming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Brett A.; Glanville, Graham; Iwashima, Ricardo; McDonnell, Claire; Goslin, Kyle; Mooney, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Programming is an essential skill that many computing students are expected to master. However, programming can be difficult to learn. Successfully interpreting compiler error messages (CEMs) is crucial for correcting errors and progressing toward success in programming. Yet these messages are often difficult to understand and pose a barrier to…

  20. Effective Compiler Error Message Enhancement for Novice Programming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Brett A.; Glanville, Graham; Iwashima, Ricardo; McDonnell, Claire; Goslin, Kyle; Mooney, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Programming is an essential skill that many computing students are expected to master. However, programming can be difficult to learn. Successfully interpreting compiler error messages (CEMs) is crucial for correcting errors and progressing toward success in programming. Yet these messages are often difficult to understand and pose a barrier to…

  1. Supporting the Development of Soft-Error Resilient Message Passing Applications using Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Naughton III, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bit flip faults are of particular concern in extreme-scale high-performance computing systems. This paper presents a simulation-based tool that enables the development of soft-error resilient message passing applications by permitting the investigation of their correctness and performance under various fault conditions. The documented extensions to the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) enable the injection of bit flip faults at specific of injection location(s) and fault activation time(s), while supporting a significant degree of configurability of the fault type. Experiments show that the simulation overhead with the new feature is ~2,325% for serial execution and ~1,730% at 128 MPI processes, both with very fine-grain fault injection. Fault injection experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the new feature by injecting bit flips in the input and output matrices of a matrix-matrix multiply application, revealing vulnerability of data structures, masking and error propagation. xSim is the very first simulation-based MPI performance tool that supports both, the injection of process failures and bit flip faults.

  2. Two-Dimensional Pattern-Coupled Sparse Bayesian Learning via Generalized Approximate Message Passing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Zhang, Lizao; Li, Hohgbin

    2016-04-20

    We consider the problem of recovering twodimensional (2-D) block-sparse signals with unknown cluster patterns. Two-dimensional block-sparse patterns arise naturally in many practical applications such as foreground detection and inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging. To exploit the underlying block-sparse structure, we propose a 2-D pattern-coupled hierarchical Gaussian prior model. The proposed pattern-coupled hierarchical Gaussian prior model imposes a soft coupling mechanism among neighboring coefficients through their shared hyperparameters. This coupling mechanism enables effective and automatic learning of the underlying irregular cluster patterns, without requiring any a priori knowledge of the block partition of sparse signals. We develop a computationally efficient Bayesian inference method which integrates the generalized approximate message passing (GAMP) technique with the proposed prior model. Simulation results show that the proposed method offers competitive recovery performance for a range of 2-D sparse signal recovery and image processing applications over existing method, meanwhile achieving a significant reduction in computational complexity.

  3. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    DOE PAGES

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of eithermore » message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.« less

  4. Streaming data analytics via message passing with application to graph algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Shead, Tim

    2014-05-06

    The need to process streaming data, which arrives continuously at high-volume in real-time, arises in a variety of contexts including data produced by experiments, collections of environmental or network sensors, and running simulations. Streaming data can also be formulated as queries or transactions which operate on a large dynamic data store, e.g. a distributed database. We describe a lightweight, portable framework named PHISH which enables a set of independent processes to compute on a stream of data in a distributed-memory parallel manner. Datums are routed between processes in patterns defined by the application. PHISH can run on top of either message-passing via MPI or sockets via ZMQ. The former means streaming computations can be run on any parallel machine which supports MPI; the latter allows them to run on a heterogeneous, geographically dispersed network of machines. We illustrate how PHISH can support streaming MapReduce operations, and describe streaming versions of three algorithms for large, sparse graph analytics: triangle enumeration, subgraph isomorphism matching, and connected component finding. Lastly, we also provide benchmark timings for MPI versus socket performance of several kernel operations useful in streaming algorithms.

  5. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. PMID:26236773

  6. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  7. Message passing interface and multithreading hybrid for parallel molecular docking of large databases on petascale high performance computing machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-04-30

    A mixed parallel scheme that combines message passing interface (MPI) and multithreading was implemented in the AutoDock Vina molecular docking program. The resulting program, named VinaLC, was tested on the petascale high performance computing (HPC) machines at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. To exploit the typical cluster-type supercomputers, thousands of docking calculations were dispatched by the master process to run simultaneously on thousands of slave processes, where each docking calculation takes one slave process on one node, and within the node each docking calculation runs via multithreading on multiple CPU cores and shared memory. Input and output of the program and the data handling within the program were carefully designed to deal with large databases and ultimately achieve HPC on a large number of CPU cores. Parallel performance analysis of the VinaLC program shows that the code scales up to more than 15K CPUs with a very low overhead cost of 3.94%. One million flexible compound docking calculations took only 1.4 h to finish on about 15K CPUs. The docking accuracy of VinaLC has been validated against the DUD data set by the re-docking of X-ray ligands and an enrichment study, 64.4% of the top scoring poses have RMSD values under 2.0 Å. The program has been demonstrated to have good enrichment performance on 70% of the targets in the DUD data set. An analysis of the enrichment factors calculated at various percentages of the screening database indicates VinaLC has very good early recovery of actives.

  8. Constrained low-rank matrix estimation: phase transitions, approximate message passing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesieur, Thibault; Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2017-07-01

    This article is an extended version of previous work of Lesieur et al (2015 IEEE Int. Symp. on Information Theory Proc. pp 1635-9 and 2015 53rd Annual Allerton Conf. on Communication, Control and Computing (IEEE) pp 680-7) on low-rank matrix estimation in the presence of constraints on the factors into which the matrix is factorized. Low-rank matrix factorization is one of the basic methods used in data analysis for unsupervised learning of relevant features and other types of dimensionality reduction. We present a framework to study the constrained low-rank matrix estimation for a general prior on the factors, and a general output channel through which the matrix is observed. We draw a parallel with the study of vector-spin glass models—presenting a unifying way to study a number of problems considered previously in separate statistical physics works. We present a number of applications for the problem in data analysis. We derive in detail a general form of the low-rank approximate message passing (Low-RAMP) algorithm, that is known in statistical physics as the TAP equations. We thus unify the derivation of the TAP equations for models as different as the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, the restricted Boltzmann machine, the Hopfield model or vector (xy, Heisenberg and other) spin glasses. The state evolution of the Low-RAMP algorithm is also derived, and is equivalent to the replica symmetric solution for the large class of vector-spin glass models. In the section devoted to result we study in detail phase diagrams and phase transitions for the Bayes-optimal inference in low-rank matrix estimation. We present a typology of phase transitions and their relation to performance of algorithms such as the Low-RAMP or commonly used spectral methods.

  9. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C. Ben; Spiro, Emma S.; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials’ Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events. PMID:26295584

  10. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C Ben; Spiro, Emma S; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Butts, Carter T

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  11. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI/ISO C and uses the MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive. This work is supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Order No. S-13811-G, which was awarded by the Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) of NASA's Office of Space Science (NRA 01-OSS-01).

  12. QLWFPC2: Parallel-Processing Quick-Look WFPC2 Stellar Photometry Based on the Message Passing Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, K. J.

    2004-07-01

    I describe a new parallel-processing stellar photometry code called QLWFPC2 (http://www.noao.edu/staff/mighell/qlwfpc2) which is designed to do quick-look analysis of two entire WFPC2 observations from the Hubble Space Telescope in under 5 seconds using a fast Beowulf cluster with a Gigabit-Ethernet local network. This program is written in ANSI C and uses MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface from the Argonne National Laboratory for the parallel-processing communications, the CFITSIO library (from HEASARC at NASA's GSFC) for reading the standard FITS files from the HST Data Archive, and the Parameter Interface Library (from the INTEGRAL Science Data Center) for the IRAF parameter-file user interface. QLWFPC2 running on 4 processors takes about 2.4 seconds to analyze the WFPC2 archive datasets u37ga407r.c0.fits (F555W; 300 s) and u37ga401r.c0.fits (F814W; 300 s) of M54 (NGC 6715) which is the bright massive globular cluster near the center of the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The analysis of these HST observations of M54 lead to the serendipitous discovery of more than 50 new bright variable stars in the central region of M54. Most of the candidate variables stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. This discovery is an example of how QLWFPC2 can be used to quickly explore the time domain of observations in the HST Data Archive.

  13. Progressive Retry for Software Failure Recovery in Message-Passing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    modeled as unavailable logical checkpoints 5A synchronized, distributed algorithm has been proposed by Sistla and Welch [271; an asynchronous...systems using optimistic message logging and checkpointing," J. Algorithms, Vol. 11, pp. 462-491, 1990. [27] A. P. Sistla and J. L. Welch, "Efficient

  14. A Struggle for Dominance: Relational Communication Messages in Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatsis, Gretchen S.; And Others

    Television's messages about sex role behavior were analyzed by collecting and coding spot samples of the ten top ranked programs in prime viewing time and proportionate numbers of daytime soap operas and Saturday morning children's programs. The content analysis was based on a relational coding system developed to assess interpersonal…

  15. The development and performance of a message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.R.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-10-01

    A message-passing version of the PAGOSA shock-wave physics code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computers. PAGOSA is an explicit, Eulerian code for modeling the three-dimensional, high-speed hydrodynamic flow of fluids and the dynamic deformation of solids under high rates of strain. It was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) Connection Machine parallel computers. The performance of Sandia`s message-passing version of PAGOSA has been measured on two MIMD machines, the nCUBE 2 and the Intel Paragon XP/S. No special efforts were made to optimize the code for either machine. The measured scaled speedup (computational time for a single computational node divided by the computational time per node for fixed computational load) and grind time (computational time per cell per time step) show that the MIMD PAGOSA code scales linearly with the number of computational nodes used on a variety of problems, including the simulation of shaped-charge jets perforating an oil well casing. Scaled parallel efficiencies for MIMD PAGOSA are greater than 0.70 when the available memory per node is filled (or nearly filled) on hundreds to a thousand or more computational nodes on these two machines, indicating that the code scales very well. Thus good parallel performance can be achieved for complex and realistic applications when they are first implemented on MIMD parallel computers.

  16. PENN PASS: A Program for Graduates of Foreign Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthold, Peter; Lopez, Naty

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the University of Pennsylvania's School of Dental Medicine's Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) which provides graduates of foreign dental schools with an intensive summer program to prepare them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. A survey of 72 PASS…

  17. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  18. Message-passing implementation of the data diffusion communication model in fast multipole methods: large scale biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Kurzak, Jakub; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    Biomolecular simulations require increasingly efficient parallel codes. We present an efficient communication algorithm for irregular problems exhibiting an all-to-many communication pattern. The algorithm is developed using message passing on distributed memory machines and assumes explicit knowledge of the interconnection topology. The algorithm maximizes locality of interprocessor communication by adopting to an arbitrary interconnection topology and at the same time takes multiprocessor nodes into account. The solution is incorporated into our implementation of the fast multipole method with periodic boundary conditions used for molecular dynamics simulations, but we believe it generalizes to many algorithms demonstrating an all-to-many communication pattern. We show that an irregular algorithm can be forced to behave like a systolic algorithm.

  19. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed for the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.

  20. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    DOE PAGES

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; ...

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed formore » the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.« less

  1. Corporate social marketing: message design to recruit program participants.

    PubMed

    Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Coster, Daniel C; Chrysler, Lisa M

    2002-01-01

    To identify variables for a corporate social marketing (SM) health message based on the 4 Ps of SM in order to recruit future participants to an existing national, commercial, self-administered weight-loss program. A systematically evaluated, author-developed, 310-response survey was administered to a random sample of 270 respondents. A previously established research plan was used to empirically identify the audience segments and the "marketing mix" appropriate for the total sample and each segment. Tangible product, pertaining to the unique program features, should be emphasized rather than positive core product and outcome expectation related to use of the program.

  2. A Survey of Rollback-Recovery Protocols in Message-Passing Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-03

    needs to be accordingly designed . Whether failures that occur during recovery need to be tolerated or not also affects the choice of recovery...the log of one machine is automatically stored on a designated backup without blocking the execution of the application program. This scheme, however...piecewise determinism [41,184,190]. Although most rollback-recovery techniques were originally designed for tolerating hardware failures, they have also

  3. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Crowley, Kathleen; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  4. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1989-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  5. Run-time scheduling and execution of loops on message passing machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, Joel; Crowley, Kathleen; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Berryman, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Sparse system solvers and general purpose codes for solving partial differential equations are examples of the many types of problems whose irregularity can result in poor performance on distributed memory machines. Often, the data structures used in these problems are very flexible. Crucial details concerning loop dependences are encoded in these structures rather than being explicitly represented in the program. Good methods for parallelizing and partitioning these types of problems require assignment of computations in rather arbitrary ways. Naive implementations of programs on distributed memory machines requiring general loop partitions can be extremely inefficient. Instead, the scheduling mechanism needs to capture the data reference patterns of the loops in order to partition the problem. First, the indices assigned to each processor must be locally numbered. Next, it is necessary to precompute what information is needed by each processor at various points in the computation. The precomputed information is then used to generate an execution template designed to carry out the computation, communication, and partitioning of data, in an optimized manner. The design is presented for a general preprocessor and schedule executer, the structures of which do not vary, even though the details of the computation and of the type of information are problem dependent.

  6. Techniques for Enabling Highly Efficient Message Passing on Many-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Min; Balaji, Pavan; Ishikawa, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Many-core architecture provides a massively parallel environment with dozens of cores and hundreds of hardware threads. Scientific application programmers are increasingly looking at ways to utilize such large numbers of lightweight cores for various programming models. Efficiently executing these models on massively parallel many-core environments is not easy, however and performance may be degraded in various ways. The first author's doctoral research focuses on exploiting the capabilities of many-core architectures on widely used MPI implementations. While application programmers have studied several approaches to achieve better parallelism and resource sharing, many of those approaches still face communication problems that degrade performance. In the thesis, we investigate the characteristics of MPI on such massively threaded architectures and propose two efficient strategies -- a multi-threaded MPI approach and a process-based asynchronous model -- to optimize MPI communication for modern scientific applications.

  7. Quantifying statistical interdependence by message passing on graphs-part II: multidimensional point processes.

    PubMed

    Dauwels, J; Vialatte, F; Weber, T; Musha, T; Cichocki, A

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic event synchrony is a technique to quantify the similarity of pairs of signals. First, events are extracted from the two given time series. Next, one tries to align events from one time series with events from the other. The better the alignment, the more similar the two time series are considered to be. In Part I, the companion letter in this issue, one-dimensional events are considered; this letter concerns multidimensional events. Although the basic idea is similar, the extension to multidimensional point processes involves a significantly more difficult combinatorial problem and therefore is nontrivial. Also in the multidimensional case, the problem of jointly computing the pairwise alignment and SES parameters is cast as a statistical inference problem. This problem is solved by coordinate descent, more specifically, by alternating the following two steps: (1) estimate the SES parameters from a given pairwise alignment; (2) with the resulting estimates, refine the pairwise alignment. The SES parameters are computed by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation (step 1), in analogy to the one-dimensional case. The pairwise alignment (step 2) can no longer be obtained through dynamic programming, since the state space becomes too large. Instead it is determined by applying the max-product algorithm on a cyclic graphical model. In order to test the robustness and reliability of the SES method, it is first applied to surrogate data. Next, it is applied to detect anomalies in EEG synchrony of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Numerical results suggest that SES is significantly more sensitive to perturbations in EEG synchrony than a large variety of classical synchrony measures.

  8. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools.

    PubMed

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N

    1994-01-01

    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  9. Message Passing Semantics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    IAP WorkshoD on Electronic Office of the Future, January 1979. 19. Hewitt, C. "Design of the APIARY for VLSI support of knowledge-based systems," MIT...AAAI Conference Stanford, Ca., August 1980, 157-164. 10. Hewitt, C.E. "The Apiary network architecture for knowledgeable systems," Proceedings of Lisp...Conference, Stanford, Ca., August 1980, 107-118. 11. Hewitt, C. " Apiary multiprocessor architecture knowlecigo system," 23 Proceedinas of the Joint

  10. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size.

    PubMed

    Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D

    2014-01-19

    To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, p<0.001). The area underneath the receiver operative characteristic curve was 0.69 (95% Confidence Interval [0.63-0.75]), suggesting programs with less than 12 examinees/year are less likely to meet the minimum Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard (sensitivity 63.8%, specificity 60.4%, positive predictive value 82.2%, p<0.001). Although a majority of Internal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.

  11. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, John L.; Gonzalo, Jed D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency programs, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman’s rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Results Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of ≥80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (ρ=0.19, p<0.001). The area underneath the receiver operative characteristic curve was 0.69 (95% Confidence Interval [0.63-0.75]), suggesting programs with less than 12 examinees/year are less likely to meet the minimum Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard (sensitivity 63.8%, specificity 60.4%, positive predictive value 82.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Although a majority of Internal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance. PMID:25341205

  12. Developing and Pretesting a Text Messaging Program for Health Behavior Change: Recommended Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mendel Van Alstyne, Judith; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence demonstrates that text messaging-based programs (short message service [SMS]) on mobile phones can help people modify health behaviors. Most of these programs have consisted of automated and sometimes interactive text messages that guide a person through the process of behavior change. Objective This paper provides guidance on how to develop text messaging programs aimed at changing health behaviors. Methods Based on their collective experience in designing, developing, and evaluating text messaging programs and a review of the literature, the authors drafted the guide. One author initially drafted the guide and the others provided input and review. Results Steps for developing a text messaging program include conducting formative research for insights into the target audience and health behavior, designing the text messaging program, pretesting the text messaging program concept and messages, and revising the text messaging program. Conclusions The steps outlined in this guide may help in the development of SMS-based behavior change programs. PMID:26690917

  13. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  14. Media's Moral Messages: Assessing Perceptions of Moral Content in Television Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Rebecca J.; Garmon, Lance C.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the examination of moral content in the media by exploring moral messages in television programming and viewer characteristics predictive of the ability to perceive such messages. Generalisability analyses confirmed the reliability of the Media's Moral Messages (MMM) rating form for analysing programme content and the existence…

  15. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Barbara; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2011-04-30

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  16. Task-parallel message passing interface implementation of Autodock4 for docking of very large databases of compounds using high-performance super-computers

    SciTech Connect

    Collignon, Barbara C; Schultz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    A message passing interface (MPI)-based implementation (Autodock4.lga.MPI) of the grid-based docking program Autodock4 has been developed to allow simultaneous and independent docking of multiple compounds on up to thousands of central processing units (CPUs) using the Lamarkian genetic algorithm. The MPI version reads a single binary file containing precalculated grids that represent the protein-ligand interactions, i.e., van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation potentials, and needs only two input parameter files for the entire docking run. In comparison, the serial version of Autodock4 reads ASCII grid files and requires one parameter file per compound. The modifications performed result in significantly reduced input/output activity compared with the serial version. Autodock4.lga.MPI scales up to 8192 CPUs with a maximal overhead of 16.3%, of which two thirds is due to input/output operations and one third originates from MPI operations. The optimal docking strategy, which minimizes docking CPU time without lowering the quality of the database enrichments, comprises the docking of ligands preordered from the most to the least flexible and the assignment of the number of energy evaluations as a function of the number of rotatable bounds. In 24 h, on 8192 high-performance computing CPUs, the present MPI version would allow docking to a rigid protein of about 300K small flexible compounds or 11 million rigid compounds.

  17. Can rare SAT formulae be easily recognized? On the efficiency of message-passing algorithms for K-SAT at large clause-to-variable ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Monasson, Rémi; Zamponi, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm.

  18. Get the Message: A Teen Distracted Driving Program.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Ruth; Omorogbe, Ashleigh; Johnson, Abree

    Elimination of distracted driving is becoming a public health priority. Each day, an average of 8 people are killed due to a distracted driver in the United Sates. Although all drivers are at risk, research has indicated that teenage drivers are overrepresented in motor vehicle crashes due to distracted driving. Teenage drivers are hindered by limited driving experience, and the illusion of invincibility is a common phase in social and cognitive adolescent development. "Get the Message: A Teenage Distracted Driving Program" was established at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center to identify, define, and measure the factors that contribute to distracted driving in teens. A convenience sample of 1,238 teenagers in this study represented all 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada, and 21 other countries. At the beginning of each program, a presurvey is administered to assess baseline behavior, attitude, and knowledge regarding distracted driving. After completing the program, teens complete a postsurvey to measure proposed changes in driving behaviors, attitude, and knowledge. The program employs the use of a slide presentation, hospital tour, video, and survivor's testimony to influence teen driving behaviors and increase knowledge. Research has indicated that an increase in the Health Belief Model constructs may enhance engagement in health-promoting behaviors, such as safe driving practices in teens. Based on the postsurvey results, the reduction in projected phone use while driving in this teen population indicates the effectiveness of this hospital-based teen distracted driving program.

  19. Strength of messaging in changing attitudes in a workplace wellness program.

    PubMed

    Langille, Jessie-Lee D; Berry, Tanya R; Reade, Ian L; Witcher, Chad; Loitz, Christina C; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2011-03-01

    The potential benefits of workplace wellness programs are limited by low participation rates of employees, which could be due in part to ineffective persuasion by program providers. This study uses the Elaboration Likelihood Model, as a guiding theory in mixed methods research, to investigate feedback messages about physical activity delivered in a workplace wellness program. This study uses questionnaire and interview data from 32 employees to determine if personally relevant health messages are associated with either positive or negative responses to the messages and subsequent attitude change. General feedback is more appreciated by those who are less fit but are not effective in changing attitudes toward physical activity. Individually targeted messages result in a significant positive attitude change for participants responding positively to the messages. This suggests that individualized health promotion messages provide a stronger argument for individuals, thus increasing the likelihood of attitude change.

  20. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking.

  1. Text4Peds: Feasibility of an Educational Text-Messaging Program for Pediatrics Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Gregory T.; Draper, Lauren R.; Broom, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing effort to maximize educational material provided to residents who are in a time-constrained work environment. Mobile technology, principally smartphone applications and online modules, has shown educational promise. Intervention We developed a text-messaging program, Text4Peds, to assist residents with preparation for their pediatric board examinations. Goals were to assess (1) the feasibility of texting educational messages to residents, and (2) resident satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a texting program. Methods We conducted a prospective study of pediatrics and combined internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Messages derived from the most missed pediatric in-training examination questions were sent daily to residents. After 3 months, residents completed surveys that gauged their perception on the educational value of the text messages and the effect on their pediatric board preparation. Feasibility of the system was assessed as a total percentage of messages successfully received by residents. Results Of 55 residents, 35 (64%) participated in the program. Of 2534 messages sent out to participants, 2437 (96.2%) were delivered successfully. Positive comments cited the texting of board facts as a quick, helpful, daily study tool. Residents liked that messages were sent at 2:00 pm, and most felt that 1 to 5 messages per week was appropriate. Drawbacks included character restrictions of messages, content limitations, and the lack of a question-answer format. Conclusions An educational text message–based program was successfully implemented in our residency program. Messages were delivered with a high success rate, and residents found educational value in the messages. PMID:26140130

  2. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  3. Impact of Online Summer Mathematics Bridge Program on Placement Scores and Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jodi L.; Dreher, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    An online four-week summer mathematics bridge program was implemented at a Midwest university with historically low pass rates in College Algebra and Remedial Mathematics. Students who completed the four week program significantly increased their mathematics placement exam scores. These students also had a higher pass rate in their initial college…

  4. Factors Influencing Engagement, Perceived Usefulness and Behavioral Mechanisms Associated with a Text Message Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Julie; Santo, Karla; Coorey, Genevieve; Thakkar, Jay; Hackett, Maree; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of text messaging in positively changing behaviours. We aimed to identify features and factors that explain the effectiveness of a successful text messaging program in terms of user engagement, perceived usefulness, behavior change and program delivery preferences. Methods Mixed methods qualitative design combining four data sources; (i) analytic data extracted directly from the software system, (ii) participant survey, (iii) focus groups to identify barriers and enablers to implementation and mechanisms of effect and (iv) recruitment screening logs and text message responses to examine engagement. This evaluation was conducted within the TEXT ME trial—a parallel design, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 710 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Qualitative data were interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. Results 307/352 (87% response rate) of recruited patients with CHD completed the program evaluation survey at six months and 25 participated in a focus group. Factors increasing engagement included (i) ability to save and share messages, (ii) having the support of providers and family, (iii) a feeling of support through participation in the program, (iv) the program being initiated close to the time of a cardiovascular event, (v) personalization of the messages, (vi) opportunity for initial face-to-face contact with a provider and (vii) that program and content was perceived to be from a credible source. Clear themes relating to program delivery were that diet and physical activity messages were most valued, four messages per week was ideal and most participants felt program duration should be provided for at least for six months or longer. Conclusions This study provides context and insight into the factors influencing consumer engagement with a text message program aimed at improving health-related behavior. The study suggests program components that may enhance

  5. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Practices for Implementing Local Climate and Energy Programs: Effective Messaging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communities learn how to best implement effective messaging for local climate and energy programs by focusing on what it is, why they should do it, what they should look for, what resources other projects have found to be useful.

  7. Surveying through Text Message: Planning, Programming, and Analyzing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    While the Survey is in the Field ................................................ 15 Analysis ...software. The final stage, Analysis , includes some software specific information as well as suggestions for analyzing the data returned and sample...text message lingo (see, for example, http://www.lingo2word.com/index.php), but it is possible that most of those receiving the survey will not be

  8. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  9. Malnutrition: role of the TwoCal HN Med Pass program.

    PubMed

    Bender, S; Pusateri, M; Cook, A; Ferguson, M; Hall, J C

    2000-12-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with poor outcomes. The causes and outcomes of malnutrition are discussed, and the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, designed to overcome poor dietary intake, is described. Benefits of the program, role of the pharmacist, identification of candidates for the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, and health care team roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

  10. Message-passing-interface-based parallel FDTD investigation on the EM scattering from a 1-D rough sea surface using uniaxial perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B

    2009-06-01

    A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.

  11. Remediation Programs for Students Who Do Not Pass Exit Exams. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    What are some remediation programs for students who do not pass high stakes exit exams? Regardless of one's personal beliefs about high stakes exit exams, 52% of all high school students in the United States who are in public schools will be required to take and pass an exit exam. Nationally, these tests are gaining momentum. In most cases,…

  12. Design Considerations in Developing a Text Messaging Program Aimed at Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell phone text messaging is gaining increasing recognition as an important tool that can be harnessed for prevention and intervention programs across a wide variety of health research applications. Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes, very little is available about the design decisions that scaffold the development of text messaging-based health interventions. What seems to be missing is documentation of the thought process of investigators in the initial stages of protocol and content development. This omission is of particular concern because many researchers seem to view text messaging as the intervention itself instead of simply a delivery mechanism. Certainly, aspects of this technology may increase participant engagement. Like other interventions, however, the content is a central driver of the behavior change. Objective To address this noted gap in the literature, we discuss the protocol decisions and content development for SMS Turkey (or Cebiniz birakin diyor in Turkish), a smoking cessation text messaging program for adult smokers in Turkey. Methods Content was developed in English and translated into Turkish. Efforts were made to ensure that the protocol and content were grounded in evidence-based smoking cessation theory, while also reflective of the cultural aspects of smoking and quitting in Turkey. Results Methodological considerations included whether to provide cell phones and whether to reimburse participants for texting costs; whether to include supplementary intervention resources (eg, personal contact); and whether to utilize unidirectional versus bidirectional messaging. Program design considerations included how messages were tailored to the quitting curve and one’s smoking status after one’s quit date, the number of messages participants received per day, and over what period of time the intervention lasted. Conclusion The content and methods of effective smoking cessation quitline programs were

  13. Design considerations in developing a text messaging program aimed at smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Emri, Salih

    2012-07-24

    Cell phone text messaging is gaining increasing recognition as an important tool that can be harnessed for prevention and intervention programs across a wide variety of health research applications. Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes, very little is available about the design decisions that scaffold the development of text messaging-based health interventions. What seems to be missing is documentation of the thought process of investigators in the initial stages of protocol and content development. This omission is of particular concern because many researchers seem to view text messaging as the intervention itself instead of simply a delivery mechanism. Certainly, aspects of this technology may increase participant engagement. Like other interventions, however, the content is a central driver of the behavior change. To address this noted gap in the literature, we discuss the protocol decisions and content development for SMS Turkey (or Cebiniz birakin diyor in Turkish), a smoking cessation text messaging program for adult smokers in Turkey. Content was developed in English and translated into Turkish. Efforts were made to ensure that the protocol and content were grounded in evidence-based smoking cessation theory, while also reflective of the cultural aspects of smoking and quitting in Turkey. Methodological considerations included whether to provide cell phones and whether to reimburse participants for texting costs; whether to include supplementary intervention resources (eg, personal contact); and whether to utilize unidirectional versus bidirectional messaging. Program design considerations included how messages were tailored to the quitting curve and one's smoking status after one's quit date, the number of messages participants received per day, and over what period of time the intervention lasted. The content and methods of effective smoking cessation quitline programs were a useful guide in developing SMS Turkey. Proposed

  14. The effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on the wages of direct care workers.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Reagan A; Smith, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    Despite growing demand for nursing and home health care as the US population ages, compensation levels in the low-skill nursing labor market that provides the bulk of long-term care remain quite low. The challenge facing providers of long-term care is that Medicaid reimbursement rates for nursing home and home health care severely restrict the wage growth that is necessary to attract workers, resulting in high turnover and labor shortages. Almost half of US states have responded by enacting "pass-through" provisions in their Medicaid programs, channeling additional long-term care funding directly to compensation of lower-skill nursing workers. We test the effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on hourly wages for direct care workers. We estimate several specifications of wage models using employment data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for nursing, home health, and personal care aides. The effect of pass-through programs is identified by an indicator variable for states with programs; 20 states adopted pass-throughs during the sample period. Workers in states with pass-through programs earn as much as 12% more per hour than workers in other states after those programs are implemented. Medicaid wage pass-through programs appear to be a viable policy option for raising compensation levels of direct care workers, with an eye toward improving recruitment and retention in long-term care settings.

  15. PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

  16. First-time NCLEX-RN pass rate: measure of program quality or something else?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Heidi; Loftin, Collette; Reyes, Helen

    2014-06-01

    The first-time NCLEX-RN(®) pass rate is considered by many to be the primary, if not sole, indicator of the quality of prelicensure nursing education programs. Used by state boards of nursing, educational program accreditors, and nursing faculty, the first-time NCLEX-RN pass rate influences important decisions about overall program quality, admission and progression policies, curricula, and teaching and learning practices. In this article, the authors call for a professional dialogue about the use of first-time pass rate (F-TPR) as an indicator of program quality, offer alternative methods for using the F-TPR as one measure of program quality, and suggest further research. One program's experience with low F-TPRs is offered as an exemplar of the unintended negative consequences that occur when the F-TPR is used as a sole criterion by a state board of nursing in judging a program's quality.

  17. Improving Program NCLEX Pass Rates: Strategies from One State Board of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Libner, Joan; Kubala, Sandra

    2017-09-15

    This article describes the response of the Illinois Board of Nursing to an escalating number of prelicensure nursing programs with low National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) pass rates. The response aligns with stipulations of the Illinois Nurse Practice Act and best practices. NCLEX success is crucial to launching the careers of nursing graduates and to maintaining approval status of prelicensure programs by state regulatory bodies. Boards strive to guide programs with low pass rates fairly and consistently. The Illinois Board of Nursing created a tool and process addressing curriculum and resources, faculty, students, and administrative support in a programmatic approach to improving pass rates. Initial outcomes were positive. Anecdotal evidence of programs in good standing also confirmed the tool's value as a resource to promoting graduate success. A programmatic approach can provide guidance for boards of nursing to address low NCLEX pass rates in a consistent evidence-based manner.

  18. Promoting Quality of Program Delivery via an Internet Message Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dana C.; Dusenbury, Linda; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a study that evaluated an online message system designed to improve the delivery of prevention programs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with 32 agencies and schools that implemented substance use prevention programs and examined differences between the comparison and intervention groups. We also examined…

  19. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation Using CAPTools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Yan, Jerry C.; Jin, Haoqiang; Saini, Subhah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During that same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expend great efforts into migrating and re-coding our applications. As applications and machine architectures become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. In this paper, we present the first set of results in our evaluation of interactive parallelization tools. In particular, we evaluate CAPTool's ability to parallelize computational aeroscience applications. CAPTools was tested on serial versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and ARC3D, a computational fluid dynamics application, on two platforms: the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. This evaluation includes performance, amount of user interaction required, limitations and portability. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of computer aided parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  20. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation of CAPTools using NAS Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry C.; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During the same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expand great efforts into migrating and receding our applications. As applications and machine architectures continue to become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. Various attempts to exploit software tools to assist and automate the parallelization process have not produced favorable results. In this paper, we evaluate an interactive parallelization tool, CAPTools, for parallelizing serial versions of the NAB Parallel Benchmarks. Finally, we compare the performance of the resulting CAPTools generated code to the hand-coded benchmarks on the Origin 2000 and IBM SP2. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of automated parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  1. Automated Generation of Message-Passing Programs: An Evaluation Using CAPTools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Scientists at NASA Ames Research Center have been developing computational aeroscience applications on highly parallel architectures over the past ten years. During that same time period, a steady transition of hardware and system software also occurred, forcing us to expend great efforts into migrating and re-coding our applications. As applications and machine architectures become increasingly complex, the cost and time required for this process will become prohibitive. In this paper, we present the first set of results in our evaluation of interactive parallelization tools. In particular, we evaluate CAPTool's ability to parallelize computational aeroscience applications. CAPTools was tested on serial versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and ARC3D, a computational fluid dynamics application, on two platforms: the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. This evaluation includes performance, amount of user interaction required, limitations and portability. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of computer aided parallelization of aerospace applications is presented along with suggestions for future work.

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Messaging Program for Smoking Cessation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien; Hershcovitz, Ronit; Boal, Ashley; Levine, Hagai

    2015-08-01

    Text messaging programs on mobile phones have been shown to promote smoking cessation. This study investigated whether a text-messaging program for smoking cessation, adapted from QuitNowTXT, is feasible in Israel and acceptable to Israeli smokers. Participants (N = 38) were given a baseline assessment, enrolled in the adapted text messaging program, and followed-up with at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after their quit date. The authors used an intent-to-treat analysis and found that 23.7% of participants reported having quit smoking at the 4-week follow-up. Participants sent an average of 12.9 text replies during the study period, and the majority reported reading most or all of the texts. However, 34.2% of participants had unsubscribed by the 4-week follow-up. Moderate levels of satisfaction were reported; more than half agreed that they would recommend the program. Suggestions for improvement included adding advice by an expert counselor, website support, and increased customization. Results indicate that a text messaging smoking cessation program developed by modifying the content of QuitNowTXT is feasible and could be acceptable to smokers in Israel. The experience adapting and pilot testing the program can serve as a model for using QuitNowTXT to develop and implement such programs in other countries.

  3. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  4. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan Weber; Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-05-06

    Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together to review the text messages

  5. A Computerized Communication Message Preparation Program that "Learns" the User's Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, John; Hill, Linda

    1988-01-01

    "Cued Typing" is a computerized communication message preparation program, written for Apple II Plus, using frequency-based prediction algorithms and menu selection to reduce word cost while maintaining vocabulary flexibility. "Cued Typing" was more efficient than letter-by-letter typing, but word cost was still quite high, and…

  6. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  7. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  8. Text messaging data collection for monitoring an infant feeding intervention program in rural China: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-12-04

    An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants' acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all questionnaires, and ¥27.1 (US $4.31) versus ¥34

  9. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  10. P.A.S.S. Program (Portable Assisted Study Sequence) Summer Report, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Jane E.

    The 1981 summer Portable Assisted Study Sequence (PASS) Program, designed to provide self-directed learning packages whereby high school migrant students throughout California can receive credits toward graduation requirements, provided instructional materials to 2,306 students. Student transcripts were sent to 159 California high schools.…

  11. Communicating with the Workforce During Emergencies: Developing an Employee Text Messaging Program in a Local Public Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health – Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction. PMID:25355976

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n = 38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n = 10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey.

  13. Text Messaging as Adjunct to Community-Based Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Bouhaidar, Claudia M.; Deshazo, Jonathan P.; Puri, Puneet; Gray, Patricia; Robins, Jo Lynne W.; Salyer, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing obesity rates are still a public health priority. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tailored text messages on body weight change in overweight and obese adults in a community-based weight management program. A secondary aim was to detect behavioral changes in the same population. The study design was quasi-experimental with pretest and posttest analysis, conducted over 12 weeks. A total of 28 participants were included in the analysis. Body weight, eating behaviors, exercise and nutrition self-efficacy, attitude toward mobile technology, social support, and physical activity were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Text messages were sent biweekly to the intervention but not to the control group. At 12 weeks, the intervention group had lost significant weight as compared with the control group. There was a trend toward an improvement in eating behaviors, exercise, and nutrition self-efficacy in the intervention group, with no significant difference between groups. A total of 79% of participants stated that text messages helped in adopting healthy behaviors. Tailored text messages appear to enhance weight loss in a weight management program at a community setting. Large-scale and long-term intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24141325

  14. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  15. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  16. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  17. A Text Messaging-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Adult Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bağcı Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. Objective This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. Methods This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content “paths” based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. Results The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ2 1=1.4, P=.24; R2=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ2 1=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day

  18. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group.

  19. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Viitanen, Amanda P.; Colvin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the ‘costs of masculinity’ men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender

  20. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Amanda P; Colvin, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the 'costs of masculinity' men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender equality. More research is needed to gauge the long-term impact

  1. Lessons learned: program messaging in gender-transformative work with men and boys in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Amanda P; Colvin, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to traditional notions of masculinity has been identified as an important driver in the perpetuation of numerous health and social problems, including gender-based violence and HIV. With the largest generalized HIV epidemic in the world and high rates of violence against women, the need for gender-transformative work in South Africa is broadly accepted in activist circles and at the national and community level. Because of the integral role men play in both of these epidemics, initiatives and strategies that engage men in promoting gender equality have emerged over the last decade and the evidence base supporting the effectiveness of masculinities-based interventions is growing. However, little research exists on men's receptivity to the messages delivered in these programs. Objective This article examines the current practices among a set of gender-transformation initiatives in South Africa to see what lessons can be derived from them. We look at how South African men participating in these programs responded to three thematic messages frequently found in gender-transformative work: 1) the 'costs of masculinity' men pay for adherence to harmful gender constructs; 2) multiple forms of masculinity; and 3) the human rights framework and contested rights. Design This article synthesizes qualitative findings from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic research with men participating in several gender- and health-intervention programs in South Africa. The data were collected between 2007 and 2011 and synthesized using some of the basic principles of meta-ethnography. Results and conclusions Overall, men were receptive to the three thematic messages reviewed; they were able to see them in the context of their own lives and the messages facilitated rich dialog among participants. However, some men were more ambivalent toward shifting gender notions and some even adamantly resisted engaging in discussions over gender equality

  2. Baseline Motivation Type as a Predictor of Dropout in a Healthy Eating Text Messaging Program.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha; Patrick, Heather

    2016-09-29

    Growing evidence suggests that text messaging programs are effective in facilitating health behavior change. However, high dropout rates limit the potential effectiveness of these programs. This paper describes patterns of early dropout in the HealthyYou text (HYTxt) program, with a focus on the impact of baseline motivation quality on dropout, as characterized by Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This analysis included 193 users of HYTxt, a diet and physical activity text messaging intervention developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics were computed, and logistic regression models were run to examine the association between baseline motivation type and early program dropout. Overall, 43.0% (83/193) of users dropped out of the program; of these, 65.1% (54/83; 28.0% of all users) did so within the first 2 weeks. Users with higher autonomous motivation had significantly lower odds of dropping out within the first 2 weeks. A one unit increase in autonomous motivation was associated with lower odds (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81) of early dropout, which persisted after adjusting for level of controlled motivation. Applying SDT-based strategies to enhance autonomous motivation might reduce early dropout rates, which can improve program exposure and effectiveness.

  3. Baseline Motivation Type as a Predictor of Dropout in a Healthy Eating Text Messaging Program

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that text messaging programs are effective in facilitating health behavior change. However, high dropout rates limit the potential effectiveness of these programs. Objective This paper describes patterns of early dropout in the HealthyYou text (HYTxt) program, with a focus on the impact of baseline motivation quality on dropout, as characterized by Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Methods This analysis included 193 users of HYTxt, a diet and physical activity text messaging intervention developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics were computed, and logistic regression models were run to examine the association between baseline motivation type and early program dropout. Results Overall, 43.0% (83/193) of users dropped out of the program; of these, 65.1% (54/83; 28.0% of all users) did so within the first 2 weeks. Users with higher autonomous motivation had significantly lower odds of dropping out within the first 2 weeks. A one unit increase in autonomous motivation was associated with lower odds (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.81) of early dropout, which persisted after adjusting for level of controlled motivation. Conclusions Applying SDT-based strategies to enhance autonomous motivation might reduce early dropout rates, which can improve program exposure and effectiveness. PMID:27688034

  4. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Young Adults in Lima, Peru: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Blitchtein-Winicki, Dora; Zevallos, Karine; Samolski, M Reuven; Requena, David; Velarde, Chaska; Briceño, Patricia; Piazza, Marina; Ybarra, Michele L

    2017-08-04

    In Peru's urban communities, tobacco smoking generally starts during adolescence and smoking prevalence is highest among young adults. Each year, many attempt to quit, but access to smoking cessation programs is limited. Evidence-based text messaging smoking cessation programs are an alternative that has been successfully implemented in high-income countries, but not yet in middle- and low-income countries with limited tobacco control policies. The objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an short message service (SMS) text message-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program for young adults in Lima, Peru. Recruitment included using flyers and social media ads to direct young adults interested in quitting smoking to a website where interested participants completed a Google Drive survey. Inclusion criteria were being between ages 18 and 25 years, smoking at least four cigarettes per day at least 6 days per week, willing to quit in the next 30 days, owning a mobile phone, using SMS text messaging at least once in past year, and residing in Lima. Participants joined one of three phases: (1) focus groups and in-depth interviews whose feedback was used to develop the SMS text messages, (2) validating the SMS text messages, and (3) a pilot of the SMS text message-based smoking cessation program to test its feasibility and acceptability among young adults in Lima. The outcome measures included adherence to the SMS text message-based program, acceptability of content, and smoking abstinence self-report on days 2, 7, and 30 after quitting. Of 639 participants who completed initial online surveys, 42 met the inclusion criteria and 35 agreed to participate (focus groups and interviews: n=12; validate SMS text messages: n=8; program pilot: n=15). Common quit practices and beliefs emerged from participants in the focus groups and interviews informed the content, tone, and delivery schedule of the messages used in the SMS text message smoking

  5. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam.

    PubMed

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) are related to the pass rate. Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC). Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  6. Physician assistant program characteristics and faculty credentials on physician assistant national certifying exam pass rates.

    PubMed

    Bushardt, Reamer L; Booze, Loraine E; Hewett, Mary L; Hildebrandt, Carol; Thomas, Suzanne E

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the ideal terminal degree for physician assistants (PAs) and academic preparedness of PA educators have received much attention in recent years. This investigation, completed in 2009, sought to describe the current state of PA training programs, specifically regarding Carnegie classification, percent conferring master's degrees, number of full-time faculty, percent of faculty--both principal and other full-time faculty--with doctoral degrees, student-to-faculty ratio, and first-time graduate Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) pass rates. A secondary aim was to determine if any of these variables predict PANCE pass rates. This study combined existing data obtained from multiple Internet resources including PA program websites and the PAEA Faculty Directory to determine the number of faculty, faculty credentials, number of students, and PANCE reports. Faculty members were categorized by highest degree attained. Linear regression was used to examine whether any of the programmatic variables were significant predictors of PANCE pass rates. Two of four predictors were significant--whether the program conferred a master's degree (Beta = 0.54, t = 7.25, P = .001) and student-to-faculty ratio (Beta = -0.21, t = 2.63, P = .01). Mean number of full-time faculty per training program was eight (SD = 4, range = 2-36). The mean percent of full-time faculty members with doctorates per training program was 17.6% (SD = 17.7%, range = 0-80%). These results, if replicated, suggest that if a program is seeking to increase its student performance on the PANCE, it may be more helpful to focus resources on improving student-to-faculty ratio, regardless of whether or not the faculty are doctoral level.

  7. Feasibility of the SMART Project: A Text Message Program for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Mehta, Priya; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated response rates to the Self-Management and Research Technology Project, a 6-week text message program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes designed to provide diabetes self-management reminders and education. The rate of response to texts was high, with 78% of texts responded to during the 6-week period. Girls and participants who self-reported sending a large number of personal daily texts had higher response rates; other demographic and medical variables were unrelated to text response rates. Inclusion of mobile health technologies such as text messages in clinical care may be a unique, relevant method of intervention for youths with type 1 diabetes, regardless of age, socioeconomic status, or glycemic control.

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Young Adults in Lima, Peru: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Samolski, M Reuven; Requena, David; Velarde, Chaska; Briceño, Patricia; Piazza, Marina; Ybarra, Michele L

    2017-01-01

    Background In Peru’s urban communities, tobacco smoking generally starts during adolescence and smoking prevalence is highest among young adults. Each year, many attempt to quit, but access to smoking cessation programs is limited. Evidence-based text messaging smoking cessation programs are an alternative that has been successfully implemented in high-income countries, but not yet in middle- and low-income countries with limited tobacco control policies. Objective The objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an short message service (SMS) text message-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program for young adults in Lima, Peru. Methods Recruitment included using flyers and social media ads to direct young adults interested in quitting smoking to a website where interested participants completed a Google Drive survey. Inclusion criteria were being between ages 18 and 25 years, smoking at least four cigarettes per day at least 6 days per week, willing to quit in the next 30 days, owning a mobile phone, using SMS text messaging at least once in past year, and residing in Lima. Participants joined one of three phases: (1) focus groups and in-depth interviews whose feedback was used to develop the SMS text messages, (2) validating the SMS text messages, and (3) a pilot of the SMS text message-based smoking cessation program to test its feasibility and acceptability among young adults in Lima. The outcome measures included adherence to the SMS text message-based program, acceptability of content, and smoking abstinence self-report on days 2, 7, and 30 after quitting. Results Of 639 participants who completed initial online surveys, 42 met the inclusion criteria and 35 agreed to participate (focus groups and interviews: n=12; validate SMS text messages: n=8; program pilot: n=15). Common quit practices and beliefs emerged from participants in the focus groups and interviews informed the content, tone, and delivery schedule of the messages used

  9. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  10. Effective Utilization of Computerized Curricular Assistive Tools in Improving NCLEX-RN Pass Rates for a Baccalaureate Nursing Program.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Joy R; Chavez, Ruth A; Keane, Patricia; Butz, Susan; Yowler, Susan K

    2016-11-10

    Achieving satisfactory first-time pass rates on the national nursing licensure examination represents a challenge for nursing programs across the United States. The consequences of examination failure for first-time test takers can be devastating, both emotionally and financially. Nursing programs are evaluated by national higher-education credentialing bodies and state boards of nursing based on the first-time pass rate of their students. One Midwestern nursing program faced unsatisfactory first-time pass rates and developed strategies for improving first-time pass rates over a 3-year period. The nursing program utilized several strategies documented in the literature but found implementing computerized curricular assistive tools that complemented the nursing program's curriculum to be most effective. In addition, changing faculty and student culture on preparation for the national licensure examination was beneficial to all involved in the process.

  11. A Novel Recruitment Message to Increase Enrollment into a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Triala

    PubMed Central

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Cappella, Joseph; Lerman, Caryn; Pinto, Angela; Patterson, Freda; Wileyto, E. Paul; Leone, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most smokers do not utilize approved interventions for nicotine dependence, reducing the probability of cessation. Smoking cessation programs typically use recruitment messages emphasizing the health threats of smoking. Augmenting this threat message by describing the genetic aspects of nicotine addiction may enhance enrollment into a cessation program. During telephone recruitment, 125 treatment-seeking smokers were randomized to receive by phone either a standard threat message or a threat plus genetic prime message and were offered open-label varenicline and counseling. There was a greater rate of enrollment into the cessation program for the threat plus genetic prime participants (51.7%) vs. the threat-only participants (37.7%; p = .03). Smokers who self-identified from racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to enroll in the cessation program (p = .01) vs. smokers who self-identified as Caucasian. These preliminary data suggest that a simple, affordable, and transportable communication approach enhances enrollment of smokers into a smoking cessation program. A larger clinical trial to evaluate a genetic prime message for improving recruitment into smoking cessation programs is warranted. PMID:21667366

  12. Are specific residency program characteristics associated with the pass rate of graduates on the ABFM certification examination?

    PubMed

    Mims, Lisa D; Mainous, Arch G; Chirina, Svetlana; Carek, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Board certification has become an accepted measure of physician quality. The effect of both non-curricular and curricular residency program characteristics on certification rates has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of various program characteristics on first-time American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) pass rates. Using information from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), National Resident Matching Program (NRMP), and FREIDA®, program characteristics were obtained. Three-year and 5-year aggregate ABFM board pass rates were calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. The relationship between program characteristics, initial Match rates, and non-Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) required activities (NRCA), and first-time Board pass rates were analyzed using chi-square. Significance was defined as P<.05 level of confidence. Fifty-two percent of residency programs have ABFM board pass rates ? 90%. Both 3- and 5-year aggregate Board pass rates were significantly associated with regional location, program size, accreditation cycle length, and any NRCA, specifically including international experiences and curriculum in alternative medicine. Location type (urban, suburban, rural, or inner city), program structure, salary, moonlighting, available tracks, and P4 participation were not associated. The percent of first-time takers successfully completing the ABFM examination is associated with several residency program characteristics, including regional location, program size, accreditation cycle length, opportunities for international experiences, and training in alternative medicine.

  13. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam.

    PubMed

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) are related to the pass rate. Results Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC). Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  14. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) are related to the pass rate. Results Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC). Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents. PMID:26426400

  15. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Text Message-Based Program for Smoking Cessation in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Lisandro D; Peña, Lorena; Whittaker, Robyn; Mejia, Raul M

    2016-03-01

    Few individual-level nonpharmacological interventions are available in Argentina to support smokers who attempt to quit. We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation of Stop Smoking with Mobile Phones, an English text message-based tobacco cessation program, in Buenos Aires. The process included English-Spanish translation and back-translation, face validity checking by two local tobacco cessation experts, and a complete review using a structured questionnaire and discussion groups with potential users (current smokers who want to quit or former smokers who quit in the past 6 months). An editing group was responsible for analyzing information collected and preparing adapted messages. Readability of final messages was assessed. Tobacco cessation experts found translated messages suitable for the local setting, although mention of "mate" (a local infusion which can trigger cravings) was recommended. Review of messages by two potential users confirmed most of the messages would help smokers to quit and resulted in minor edits. Potential users who participated in two discussion groups (n = 17, 64.7% female, age range: 30-73) found the content of messages was relevant for cessation and related to their own experiences, although they suggested adding information regarding the negative consequences of smoking. Participants emphasized that messages should be formatted using voseo and informal style and provided feedback on specific words and expressions. Readability of final messages was easy/very easy (Fernández Huerta Index: 79.93). The cross-cultural adaptation of Stop Smoking with Mobile Phones resulted in relevant revisions for the study population, including tone, wording, and pertinent information (eg, smoking consequences). Local acceptability and effectiveness should be confirmed in future studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Participation Rates in a Worksite Wellness Program Using E-Mail Wellness Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anenson, Larry W.; Brunt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna J.; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which days of the work week had the largest rate of opened e-health messages, whether detailed or basic e-health messages were more likely to be opened, if motivation influenced the rate of message opening, and if the rate of opening messages declined over time. Ninety-one city employees (52 male and 39…

  17. A randomized trial of Text2Quit: a text messaging program for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Boal, Ashley L; Simmens, Samuel J; Mendel, Judith A; Windsor, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Text messaging programs on mobile phones have shown some promise in helping people quit smoking. Text2Quit is an automated, personalized, interactive mobile health program that sends text messages to offer advice, support, and reminders about quitting smoking. To evaluate the effect of Text2Quit on biochemically confirmed repeated point prevalence abstinence in the context of an RCT conducted in the U.S. Participants (n=503) were recruited on the Internet and randomized to receive Text2Quit or self-help material. Between 2011 and 2013, participants were surveyed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-enrollment to assess smoking status. Saliva was collected from participants who reported not smoking in the past 7 days at the 6-month follow-up. An intent to treat analysis was used, and those lost to follow-up were categorized as smokers. All analyses were completed in 2013. Biochemically confirmed repeated point prevalence abstinence favored the intervention group, with 11.1% abstinent compared to 5.0% of the control group (relative risk=2.22, 95% CI=1.16, 4.26, p<0.05). Similarly, self-reported repeated point prevalence abstinence was higher in the intervention group (19.9%) than in the control group (10.0%) (p<0.01). Effects were found to be uniform across the analyzed demographic subgroups, although suggestive of a larger effect for non-whites than whites. These results provide initial support for the relative efficacy of the Text2Quit program. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of text-message reminders to improve participation in a population-based breast cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Garcia, M; Benito, L; Milà, N; Binefa, G; Moreno, V

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of a cell text message reminder service on participation in a mammogram screening program in Catalonia, Spain. A quasi-experimental design was used with women aged 50 to 69 years who had been scheduled mammogram appointments in June or July 2011. Women were personally invited by letter to attend to the breast cancer screening program (n = 12,786). Prior to the invitation, 3,719 (29.1 %) of them had provided their cell telephone number to the National Health Service. These women received a text message reminder 3 days before their scheduled appointment. Logistic regression models were used to analyze whether the text message reminder was associated with participation in screening. Cost-effectiveness of adding a text message reminder to the invitation letter was also analyzed. The overall rate of participation in breast cancer screening was 68.4 %. The participation rate was significantly higher in the text messaging group, with an age-adjusted OR of 1.56 (95 %CI: 1.43-1.70). A detailed analysis showed that the increase in participation related to the text message reminder was higher among women without previous screening who lived in areas where access to postal mail was limited (OR=2.85; 95 %CI: 2.31-3.53) compared to those who lived in areas of easier postal mail access (OR=1.66; 95 %CI: 1.36-2.02). The invitation letter+text message reminder was a cost-effective strategy. Text message reminders are an efficient cost-effective approach to improve participation in difficult-to-reach populations, such as rural areas and newly developed suburbs.

  19. Boys to Men: Sports Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Sports Programs and Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a…

  20. Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program, and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Sharon; Schmiege, Sara J.; Pickard, Leslie; Campbell, Jon; Shlay, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. Methods. In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations to ensure each club would serve as a treatment site for 2 years and a control site for 2 years. Control intervention consisted of the Teen Outreach Program only. We enrolled 852 youths (aged 14–18 years), and 632 were retained at follow-up, with analytic samples ranging from 50 to 624 across outcomes. We examined program costs, and whether the intervention increased condom and contraceptive use, access to care, and pregnancy prevention. Results. Control program costs were $1184 per participant, and intervention costs were an additional $126 per participant (+10.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes for the full sample. Hispanic participants in the intervention condition had fewer pregnancies at follow-up (1.79%) than did those in the control group (6.72%; P = .02). Conclusions. Youth All Engaged is feasible, low cost, and could have potential benefits for Hispanic youths. PMID:27689478

  1. Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program, and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana; Devine, Sharon; Schmiege, Sara J; Pickard, Leslie; Campbell, Jon; Shlay, Judith C

    2016-09-01

    To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations to ensure each club would serve as a treatment site for 2 years and a control site for 2 years. Control intervention consisted of the Teen Outreach Program only. We enrolled 852 youths (aged 14-18 years), and 632 were retained at follow-up, with analytic samples ranging from 50 to 624 across outcomes. We examined program costs, and whether the intervention increased condom and contraceptive use, access to care, and pregnancy prevention. Control program costs were $1184 per participant, and intervention costs were an additional $126 per participant (+10.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes for the full sample. Hispanic participants in the intervention condition had fewer pregnancies at follow-up (1.79%) than did those in the control group (6.72%; P = .02). Youth All Engaged is feasible, low cost, and could have potential benefits for Hispanic youths.

  2. Residency program characteristics that are associated with pass rate of the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam.

    PubMed

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    The US is home to almost 200 pediatrics residency programs; despite this, there is little information about the relationship between program characteristics and performance in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying exam. To evaluate the relationship between pass rate of the ABP certifying exam with the characteristics of categorical pediatrics residency programs. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the ABP website and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All programs that reported pass rates were included. The analysis, comprising univariate and multivariate linear regression, involved determining how 69 factors (eg, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) related to the pass rate. Of 199 programs, 194 reported pass rates. The univariate analysis revealed 20 program characteristics with P-values <0.10. However, in the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with only three program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of US medical graduates, and average hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences. Unlike in previous studies, location and program size were not significantly associated with the pass rate in this multivariate analysis. The finding regarding the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions highlighted the benefits of a well-supervised training environment, while that regarding the percentage of US medical graduates indicated the necessity of high competition in residency programs. Finally, longer hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences were associated with better academic outcomes, both statistically and intuitively.

  3. Residency program characteristics that are associated with pass rate of the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Background The US is home to almost 200 pediatrics residency programs; despite this, there is little information about the relationship between program characteristics and performance in the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying exam. Objective To evaluate the relationship between pass rate of the ABP certifying exam with the characteristics of categorical pediatrics residency programs. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the ABP website and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All programs that reported pass rates were included. The analysis, comprising univariate and multivariate linear regression, involved determining how 69 factors (eg, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment) related to the pass rate. Results Of 199 programs, 194 reported pass rates. The univariate analysis revealed 20 program characteristics with P-values <0.10. However, in the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with only three program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of US medical graduates, and average hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences. Conclusion Unlike in previous studies, location and program size were not significantly associated with the pass rate in this multivariate analysis. The finding regarding the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions highlighted the benefits of a well-supervised training environment, while that regarding the percentage of US medical graduates indicated the necessity of high competition in residency programs. Finally, longer hours per week of regularly scheduled lectures or conferences were associated with better academic outcomes, both statistically and intuitively. PMID:26316837

  4. The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.

    PubMed Central

    Story, M; Faulkner, P

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze messages related to food and eating behavior as presented on prime time television (8:00-11:00 pm) both in programming and commercials. Food references occurred an average of 4.8 times per 30 minutes of programming time. Over half (60 percent) of all food references in programs were for low nutrient beverages and sweets. The prime time diet is inconsistent with dietary guidelines for healthy Americans. PMID:2343968

  5. Process evaluation of a mHealth program: lessons learned from Stop My Smoking USA, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for young adults.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Prescott, Tonya L; Strong, David

    2014-11-01

    Report lessons learned in an RCT of Stop My Smoking (SMS) USA, a mHealth smoking cessation program for young adult smokers. 164 18-24-year-olds were recruited nationally, online in 2011. Program evaluation data were provided at 12-week post-Quit Day. (1) Inviting participants to complete a brief text messaging survey and then asking them to complete a longer online survey resulted in the highest response rate (89%). (2) The positive tone of program messages was the most commonly noted program strength. (3) Suggested improvements included more social connectivity and additional assistance overcoming stressful situations. (4) Half of intervention participants moved through the program linearly and half went through various paths that reflected multiple relapses. Suggestions to use pharmacotherapy resulted in 22% of heavy smokers to utilize it. Participant feedback provided concrete ways in which this and other young adult-focused interventions can improve messaging and program features to be even more salient. Future young adult mHealth interventions could: Integrate models that are flexible to different "paths" of behavior change; address stressful life events directly and comprehensively; integrate proactive messaging that promotes pharmacotherapy options; and use text messaging as a gateway to longer online surveys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  8. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  9. Designing text-messaging (SMS) in HIV programs: ethics-framed recommendations from the field

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Hwang, Bella; Bygrave, Helen; Venables, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Text messages (SMS) are being increasingly integrated into HIV programs across Southern Africa to improve patient adherence, linkage to care and provide psycho-social support. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design of SMS-based interventions for clients of HIV-care services to ensure that any potential harm, such as unwanted disclosure of HIV status, is minimized. In this article we propose a set of best practice recommendations to ensure that any SMS-based intervention considers ethical principles to safeguard safety, autonomy and confidentiality of its targeted HIV-positive beneficiaries. This analysis draws from our operational experience in Southern Africa in the design and conduct of mHealth interventions in the frame of HIV projects. The recommendations, framed in the context of the Belmont Report's three ethical pillars, may contribute to more safely operationalize any SMS service integrated into an HIV program if adopted by mHealth planners and implementers. We encourage actors to report on the ethical and methodological pathways followed when conducting SMS-based innovations to improve the wellbeing and quality provision of HIV-care for their targeted clients. PMID:26421096

  10. Designing text-messaging (SMS) in HIV programs: ethics-framed recommendations from the field.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Guillermo Martínez; Hwang, Bella; Bygrave, Helen; Venables, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Text messages (SMS) are being increasingly integrated into HIV programs across Southern Africa to improve patient adherence, linkage to care and provide psycho-social support. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design of SMS-based interventions for clients of HIV-care services to ensure that any potential harm, such as unwanted disclosure of HIV status, is minimized. In this article we propose a set of best practice recommendations to ensure that any SMS-based intervention considers ethical principles to safeguard safety, autonomy and confidentiality of its targeted HIV-positive beneficiaries. This analysis draws from our operational experience in Southern Africa in the design and conduct of mHealth interventions in the frame of HIV projects. The recommendations, framed in the context of the Belmont Report's three ethical pillars, may contribute to more safely operationalize any SMS service integrated into an HIV program if adopted by mHealth planners and implementers. We encourage actors to report on the ethical and methodological pathways followed when conducting SMS-based innovations to improve the wellbeing and quality provision of HIV-care for their targeted clients.

  11. Do ABFM board pass rates or additional curriculum activities affect match rates for family medicine residency programs?

    PubMed

    Mims, Lisa D; Mainous, Arch G; Chirina, Svetlana; Carek, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    While standard characteristics, such as location and size of family medicine residency programs, have been found to be significantly associated with initial Match rates, the association of characteristics potentially related to quality or non-Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) required curricular activities (NRCA) with initial Match rates has not been previously studied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between initial program Match rates and previously uninvestigated measures of potential quality and curriculum. Using information from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American Medical Association's (AMA) FRIEDA Online® database, and National Resident Matching Program (NRMP), program-specific information was obtained. Five-year aggregate initial Match rates and American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) board pass rates were calculated. The relationship between program quality characteristics, such as accreditation cycle length, ABFM examination pass rate, and participation in NRCA (ie, specialized tracks, Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) initiative, integrative or alternative medicine curriculum, and opportunities for additional training through international experiences or training beyond accredited length), and initial program Match rates were analyzed. Fifty-two percent of residency programs have ABFM board pass rates ? 90%. The initial Match rate for programs was significantly associated with regional location and program size. No significant difference in initial Match rates was found between programs with board pass rates ? or < 90% or those with reported additional curricula. The selected measures of program quality and reported non-ACGME required curricular activities, as listed in the AMA FRIEDA Online® database, are not associated with initial Match rates.

  12. Respectful Alignment of Programs as a Possible Factor in Remedial Writers' Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Mary

    2017-01-01

    For over four years, students enrolled in remedial writing classes who attended eight writing center tutorials directly linked to their assignments had an average pass rate of 95.6 percent, whereas students who did not attend any writing center tutorials had an average pass rate of 39.4 percent. These correlations are just that--correlations that…

  13. Stepwise Development of a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown)

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. Objective To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. Methods We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Results Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Conclusions Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students. PMID:27296471

  14. Formative Research With College Men to Inform Content and Messages for a Web-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Laura F; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; McGroarty-Koon, Kira

    2017-09-01

    To combat the high rates of sexual violence on college campuses, prevention programming should be theoretically driven, persuasive, and salient, and should provide messages that counter negative normative beliefs supportive of sexual violence. We describe qualitative formative research that identifies themes as a means to inform messages and content for a Web-based sexual violence prevention program. To illustrate the process, we used qualitative analysis of eight focus groups (N = 48) with male undergraduates from a large urban, public, Southeastern university. Analyses focused on how men interpret sexual interest, the meaning and methods of obtaining effective consent for sex, sexual encounters that involve alcohol, barriers to and facilitators of bystander intervention, and intervening techniques. We demonstrate how positive and negative themes identified in the analysis can be incorporated into programming segments.

  15. Parlier High School P.A.S.S. Program (Portable Assisted Study Sequence) Year-End Report, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Jane E.

    The Portable Assisted Study Sequence (PASS) Program, designed to provide correspondence course work whereby high school migrant students throughout California may earn credits leading toward completion of their graduation requirements, was evaluated using the following items selected by project staff request, funding guidelines, and consultant…

  16. Adapting the I-PASS Handoff Program for Emergency Department Inter-Shift Handoffs.

    PubMed

    Heilman, James A; Flanigan, Moira; Nelson, Anna; Johnson, Tom; Yarris, Lalena M

    2016-11-01

    Academic emergency department (ED) handoffs are high-risk transfer of care events. Emergency medicine residents are inadequately trained to handle these vital transitions. We aimed to explore what modifications the I-PASS (illness severity, patient summary, action list, situation awareness and contingency plans, and synthesis by receiver) handoff system requires to be effectively modified for use in ED inter-shift handoffs. This mixed-method needs assessment conducted at an academic ED explored the suitability of the I-PASS system for ED handoffs. We conducted a literature review, focus groups, and then a survey. We sought to identify the distinctive elements of ED handoffs and discern how these could be incorporated into the I-PASS system. Focus group participants agreed the patient summary should be adapted to include anticipated disposition of patient. Participants generally endorsed the order and content of the other elements of the I-PASS tool. The survey yielded several wording changes to reflect contextual differences. Themes from all qualitative sources converged to suggest changes for brevity and clarity. Most participants agreed that the I-PASS tool would be well suited to the ED setting. With modifications for context, brevity, and clarity, the I-PASS system may be well suited for application to the ED setting. This study provides qualitative data in support of using the I-PASS tool and concrete suggestions for how to modify the I-PASS tool for the ED. Implementation and outcome research is needed to investigate if the I-PASS tool is feasible and improves patient outcomes in the ED environment.

  17. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  18. Common attributes of high/low performing general surgery programs as they relate to QE/CE pass rates.

    PubMed

    Bankhead-Kendall, Brittany; Slama, Eliza; Truitt, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    This comparative study aims to identify the differences between high and low performing programs as defined by their ABS board pass rates. We identified programs in the top 5% (TP) and lower 5% (LP) for 1st time QE/CE pass rates during the study period with resident and program related variables. All data was pooled and analyzed. TP had more U.S. graduates, higher average USMLE Step 1/2 scores, and all residents took the exam within a year of graduation. TP were more likely to rotate at a Level 1 trauma center, spent more time with simulation, and had numerous fellowship programs. They ascribed their success to mock oral exams, mature curricula, and group educational activities. Graduates of TP chose general surgery twice as often (40% vs 19%). Program related factors (Level 1 trauma, excellent didactics, higher number of fellowships, increased group educational activities, higher percentage of graduates into general surgery) are associated with TP. Our data suggests there may be modifiable program related variables that positively impact QE/CE pass rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  20. The Research of Message Bus Structure in LAMOST Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling-Zhe

    2008-09-01

    The LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope) has now come to its final completion of R&D stage. Major functions of the telescope have successfully passed serial site tests recently, and various kinds of applications integrated into the automation of the telescope chamber is being under vigorous tests too. The TCS (Telescope Control System) is built on multi-layer distributed network platform with many sub-systems at different levels. How to efficiently process the enormous amount of messages with particular implications running in and out of the TCS is one of the major issues of the TCS software programming. This paper describes the mechanism and methodology of the LAMOST message bus structure. The realisation of message bus structure as a result of years of research and site test is presented in general, and dealing with the message priority and manipulating smallest pieces of message in parallel or in serial sequence are elaborated in particular.

  1. Electronic messaging support service programs improve adherence to lipid-lowering therapy among outpatients with coronary artery disease: an exploratory randomised control study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ronghua; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    To compare drug adherence to lipid-lowering therapy among outpatients with coronary artery disease who received information via short message service, via short message service and Micro Letter, or via phone only. Messaging applications and short message service are commonly used internationally. However, little is known about how coronary artery disease outpatients in China may benefit from receiving health education through these technologies. Random sampling method. Data were collected from March-December 2013. Subjects from Chengdu City, China, were randomised to three groups: short message service, short message service + Micro Letter, and phone (control). Appointment reminders and health information were delivered to patients in accordance with designations. After six months, adherence to statin prescriptions was compared among the groups by using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine those independent variables that were related to adherence. The short message service and short message service + Micro Letter groups had better cumulative adherence (lower Morisky Medication Adherence Scale scores) after six months than phone group, and the short message service + Micro Letter group had better cumulative adherence (lower Morisky Medication Adherence Scale scores) than the short message service group. Female sex, older age and marriage show positive associations with adherence. Short message service and messaging applications, such as Micro Letter, are effective means of providing discharged patients with reminders and coronary artery disease-related health information. Implementation of a short message service + Micro Letter program can improve outpatient adherence to medication. This research offers useful information to help medical staff design effective interventions to improve medication compliance among coronary artery disease patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reducing barriers to nursing certification: an analysis of perceptions and impact of PNCB's No Pass, No Pay Program.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The number of board-certified RNs in the United States continues to increase, but cost and fear of failure inhibit many from seeking certification. In 2009, the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board developed a no-risk program called No Pass, No Pay (NPNP) for its Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN®) exam. In 2012, 49% of the 2299 nurses earning CPN certification did so through NPNP. This article explores program structure, successes, and findings from 2011 stakeholder surveys of NPNP hospital leaders, NPNP program facilitators, and nurses who attained CPN certification through NPNP. Aspects of NPNP may prove applicable to other certification boards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  4. State High School Exit Exams: Trends in Test Programs, Alternate Pathways, and Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The report draws from Center on Education Policy's eight-year study of high school exit exams to identify long-term trends in state policies and student performance. It highlights a growing trend among states to establish alternate pathways to graduation for students who are struggling to pass exit exams. The report also analyzes exit exam pass…

  5. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  6. A pilot test of the Self-Management and Research Technology project: A text message-based diabetes self-management program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Collier, Suzanne; Stern, Alexa; Monaghan, Maureen; Streisand, Randi

    2015-09-22

    The aims of this study are to: (1) examine the preliminary utility of the Self-Management and Research Technology (SMART) pilot project, (2) identify which adolescents were most likely to benefit from participation, and (3) examine interview feedback to inform future program iterations. Twenty-three adolescents (M age = 15.13 years) were enrolled in the six-week text message pilot program consisting of daily interactive blood glucose (BG) prompts and type 1 diabetes-related educational text messages. Medical charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c and to corroborate medical record and demographic data. Glucometer data were downloaded to calculate an average monthly BG level and daily BG monitoring frequency. No statistically significant improvements were observed pre-intervention to post-intervention in glycemic outcomes. Participants with a high text message response rate were more likely to demonstrate improvement in average monthly BG levels and daily BG monitoring frequency than those with a low text message response rate. Participants reported satisfaction with the text message program. The text message-based SMART pilot project demonstrated preliminary efficacy for a targeted subset of adolescents who were engaged with the program. Continued research with a larger sample and longer trial duration is warranted to evaluate the potential utility of text message-based interventions.

  7. Enhancing a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program with text messaging: engaging minority youth to develop TOP ® Plus Text.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith

    2014-03-01

    To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Messages about Education in TV Programs Popular with Children and Teenagers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Televised portrayals of variables that are related to educational and occupational aspirations and educational motivation have the potential to influence viewers' attitudes, expectations, and behaviors in these domains. In order to test this premise, a study assessed messages about these variables and about drug use in the prime-time television…

  9. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy -Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation has shown the accomplishments of the PASS project over three decades and highlighted the lessons learned. Over the entire time, our goal has been to continuously improve our process, implement automation for both quality and increased productivity, and identify and remove all defects due to prior execution of a flawed process in addition to improving our processes following identification of significant process escapes. Morale and workforce instability have been issues, most significantly during 1993 to 1998 (period of consolidation in aerospace industry). The PASS project has also consulted with others, including the Software Engineering Institute, so as to be an early evaluator, adopter, and adapter of state-of-the-art software engineering innovations.

  10. Feasibility of bidirectional text messages in evaluating a text-based nutrition education program for low-income parents: Results from the Text2BHealthy program.

    PubMed

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie K; Munger, Ashley L; Speirs, Katherine E; Zemeir, Lindsey A; Richard, Kate C; Worthington, Laryessa

    2017-10-01

    Text messages are increasingly used in the delivery of health education programs. One appealing aspect of this approach is the possibility of remotely collecting participant data to use in program tailoring or evaluation. The purpose of the present study is to test the feasibility of using text messages to collect participant data. Using data from 33 texted evaluation questions sent through the Text2BHealthy nutrition education program for low-income parents (n=108-1521) response rates under different incentive and prompting strategies were examined. Response rates are generally low across a pilot year and three program years, ranging from 10-55%. While incentives seemed to be ineffective at improving response rates, results indicate that prompting participants to respond may increase response rates. Individuals who respond to an initial question are highly likely to respond to a follow-up question (88-99%) and to report positive behaviors (68-100%). Responses received through text may be unrepresentative and positively biased. Text messages may be a supplemental data collection strategy in nutrition education programs, but low response rates and response bias undermine data quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clandestine Message Passing in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 as managerial software to set up person to person matches for any one of the hundreds of titles. The business world has... accounts are free; each additional account costs money. Virtual land can be purchased for a monthly fee. Recently, IBM reverse engineered their VE...million units sold worldwide up to and including the month of June 2008, the Nintendo Wii has outsold both the Xbox (19 million units) and PlayStation 3

  12. Conducting Research in Experience-Based Training and Development Programs: Pass Keys to Locked Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Calls for further research evaluating corporate adventure training (CAT) programs. Reviews activities and benefits associated with CAT, summarizes studies conducted on the efficacy of CAT programs, describes appropriate research designs for investigating how and why CAT programs work, and addresses barriers to producing meaningful research. (LP)

  13. Academic and Demographic Predictors of NCLEX-RN Pass Rates in First- and Second-Degree Accelerated BSN Programs.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud A; Flint, Elizabeth P; Van Dyke, Olga; Yang, Qing; Chiang, Li-Chi

    Relatively few studies have addressed predictors of first-attempt outcomes (pass-fail) on the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) for accelerated BSN programs. The purpose of this study was to compare potential predictors of NCLEX outcomes in graduates of first-degree accelerated (FDA; n=62) and second-degree accelerated (SDA; n=173) BSN programs sharing a common nursing curriculum. In this retrospective study, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression assessed significance of selected demographic and academic characteristics as predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes. FDA graduates were more likely than SDA graduates to fail the NCLEX-RN (P=.0013). FDA graduates were more likely to speak English as a second or additional language (P<.0001), have lower end-of-program GPA and HESI Exit Exam scores (both P<.0001), and have a higher proportions of grades ≤ C (P=.0023). All four variables were significant predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes within both FDA and SDA programs. The only significant predictors in adjusted logistic regression of NCLEX-RN outcome for the pooled FDA+SDA graduate sample were proportion of grades ≤ C (a predictor of NCLEX-RN failure) and HESI Exit Exam score (a predictor of passing NCLEX-RN). Grades of C or lower on any course may indicate inadequate mastery of critical NCLEX-RN content and increased risk of NCLEX-RN failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reaching Hard to Reach Populations with Hard to Communicate Messages: Efficacy of a Breast Health Research Champion Training Program.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Carlin; Ayers, Antoinette; Cadet, Debbie; Quillin, John; Hackney, Mary H

    2015-09-01

    A Breast Health Research Champion training program was a developed targeting self-identified community breast health advocates from a predominant African-American community with a significant breast cancer mortality disparity. Twelve individuals completed the program that provided training in breast cancer risk and screening, breast cancer research, biospecimen in cancer research, and human research subject protection. The training emphasized four key messages to be disseminated to the community. Trainees hosted a minimum of two social chats with individuals from their social networks and functioned as community researchers, acquiring consent and gathering follow-up data from attendees. Trainees reached 199 individuals from their social networks, and chats were diverse in the venue selected, mode of message transmission, and the audience reached. Post/pre questionnaire data from attendees at the chats showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors as it relates to breast cancer screening, clinical research, and biospecimen in research. Forty percent of attendees provided 4-week follow-up information. Of respondents eligible for mammography, 38 % had taken action to be screened, and 86 % of respondents had spoken about the information to someone else in their social network. Trainees expressed feelings of empowerment after completing the project, "feeling like the expert," and all trainees were surprised at the enthusiastic response from attendees of their chats. Trainees continued to disseminate the information learned from the training program during the 6 months following the training, reaching an additional 786 individuals in the community.

  15. The Application of a By-Pass Technique to Programmed Instruction for Managerial Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    The feasibility of using programed instruction materials for a session of a Management Training Conference conducted for first-level supervisory personnel of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation was studied. A programing format utilizing a series of gated segments, each preceded by a test item, was designed to accommodate the variability among…

  16. College Library Directors Mentor Program: "Passing It On:" A Personal Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes the College Library Directors Mentor Program with the Council on Library Resources (CLR) which provides an opportunity for first-year college library directors to benefit from the advice and guidance of more experienced colleagues. Discusses the development of the program, the role of professional library organizations, cost, benefits,…

  17. A content analysis of health and physical activity messages marketed to African American children during after-school television programming.

    PubMed

    Outley, Corliss Wilson; Taddese, Abdissa

    2006-04-01

    To examine the number of food advertisements African American children are exposed to during children's television programming aired on predominantly African American and general television stations. A content analysis was conducted to identify and analyze the health-related content (HRC) and physical activity-related content (PARC) of food advertisements shown during children's television programming. Three sets of television advertisements from 3 stations (Black Entertainment Television, The WB [Warner Bros], and Disney Channel) served as the sample during a 1-week period in July 2005 (July 11-15), from 3 pm to 9 pm. In total, 1098 advertisements were recorded, with 256 food and beverage commercials used for this study. Results indicate that 36.3% of all commercials were based on fast food restaurants, 31.3% were for drinks, 16.8% were for candy, 13.7% were for cereals, and 2.0% were for snacks (percentages do not total 100 because of rounding). Compared with The WB and Disney Channel, Black Entertainment Television had significantly (P=.001) more food and beverage advertisements. Few HRC or PARC advertisements were shown. Of 256 food and beverage commercials, only 8.2% contained HRC and 9.4% had PARC. Also, the HRC and PARC scenes contained messages that were implied vs explicitly talking about the health or physical benefits of the product. African American children are overexposed to numerous types of food and beverage advertisements. These advertisements do not provide an adequate level of positive HRC and PARC messages. Consequently, the messages that are portrayed may undermine efforts to teach African American children about the importance of healthy living and physical activity.

  18. Feasibility and usability of a text message-based program for diabetes self-management in an urban African-American population.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jonathan J; Nundy, Shantanu; Solomon, Marla C; Bishop, Keisha N; Chin, Marshall H; Peek, Monica E

    2011-09-01

    We pilot-tested a text message-based diabetes care program in an urban African-American population in which automated text messages were sent to participants with personalized medication, foot care, and appointment reminders and text messages were received from participants on adherence. Eighteen patients participated in a 4-week pilot study. Baseline surveys collected data about demographics, historical cell phone usage, and adherence to core diabetes care measures. Exit interview surveys (using close-coded and open-ended questions) were administered to patients at the end of the program. A 1-month follow-up interview was conducted surveying patients on perceived self-efficacy. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare baseline survey responses about self-management activities to those at the pilot's end and at 1-month follow-up. Eighteen urban African-American participants completed the pilot study. The average age was 55 and the average number of years with diabetes was 8. Half the participants were initially uncomfortable with text messaging. Example messages include "Did you take your diabetes medications today" and "How many times did you check your feet for wounds this week?" Participants averaged 220 text messages with the system, responded to messages 80% of the time, and on average responded within 6 minutes. Participants strongly agreed that text messaging was easy to perform and helped with diabetes self-care. Missed medication doses decreased from 1.6 per week to 0.6 (p = .003). Patient confidence in diabetes self-management was significantly increased during and 1 month after the pilot (p = .002, p = .008). Text messaging may be a feasible and useful approach to improve diabetes self-management in urban African Americans. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thiha, Phyo; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for “upstream” youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer ‘opinion leader’ programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. Objective To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. Methods In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength–an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program–and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Results Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. Conclusions StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target

  20. Pass the Flame: Tentative Programs of Cultural Heritage Education Among Teenagers in Yuanmingyuan Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Yin, L.; Liu, T.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Yuanmingyuan is a very important cultural heritage site in Beijing, China. In order to improve the conservation of Yuanmingyuan Site and increase communication between the cultural heritage site and the public, especially the teenagers, our institute initiated a serial of education programs in the past two years, cooperating with local schools, including courses on the base of school curriculums, independent cultural heritage summer camp, and special sessions in international cultural heritage symposium. All these programs have received positive feedback and shown promising future.

  1. Development and Application of a Message Metric for NOAA NWS Tsunami Warnings and Recommended Guidelines for the NWS TsunamiReady Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Ricthie, L.; Meinhold, S.; Johnson, V.; Scott, C.; Farnham, C.; Houghton, B. F.; Horan, J.; Gill, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improving the quality and effectiveness of tsunami warning messages and the TsunamiReady community preparedness program of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's (NWS), Tsunami Program are two key objectives of a three year project (Award NA10NWS4670015) to help integrate social science into the NWS' Tsunami Program and improve the preparedness of member states and territories of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Research was conducted in collaboration with state and local emergency managers. Based on findings from focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa), and upon review of research literature on behavioral response to warnings, we developed a warning message metric to help guide revisions to tsunami warning messages issued by the NWS' West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii. The metric incorporates factors that predict response to warning information, which are divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the meaning of metric factors and assigning a maximum score of one point per factor. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. From focus groups that gathered information on the usefulness and achievability of tsunami preparedness actions, we developed recommendations for revisions to the proposed draft guidelines of the TsunamiReady Improvement Program. Proposed key revisions include the incorporation of community vulnerability to distant (far-field) versus local (near-field) tsunamis as a primary determinant of mandatory actions, rather than community population. Our team continues to work with

  2. Integrating Research, Quality Improvement, and Medical Education for Better Handoffs and Safer Care: Disseminating, Adapting, and Implementing the I-PASS Program.

    PubMed

    Starmer, Amy J; Spector, Nancy D; West, Daniel C; Srivastava, Rajendu; Sectish, Theodore C; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2017-07-01

    In 2009 the I-PASS Study Group was formed by patient safety, medical education, health services research, and clinical experts from multiple institutions in the United States and Canada. When the I-PASS Handoff Program, which was developed by the I-PASS Study Group, was implemented in nine hospitals, it was associated with a 30% reduction in injuries due to medical errors and significant improvements in handoff processes, without any adverse effects on provider work flow. To effectively disseminate and adapt I-PASS for use across specialties and disciplines, a series of federally and privately funded dissemination and implementation projects were carried out following the publication of the initial study. The results of these efforts have informed ongoing initiatives intended to continue adapting and scaling the program. As of this writing, I-PASS Study Group members have directly worked with more than 50 hospitals to facilitate implementation of I-PASS. To further disseminate I-PASS, Study Group members delivered hundreds of academic presentations, including plenaries at scientific meetings, workshops, and institutional Grand Rounds. Some 3,563 individuals, representing more than 500 institutions in the 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 57 other countries, have requested access to I-PASS materials. Most recently, the I-PASS(SM) Patient Safety Institute has developed a virtual immersion training platform, mobile handoff observational tools, and processes to facilitate further spread of I-PASS. Implementation of I-PASS has been associated with substantial improvements in patient safety and can be applied to a variety of disciplines and types of patient handoffs. Widespread implementation of I-PASS has the potential to substantially improve patient safety in the United States and beyond. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Passing the Torch: Preparing Teaching Artists through a First-Year ArtsBridge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    During spring, 2005 The University of Montana, Department of Drama/Dance successfully piloted a small ArtsBridge Program through a new service-learning course for advanced dance and drama students. This article describes the process of setting up the university-public school partnership; describes challenges to faculty, staff, scholars and host…

  4. A Text Message Program as a Booster to In-Person Brief Interventions for Mandated College Students to Prevent Weekend Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…

  5. A Text Message Program as a Booster to In-Person Brief Interventions for Mandated College Students to Prevent Weekend Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…

  6. Use of NWSChat (Instant Messaging program) as a coordination tool during the 2009 Redoubt Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Jones, D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) based Instant Messaging service, NWSChat, is used for sharing critical warning decision expertise and other types of significant weather information between the NWS and partners in all levels of government, emergency managers, and the media. NWSChat allows multiple users to send messages to each other in forums known as “chat rooms.” NWSChat is used to enhance decision support during discussions related to high impact weather events, and improve outreach and real-time feed-back from partners. This information is exchanged with the media and emergency response community, who in turn play a key role in communicating the NWS’s hazardous weather messages to the public. NWSChat also provides media and emergency response partners with the ability to communicate significant event reports back to NWS operational personnel, who in turn utilize the information to make effective warning decisions. NWS partners can also use the Service as an efficient means of seeking clarifications and enhancements to the communication stream originating from the NWS. NWSChat will include a wide variety of types of information. Some of this information will include contents of official NWS products available through other NWS systems and thus available to the public. However, other NWSChat content may include preliminary data which has not been screened by NWS for accuracy or applicability; highly technical discussions, some of them speculative, regarding atmospheric or other environmental conditions; and other types of information not intended for a general audience. NWSChat participants are expected to avoid release of information to a broader audience that might be misinterpreted or cause confusion. NWSChat is an enhancement to communications between the NWS and its partners, and is not intended to replace official NWS products or official means of communications. In March 2009, the NWS stood up a Redoubt chatroom just prior to the first eruption

  7. A Research Protocol to Test the Effectiveness of Text Messaging and Reminder Calls to Increase Service Use Referrals in a Community Engagement Program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phoned–based interventions have been increasingly used in clinical populations to improve health and health care delivery. The literature has shown that mobile phone–based text messages (short message service, SMS) are instantaneous, cost effective, and have less chance of being misplaced. Studies using mobile phone based–text messages have reported text messages as effective reminders that have resulted in increased appointment attendance, adherence to treatment, and better self-management. There have been no reports of adverse events when using text messaging in terms of misreading or misinterpreting data, transmitting inaccurate data, losing verbal or nonverbal communication cues, privacy issues, or failure or delay in message delivery. However, the literature has cited a need for personalized messages that are more responsive to individual needs. In addition, there has been a dearth of information on the use of reminders in nonclinical populations. Objective The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of adding reminders in the form of text messaging versus reminder calls versus text messages and reminder calls to increase use of service referrals provided through community outreach. Methods A total of 300 participants will be recruited for the study. Each participant will be randomized to one of three arms: a group that receives only reminder calls (CALLSONLY); a group that receives only text message reminders (TEXTONLY); and a group that receives both reminder calls and text messages (CALLS+TEXT). All groups will receive their reminder intervention on the 15th and 45th day after baseline when they receive medical and social service referrals from the community health workers (CHWs). A standard script will be used to administer the call and text reminders and a 15-item telephone-based satisfaction survey will be administered to assess the participant satisfaction with the process of receiving periodic reminders. Results The

  8. Medicaid Program; The Use of New or Increased Pass-Through Payments in Medicaid Managed Care Delivery Systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-18

    This rule finalizes changes to the pass-through payment transition periods and the maximum amount of pass-through payments permitted annually during the transition periods under Medicaid managed care contract(s) and rate certification(s). This final rule prevents increases in pass-through payments and the addition of new pass-through payments beyond those in place when the pass-through payment transition periods were established, in the final Medicaid managed care regulations effective July 5, 2016.

  9. A Pilot Program: Using Text Messaging to Improve Timely Communication to Tonsillectomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Newton, Laurie; Sulman, Cecille

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1,500 tonsillectomies are performed annually at a large pediatric academic medical center each year. Families need to be educated on how to care for their child after this surgery. Most tonsillectomy patients are discharged home either the same day as surgery or after one night of observation, resulting in post-operative tonsillectomy recovery and care falling upon the patient's family. Multiple quality improvement efforts to improve family education post tonsillectomy surgery have been performed over the last several years at a large pediatric academic medical center. None of these efforts, however, have focused on the use of technology to provide innovative patient education. The purpose of this project is to provide information to parents via text messages and videos to improve patient experience and outcomes following tonsillectomy. Families provided positive feedback, including that the texts were helpful, easy to understand, and reduced pre-operative and recovery anxiety. Also, none of these families needed to call the ENT clinic for any other questions or concerns. The recovery from tonsillectomy is not easy and this pediatric otolaryngology practice is always searching for new ways to improve care and education. Use of technology is an innovative approach and likely one that will be used more often in the future.

  10. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program.

    PubMed

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-06-08

    Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ(2)(1)=7.08, P=.008). This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self-affirmation can be integrated into existing

  11. Canada's New National Childcare Program: Ensuring the Rural Message Is Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Sue; Olfert, M. Rose; Tsetso, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The government of Canada announced in the October 2004 Speech from the Throne that it will move ahead with its long-awaited national childcare program. In early 2005, federal, provincial and territorial ministers will meet to forge a deal for a national childcare program. The national Advisory Committee on Rural Issues applauds this attention to…

  12. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  13. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  14. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  15. The Message of Starlight, Book 4. The University of Illinois Astronomy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book four in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This document terms the analysis of light as an essential clue to understanding astronomical phenomena. Topics discussed include: thm behavior of light; the wave model and…

  16. Effectiveness of 6 months of tailored text message reminders for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-02-03

    Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group's weight loss compared with the control group. A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI -2.53 to -0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI -2.45 to -0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference -0.15, 95% CI -1.36 to 1.07). At the end of the study, 60% (34/57) of the intervention group

  17. The LIVE Network: a music-based messaging program to promote ART adherence self-management.

    PubMed

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Ofotokun, Igho; Higgins, Melinda; Logwood, Steven

    2013-11-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the efficacy, acceptability, and feasibility of a music program, The LIVE Network (LN), compared to standard care on outcomes of ART adherence, clinical indicators, and self-efficacy. The study was powered to detect differences at p < 0.1. We enrolled and followed 77 participants for 12 weeks (T3). Mean monthly pill counts (PC) declined over time in both groups. Although not significant, the LN had higher PC and a larger proportion had plasma antiretroviral trough levels within therapeutic range. The LN group did have significantly (p < 0.1) increased levels of adherence self-efficacy and decrease in viral loads.

  18. The LIVE Network: A Music-Based Messaging Program to Promote ART Adherence Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Ofotokun, Igho; Higgins, Melinda; Logwood, Steven

    2013-01-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the efficacy, acceptability, and feasibility of a music program, The LIVE Network (LN), compared to standard care on outcomes of ART adherence, clinical indicators, and self-efficacy. The study was powered to detect differences at p < 0.1. We enrolled and followed 77 participants for 12 weeks (T3). Mean monthly pill counts (PC) declined over time in both groups. Although not significant, the LN had higher PC and a larger proportion had plasma anti-retroviral trough levels within therapeutic range. The LN group did have significantly (p < 0.1) increased levels of adherence self-efficacy and decrease in viral loads. PMID:23934269

  19. Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers’ Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Shuai; Sylvia, Sean; Yue, Ai; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China. Methods. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model. Results. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.12, −0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = −0.03; 95% CI = −0.09, 0.03). Conclusions. Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children’s nutrition. PMID:27077354

  20. Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers' Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Shuai; Luo, Renfu; Sylvia, Sean; Yue, Ai; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-07-01

    To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = -0.07; 95% CI = -0.12, -0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.09, 0.03). Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children's nutrition.

  1. Randomized trial of an obesity prevention intervention that embeds weight-related messages within a general parenting program

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gross, Deborah; McDonald, Julia; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which an obesity prevention intervention that embeds obesity-related messages within a parenting program, compared with controls who received weekly mailings, resulted in a smaller increase in children’s BMI (primary outcome) and improvements in weight-related behaviors from baseline to 9-month follow-up. Methods We randomized 56 families to the intervention and 56 to control. Children were primarily Hispanic (58%) or Black/African American (23%). Intervention included 9, weekly: 1) group parenting sessions, 2) children’s program, and 3) homework assignments. At baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up, staff assessed children’s weight and height. Parents completed surveys assessing parenting skills, feeding behaviors, and children’s weight-related behaviors. Results From baseline to 9-month follow-up, BMI decreased by a mean of 0.13 kg/m2 among children in the intervention and increased by 0.21 kg/m2 among children in the control, resulting in a non-significant difference (multivariate adjusted difference =−0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.23, 0.51; P=0.41). Parents in the intervention decreased restrictive feeding practices relative to control (−0.30; 95% CI −0.53,−0.07; P=0.01). Intervention and control arms showed similar changes in children’s weight-related behaviors. Conclusions The intervention improved restrictive feeding, but did not influence children’s BMI or weight-related behaviors compared to controls who received weekly mailings. Trial Registration NCT02222766 PMID:26638185

  2. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned Detail Historical Timeline Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) and the people who developed and maintained this system. One theme is to provide quantitative data on software quality and reliability over a 30 year period. Consistent data relates to code break discrepancies. Requirements were supplied from external sources. Requirement inspections and measurements not implemented until later, beginning in 1985. Second theme is to focus on the people and organization of PASS. Many individuals have supported the PASS project over the entire period while transitioning from company to company and contract to contract. Major events and transitions have impacted morale (both positively and negatively) across the life of the project.

  3. Editor's message: Student involvement

    Treesearch

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    In the initial Editor's Message of this volume, I stated my intent to involve more students in the publication process. A number of people commented on it being a good idea, but only a couple have followed up. One was Paul Krausman, President of The Wildlife Society. We matched graduate students from the University of Montana wildlife program with manuscripts...

  4. President's Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy

    2007-01-01

    In this message from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) president, Andy Stephenson stresses the need for technology, innovation, design, and engineering (TIDE) education. He cites the recent report--"Preparing for the Perfect Storm, a Report on the Forum, Taking Action Together: Developing a National Plan to Address the…

  5. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  6. Subtle Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  7. Subtle Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  8. President's Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy

    2007-01-01

    In this message from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) president, Andy Stephenson stresses the need for technology, innovation, design, and engineering (TIDE) education. He cites the recent report--"Preparing for the Perfect Storm, a Report on the Forum, Taking Action Together: Developing a National Plan to Address the…

  9. PASS Program. SSA Work Incentive for Disabled Beneficiaries Poorly Managed. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate, and the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office reviewed the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Plan for Achieving Self-Support (PASS) program, which was established in 1972 to help disability benefit recipients return to employment. The study evaluated the SSA's management of the PASS program, including the program's impact on employment, and sought to…

  10. Making your message competitive

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Ulick, B.D.; Bradford, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Even in the best of situations, effective communication can be difficult to achieve. For those working in fields that are highly controversial and technical, where an ability to communicate effectively with the general public is fundamental to the success of a project or program, this task can be particularly onerous. This is especially true for communicators working in the nuclear arena, such as the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Although these difficulties exist as a part of daily communications, numerous lessons have been learned that may be applicable for others in the field. A variety of factors can influence the effectiveness of communications. These include a message`s relative complexity, its salience, competing messages, verbal and nonverbal cues, and, perhaps most importantly, the role played by the news media. To communicate effectively with one`s audience, it is essential that each of these factors be considered and used to advantage.

  11. [Effects of a smoking cessation program including telephone counseling and text messaging using stages of change for outpatients after a myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Kong, Jung-Hyeon; Ha, Yeongmi

    2013-08-01

    This study was done to identify effects of a smoking cessation program including telephone counseling and text messaging using stages of change for outpatients who have had a myocardial infarction (MI). This research was a quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. The participants were 48 outpatients (experimental group=24, control group=24) recruited from one university hospital. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) an experimental group with telephone counseling (once a week) and text messaging (five times a week) using stages of change, and (b) a control group with traditional telephone counseling (once a month). Efficacy of the intervention was measured by comparing the two groups on smoking-related variables at 3 weeks and 12 weeks. At the 3-week and 12-week measurements, there were significant differences between the experimental and control groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy (p<.001), nicotine dependence (p<.001), CO levels (p<.001), and smoking cessation rates (p<.001). The results indicate that the smoking cessation program including telephone counseling and text messaging using stages of change is effective for outpatients after a MI. Further attention should be paid to the intensity of the smoking cessation program and periods for long-term follow-up.

  12. Effects of changes in click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) pass criteria, as used in the English newborn hearing screening program, on screening outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens, John; Brandreth, Marian; Bacon, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There were two objectives, firstly what effect does a change in the pass criteria of a click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) newborn hearing screen have on the number of cases of significant hearing impairment detected by follow up diagnostics, and secondly how does this change affect the screen pass rate? Changes in the pass criteria were: reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); reduction in the minimum signal level (MSL); inclusion of the 1-kHz half-octave band; reduction from two to a single half-octave band. Data from three screening sites was used within the English newborn hearing screening program from the period 2002 to 2006, with a total number of births of about 40,000. There were 42 bilateral and 43 unilateral cases of significant hearing impairment. No effect on the number of cases detected by follow up diagnostics was observed when: (1) SNR was reduced to a minimum of 5 dB; (2) MSL was reduced to -10 dB SPL; and (3) the 1-kHz band was included. With all these changes the percentage pass rate improved by 0.36%. The current choice of SNR and MSL criteria appears robust. Only a small increase in pass rate is possible without affecting case detection.

  13. Deaf Children's Referential Messages to Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay-Soroka, Sherri; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examination of the nature and quality of deaf children's referential messages to their mothers, the outcome of such messages, and the reformulations of "failed" messages. Deaf children 6-10 years old, from oral or bimodal educational programs, were tested in two tasks involving identification and description of a picture. (Author/BN)

  14. Users manual for the Chameleon parallel programming tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1993-06-01

    Message passing is a common method for writing programs for distributed-memory parallel computers. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard for message passing has hampered the construction of portable and efficient parallel programs. In an attempt to remedy this problem, a number of groups have developed their own message-passing systems, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Chameleon is a second-generation system of this type. Rather than replacing these existing systems, Chameleon is meant to supplement them by providing a uniform way to access many of these systems. Chameleon`s goals are to (a) be very lightweight (low over-head), (b) be highly portable, and (c) help standardize program startup and the use of emerging message-passing operations such as collective operations on subsets of processors. Chameleon also provides a way to port programs written using PICL or Intel NX message passing to other systems, including collections of workstations. Chameleon is tracking the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) draft standard and will provide both an MPI implementation and an MPI transport layer. Chameleon provides support for heterogeneous computing by using p4 and PVM. Chameleon`s support for homogeneous computing includes the portable libraries p4, PICL, and PVM and vendor-specific implementation for Intel NX, IBM EUI (SP-1), and Thinking Machines CMMD (CM-5). Support for Ncube and PVM 3.x is also under development.

  15. Text message reminders for improving patient appointment adherence in an office-based buprenorphine program: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tofighi, Babak; Grazioli, Frank; Bereket, Sewit; Grossman, Ellie; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Lee, Joshua David

    2017-09-01

    Missed visits are common in office-based buprenorphine treatment (OBOT). The feasibility of text message (TM) appointment reminders among OBOT patients is unknown. This 6-month prospective cohort study provided TM reminders to OBOT program patients (N = 93). A feasibility survey was completed following delivery of TM reminders and at 6 months. Respondents reported that the reminders should be provided to all OBOT patients (100%) and helped them to adhere to their scheduled appointment (97%). At 6 months, there were no reports of intrusion to their privacy or disruption of daily activities due to the TM reminders. Most participants reported that the TM reminders were helpful in adhering to scheduled appointments (95%), that the reminders should be offered to all clinic patients (95%), and favored receiving only TM reminders rather than telephone reminders (95%). Barriers to adhering to scheduled appointment times included transportation difficulties (34%), not being able to take time off from school or work (31%), long clinic wait-times (9%), being hospitalized or sick (8%), feeling sad or depressed (6%), and child care (6%). This study demonstrated the acceptability and feasibility of TM appointment reminders in OBOT. Older age and longer duration in buprenorphine treatment did not diminish interest in receiving the TM intervention. Although OBOT patients expressed concern regarding the privacy of TM content sent from their providers, privacy issues were uncommon among this cohort. Scientific Significance Findings from this study highlighted patient barriers to adherence to scheduled appointments. These barriers included transportation difficulties (34%), not being able to take time off from school or work (31%), long clinic lines (9%), and other factors that may confound the effect of future TM appointment reminder interventions. Further research is also required to assess 1) the level of system changes required to integrate TM appointment reminder tools with

  16. Adapting a Database of Text Messages to a Mobile-Based Weight Loss Program: The Case of the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Behih, Nawal; Shahzad, Maahd; Anggraini, Aysha

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Qatar, a rapidly developing country in the Middle East, has seen a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity. The increase can be attributed to several reasons, including sedentary lifestyles imposed by a harsh climate and the introduction of Western fast food. Mobile technologies have been used and studied as a technology to support individuals' weight loss. The authors have developed a mobile application that implements three strategies drawn from proven theories of behavioral change. The application is localized to the cultural context of its proposed users. The objective of this paper is to present a method through which we adapted the messaging content of a weight loss application to the context of its users while retaining an effective degree of automation. The adaptation addressed body image, eating and physical exercise habits, and regional/cultural needs. The paper discusses how surveying potential users can be used to build a profile of a target population, find common patterns, and then develop a database of text messages. The text messages are automated and sent to the users at specific times of day, as suggested by the survey results. PMID:24511311

  17. Modularity, reuse and efficiency with message-driven libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, L.V.; Gursoy, A.

    1995-12-01

    Software re-use via libraries is a strategy that allows the cost of software to be amortized. A parallel programming system must support the ability to develop modules that can be {open_quotes}fitted together{close_quotes} in a variety of contexts. Although it is important to be able to reuse parallel libraries, it is also more difficult to use parallel modules in comparison to sequential module. We present a methodology for developing libraries that addresses these issues effectively. The methodology, which is embodied in the Charm system, employs message-driven execution (in contrast to traditional, receive based message passing), information sharing abstractions, the notion of branched objects, and explicit support for modules.

  18. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  19. A Text-Messaging and Pedometer Program to Promote Physical Activity in People at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Development of the PROPELS Follow-On Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Katie; Sutton, Stephen; Hardeman, Wendy; Troughton, Jacqui; Yates, Tom; Griffin, Simon; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represent a promising strategy for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. The PROPELS trial investigates whether structured group-based education alone or supplemented with a follow-on support program combining self-monitoring with pedometers and tailored text-messaging is effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity among people at high risk of T2DM. Objective This paper describes the iterative development of the PROPELS follow-on support program and presents evidence on its acceptability and feasibility. Methods We used a modified mHealth development framework with four phases: (1) conceptualization of the follow-on support program using theory and evidence, (2) formative research including focus groups (n=15, ages 39-79 years), (3) pre-testing focus groups using a think aloud protocol (n=20, ages 52-78 years), and (4) piloting (n=11). Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach, with findings from each phase informing subsequent phases. Results The first three phases informed the structure, nature, and content of the follow-on support program, including the frequency of text messages, the need for tailored content and two-way interaction, the importance of motivational messages based on encouragement and reinforcement of affective benefits (eg, enjoyment) with minimal messages about weight and T2DM risk, and the need for appropriate language. The refined program is personalized and tailored to the individual’s perceived confidence, previous activity levels, and physical activity goals. The pilot phase indicated that the program appeared to fit well with everyday routines and was easy to use by older adults. Conclusions We developed a feasible and innovative text messaging and pedometer program based on evidence and behavior change theory and grounded in the experiences, views, and needs of people at high diabetes risk. A large scale trial is testing the effectiveness of this 4-year

  20. The Advanced Placement Program Benefits Mainly Well-Prepared Students Who Pass AP Exams. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Achievement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many policymakers and education leaders have embraced the Advanced Placement (AP) Program as a tool to strengthen the high school curriculum and prepare students for college. The popularity of the AP program among these policy leaders reflects their belief that the traditional high school curriculum has often failed to provide rigorous courses…

  1. The Effectiveness of Texas Teacher Certification Programs as Evidenced through Pass Rates on TExES PPR 160 Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouse, Scarlet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between alternative certification pathways, specifically those offered through a university-based, post baccalaureate certification program and a regional education service center certification program. A quantitative research design was implemented and archived scores on the TExES PPR…

  2. The Effectiveness of Texas Teacher Certification Programs as Evidenced through Pass Rates on TExES PPR 160 Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouse, Scarlet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between alternative certification pathways, specifically those offered through a university-based, post baccalaureate certification program and a regional education service center certification program. A quantitative research design was implemented and archived scores on the TExES PPR…

  3. Parents Working Together: development and feasibility trial of a workplace-based program for parents that incorporates general parenting and health behaviour messages.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Lero, Donna; Smofsky, Allan; Gross, Deborah; Haines, Jess

    2016-11-10

    Parenting programs integrating general parenting and health behaviour messaging may be an effective childhood obesity prevention strategy. The current study explored workplaces as an alternate setting to deliver parenting programs. This study involved two phases. The objective of the first phase was to explore interest in and preferred delivery mode of a workplace program that addresses general parenting and health behaviours. The objective of the second phase was to adapt and test the feasibility and acceptability of a pre-existing program that has been successfully run in community settings for parents in their workplace. To achieve the first objective, we conducted 9 individual or small group qualitative interviews with 11 workplace representatives involved in employee wellness/wellness programming from 8 different organizations across Southwestern Ontario. To achieve the second objective, we adapted a pre-existing program incorporating workplace representatives' suggestions to create Parents Working Together (PWT). We then tested the program using a pre/post uncontrolled feasibility trial with 9 employees of a large manufacturing company located in Guelph, Ontario. Results from the qualitative phase showed that a workplace parenting program that addresses general parenting and health behaviour messages is of interest to workplaces. Results from the feasibility trial suggest that PWT is feasible and well received by participants; attendance rates were high with 89 % of the participants attending 5 or more sessions and 44 % attending all 7 sessions offered. All participants stated they would recommend the program to co-workers. Just over half of our parent participants were male (55.6 %), which is a unique finding as the majority of existing parenting programs engage primarily mothers. Impact evaluation results suggest that changes in children's and parents' weight-related behaviours, as well as parents' reports of family interfering with work were in the

  4. Mixed messages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  5. Ethical Considerations in Recruiting Online and Implementing a Text Messaging-Based HIV Prevention Program With Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory L; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-07-01

    There is a dearth of HIV prevention/healthy sexuality programs developed for adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) as young as 14 years old, in part because of the myriad ethical concerns. To address this gap, we present our ethics-related experiences implementing Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program, in a randomized controlled trial of 302 14- to 18-year-old sexual minority males. Potential risks and efforts to reduce these risks are discussed within the framework of the Belmont Report: Respect for persons, beneficence (e.g., risks and benefits), and justice (e.g., fair distribution of benefits and burdens). To ensure "respect for persons," online enrollment was coupled with telephone assent, which included assessing decisional capacity to assent. Beneficence was promoted by obtaining a waiver of parental permission and using a self-safety assessment to help youth evaluate their risk in taking part. Justice was supported through efforts to develop and test the program among those who would be most likely to use it if it were publicly available (e.g., youth who own a cell phone and are enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan), along with the use of recruitment targets to ensure a racially, ethnically, and regionally diverse sample. It is possible to safely implement a sensitive and HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program with sexual minority youth as young as 14 years old when a rigorous ethical protocol is in place. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Text Messaging Among Residents and Faculty in a University General Surgery Residency Program: Prevalence, Purpose, and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R.; Galante, Joseph M.; Bold, Richard J.; Canter, Robert J.; Martinez, Steve R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little information about the use of text messaging (texting) devices among resident and faculty physicians for patient-related care (PRC). Objective To determine the prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding texting among resident and attending surgeons and to identify factors associated with PRC texting. Design Email survey Setting University medical center and its affiliated hospitals Participants Surgery resident and attending staff Outcome Measures Prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding patient-related care text messaging. Results Overall, 73 (65%) surveyed physicians responded, including 45 resident (66%) and 28 attending surgeons (62%). All respondents owned a texting device. Majority of surgery residents (88%) and attendings (71%) texted residents while only 59% of residents and 65% of attendings texted other faculty. Most resident to resident text occurred at a frequency of 3–5 times/day (43%) compared to most attending to resident texts which occurred 1–2 times/day (33%). Most resident to attending (25%) and attending to attending (30%) texts occurred 1–2 times/day. Among those that texted, PRC was the most frequently reported purpose for resident to resident (46%), resident to attending (64%), attending to resident (82%), and attending to other attending staff (60%) texting. Texting was the most preferred method to communicate about routine PRC (47% of residents vs. 44% of attendings). Age (odds ratio: 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79–0.95; p=0.003), but not sex, specialty/clinical rotation, academic rank or PGY level predicted PRC texting. Conclusions The majority of resident and attending staff surveyed utilize texting, mostly for PRC. Texting was preferred for communicating routine PRC information. Our data may facilitate the development of guidelines for the appropriate use of PRC texting. PMID:24209663

  7. Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans as a Strategy to Increase Pass Rates on the National Licensure Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Virginia S.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate…

  8. Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans as a Strategy to Increase Pass Rates on the National Licensure Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Virginia S.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate…

  9. Self-Talk in Wheelchair Basketball: The Effects of an Intervention Program on Dribbling and Passing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…

  10. 78 FR 62657 - Proposed Information Collection; The Interagency Access Pass and Senior Pass Application Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; The Interagency Access Pass and Senior Pass... Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Pass Program covers recreation opportunities on public lands managed... U.S. Forest Service. The passes provide U.S. citizens and visitors an affordable and convenient...

  11. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part I): Assessment of Participant Reach and Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background There are an estimated 25.8 million American children and adults, equivalent to 8.3% of the US population, living with diabetes. Diabetes is particularly burdensome on minority populations. The use of mobile technologies for reaching broad populations is a promising approach, given its wide footprint and ability to deliver inexpensive personalized messages, to increase awareness of type 2 diabetes and promote behavior changes targeting risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing mobile health information service, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. Txt4health is a mobile health information service designed to help people understand their risk for type 2 diabetes and become more informed about the steps they can take to lead healthy lives. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health reach and adoption by focusing on enrollment and participant engagement in program pilots in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a retrospective records analysis of individual-level txt4health system data from participants in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati to determine participant usage of txt4health and engagement with the program. Results Results from the retrospective records analysis revealed that 5570 participants initiated the 2-step enrollment process via 1 of 3 enrollment strategies: text message, website, or directly with Beacon staff who signed participants up via the website. In total, 33.00% (1838/5570) of participants completed the 2-step enrollment process and were fully enrolled in the program. All participants (100.00%, 1620/1620) who enrolled via text message completed the entire 2-step enrollment

  12. Impact of a clinical program using weekly Short Message Service (SMS) on antiretroviral therapy adherence support in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Georgette, Nathan; Siedner, Mark J; Petty, Carter R; Zanoni, Brian C; Carpenter, Stephen; Haberer, Jessica E

    2017-02-20

    In randomized controlled trials, short message service (SMS) programs have improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). In response, the World Health Organization recommended use of SMS programs to support ART. However, there is limited data on real-world implementations of SMS programs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of an SMS program to improve ART adherence in a government-run HIV clinic in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from all adult patients who 1) enrolled at the clinic before the observation period (July 2013 through June 2014), 2) had ≥1 ART prescriptions in the observation period, and 3) had data on phone number availability (N = 2255). Our main outcome measure was prescription coverage, defined as the presence of a valid ART prescription for each day observed. We fit generalized linear mixed models adjusted for pre-program prescription coverage, demographics, and ART duration, dosing, and regimen. Exposure to the SMS program was independently associated with greater prescription coverage (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.34, P < 0.001) compared with non-exposure, although the absolute increase in prescription coverage was small (4.7 days of ART prescription coverage per average patient per year). Among a subset of patients (n = 725) whose pre-program prescription coverage was <100%, the corresponding mean expected absolute increase in prescription coverage was 8.2 days per year. Our primary finding was that an SMS reminder program implemented in routine clinical care was associated with a small increase in prescription coverage of uncertain clinical significance.

  13. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in "tween" television.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Courtney C; Kwitowski, Melissa; Boutte, Rachel; Gow, Rachel W; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-12-01

    Tweens (children ages ~8-14years) are a relatively recently defined age group, increasingly targeted by marketers. Individuals in this age group are particularly vulnerable to opinions and behaviors presented in media messages, given their level of cognitive and social development. However, little research has examined messages about appearance, food, weight, and exercise in television specifically targeting tweens, despite the popularity of this media type among this age group. This study used a content analytic approach to explore these messages in the five most popular television shows for tweens on the Disney Channel (as of 2015). Using a multiple-pass approach, relevant content in episodes from the most recently completed seasons of each show was coded. Appearance related incidents occurred in every episode; these most frequently mentioned attractiveness/beauty. Food related incidents were also present in every episode; typically, these situations were appearance and weight neutral. Exercise related incidents occurred in 53.3% of episodes; the majority expressed resistance to exercise. Weight related incidents occurred in 40.0% of the episodes; the majority praised the muscular ideal. Women were more likely to initiate appearance incidents, and men were more likely to initiate exercise incidents. These results suggest that programs specifically marketed to tweens reinforce appearance ideals, including stereotypes about female attractiveness and male athleticism, two constructs linked to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Given the developmental vulnerability of the target group, these findings are concerning, and highlight potential foci for prevention programming, including media literacy, for tweens.

  14. Recall of television commercials as a function of viewing context: the impact of program-commercial congruity on commercial messages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the congruity between the involvement types of advertising commercial and a television program on the effectiveness of the commercial was studied. Participants (N = 103) viewed either a cognitive or an affective commercial for a product, which was embedded in either a cognitive or an affective television program. The results showed that the effects of the congruence influence the impact on memory. Free recall and cued recall were significantly influenced by the program-commercial congruity. Free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving program context than in the affectively involving program context. Similarly, free recall and cued recall were significantly higher for the affectively involving commercial in the affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.

  15. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  16. Multimedia messages in genetics: design, development, and evaluation of a computer-based instructional resource for secondary school students in a Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program.

    PubMed

    Gason, Alexandra A; Aitken, MaryAnne; Delatycki, Martin B; Sheffield, Edith; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2004-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder, for which carrier screening programs exist worldwide. Education for those offered a screening test is essential in facilitating informed decision-making. In Melbourne, Australia, we have designed, developed, and evaluated a computer-based instructional resource for use in the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program for secondary school students attending Jewish schools. The resource entitled "Genetics in the Community: Tay Sachs disease" was designed on a platform of educational learning theory. The development of the resource included formative evaluation using qualitative data analysis supported by descriptive quantitative data. The final resource was evaluated within the screening program and compared with the standard oral presentation using a questionnaire. Knowledge outcomes were measured both before and after either of the educational formats. Data from the formative evaluation were used to refine the content and functionality of the final resource. The questionnaire evaluation of 302 students over two years showed the multimedia resource to be equally effective as an oral educational presentation in facilitating participants' knowledge construction. The resource offers a large number of potential benefits, which are not limited to the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program setting, such as delivery of a consistent educational message, short delivery time, and minimum financial and resource commitment. This article outlines the value of considering educational theory and describes the process of multimedia development providing a framework that may be of value when designing genetics multimedia resources in general.

  17. Alcohol Messages in Prime-Time Television Series

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA; RUSSELL, DALE W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol messages contained in television programming serve as sources of information about drinking. To better understand the ways embedded messages about alcohol are communicated, it is crucial to objectively monitor and analyze television alcohol depictions. This article presents a content analysis of an eight-week sample of eighteen prime-time programs. Alcohol messages were coded based on modalities of presentation, level of plot connection, and valence. The analysis reveals that mixed messages about alcohol often coexist but the ways in which they are presented differ: whereas negative messages are tied to the plot and communicated verbally, positive messages are associated with subtle visual portrayals. PMID:21188281

  18. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part II): Assessment of Participants' Perceptions on Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. This program was marketed via large public health campaigns and drew many users within the respective communities. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health efficacy by focusing on perceptions of satisfaction, usage, and behavior change among individuals who used txt4health in pilot studies in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a multimodal user survey with txt4health users recruited via text message through the program to understand participant perceptions of program use and satisfaction, as well as self-reported perceptions of behavior change as a result of using txt4health. Results Txt4health users reported very high levels of program satisfaction, with 67.1% (108/161) reporting satisfaction scores of ≥8 on a 10-point scale, with 10 equivalent to most satisfied (mean 8.2, SD 1.6). All survey participants agreed/strongly agreed that the messages included in txt4health were clear and easy to understand (100.0%, 160/160), and most found txt4health made them knowledgeable about their risk for type 2 diabetes (88.1%, 140/159) and made them conscious of their diet and physical activity (88.8%, 142/160). Most participants reported that txt4health helped them to make behavior changes related to diet; after having completed txt4health

  19. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  20. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  1. Optimizing spread dynamics on graphs by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Dall'Asta, L.; Zecchina, R.

    2013-09-01

    Cascade processes are responsible for many important phenomena in natural and social sciences. Simple models of irreversible dynamics on graphs, in which nodes activate depending on the state of their neighbors, have been successfully applied to describe cascades in a large variety of contexts. Over the past decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the typical behavior of the cascades arising from initial conditions extracted at random from some given ensemble. However, the problem of optimizing the trajectory of the system, i.e. of identifying appropriate initial conditions to maximize (or minimize) the final number of active nodes, is still considered to be practically intractable, with the only exception being models that satisfy a sort of diminishing returns property called submodularity. Submodular models can be approximately solved by means of greedy strategies, but by definition they lack cooperative characteristics which are fundamental in many real systems. Here we introduce an efficient algorithm based on statistical physics for the optimization of trajectories in cascade processes on graphs. We show that for a wide class of irreversible dynamics, even in the absence of submodularity, the spread optimization problem can be solved efficiently on large networks. Analytic and algorithmic results on random graphs are complemented by the solution of the spread maximization problem on a real-world network (the Epinions consumer reviews network).

  2. Sharing Memory Robustly in Message-Passing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-16

    ust: a very restricted form of communication. Chor and Moscovici ([20]) present a hierarchy of resiliency for problems in shared-memory systems and...1985. [20] B. Chor, and L. Moscovici , Solvability in Asynchronous Environments, Proc. 30th Syrup. on Foun- * dations of Comp. Sc~en ce, pp. 422-427, 1989

  3. Characterizing Computation-Communication Overlap in Message-Passing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Bernholdt; Jarek Nieplocha; P. Sadayappan; Aniruddha G. Shet; Vinod Tipparaju

    2008-01-31

    Effective overlap of computation and communication is a well understood technique for latency hiding and can yield significant performance gains for applications on high-end computers. In this report, we describe an instrumentation framework developed for messagepassing systems to characterize the degree of overlap of communication with computation in the execution of parallel applications. The inability to obtain precise time-stamps for pertinent communication events is a significant problem, and is addressed by generation of minimum and maximum bounds on achieved overlap. The overlap measures can aid application developers and system designers in investigating scalability issues. The approach has been used to instrument two MPI implementations as well as the ARMCI system. The implementation resides entirely within the communication library and thus integrates well with existing approaches that operate outside the library. The utility of the framework is demonstrated by analyzing communication-computation overlap for micro-benchmarks and the NAS benchmarks, and the insights obtained are used to modify the NAS SP benchmark, resulting in improved overlap.

  4. Increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Riesen, Rolf E.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Kordenbrock, Todd; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-10-01

    Petaflops systems will have tens to hundreds of thousands of compute nodes which increases the likelihood of faults. Applications use checkpoint/restart to recover from these faults, but even under ideal conditions, applications running on more than 30,000 nodes will likely spend more than half of their total run time saving checkpoints, restarting, and redoing work that was lost. We created a library that performs redundant computations on additional nodes allocated to the application. An active node and its redundant partner form a node bundle which will only fail, and cause an application restart, when both nodes in the bundle fail. The goal of this library is to learn whether this can be done entirely at the user level, what requirements this library places on a Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) system, and what its impact on performance and run time is. We find that our redundant MPI layer library imposes a relatively modest performance penalty for applications, but that it greatly reduces the number of applications interrupts. This reduction in interrupts leads to huge savings in restart and rework time. For large-scale applications the savings compensate for the performance loss and the additional nodes required for redundant computations.

  5. Suitability of Message Passing Computers for Implementing Production Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    tn.owns the buckets that it hashes to. The activities performed by the G s individual processors of the proceso pair are called nicro-tests, and C ho...our mapping, to allow the parallel processin Of (1) tokens all thes mcro-aks on the varios proceso pairs are performed in0 destined for the swe two

  6. Parallel Ray Tracing Using the Message Passing Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Optica , which is a book on astronomy that contained the important principle that light rays travel from an object to an eye and not the other way around...this application. This interest is driven by commercial demands from the entertainment industry and a widespread in- terest in visualizing complex

  7. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  8. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  9. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  10. Complementary Public Service Announcements as a Strategy for Enhancing the Impact of Health-Promoting Messages in Fictional Television Programs.

    PubMed

    Bavin, Lynda M; Owens, R Glynn

    2017-02-17

    Research suggests that health-promoting storylines in developed nations' fictional television programs can have a beneficial impact on viewers' beliefs, attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The sizes of the effects are generally modest; however, the audience reach is substantial. Given that many fictional programs may hold the prolonged attention of millions of viewers, it is of value to examine potential strategies for enhancing the persuasive impact of their health-promoting storylines. Complementary public service announcements may be a promising strategy. This randomized experimental study (N = 310) examined the effects of viewing a complementary public service announcement after an organ donation story in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. Results indicated that the public service announcement enhanced the beneficial impact of the story on viewers' discussion behavior (about one's organ donor wishes), discussion intention, and perceived learning. This experimental study is the first to examine the effects of viewing a non-character public service announcement after a health-related storyline in a developed nation's fictional program compared to viewing the same episode of the program on its own. It is important for future research to examine whether these findings replicate for different health issues and with a nationally representative sample.

  11. The Forgotten American. The President's Message to the Congress on Goals and Programs for American Indians (March 6, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyndon B.

    1968-01-01

    Emphasizing the need for a Federal-Indian partnership which promotes Indian self-help and Indian respect, this speech proposes: strengthened Federal leadership via a National Council on Indian Opportunity; Indian involvement in the determination of Indian problems and needs; enrollment of all Indian Children in a preschool program by 1971; funds…

  12. A new shared-memory programming paradigm for molecular dynamics simulations on the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the use of shared memory emulation with DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) to simplify parallel programming on the Intel Paragon. A molecular dynamics application is used as an example to illustrate the use of the DOLIB shared memory library. SOTON-PAR, a parallel molecular dynamics code with explicit message-passing using a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, is rewritten using DOLIB primitives. The resulting code has no explicit message primitives and resembles a serial code. The new code can perform dynamic load balancing and achieves better performance than the original parallel code with explicit message-passing.

  13. Information Management and Learning in Computer Conferences: Coping with Irrelevant and Unconnected Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwan, Stephan; Straub, Daniela; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of computer conferencing where learners interacted over the course of four log-in sessions to acquire the knowledge sufficient to pass a learning test. Studied the number of messages irrelevant to the topic, explicit threading of messages, reading times of relevant messages, and learning outcomes. (LRW)

  14. CHAIRMAN'S WELCOME MESSAGE Chairman's message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Every clinical physicist I have asked readily acknowledges the great desirability of a 3D dosimetry system for the verification of advanced radiation therapy treatments. An accurate and practical 3D dosimetry system would greatly strengthen the foundation of quality assurance in radiation therapy by enabling a rigorous and comprehensive whole system test. Such systems are now emerging, and the innovations and progress that led to them are remarkably captured in the proceedings of five prior DOSGEL conferences, the last three of which are freely available in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. These meetings included a focus on the technical challenges of various approaches to 3D dosimetry. When considering plans for the present 6th meeting, the scientific committee recognized that the field has matured, and a broader focus was desirable, including a strengthening of the clinical and applications component, while preserving a strong technical component. There was also the desire to embrace a variety of other semi-3D techniques which have also recently emerged to implementation in the clinic. In accordance with these sentiments, the committee approved changing the name of the conference from the International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) to the International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose) and to the following objectives - Conference Objectives: 1. To provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry. 2. To elevate the quality of radiation therapy treatments (quality assurance QA) through improved clinical dosimetry. 3. To explore the dosimetric challenges posed by modern radiation treatment techniques 4. To energize and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D, and semi-3D dosimetry techniques The scientific program of the IC3DDose2010 meeting has been crafted to meet the objectives listed above, and

  15. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2010-11-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  16. Research of a synchronized cooperative GIS system based on message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yaqin; Du, Peijun; Zhou, Liangchen

    2009-09-01

    In traditional electronic government GIS (E-gov GIS), spatial data evaluation, examination and approval are dealt with by individuals, and the results are shared among collaborators in asynchronous mode. In order to improve the collaborative ability of E-gov GIS, a message-based synchronized cooperative GIS system (MSCGIS) is proposed in this paper. MSCGIS abstracts collaborators' GIS operations and encapsulates them into GIS command messages. And then the GIS command messages are passed and executed among related collaborators. Based on messaging, MSCGIS can realize the GIS synchronized cooperation of group. Some key issues are investigated in detail, such as the design scheme of MSCGIS, the encoding specification of GIS command message based on XML, and the interface and the collaborative process of prototype system. In a word, the construction idea of MSCGIS is sharing the GIS functions through passing collaborators' operations, rather than sharing spatial data among collaborators in traditional modes.

  17. The Argos seismic data message system.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derr, J.S.; Hunter, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A reliable, inexpensive method for sending limited daily seismic data messages from remote observatories to the National Earthquake Information Center has been developed for use with the Argos satellite system. Data messages are compressed on a microcomputer and passed automatically to a simple transmitter. About 4 hr later, the data are available at the National Earthquake Information Center, where they are decompressed and reformatted into standard telegrams for use in quick epicenter determinations. Epicenter data are available daily to the international scientific community.-Authors

  18. SMC Message Browser Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    I work directly with the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software engineers who develop, test and release custom and commercial software in support of the Kennedy Space Center Spaceport Command and Control System. (SCCS). SMC uses Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Management Systems (EMS) software which provides a centralized subsystem for configuring, monitoring, and controlling SCCS hardware and software used in the Control Rooms. There are multiple projects being worked on using the COTS EMS software. I am currently working with the HP Operations Manager for UNIX (OMU) software which allows Master Console Operators (MCO) to access, view and interpret messages regarding the status of the SCCS hardware and software. The OMU message browser gets cluttered with messages which can make it difficult for the MCO to manage. My main project involves determining ways to reduce the number of messages being displayed in the OMU message browser. I plan to accomplish this task in two different ways: (1) by correlating multiple messages into one single message being displayed and (2) to create policies that will determine the significance of each message and whether or not it needs to be displayed to the MCO. The core idea is to lessen the number of messages being sent to the OMU message browser so the MCO can more effectively use it.

  19. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  20. Scalable Replay with Partial-Order Dependencies for Message-Logging Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Meneses, Esteban; Menon, Harshita; Miller, Phil; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-09-22

    Deterministic replay of a parallel application is commonly used for discovering bugs or to recover from a hard fault with message-logging fault tolerance. For message passing programs, a major source of overhead during forward execution is recording the order in which messages are sent and received. During replay, this ordering must be used to deterministically reproduce the execution. Previous work in replay algorithms often makes minimal assumptions about the programming model and application in order to maintain generality. However, in many cases, only a partial order must be recorded due to determinism intrinsic in the code, ordering constraints imposed by the execution model, and events that are commutative (their relative execution order during replay does not need to be reproduced exactly). In this paper, we present a novel algebraic framework for reasoning about the minimum dependencies required to represent the partial order for different concurrent orderings and interleavings. By exploiting this theory, we improve on an existing scalable message-logging fault tolerance scheme. The improved scheme scales to 131,072 cores on an IBM BlueGene/P with up to 2x lower overhead than one that records a total order.

  1. A uGNI-Based Asynchronous Message-driven Runtime System for Cray Supercomputers with Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yanhua; Zheng, Gengbin; Olson, Ryan M; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Gemini as the network for new Cray XE/XT systems features low latency, high bandwidth and strong scalability. Its hardware support for remote direct memory access enables efficient implementation of the global address space programming languages. Although the Generic Network Interface (GNI) is designed to support message-passing applications, it is still challenging to attain good performance for applications written in alternative programming models, such as the message-driven programming model. In our earlier work we showed that CHARM++, an object-oriented message-driven programming model, scales up to the full Jaguar Cray machine. In this paper, we describe a general and light-weight asynchronous Low-level RunTime System (LRTS) for CHARM+, and its implementation on the uGNI software stack for Cray XE systems. Several techniques are presented to exploit the uGNI capability by reducing memory copy and registration overhead, taking advantage of persistent communication, and improving intra-node communication. Our micro-benchmark results demonstrate that the uGNI-based runtime system outperforms the MPI-based implementation by up to 50% in terms of message latency. For communication intensive applications such as N-Queens, this implementation scales up to 15,360 cores of a Cray XE6 machine and is 70% faster than an MPI-based implementation. In molecular dynamics application NAMD, the performance is also considerably improved by as high as 18%.

  2. Launching Family Message Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman-Bonilla, Julie

    This lesson introduces Family Message Journals, a tool for encouraging family involvement and supporting writing to reflect and learn. First and second graders are led into composing through demonstration, guided writing, and finally independent writing of messages that they will bring home for family to read and write a reply. During the three…

  3. Message in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-05-03

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively.

  4. Message in a molecule

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  5. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  6. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Pamela; Leggett, Sophia; Bhuiyan, Azad; Brown, David; Frye, Patricia; Williams, Bryman

    2017-01-01

    African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52). Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30). The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03), while the control group’s exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity. PMID:28353650

  7. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Pamela; Leggett, Sophia; Bhuiyan, Azad; Brown, David; Frye, Patricia; Williams, Bryman

    2017-03-29

    African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52). Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30). The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03), while the control group's exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  8. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  9. Performance Evaluation of Remote Memory Access (RMA) Programming on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of remote memory access (RMA) programming on shared memory parallel computers. We discuss different RMA based implementations of selected CFD application benchmark kernels and compare them to corresponding message passing based codes. For the message-passing implementation we use MPI point-to-point and global communication routines. For the RMA based approach we consider two different libraries supporting this programming model. One is a shared memory parallelization library (SMPlib) developed at NASA Ames, the other is the MPI-2 extensions to the MPI Standard. We give timing comparisons for the different implementation strategies and discuss the performance.

  10. Development of tailored nutrition information messages based on the transtheoretical model for smartphone application of an obesity prevention and management program for elementary-school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Ji-Yun

    2017-06-01

    Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for healthy eating is an effective approach.

  11. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  12. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  13. Launch Control System Message Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    System Monitoring and Control (SMC) message browsers receive many messages daily that operators do not need to see. My job is to reduce the number of messages so that warning and emergency messages can be seen easily and therefore, responded to promptly. There are two methods to reduce messages: duplicate and state-based message correlations. With duplicate message correlation, SMC display the message the first time it shows up. The next times it occurs, a duplicate number will count the number of times the message appears. State-based message correlation is a process in which more informative messages acknowledge less useful ones and send them to history. I also work on correcting the severity level and text formats of messages. I follow two SMC message filtering tenets as I'm working on this project. Firstly, before filtering an offending message, a non-conformance (NC) must be created in order to attempt fixing that message through hardware or software. Only after the NC assessment states that it cannot fix an offending message, it can be filtered by SMC. Secondly, per Launch Control System (LCS) Coding Standards, SMC does not send information messages to the active message browser unless it's a response to an operator action.

  14. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  15. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  16. Effect of Outreach Messages on Medicaid Enrollment.

    PubMed

    Hom, Jeffrey K; Stillson, Christian; Rosin, Roy; Cahill, Rachel; Kruger, Evelyne; Grande, David

    2017-05-01

    To measure the impact of different outreach messages on health insurance enrollment among Medicaid-eligible adults. Between March 2015 and April 2016, we conducted a series of experiments using mail-based outreach that encouraged individuals to enroll in Pennsylvania's expanded Medicaid program. Recipients were randomized to receive 1 of 4 different messages describing the benefits of health insurance. The primary outcome was the response rate to each letter. We mailed outreach letters to 32 993 adults in Philadelphia. Messages that emphasized the dental benefits of insurance were significantly more likely to result in a response than messages emphasizing the health benefits (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.10, 1.61). Medicaid enrollment outreach messages that emphasized the dental benefits of insurance were more effective than those that emphasized the health-related benefits. Public Health Implications. Although the structure and eligibility of the Medicaid program are likely to change, testing and identifying successful outreach and enrollment strategies remains important. Outreach messages that emphasize dental benefits may be more effective at motivating enrollment among individuals of low socioeconomic status.

  17. Effect of Outreach Messages on Medicaid Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Stillson, Christian; Rosin, Roy; Cahill, Rachel; Kruger, Evelyne; Grande, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the impact of different outreach messages on health insurance enrollment among Medicaid-eligible adults. Methods. Between March 2015 and April 2016, we conducted a series of experiments using mail-based outreach that encouraged individuals to enroll in Pennsylvania’s expanded Medicaid program. Recipients were randomized to receive 1 of 4 different messages describing the benefits of health insurance. The primary outcome was the response rate to each letter. Results. We mailed outreach letters to 32 993 adults in Philadelphia. Messages that emphasized the dental benefits of insurance were significantly more likely to result in a response than messages emphasizing the health benefits (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.10, 1.61). Conclusions. Medicaid enrollment outreach messages that emphasized the dental benefits of insurance were more effective than those that emphasized the health-related benefits. Public Health Implications. Although the structure and eligibility of the Medicaid program are likely to change, testing and identifying successful outreach and enrollment strategies remains important. Outreach messages that emphasize dental benefits may be more effective at motivating enrollment among individuals of low socioeconomic status. PMID:28661816

  18. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  19. Instant Messaging by SIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  20. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  1. Public-channel cryptography based on mutual chaos pass filters.

    PubMed

    Klein, Einat; Gross, Noam; Kopelowitz, Evi; Rosenbluh, Michael; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2006-10-01

    We study the mutual coupling of chaotic lasers and observe both experimentally and in numeric simulations that there exists a regime of parameters for which two mutually coupled chaotic lasers establish isochronal synchronization, while a third laser coupled unidirectionally to one of the pair does not synchronize. We then propose a cryptographic scheme, based on the advantage of mutual coupling over unidirectional coupling, where all the parameters of the system are public knowledge. We numerically demonstrate that in such a scheme the two communicating lasers can add a message signal (compressed binary message) to the transmitted coupling signal and recover the message in both directions with high fidelity by using a mutual chaos pass filter procedure. An attacker, however, fails to recover an errorless message even if he amplifies the coupling signal.

  2. Programming Models in HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M.

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  3. LBNL SecureMessaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pery, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanent and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.

  4. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  5. LBNL SecureMessaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pery, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanent and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.

  6. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  7. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  8. Components of US Associate Degree Nursing Programs and Their Relationship to the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Graduate Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    The nursing shortage has accelerated the need for nursing programs to discover program components related to success on the NCLEX-RN. As the demand for nurses is growing, nursing programs have been called upon to help find solutions to the problem. This study attempted to contribute to the resolution of the shortage and provide nursing educators…

  9. Components of US Associate Degree Nursing Programs and Their Relationship to the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Graduate Pass Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    The nursing shortage has accelerated the need for nursing programs to discover program components related to success on the NCLEX-RN. As the demand for nurses is growing, nursing programs have been called upon to help find solutions to the problem. This study attempted to contribute to the resolution of the shortage and provide nursing educators…

  10. EMS -- Error Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes the Error Message Service, EMS, and its use in system software. The purpose of EMS is to provide facilities for constructing and storing error messages for future delivery to the user -- usually via the Starlink Error Reporting System, ERR (see SUN/104). EMS can be regarded as a simplified version of ERR without the binding to any software environment (e.g., for message output or access to the parameter and data systems). The routines in this library conform to the error reporting conventions described in SUN/104. A knowledge of these conventions, and of the ADAM system (see SG/4), is assumed in what follows. This document is intended for Starlink systems programmers and can safely be ignored by applications programmers and users.

  11. On "Passing" through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttermohlen, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…

  12. On "Passing" through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttermohlen, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…

  13. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  14. Delivering the Starry Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Ed

    2009-05-01

    Although Galileo's telescopic revelations 400 years ago prompted the International Year of Astronomy, Galileo didn't just get a starry message at the instrument's eyepiece. He also sent one. He targeted a narrow audience_astronomers, philosphers, and scholars_with his account of his discoveries, but his report, his telescopes, and his observations became famous. Ordinary people were energized by astronomical discovery, and that continues today. The content of the astronomical messages has evolved, and so have the mechanisms of transmission. Public astronomy now helps sustain support for research, and like Galileo's telescope, it also transforms people personally and society broadly. The process is illustrated with a few highly subjective examples.

  15. Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Across. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This lesson shows how the Inca communicated across the vast stretches of their mountain realm, the largest empire of the pre-industrial world. The lesson explains how couriers carried messages along mountain-ridge roads, up and down stone steps, and over chasm-spanning footbridges. It states that couriers could pass a message from Quito (Ecuador)…

  16. Concurrent Smalltalk on the Message-Driven Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    NDPSim -x 2 -y 2 - maize Ox1O00 ::Coamoa:Coamoa.m NewFact.mdp Message-Driven Processor Simulator Version 7.0 Rev B Accompanies MDP Architecture Document...it could peel invocations of recursive functions forever. However, the sin- gle pass of inlining does not mean that functions are only inlined one

  17. 36 CFR 72.37 - Pass-through funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pass-through funding. 72.37... and Innovation § 72.37 Pass-through funding. Section 1006(a)(1) of the Act states that at the... UPARR funds may be passed through for Recovery Action Program grants. The decision on whether or not...

  18. Purdue Academic Student Scheduling. PASS. Goals, Guidelines, and Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Victor A.

    PASS produces student schedules. This manual offers an operational record of the PASS system, and describes its structure within the total registration process. The primary goals of PASS, a "choice-course" system, are to satisfy student program requirements and equally distribute class load through the master schedule from a total…

  19. Text to Move: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text-Messaging Program to Improve Physical Activity Behaviors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Lenny; Searl, Meghan; O’Keefe, Sandra; Kvedar, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messages are increasingly being used because of the low cost and the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones to engage patients in self-care behaviors. Self-care is particularly important in achieving treatment outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective This study examined the effect of personalized text messages on physical activity, as measured by a pedometer, and clinical outcomes in a diverse population of patients with T2DM. Methods Text to Move (TTM) incorporates physical activity monitoring and coaching to provide automated and personalized text messages to help patients with T2DM achieve their physical activity goals. A total of 126 English- or Spanish-speaking patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7 were enrolled in-person to participate in the study for 6 months and were randomized into either the intervention arm that received the full complement of the intervention or a control arm that received only pedometers. The primary outcome was change in physical activity. We also assessed the effect of the intervention on HbA1c, weight, and participant engagement. Results All participants (intervention: n=64; control: n=62) were included in the analyses. The intervention group had significantly higher monthly step counts in the third (risk ratio [RR] 4.89, 95% CI 1.20 to 19.92, P=.03) and fourth (RR 6.88, 95% CI 1.21 to 39.00, P=.03) months of the study compared to the control group. However, over the 6-month follow-up period, monthly step counts did not differ statistically by group (intervention group: 9092 steps; control group: 3722 steps; RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.68 to 8.74, P=.17). HbA1c decreased by 0.07% (95% CI –0.47 to 0.34, P=.75) in the TTM group compared to the control group. Within groups, HbA1c decreased significantly from baseline in the TTM group by –0.43% (95% CI –0.75 to –0.12, P=.01), but nonsignificantly in the control group by –0.21% (95% CI –0.49 to 0.06, P=.13). Similar changes were observed for other

  20. Trust and Reactions to Messages of Intent in Social Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Craig D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines how low- and high-trust individuals (n=111) react to messages of intended behavior in a social dilemma situation. Subjects played a two-person prisoner's dilemma; the opponent was a reciprocal strategy programmed by the experimenter. During the game, subjects received a message status that the opponent planned to be cooperative or…

  1. Challenges for Tailored Messaging in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael L.; Hanik, Bruce W.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2008-01-01

    It is a health education truism that instructional material will be more effective when audience characteristics are taken into account at the outset of program development. One strategy for disseminating relevant health information to individuals is known as "tailored messaging," which accounts for intra-individual information processing needs.…

  2. Business Professionals Workplace Message Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joy L.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of today's large amount of written workplace communication, this study attempted to reveal information regarding the quality in which business messages are encoded on the job. Data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to a sample of 1994-2004 MBA graduates of three AACSB-accredited programs. Findings suggest that business…

  3. Business Professionals Workplace Message Quality Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joy L.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2007-01-01

    In light of today's large amount of written workplace communication, this study attempted to reveal information regarding the quality in which business messages are encoded on the job. Data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to a sample of 1994-2004 MBA graduates of three AACSB-accredited programs. Findings suggest that business…

  4. President's Message: "Forward"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In this message from the ITEA president, he states that it is imperative that ITEA convey a shared mission and philosophy, foster leadership, and grow a large audience of supportive professional members while remaining agile enough to withstand generational and political changes that naturally occur over time. The strategic plan of ITEA focuses on…

  5. Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

  6. Message in a Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a lesson that uses the Message in a Bottle concept. This lesson combines social studies, language arts, technology, and art, particularly studying and drawing portraits and utilizing values within a drawing. As part of their grade-four art curriculum, students are required to correctly proportion the face and the…

  7. Making health messages interesting.

    PubMed

    Gebreel, A O; Butt, J

    1997-01-01

    In Afghanistan a radio drama serial carrying messages vital to the well-being of the population, backed up by more detailed information in reinforcing radio programmes and a cartoon magazine, is proving effective in increasing people's knowledge of immunization and other subjects.

  8. Research Messages 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Research Messages 2014" is a collection of summaries of research published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2014 in the context of changing economic, industrial, social and education conditions, organised under the following broad categories: (1) Productivity: to sustain and build Australia's human…

  9. President's Message: "Forward"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In this message from the ITEA president, he states that it is imperative that ITEA convey a shared mission and philosophy, foster leadership, and grow a large audience of supportive professional members while remaining agile enough to withstand generational and political changes that naturally occur over time. The strategic plan of ITEA focuses on…

  10. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  11. Research Messages 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and…

  12. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  13. Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

  14. Research Messages 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Research messages 2010 is a collection of summaries of research projects published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). The summaries are clustered under five broad themes used by NCVER to organise its research and analysis: Industry and employers; Students and individuals; Teaching and learning: VET system; and VET in…

  15. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  16. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  17. Understanding Telex Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitto, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Examines the problems of writing grammatical rules for the writing of telexes and makes some suggestions as to how to teach comprehension of telex messages. Emphasizes the inconsistency in style, length, and form of telexes, and the impact this has had on international correspondence, which involves many nonnative speakers of English. (SL)

  18. Research Messages 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    The "Research messages" annual series presents a summary of the research-focused reports produced by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) each year. In addition to presenting the research reports published by NCVER during 2016, NCVER has expanded this edition to include other relevant and informative resources,…

  19. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  20. Multi-pass microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L.I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4±0.8 dB (11.6±0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8±0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9±0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering. PMID:27670525

  1. Multi-pass microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B.; Frankort, Timmo L. I.; Haslinger, Philipp; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    Microscopy of biological specimens often requires low light levels to avoid damage. This yields images impaired by shot noise. An improved measurement accuracy at the Heisenberg limit can be achieved exploiting quantum correlations. If sample damage is the limiting resource, an equivalent limit can be reached by passing photons through a specimen multiple times sequentially. Here we use self-imaging cavities and employ a temporal post-selection scheme to present full-field multi-pass polarization and transmission micrographs with variance reductions of 4.4+/-0.8 dB (11.6+/-0.8 dB in a lossless setup) and 4.8+/-0.8 dB, respectively, compared with the single-pass shot-noise limit. If the accuracy is limited by the number of detected probe particles, our measurements show a variance reduction of 25.9+/-0.9 dB. The contrast enhancement capabilities in imaging and in diffraction studies are demonstrated with nanostructured samples and with embryonic kidney 293T cells. This approach to Heisenberg-limited microscopy does not rely on quantum state engineering.

  2. Parallel programming in Split-C

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E.; Dusseau, A.; Goldstein, S.C.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Lumetta, S.; Eicken, T. von; Yelick, K.

    1993-12-31

    The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote access. The language allows a mixture of shared memory, message passing, and data parallel programming styles while providing efficient access to the underlying machine. They demonstrate the basic language concepts using regular and irregular parallel programs and give performance results for various stages of program optimization.

  3. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  4. A mobile phone text message program to measure oral antibiotic use and provide feedback on adherence to patients discharged from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Suffoletto, Brian; Calabria, Jaclyn; Ross, Anthony; Callaway, Clifton; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-08-01

    Nonadherence to prescribed medications impairs therapeutic benefits. The authors measured the ability of an automated text messaging (short message service [SMS]) system to improve adherence to postdischarge antibiotic prescriptions. This was a randomized controlled trial in an urban emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 65,000. A convenience sample of adult patients being discharged with a prescription for oral antibiotics was enrolled. Participants received either a daily SMS query about prescription pickup, and then dosage taken, with educational feedback based on their responses (intervention), or the usual printed discharge instructions (control). A standardized phone follow-up interview was used on the day after the intended completion date to determine antibiotic adherence: 1) the participant filled prescription within 24 hours of discharge and 2) no antibiotic pills were left on the day after intended completion of prescription. Of the 200 patients who agreed to participate, follow-up was completed in 144 (72%). From the 144, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19% to 34%) failed to fill their discharge prescriptions during the first 24 hours, and 37% (95% CI = 29% to 45%) had pills left over, resulting in 49% (95% CI = 40% to 57%) nonadherent patients. There were no differences in adherence between intervention participants and controls (57% vs. 45%; p = 0.1). African American race, greater than twice-daily dosing, and self-identifying as expecting to have difficulty filling or taking antibiotics at baseline were associated with nonadherence. Almost one-half (49%) of our patients do not adhere to antibiotic prescriptions after ED discharge. Future work should improve the design and deployment of SMS interventions to optimize their effect on improving adherence to medication after ED discharge. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  6. Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Zendejas, Silvino; Sadaqathulla, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Event Driven Messaging with Role-Based Subscriptions (EDM-RBS) is a framework integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB) to allow for role-based and subscription-based delivery of synchronous and asynchronous messages over JMS (Java Messaging Service), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), or SMS (Short Messaging Service). This allows for 24/7 operation with users in all parts of the world. The software classifies messages by triggering data type, application source, owner of data triggering event (mission), classification, sub-classification and various other secondary classifying tags. Messages are routed to applications or users based on subscription rules using a combination of the above message attributes. This program provides a framework for identifying connected users and their applications for targeted delivery of messages over JMS to the client applications the user is logged into. EDMRBS provides the ability to send notifications over e-mail or pager rather than having to rely on a live human to do it. It is implemented as an Oracle application that uses Oracle relational database management system intrinsic functions. It is configurable to use Oracle AQ JMS API or an external JMS provider for messaging. It fully integrates into the event-logging framework of SMDB (Subnet Management Database).

  7. Recovery in Distributed Systems Using Optimistic Message Logging and Checkpointing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    approach used by these message logging and checkpointing methods has been called the state machine approach [18], which assumes that program execution for...each input is determin- istic and is based only on the program state at the time of the input and on the input itself. This approach is also used by...the Time Warp system [61, through its Virtual Time method [7], using message logging and che.kpointing. However, Virtual Time is designed to support the

  8. Khyber Pass, Afghanistan-Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-08

    The ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft imaged the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Afghanistan and Pakistan. Throughout its history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia.

  9. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  10. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  11. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  12. PASS: Promoting Academic Student Success. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kenneth; Sonner, Bruce

    Active between 1993 and 1996, the Promoting Academic Student Success (PASS) Program was aimed at reducing the high percentage of failure experienced by academic probation students at Corning Community College (New York). These students typically came from non supportive environments, possessed academic deficiencies, and suffered from feelings of…

  13. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-02

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  14. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyla L.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Howie, Erin K.; Straker, Leon M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  15. Secret Message Science Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVita, Christina; Ruppert, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Light is radiation in wavelengths composed of many colors that are visible to the eyes. These wavelengths can be separated. One way to separate colors is with a filter. Filters keep certain wavelengths out and allow other wavelengths to pass through. In this article, the authors discuss an activity to provide students the opportunity to build a…

  16. Secret Message Science Goggles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVita, Christina; Ruppert, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Light is radiation in wavelengths composed of many colors that are visible to the eyes. These wavelengths can be separated. One way to separate colors is with a filter. Filters keep certain wavelengths out and allow other wavelengths to pass through. In this article, the authors discuss an activity to provide students the opportunity to build a…

  17. Electronic Message Preservation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hodes, Paul W. [D-NH-2

    2009-03-09

    03/18/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Electronic Message Preservation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hodes, Paul W. [D-NH-2

    2009-03-09

    Senate - 03/18/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Electronic Message Preservation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hodes, Paul W. [D-NH-2

    2009-03-09

    03/18/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness.

  1. The effectiveness of bundled health messages on recall.

    PubMed

    Whitehill King, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Lee, Mina; Johnson-Turbes, Corie Ashani

    2013-01-01

    This study is an initial step in determining the effectiveness of bundling preconception messages on short-term recall in a health communication intervention. A six-cell quasi-experiment with control was employed. Mall intercept interviews were conducted in three southern cities. Six professionally developed brochures with preconception health messages. 687 women who were between 18 and 36 years old and who reported that they planned to be pregnant within the next 5 years. Aided and unaided message recall. Analysis of variance, pair-wise t-tests. The results suggest ways to combine health messages in an attempt to maximize the resources that individual programs have for communication. Combining messages, up to four, should be considered.

  2. Message Technology Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    for immediate sending or for further editing. New automatic HERMES-crcated fields are generated corresponding to the new sender and date. We also...are not copied, so that the new outgoing message receives a new SENDER field, a new DATE, and a new MESSAGE-ID. 2. Three new message-fields were...switches were installed a) STARTWITHINBOX (Ask-Yes-No) controls whether KERMES Gets the user’s Inbox , MESSAGE.TXT;1, when the user enters the system

  3. A Perijove Pass

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-25

    This sequence of enhanced-color images shows how quickly the viewing geometry changes for NASA's Juno spacecraft as it swoops by Jupiter. The images were obtained by JunoCam. Once every 53 days the Juno spacecraft swings close to Jupiter, speeding over its clouds. In just two hours, the spacecraft travels from a perch over Jupiter's north pole through its closest approach (perijove), then passes over the south pole on its way back out. This sequence shows 14 enhanced-color images. The first image on the left shows the entire half-lit globe of Jupiter, with the north pole approximately in the center. As the spacecraft gets closer to Jupiter, the horizon moves in and the range of visible latitudes shrinks. The third and fourth images in this sequence show the north polar region rotating away from our view while a band of wavy clouds at northern mid-latitudes comes into view. By the fifth image of the sequence the band of turbulent clouds is nicely centered in the image. The seventh and eighth images were taken just before the spacecraft was at its closest point to Jupiter, near Jupiter's equator. Even though these two pictures were taken just four minutes apart, the view is changing quickly. As the spacecraft crossed into the southern hemisphere, the bright "south tropical zone" dominates the ninth, 10th and 11th images. The white ovals in a feature nicknamed Jupiter's "String of Pearls" are visible in the 12th and 13th images. In the 14th image Juno views Jupiter's south poles. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21645

  4. IBEX Beauty Pass

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of the IBEX spacecraft as it orbits the Earth. IBEX was launched in October 2008 as a NASA “Small Explorer.” Explorers are NASA’s longest running program and Small Explorers are the...

  5. Do Not Pass Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the drop-out rate from online courses in corporate training programs. Topics include better measures of electronic learning success and return on investment (ROI); a modular approach; course completion needed for certification requirements; and focusing on job performance improvement that results from electronic courses. (LRW)

  6. Do Not Pass Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the drop-out rate from online courses in corporate training programs. Topics include better measures of electronic learning success and return on investment (ROI); a modular approach; course completion needed for certification requirements; and focusing on job performance improvement that results from electronic courses. (LRW)

  7. [Message from Lyme].

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, P

    1993-01-01

    The background to the discovery of Lyme disease teaches a salutary lesson. The symptoms and signs of this disease had been observed by doctors for a century, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, without anybody being able to draw the right conclusions. The first patients were identified in the USA by their relatives or by themselves. Recognition of their plight by the medical profession was chiefly due to the patients' tenacity. We must remember to pay attention to what patients tell us; they may often be right, even when they seem to be wrong. Where fact and theory are incompatible, it is theory, not fact, that needs to be amended. In all likelihood, we all from time to time observe disorders in our patients that are inconsistent with established scientific models, but which we nevertheless attempt to squeeze into these models. Such an approach is not uncommon in the history of medicine. The message from Lyme calls for humility and reflexion.

  8. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  9. Immediate Increase in Food Intake Following Exercise Messages

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., “active”). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent. PMID:19247284

  10. 20 CFR 631.38 - State by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State by-pass authority. 631.38 Section 631.38 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.38 State by-pass authority....

  11. 20 CFR 631.38 - State by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State by-pass authority. 631.38 Section 631.38 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.38 State by-pass authority. (a...

  12. 20 CFR 631.38 - State by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State by-pass authority. 631.38 Section 631.38 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.38 State by-pass authority. (a...

  13. 20 CFR 631.18 - Federal by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal by-pass authority. 631.18 Section 631.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER... Secretary's intent to exercise by-pass authority and an opportunity to request and to receive a hearing...

  14. 20 CFR 631.18 - Federal by-pass authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal by-pass authority. 631.18 Section 631.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER... Secretary's intent to exercise by-pass authority and an opportunity to request and to receive a hearing...

  15. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  16. Streamlined one-pass modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.H.; Harne, R.L.; Firth, K.J.; Meyer, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Streamlined one-pass models provide an alternative to the standard type of one-pass models for departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) studies, which require a large number of computer simulations. The standard one-pass models simulate the limiting subchannel (subchannel in which minimum DNBR occurs), a ring of subchannels around the limiting subchannel, the remainder of the limiting bundle, and the remainder of the core. Typically, these standard models use from 8 to 12 channels and approx.20 cross-flow gaps. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed streamlined one-pass models that require approximately one-half the number of channels and approx.20% of the computer resources as the standard one-pass models. These streamlined models are applicable in one-pass analysis codes such as the B and W code LYNXT and the Electric Power Research Institute VIPRE code. Streamlined one-pass models are particularly suited to extensive studies wherein computer cost and turnaround are critical, without sacrificing DNBR accuracy. Examples of such studies are reactor protection operating limit determination, limiting transient selection, and scoping studies. Moreover, streamlined one-pass models make it possible to perform DNBR studies on personal computers (PCs) using PC-adapted codes such as COBRAPC.

  17. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health.

  18. Developing mobile phone text messages for tobacco risk communication among college students: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Machado, Tamara C; Calabro, Karen S; Vanderwater, Elizabeth A; Vidrine, Damon J; Pasch, Keryn P; Marani, Salma K; Buchberg, Meredith; Wagh, Aditya; Russell, Sophia C; Czerniak, Katarzyna W; Botello, Gabrielle C; Dobbins, Mackenzie H; Khalil, Georges E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-01-31

    Engaging young adults for the purpose of communicating health risks associated with nicotine and tobacco use can be challenging since they comprise a population heavily targeted with appealing marketing by the evolving tobacco industry. The Food and Drug Administration seeks novel ways to effectively communicate risks to warn about using these products. This paper describes the first step in developing a text messaging program delivered by smartphones that manipulate three messaging characteristics (i.e., depth, framing, and appeal). Perceptions of community college students were described after previewing text messages designed to inform about risks of using conventional and new tobacco products. Thirty-one tobacco users and nonusers, aged 18-25 participated in five focus discussions held on two community college campuses. Attendees reviewed prototype messages and contributed feedback about text message structure and content. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo Version 10. Most participants were female and two-thirds were ethnic minorities. A variety of conventional and new tobacco products in the past month were used by a third of participants. Three identified domains were derived from the qualitative data. These included perceived risks of using tobacco products, receptivity to message content, and logistical feedback regarding the future message campaign. Overall, participants found the messages to be interesting and appropriate. A gap in awareness of the risks of using new tobacco products was revealed. Feedback on the prototype messages was incorporated into message revisions. These findings provided preliminary confirmation that the forthcoming messaging program will be appealing to young adults.

  19. Streamlining Tsunami Messages (e.g., Warnings) of the US National Tsunami Warning Center, Palmer, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Spurred in part by world-wide interest in improving warning messaging for and response to tsunamis in the wake of several catastrophic tsunamis since 2004 and growing interest at the US National Weather Service (NWS) to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program, the NWS Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii have made great progress toward enhancing tsunami messages. These include numerous products, among them being Tsunami Warnings, Tsunami Advisories and Tsunami Watches. Beginning in 2010 we have worked with US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Warning Coordination and Mitigation and Education Subcommittee members; Tsunami Program administrators; and NWS Weather Forecast Officers to conduct a series of focus group meetings with stakeholders in coastal areas of Alaska, American Samoa, California, Hawaii, North Carolina, Oregon, US Virgin Islands and Washington to understand end-user perceptions of existing messages and their existing needs in message products. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a Tsunami Warning Message Metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order, Formatting, and Receiver Characteristics. A sample message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met, whether the message is a full length or short message. Incrementally, this work contributed to revisions in the format, content and style of message products issued by the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). Since that time, interest in short warning messages has continued to increase and in May 2016 the NTWC began efforts to revise message products to take advantage of recent NWS policy changes allowing use of mixed-case text

  20. Sharing milk but not messages: campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw milk from a cow-share program in Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Castrodale, L J; Gerlach, R F; Xavier, C M; Smith, B J; Cooper, M P; McLaughlin, J B

    2013-05-01

    Alaska public and environmental health authorities investigated a cluster of campylobacteriosis cases among people who had consumed raw, unpasteurized milk obtained from a cow-share program in Alaska. Although raw milk is not permitted by law to be offered commercially, consumers can enter into cow-share agreements whereby they contribute funds for the upkeep of cows and in turn receive a share of the milk for their personal use. Laboratory testing of stool specimens collected from ill persons and from cows on the farm revealed an indistinguishable strain of Campylobacter. In this outbreak, numerous confirmed and suspected cases were not among cow shareholders; therefore, these individuals had not been advised of the potential health hazards associated with consumption of raw milk nor were they informed of the outbreak developments.

  1. Probabilistic Algorithm for Sampler Siting (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2007-05-29

    PASS (Probabilistic Approach to Sampler Siting) optimizes the placement of samplers in buildings. The program exhaustively checks every sampler-network that can be formed, evaluating against user-supplied simulations of the possible release scenarios. The program identifies the networks that maximize the probablity of detecting a release from among the suite of user-supllied scenarios. The user may specify how many networks to report, in order to provide a number of choices in cases where many networks have very similar behavior.

  2. Decoding a Geological Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    A close-up image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of a recent 150-meter diameter impact crater near Amazonis Mensa and Medusae Fossae is another great example of geologic complexity of Mars. The spider web-like texture of this crater is intriguing. But what does it mean? On Earth, we have many geologic mechanisms that embrace the surface of the planet in an almost constant state of metamorphosis. Although Mars is not nearly as geologically active as Earth, it is still a host to many processes that shape its surface even today (e.g., aeolian modification, periglacial processes, recent impacts, etc.). The appearance of the ejecta of this crater is likely a combination of both the characteristics of the target material it was deposited on, and processes that modified and degraded it over time. When we look to other images in this region we find a similar texture. This texture is referred to as “yardangs” by scientists who study wind erosion. Yardangs are streamlined ridge-and-trough patterns formed by the erosion of wind dominating from a specific direction; in this particular case, from the southeast to the northwest. The specific direction of the winds is supported by regional context images that show many craters in the region have wind streak "tails" that points to the northwest. Craters of this size have been observed to form recently on Mars, so the fact that this crater is modified speaks volumes, and gives us a chance to decode some geological messages from Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21759

  3. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  4. Expedition 32 Video Message Recording

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-25

    ISS032-E-009061 (25 July 2012) --- NASA astronauts Joe Acaba and Sunita Williams, both Expedition 32 flight engineers, perform video message recording in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A

    2013-04-16

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  6. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-11-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  7. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  8. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  9. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  10. Text messaging during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Drews, Frank A; Yazdani, Hina; Godfrey, Celeste N; Cooper, Joel M; Strayer, David L

    2009-10-01

    This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Forty participants engaged in both a single task (driving) and a dual task (driving and text messaging) in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Analysis of driving performance revealed that participants in the dual-task condition responded more slowly to the onset of braking lights and showed impairments in forward and lateral control compared with a driving-only condition. Moreover, text-messaging drivers were involved in more crashes than drivers not engaged in text messaging. Text messaging while driving has a negative impact on simulated driving performance. This negative impact appears to exceed the impact of conversing on a cell phone while driving. The results increase our understanding of driver distraction and have potential implications for public safety and device development.

  11. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    PubMed

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  12. DoD Message Protocol Report. Volume II. Message Transfer Protocol Requirements Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    transmission instructions. This assurance can, in principle, be provided by either the message service (where a message is prepared) or by the message...transfer protocol. This document does not assume it is always practical for a message service to assure message correctness and so prescribes... assure service and speed to urgent messages. The protocol must also ensure aginst unauthorized access to high precedence service . When a message

  13. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  14. Boosting Achievement with Messages that Motivate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2007-01-01

    Almost everything educators say to their students sends a message. Some messages enhance students' motivation, but other messages undermine it. What should teachers say to students to send messages that motivate? In a survey given to parents, over 80% of them thought that it was necessary to praise their children's intelligence in order to give…

  15. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall...

  16. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  17. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  18. Three Messages Regarding Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cradler, John

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale, development, and products of the History/Social Science Technology in Curriculum Project which is designed to take the guesswork out of selecting educational technology for K-12 social studies teachers. Describes the CompuTHINK program, and makes recommendations for developers of computer and instructional television…

  19. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  20. Algorithms for TOC message transmission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Bian, Yu-Jing

    2001-12-01

    The algorithms and approach for TOC message broadcasting control are studied in this paper. The TOC message can be broadcasted, solely or alternating with DGNSS message, over one Loran-C channel. The availability of the messages in alternating broadcast mode is analyzed. The recurrence formulae of the sequence number of the header of the TOC message frames are given. The corresponding appraoch for braodcasting control is presented.

  1. Reactions to threatening health messages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal. PMID:23171445

  2. Variations over the message computation algorithm of lazy propagation.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anders L

    2006-06-01

    Improving the performance of belief updating becomes increasingly important as real-world Bayesian networks continue to grow larger and more complex. In this paper, an investigation is done on how variations over the message-computation algorithm of lazy propagation may impact its performance. Lazy propagation is a junction-tree-based inference algorithm for belief updating in Bayesian networks. Lazy propagation combines variable elimination (VE) with a Shenoy-Shafer message-passing scheme in an attempt to exploit the independence properties induced by evidence in a junction-tree-based algorithm. The authors investigate, the use of arc reversal (AR) and symbolic probabilistic inference (SPI) as alternative algorithms for computing clique-to-clique messages in lazy propagation. The paper presents the results of an empirical evaluation of the performance of lazy propagation using AR, SPI, and VE as the message-computation algorithm. The results of the empirical evaluation show that no single algorithm outperforms or is outperformed by the other two alternatives. In many cases, there is no significant difference in the performance of the three algorithms.

  3. Neuberger's double-pass algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ting-Wai; Hsieh, Tung-Han

    2003-12-01

    We analyze Neuberger’s double-pass algorithm for the matrix-vector multiplication R(H)ṡY [where R(H) is (n-1,n)th degree rational polynomial of positive definite operator H], and show that the number of floating-point operations is independent of the degree n, provided that the number of sites is much larger than the number of iterations in the conjugate gradient. This implies that the matrix-vector product (H)-1/2Y≃R(n-1,n)(H)ṡY can be approximated to very high precision with sufficiently large n, without noticeably extra costs. Further, we show that there exists a threshold nT such that the double-pass is faster than the single pass for n>nT, where nT≃12 25 for most platforms.

  4. Peddling Programs: Getting the Message Across.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commuter, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Publicity techniques for reaching commuter students are presented in this article. Following a discussion of the special problems associated with reaching commuter students with information, the difference between promotion, advertising, and publicity is explained. Publicity strategies are then provided for: (1) reaching adult students; (2)…

  5. Gauge-free cluster variational method by maximal messages and moment matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Eduardo; Lage-Castellanos, Alejandro; Mulet, Roberto; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    We present an implementation of the cluster variational method (CVM) as a message passing algorithm. The kind of message passing algorithm used for CVM, usually named generalized belief propagation (GBP), is a generalization of the belief propagation algorithm in the same way that CVM is a generalization of the Bethe approximation for estimating the partition function. However, the connection between fixed points of GBP and the extremal points of the CVM free energy is usually not a one-to-one correspondence because of the existence of a gauge transformation involving the GBP messages. Our contribution is twofold. First, we propose a way of defining messages (fields) in a generic CVM approximation, such that messages arrive on a given region from all its ancestors, and not only from its direct parents, as in the standard parent-to-child GBP. We call this approach maximal messages. Second, we focus on the case of binary variables, reinterpreting the messages as fields enforcing the consistency between the moments of the local (marginal) probability distributions. We provide a precise rule to enforce all consistencies, avoiding any redundancy, that would otherwise lead to a gauge transformation on the messages. This moment matching method is gauge free, i.e., it guarantees that the resulting GBP is not gauge invariant. We apply our maximal messages and moment matching GBP to obtain an analytical expression for the critical temperature of the Ising model in general dimensions at the level of plaquette CVM. The values obtained outperform Bethe estimates, and are comparable with loop corrected belief propagation equations. The method allows for a straightforward generalization to disordered systems.

  6. Gauge-free cluster variational method by maximal messages and moment matching.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Eduardo; Lage-Castellanos, Alejandro; Mulet, Roberto; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    We present an implementation of the cluster variational method (CVM) as a message passing algorithm. The kind of message passing algorithm used for CVM, usually named generalized belief propagation (GBP), is a generalization of the belief propagation algorithm in the same way that CVM is a generalization of the Bethe approximation for estimating the partition function. However, the connection between fixed points of GBP and the extremal points of the CVM free energy is usually not a one-to-one correspondence because of the existence of a gauge transformation involving the GBP messages. Our contribution is twofold. First, we propose a way of defining messages (fields) in a generic CVM approximation, such that messages arrive on a given region from all its ancestors, and not only from its direct parents, as in the standard parent-to-child GBP. We call this approach maximal messages. Second, we focus on the case of binary variables, reinterpreting the messages as fields enforcing the consistency between the moments of the local (marginal) probability distributions. We provide a precise rule to enforce all consistencies, avoiding any redundancy, that would otherwise lead to a gauge transformation on the messages. This moment matching method is gauge free, i.e., it guarantees that the resulting GBP is not gauge invariant. We apply our maximal messages and moment matching GBP to obtain an analytical expression for the critical temperature of the Ising model in general dimensions at the level of plaquette CVM. The values obtained outperform Bethe estimates, and are comparable with loop corrected belief propagation equations. The method allows for a straightforward generalization to disordered systems.

  7. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  8. The mushroom message.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  9. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students.

  10. Development of a Theoretically Driven mHealth Text Messaging Application for Sustaining Recent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone short message service (SMS) text messaging, has the potential to serve as an intervention medium to promote sustainability of weight loss that can be easily and affordably used by clinicians and consumers. Objective To develop theoretically driven weight loss sustaining text messages and pilot an mHealth SMS text messaging intervention to promote sustaining recent weight loss in order to understand optimal frequency and timing of message delivery, and for feasibility and usability testing. Results from the pilot study were used to design and construct a patient privacy compliant automated SMS application to deliver weight loss sustaining messages. Methods We first conducted a pilot study in which participants (N=16) received a daily SMS text message for one month following a structured weight loss program. Messages were developed from diet and exercise guidelines. Following the intervention, interviews were conducted and self-reported weight was collected via SMS text messaging. Results All participants (N=16) were capable of sending and receiving SMS text messages. During the phone interview at 1 month post-baseline and at 3 months post-baseline, 13/14 (93%) of participants who completed the study reported their weight via SMS. At 3 months post-baseline, 79% (11/14) participants sustained or continued to lose weight. Participants (13/14, 93%) were favorable toward the messages and the majority (10/14, 71%) felt they were useful in helping them sustain weight loss. All 14 participants who completed the interview thought SMS was a favorable communication medium and was useful to receive short relevant messages promptly and directly. All participants read the messages when they knew they arrived and most (11/14, 79%) read the messages at the time of delivery. All participants felt that at least one daily message is needed to sustain weight loss behaviors and that they should be delivered in the morning. Results were then used to develop the

  11. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress thermal lensing in the gain medium.

  12. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The end of 2008 cannot pass without remarking that the economic news has repeatedly strengthened the case for nuclear fusion; not perhaps to solve the immediate crises but to offer long-term security of energy supply. Although temporary, the passage of the price of oil through 100 per barrel is a portent of things to come and should bolster our collective determination to develop nuclear fusion into a viable energy source. It is with great pride, therefore, that I can highlight the contributions that the Nuclear Fusion journal has made to the research programme and the consolidation of its position as the lead journal in the field. Of course, the journal would be nothing without its authors and referees and I would like to pass on my sincere thanks to them all for their work in 2008 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2009. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most loyal referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least two different manuscripts during the period from November 2007 to November 2008 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! T. Hino (Hokkaido University, Japan) M. Sugihara (ITER Cadarache, France) M. Dreval (Saskatchewan University, Canada) M. Fenstermacher (General Atomics, USA) V.S. Marchenko (Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine) G.V. Pereverzev (Max-Planck-Institut fuer

  13. WhatsApp Messaging: Achievements and Success in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Davidivitch; Roman, Yavich

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the use of technological means in general and in academic teaching in particular. Many programs have been developed that include computer-assisted teaching, as well as online courses at educational institutions. The current study focuses on WhatsApp messaging and its use in academia. Studies…

  14. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  15. How Attention Partitions Itself during Simultaneous Message Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Lori; Grimes, Tom; Potter, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Television producers, across all types of programming, assume young viewers can parallel process simultaneously presented messages. For instance, television news producers appear to believe that young viewers can attend to weather icons, lexical news crawls, and sports scores while they also attend to news anchors who present the news.…

  16. How Attention Partitions Itself during Simultaneous Message Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Lori; Grimes, Tom; Potter, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Television producers, across all types of programming, assume young viewers can parallel process simultaneously presented messages. For instance, television news producers appear to believe that young viewers can attend to weather icons, lexical news crawls, and sports scores while they also attend to news anchors who present the news.…

  17. Breaking the Barrier: Effectively Communicating Nutrition and Health Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchoux, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals can work to correct common misconceptions through nutrition and fitness education and sharing information and resources to provide consistent public messages. The article discusses the impact of the media, food labels, and the Fuel for Fitness program, encouraging teamwork to ensure proper communication of diet and exercise…

  18. Re: Design Changing the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  19. The Media and the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  20. [Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

  1. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  2. Re: Design Changing the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  3. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  4. Messages from the Abyss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    . Never before had anybody witnessed the last "scream" from matter in the deadly grip of a black hole, about to pass the point of no return towards an unknown fate. At the border ESO PR Photo 29b/03 ESO PR Photo 29b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 516 pix - 87k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1032 pix - 219k] Captions : PR Photo 29b/03 displays the "light curve" of a light flare from the galactic centre, as observed in the K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm) on June 16, 2003. This and a second flare discovered about 24 hours earlier show variability on a time scale of a few minutes and appear to show larger variations (arrows) with a 17-minute periodicity. The rapid variability implies that the infrared emission comes from just outside (the event horizon of) the black hole. If the periodicity is a fundamental property of the motion of gas orbiting the black hole, the Galactic Centre black hole must rotate with about half the maximum spin rate allowed by General Relativity. The present observations thus probe the space-time structure in the immediate vicinity of that event horizon. A careful analysis of the new observational data, reported in this week's issue of the Nature magazine, has revealed that the infrared emission originates from within a few thousandths of an arcsecond [4] from the position of the black hole (corresponding to a distance of a few light-hours) and that it varies on time scales of minutes ( PR Photo 29b/03 ). This proves that the infrared signals must come from just outside the so-called "event horizon" of the black hole, that is the "surface of no return" from which even light cannot escape. The rapid variability seen in all data obtained by the VLT clearly indicates that the region around this horizon must have chaotic properties - very much like those seen in thunderstorms or solar flares [5]. " Our data give us unprecedented information about what happens just outside the event horizon and let us test the predictions of General Relativity " explains Daniel Rouan , a

  5. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.: Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6...

  6. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through...

  7. Getting Science Students to PASS-UIW: A Successful Collaboration between Students, Staff, and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Cristina; Davis, Julian M.; Frye, Michael; Harmsen, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the reasons that Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), commonly called PASS-UIW, has been successful in science courses at the University. The intent is to provide information for other institutions to launch, evaluate, or improve their own programs. PASS-UIW is a student-led…

  8. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through an...

  9. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through an...

  10. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through an...

  11. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through an...

  12. rMPI : increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Riesen, Rolf; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-04-01

    As High-End Computing machines continue to grow in size, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults, like checkpoint-restart, are unsuitable at these scale due to excessive overheads predicted to more than double an applications time to solution. Redundant computation, long used in distributed and mission critical systems, has been suggested as an alternative to checkpoint-restart on its own. In this paper we describe the rMPI library which enables portable and transparent redundant computation for MPI applications. We detail the design of the library as well as two replica consistency protocols, outline the overheads of this library at scale on a number of real-world applications, and finally outline the significant increase in an applications time to solution at extreme scale as well as show the scenarios in which redundant computation makes sense.

  13. Some Aspects of Parallel Implementation of the Finite Element Method on Message Passing Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    for Advanced Computer Studies and Department of Computer Science University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 4, ABSTRACT We discuss some aspects of...Computer Studies and Technology & Dept. of Compute. Scienc II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Viyriyf~ 12. REPORT DATE Department of the Navy uo...number)-1/ 2.) We study the performance of CG and PCG by examining its performance for u E (0,1), for solving the two model problems with an accuracy

  14. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  15. Text Message Behavioral Interventions: From Here to Where?

    PubMed Central

    Suffoletto, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is an efficient and personal electronic form of communication, making it an ideal modality for remote delivery of behavioral interventions. The ubiquity of cell phones and short message service (SMS) worldwide allow the possibility of SMS behavioral inteventions to impact global health. Studies to date suggest that SMS interventions can effectively support health behaviors and may offer advantages compared to other forms of computerized interventions. Program features optimizing user engagament and persuasiveness are suggested to mediate SMS intervention effect. Future research is tasked with identifying what SMS features are useful to which individuals at what times to best help them initiate and maintain health behaviors. PMID:26665157

  16. Text Messaging Intervention for Teens and Young Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L.; Schultz, Alan T.; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants’ mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. PMID:25172879

  17. Standardized Testing Practices: Effect on Graduation and NCLEX® Pass Rates.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Pamela K

    The use standardized testing in pre-licensure nursing programs has been accompanied by conflicting reports of effective practices. The purpose of this project was to describe standardized testing practices in one states' nursing programs and discover if the use of a cut score or oversight of remediation had any effect on (a) first time NCLEX® pass rates, (b) on-time graduation (OTG) or (c) the combination of (a) and (b). Administrators of 38 nursing programs in one Southwest state were sent surveys; surveys were returned by 34 programs (89%). Survey responses were compared to each program's NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate; t-tests were conducted for significant differences associated with a required minimum score (cut score) and oversight of remediation. There were no significant differences in NCLEX pass or on-time graduation rates related to establishment of a cut score. There was a significant difference when the NCLEX pass rate and on-time graduation rate were combined (Outcome Index "OI") with significantly higher program outcomes (P=.02.) for programs without cut-scores. There were no differences associated with faculty oversight of remediation. The results of this study do not support establishment of a cut-score when implementing a standardized testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A total ordering protocol using a dynamic token-passing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongsung; Kim, Cheeha

    1997-06-01

    Solutions to the total ordering problem can be used to maintain consistency in distributed system applications such as replicated databases. We propose a total ordering protocol based on a dynamic token-passing scheme which determines the next token holder dynamically, not in predetermined order. The proposed protocol provides fast stability time, uses a small buffer, and distributes evenly the load of ordering messages to accomplish a total message ordering. We present simulation results to illustrate that the performance of the proposed protocol is superior to that of existing token-based total ordering protocols.

  19. Starting Points for Educators of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young Children. Program 1: I Don't Know Where To Start [and] Program 2: Getting Your Message Across. Trainer's Guides [and] Videotapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverson, Susan; Nissani, Helen

    As increasing numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse young children enter preschool through second grade classrooms, teachers are faced with complex challenges as they struggle to meet children's needs. This document is comprised of the first two parts of a three-program videotape training series designed for preservice teachers, child…

  20. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  1. Practice What You Preach about Goodwill Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Mona J.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways for students to experience the impact of written messages and for teachers to promote good public relations through the use of goodwill messages. Examples include the use of verbal compliments and personal business letters. (EL)

  2. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.

  3. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area...

  4. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each approved test is...

  5. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered by the institution, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each...

  6. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area are...

  7. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered by the institution, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each...

  8. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered by the institution, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each...

  9. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area are...

  10. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area are...

  11. 27 CFR 9.88 - Pacheco Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacheco Pass. 9.88 Section... Pass. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pacheco Pass.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Pacheco Pass viticultural area are...

  12. 34 CFR 668.147 - Passing scores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered by the institution, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each...

  13. The Role of Text Messaging in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Optimization.

    PubMed

    Klimis, Harry; Khan, Mohammad Ehsan; Kok, Cindy; Chow, Clara K

    2017-01-01

    Many cases of CVD may be avoidable through lowering behavioural risk factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Mobile health (mHealth) provides a novel opportunity to deliver cardiovascular prevention programs in a format that is potentially scalable. Here, we provide an overview of text messaging-based mHealth interventions in cardiovascular prevention. Text messaging-based interventions appear effective on a range of behavioural risk factors and can effect change on multiple risk factors-e.g. smoking, weight, blood pressure-simultaneously. For many texting studies, there are challenges in interpretation as many texting interventions are part of larger complex interventions making it difficult to determine the benefits of the separate components. Whilst there is evidence for text messaging improving cardiovascular risk factor levels in the short-term, future studies are needed to examine the durability of these effects and whether they can be translated to improvements in clinical care and outcomes.

  14. Clinical data exchange standards and vocabularies for messages.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Motivation for the creation of electronic data interchange (message) standards is discussed. The ISO Open Systems Interface model is described. Clinical information models, message syntax and structure, and the need for a standardized coded vocabulary are explained. The HIPAA legislation and subsequent HHS transaction recommendations are reviewed. The history and mission statements of six of the most popular message development organizations (MDOs) are summarized, and the data exchange standards developed by these organizations are listed. The organizations described include Health Level Seven (HL7), American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E31, Digital Image Communication in Medicine (DICOM), European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation), Technical Committee for Health Informatics (CEN/TC 251), the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP), and Accredited Standards Committee X12 Insurance Subcommittee (X12N). The locations of Internet web sites for the six organizations are provided as resources for further information. PMID:9929183

  15. Comics: a medium for today's development messages.

    PubMed

    Opilas, E A

    1978-03-01

    Filipino illustrated magazines, or the comics, may yet prove to be the most effective media, if not the most effective, for spreading the country's development messages. Long criticized by intellectuals and the social elite, the comics have been grossly underrated in their potential to inform, persuade, and even influence the life-style of the people. The government's Commission on Population (Popcom) has developed an information-education-communication program using the comics, among other media, to disseminate stories on family planning, responsible parenthood, and related topics. Its best quality is popular appeal, and for publishers and distribution outlets, the comics provide good business. A review of these materials shows that their themes reflect the following topics or issues: 1) population trends and consequences; 2) socioeconomic benefits of family planning; 3) customs which influence family planning; 4) family planning concepts; 5) family planning methods; 6) human sexuality and reproduction; 7) the husband-wife relationship; 8) guides for family planning motivation or communication; and 9) guides for teaching family planning. The materials were developed with 4 qualities in mind so as to attract audience or reader interest: simplicity, familiarity, realism, and attractiveness of materials. The consensus is that in the comics, population and development agencies may have found a "secret weapon" in getting these messages across, and that this new-found use for the illustrated magazines may be giving them a new respectability without in any way diminishing their popular appeal.

  16. Are You Experienced?: Teenagers' Perceptions of Edutainment Shows Featuring Anti-alcohol Messages.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-07-01

    This article examines how teenagers perceive a show that is both educational and entertaining. In classrooms, 970 students viewed and evaluated one of two videos of a commercial television program featuring an anti-alcohol message. Overall, the sample assessed the programs favorably, finding the messages interesting, credible and understandable. Firsthand experience with alcohol predicted variations in the perception of an anti-alcohol message, while contact with others who use alcohol did not. Regression analysis showed personal experience with alcohol had a strong relationship to interest, a modest relationship to credibility, but no significant relationship to knowledge. In contrast, social contact with those who use alcohol often (i.e. knowing friends and family members who drink) was not significantly associated with the perceptions of an alcohol message on television. Such results suggest that those creating and using mass-media health messages effectively must be aware of the actual firsthand experiences of their audiences.

  17. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with time...

  18. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  19. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with time...

  20. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...