Science.gov

Sample records for mestizos del estado

  1. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  2. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  3. Síntesis del estado del conocimiento del ciclo de carbono en ecosistemas boscosos de los Estados Unidos

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Mark E. Harmon; Richard A. Birdsey; Christian P. Giardina; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Robert B. Jackson; Duncan C. McKinley; James F. Morrison; Brian C. Murray; Diane E. Pataki; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Los bosques juegan un papel central en el ciclo de carbono de los Estados Unidos y global. El secuestro de carbono de los bosques de los Estados Unidos, a través de su crecimiento y la cosecha de productos madereros, compensa en la actualidad entre un 12 y un 19% de las emisiones de carbono asociadas al uso de combustible fósil de dicho país. El ciclo natural de un...

  4. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  5. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  6. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  7. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  8. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  9. Aesthetic surgery for the Mestizo/Hispanic patient: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Roxana; García, Carlos A

    2010-05-01

    Mestizo patients, also known as Hispanic or Latino patients, are a growing ethnic group worldwide. Cosmetic procedures have become more accessible, and more patients are looking for procedures that will not only improve their facial features but also make them have a more youthful appearance. Mestizo facial characteristics are reviewed, and a stepwise approach to the aging Mestizo face is presented where nonsurgical and surgical options are discussed including midface-lifting techniques and short scar face-lifting procedures. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse.

  11. Treatment protocol for "Mestizo nose" with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Salcedo, Jose Abel; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Salguero, Jose Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an operative sequence to guide plastic surgeons on how to handle the challenges of "Mestizo nose" during rhinoplasty. This type of nose has characteristics quite different from the Caucasian nose. Rhinoplasties on Mestizo nose represent a surgical challenge because of the anatomical characteristics of a weak frame and thick skin. The Hispanic population has grown, and nowadays a large number of patients requesting rhinoplasty within the US belong to this ethnic group. We have developed an operative sequence for the treatment of Mestizo nose. This operative sequence has been tested in 879 rhinoplasties (92.37% females and 7.62% males, aged 15-63 years, mean age = 39 years). All were primary cases. An algorithm on how to approach the different types of Mestizo nose is presented. We had overall good results using our algorithm, with an improvement in the nasal aesthetics of about 54.75%. Complications were postoperative bleeding (1.37%), pain (0.57%), septal hematoma (0.23%), unaesthetic scars (0.34%), and cartilage extrusion (0.11%). Our revision rate was 5%. We present ten complete cases to show our surgical results. This operative sequence has allowed us to get predictable and reliable surgical outcomes when used in Mestizo rhinoplasty operations. We think it can be very useful for every plastic surgeon who performs Mestizo nose rhinoplasty, although not all steps need to be performed in every case.

  12. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  13. Distribution of KIR genes and KIR2DS4 gene variants in two Mexican Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Machado-Sulbaran, Andrea Carolina; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Ramírez-Dueñas, María Guadalupe; Baños-Hernández, Christian Johana; Graciano-Machuca, Omar; Velarde-De la Cruz, Erandi Enif; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Sánchez-Hernández, Pedro Ernesto

    2017-07-19

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are transmembrane proteins that regulate NK and T cell subsets by recognizing HLA-I molecules as ligands. The KIR gene family consists of 16 genes, located at chromosome 19q13.4. KIR gene frequencies vary among populations. In Mexico, HLA and genetic ancestry studies show that Mestizo populations have different genetic backgrounds based on admixture with European, African, and Asian ancestry. This study aimed to evaluate the frequencies of KIR genes and genotypes in Guerrero and Jalisco, two Mexican Mestizo populations located in the south and the west of the country, respectively, and to compare these frequencies with those of other populations. KIR genotyping was performed by SSP-PCR. We observed that KIR gene frequencies were similar in both populations. There were 24 genotypes observed in Guerrero, 38 genotypes observed in Jalisco, 15 genotypes shared in both populations and 32 genotypes unique to one population or the other. In 10 individuals, nine novel genotypes were identified. KIR2DS4 gene variants showed significant differences: The KIR2DS4full gene was more common in Guerrero (p<0.0001), and the KIR2DS4del variant was more common in Jalisco (p<0.05). Differences in KIR2DS4 gene variants and genotypic profiles could be influenced by the genetic admixture in both regions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Western and Asian features of multiple sclerosis in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Jacqueline; Vargas, Steven; Sotelo, Julio

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical expression of MS in Mexican Mestizos with that of patients of European or Asian descent; as well as to compare the annual frequency of new cases with that observed in the previous decades. All patients with diagnosis of definite MS seen at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico from January 1993 to December 2003 were studied (n=312). Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared with reports of patients from either Western or Asian origin; the long-term disability score was analyzed according to gender, age of onset of MS and the initial symptom. The clinical expression of MS in Mexican Mestizos shares some characteristics with both, Asian and Western forms of MS indicating that the genetic composition of Mexican Mestizos participates in the clinical expression of the disease. Also, at the prevalence date, the mean age of patients and the duration of the disease were lower in our patients than in MS patients from endemic countries suggesting a true increasing incidence in recent times, rather than only improved case ascertainment. Clinical expression of MS in Mexican Mestizos shows the coexistence of some features common in European and in Asian cases.

  15. Deglacial environmental changes on Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Björck, Svante; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    The island of Isla de los Estados is situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinian Tierra del Fuego, and is located in a sensitive geographic position in relation to the zonal circulation between Antarctica and South America. Its terrestrial records of the last deglaciation, recording atmospheric conditions but within an oceanic setting, can help to clarify changes of regional circulation patterns, both atmospheric and marine. Here, we present geochemical analyses from 16-10 ka cal BP of a peat core from Lago Galvarne Bog at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment core from Laguna Cascada 3 km further south. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning on both cores as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating. Deglaciation and onset of peat formation in the coastal areas began before 16 ka cal BP followed by a rapid glacial retreat and the start of lacustrine sedimentation further inland. Data suggest initially windy conditions with permafrost succeeded by gradually warmer and wetter conditions until ca 14.5 ka cal BP. The warming trend slows down until ca 13.5 ka cal BP, followed by arid conditions culminating around 12.8 ka cal BP. Our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation ca 10.6 ka cal BP, contemporaneous with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum. This indicates large-scale shifts in the placement of zonal flow and the Westerlies at the beginning of the Holocene.

  16. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Guido; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A; Freimer, Nelson B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, Maria L; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Dipierri, José E; Alfaro, Emma L; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-03-21

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  17. Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M.; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro, Emma L.; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O.; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region. PMID:18369456

  18. Genetic Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    García-Chapa, Eiralí Guadalupe; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    There are currently about 415 million people with diabetes worldwide, a figure likely to increase to 642 million by 2040. In 2015, Mexico was the second Latin American country and sixth in the world in prevalence of this disorder with nearly 11.5 million of patients. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the main kind of diabetes and its etiology is complex with environmental and genetic factors involved. Indeed, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with this disease worldwide. To estimate the genetic epidemiology of T2D in Mexican mestizos a systematic bibliographic search of published articles through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was conducted. Just case-control studies of candidate genes about T2D in Mexican mestizo inhabitants were included. Nineteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were found. In total, 68 polymorphisms of 41 genes were assessed; 26 of them were associated with T2D risk, which were located in ABCA1, ADRB3, CAPN10, CDC123/CAMK1D, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, CRP, ELMO1, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, IRS1, JAZF1, KCNQ1, LOC387761, LTA, NXPH1, SIRT1, SLC30A8, TCF7L2, and TNF-α genes. Overall, 21 of the 41 analyzed genes were associated with T2D in Mexican mestizos. Such a genetic heterogeneity compares with findings in other ethnic groups. PMID:28607931

  19. Genetic Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    García-Chapa, Eiralí Guadalupe; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge; Meza-Espinoza, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    There are currently about 415 million people with diabetes worldwide, a figure likely to increase to 642 million by 2040. In 2015, Mexico was the second Latin American country and sixth in the world in prevalence of this disorder with nearly 11.5 million of patients. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the main kind of diabetes and its etiology is complex with environmental and genetic factors involved. Indeed, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with this disease worldwide. To estimate the genetic epidemiology of T2D in Mexican mestizos a systematic bibliographic search of published articles through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was conducted. Just case-control studies of candidate genes about T2D in Mexican mestizo inhabitants were included. Nineteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were found. In total, 68 polymorphisms of 41 genes were assessed; 26 of them were associated with T2D risk, which were located in ABCA1, ADRB3, CAPN10, CDC123/CAMK1D, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, CRP, ELMO1, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, IRS1, JAZF1, KCNQ1, LOC387761, LTA, NXPH1, SIRT1, SLC30A8, TCF7L2, and TNF-α genes. Overall, 21 of the 41 analyzed genes were associated with T2D in Mexican mestizos. Such a genetic heterogeneity compares with findings in other ethnic groups.

  20. Characterization of the CYP2D6 drug metabolizing phenotypes of the Chilean mestizo population through polymorphism analyses.

    PubMed

    Varela, Nelson; Quiñones, Luis A; Stojanova, Jana; Garay, Joselyn; Cáceres, Dante; Cespedes, Silvia; Sasso, Jaime; Miranda, Carla

    2015-11-01

    We tested the influence of four polymorphisms and gene duplication in CYP2D6 on in vivo enzyme activity in a Chilean mestizo population in order to identify the most relevant genetic profiles that account for observed phenotypes in this ethnic group. CYP2D6*2 (2850C>T), *3 (2549A>del), *4 (1846G>A), *17 (1023C>T) and gene duplication were determined by PCR-RFLP or PCRL in a group of 321 healthy volunteers. Individuals with different variant alleles were phenotyped by determining debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity as a metabolic ratio (MR) using a validated HPLC assay. Minor allele frequencies were 0.41, 0.01, 0.12 and 0.00 for CYP2D6*2, *3, *4 and *17 variants, respectively, and the duplication frequency was 0.003. Genotype analysis correlated with phenotypes in 18 of 23 subjects (78.3%). 11 subjects were extensive metabolizers (EM), 8 were intermediate metabolizers (IM), 2 were poor metabolizers (PM) and 2 were ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM) which is fairly coincident with expected phenotypes metabolic ratios ranged from 0.11 to 126.41. The influence of CYP2D6*3 was particularly notable, although only heterozygote carriers were present in our population. Individuals homozygous for *4 were always PM. As expected, the only subject with gene duplication was UM. In conclusion, there was a clear effect of genotype on observed CYP2D6 activity. Classification of EM, PM and UM through genotyping was useful to characterize CYP2D6 phenotype in the Chilean mestizo population.

  1. Disease features and outcomes in United States lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterparts in Latin America: a commentary

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Methods. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student’s t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. Results. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. Conclusion. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. PMID:26412809

  2. The Psychohistorical Approach in Family Counseling with Mestizo/Latino Immigrants: A Continuum and Synergy of Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Patricia; Aviles, Robert M. Davison; Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Grazioso, Maria del Pilar; Bordes, Veronica; Hita, Liza; Lopez, Belinda J.

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005, the International Association for Marriage and Family Counseling's yearly Distinguished Speakers series at the American Counseling Association Conference featured a presentation on family counseling with Mestizo/Latino immigrants. A panel composed of Latino counseling professionals representing varied Mestizo backgrounds discussed…

  3. Y chromosome haplogroup diversity in a Mestizo population of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Geppert, Maria; Baeta, Miriam; Roewer, Lutz; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña

    2012-12-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are indispensable markers for haplogroup determination. Since Y chromosome haplogroups show a high specific geographical distribution, they play a major role in population genetics but can also benefit forensic investigations. Although haplogroup prediction methods based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) exist and are frequently used, precaution is required in this regard. In this study we determine the Y chromosome haplogroups of a Nicaraguan population using several Y-SNP multiplex reactions. Y chromosome haplogroups have been predicted before, but our results show that a confirmation with Y-SNP typings is necessary. These results have revealed a 4.8% of error in haplogroup prediction based on Y-STR haplotypes using Athey's Haplogroup Predictor. The Nicaraguan Mestizo population displays a majority of Eurasian lineages, mainly represented by haplogroup R-M207 (46.7%). Other Eurasian lineages have been observed, especially J-P209 (13.3%), followed by I-M170 (3.6%) and G-M201 (1.8%). Haplogroup E-P170 was also observed in 15.2% of the sample, particularly subhaplogroup E1b1b1-M35. Finally, the Native American haplogroup Q-M242 was found in 15.2% of the sample, with Q1a3a-M3 being the most frequent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomewide admixture study in Mexican Mestizos with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Graciela; Romero, Sandra; Orozco, Lorena; Pineda, Benjamín; Jiménez-Morales, Silvia; Nieto, Alejandra; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Sotelo, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex immune-mediated disease. It has been suggested that genetic factors could explain differences in the prevalence among ethnic groups. To know whether genetic ancestry is a potential risk factor for MS in Mexican patients and to identify candidate genes for the susceptibility to the disease we conducted an initial trial of genome-wide analysis. 29 patients with diagnosis of definitive MS and 132 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix human 6.0 array. After QC procedures, ancestry determination and a preliminary case-control association study were performed. We identified significant differences in the European ancestry proportion between MS cases and controls (33.1 vs. 25.56, respectively; p=0.0045). Imputation analysis in the MHC region on chromosome 6 showed a signal with a significant level (p<0.00005) on the HLA-DRB region. Additionally, a preliminary association analysis highlighted the ASF1B as novel candidate gene participating in MS. Our data suggest that European ancestry is a risk factor to develop MS in Mexican Mestizo population. Conversely, indigenous ancestry of Asian origin seems to confer protection. Further studies with more MS cases are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of antinuclear antibodies in mestizo Mexican children with morphea.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Yinh-Lao, Janeth; García-Gutiérrez, Patricia; Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto

    2010-09-01

    Morphea is a disease that affects connective tissue and microvessels. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but several autoimmune factors participate. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in pediatric patients with morphea and to establish their relation with the clinical variants and disease activity. A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 1999 to January 2008 in patients with morphea seen at the Instituto Dermatologico de Jalisco. ANAs were determined through an indirect immunoflourescent method, and the immunospecificity was done with a double immunodiffusion technique in agarose gel. A total of 34 children were included in the study, 74% of the female gender. Plaque morphea was the most common variant, present in 44% of the cases, followed by linear morphea in 38%, and generalized morphea in 18%. ANAs were positive in 29%, with homogenous immunoflourescense as the most frequent pattern (70%). Of the ANA-positive patients, 83% had generalized morphea, and in 70% of the cases the disease were considered as active. The frequency of ANA-positive children with morphea was 29%, and seems to be related to more extensive disease. No previous studies exist on this topic in the mestizo Mexican population.

  6. Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Haro-Guerrero, Javier; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Velarde-Félix, Jésus S; Muñoz-Valle, José F; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Bravi, Claudio M; López-Armenta, Mauro; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2013-08-01

    The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST  = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Records of environmental changes during the Holocene from Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Fernandez, Marilen; Björck, Svante; Ljung, Karl; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia, located at the relatively narrow passage between Antarctica and South America, is a highly sensitive region for recording meridional and zonal changes in the pattern of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The island of Isla de los Estados, situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinean Tierra del Fuego, provides an exceptional possibility, to investigate terrestrial records of atmospheric conditions in an oceanic setting during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Here we present geochemical and diatom analyses from 10 600 to c. 1500 cal BP of one sequence (LGB) with peat, lake sediments and lagoon deposits at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment sequence (CAS) 3 km further inland. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating on both cores. Diatom analysis of the CAS record complements the geochemical proxies. During the Holocene, our two sites have been impacted by two different forcings: changes in the regional climate regime largely influenced by the varying strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies (SHW), while relative sea-level changes affected the deposits of the coastal site. In concert with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum, our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation on the island c. 10 600 cal BP. Between 8500 and 4500 cal BP geochemistry and diatoms from the CAS record indicate stronger Westerlies at this latitude, which means higher wind speed or higher storm frequency and more precipitation, resulting in more pronounced surface run-off. After 4500 cal BP, the geochemical proxies and large changes in diatom assemblages indicate a decrease in precipitation, weaker winds and possibly cooler conditions, probably as an effect of weaker SHW and/or a latitudinal shift. The depositional environment of CAS changed from gyttja to peat around 1000

  8. Delta-sarcoglycan gene polymorphism frequency in Amerindian and Mestizo populations of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Peñaloza, Rosenda; Minauro-Sanmiguel, Fernando; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio

    2010-04-01

    Mutations on the delta-sarcoglycan gene have been associated with the development of both hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy. Recently, the polymorphism c.-94C>G was associated with HCM in Japanese patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of c.-94C>G polymorphism in Mexican-Amerindian and Mexican-Mestizo populations. We analyzed the frequency of this polymorphism in 165 Mexican-Amerindian individuals (23 Triquis, 25 Zapotecos, 24 Mayas, 41 Nahuas, and 52 Mixtecos) and 100 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos. Allele frequencies were similar in all Amerindian groups (0.33 Triquis, 0.54 Zapotecos, 0.54 Mayas, 0.46 Nahuas, and 0.49 Mixtecos). When compared with Mexican-Mestizos, only Triquis were different (p = 0.00742). However, when comparing the total sample of the Amerindian population with the Mestizos, the difference was not significant (p = 0.12225). Allele frequencies of Mexican populations were higher than in Asians and less than African and European populations (p < 0.05). These data show that the distribution of the C allele is higher in Mexican populations studied and consequently it is necessary to define if this may be associated with genetic susceptibility for HCM in the Mexican patients.

  9. Genetic variation of the FMR1 gene among four Mexican populations: Mestizo, Huichol, Purepecha, and Tarahumara.

    PubMed

    Barros-Núñez, Patricio; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra; Sandoval, Lucila; Romero-Espinoza, Pavel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Ibarra, Bertha

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation; it is caused by expansion of CGG repeats in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. The number of CGG repeats varies between 6 and 50 triplets in normal individuals; the most common alleles have 29 or 30 repeats. Allelic patterns in the global populations are similar; however; some reports show statistical differences among several populations. In Mexico, except by a single report on a western Mestizo population, the allelic frequencies of the FMR1 gene are unknown. In this study, we analyze 207, 140, 138, and 40 chromosomes from Mestizos, Tarahumaras, Huichols, and Purepechas respectively. After PCR amplification on DNA modified by sodium bisulfite treatment, molecular analysis of the FMR1 gene showed 30 different alleles among the 525 chromosomes evaluated. Trinucleotide repeat number in the different Mexican populations varied from 15 to 87, with modal numbers of 32 and 30 in Mestizos and Tarahumaras, 29 and 32 in Purepechas and 30 among Huichols. Together, these allelic patterns differ significantly from those reported for Caucasian, Chinese, African, Indonesian, Brazilian, and Chilean populations. The increased number of the unusual allele of 32 repeats observed in the Mexican mestizo population can be explained from its frequency in at least two Mexican native populations.

  10. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Phenotype-genotype analysis of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizo individuals

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Martínez, José H Isaza; Arias, Juan C Sepúlveda; Beltrán, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    Background Omeprazole is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme to 5-hydroxyomeprazole. CYP2C19 exhibits genetic polymorphisms responsible for the presence of poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and extensive metabolizers (EMs). The defective mutations of the enzyme and their frequencies change between different ethnic groups; however, the polymorphism of the CYP2C19 gene has not been studied in Colombian mestizos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and phenotype status of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizos, in order to contribute to the use of appropriate strategies of drug therapy for this population. Methods 189 subjects were genotyped using the multiplex SNaPshot technique and a subgroup of 44 individuals received 20 mg of omeprazole followed by blood collection at 3 hours to determine the omeprazole hydroxylation index by HPLC. Results 83.6%, 15.3% and 1.1% of the subjects were genotyped as EMs, IMs and PMs, respectively. The frequencies of the CYP2C29*1 and CYP2C19*2 alleles were 91.3% and 8.7% respectively whereas the *3, *4, *5, *6 and *8 alleles were not found. No discrepancies were found between the genotype and phenotype of CYP2C19. Conclusion The frequency of poor metabolizers (1.1%) in the Colombian mestizos included in this study is similar to that in Bolivian mestizos (1%) but lower than in Mexican-Americans (3.2%), West Mexicans (6%), Caucasians (5%) and African Americans (5.4%). The results of this study will be useful for drug dosage recommendations in Colombian mestizos. PMID:17623107

  12. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Delgadillo Guzmán, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, José L.; Loera Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa Macías, Martha; García Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  13. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STRs in a Mestizo population from the Central Valley of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Magaña, Jonathan J; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to portray the complex diversity of the Mexican Mestizo population, which represents 98.8% of the entire population of Mexico. We compiled extended haplotype data of the Y chromosome from populations in the Central Valley of Mexico (CVM), which we compared with other Mestizo and parental (Amerindian, European, and African) populations. A complex ancestral relationship was found in the CVM population, suggesting cosmopolitan origins. Nevertheless, the most preeminent lineages point toward a European ancestry, where the R1b lineage was most frequent. In addition, important frequencies of Amerindian lineages were also found in the Mestizo sample studied. Interestingly, the Amerindian ancestry showed a remarkable substructure, which was represented by the two main founding lineages: QL54 (× M3) and M3. However, even within each lineage a high diversity was found despite the small number of sample bearers of these lineages. Further, we detected important genetic differences between the CVM populations and the Mexican Mestizo populations from the north and south. This result points to the fact that Mestizo populations present different ancestral proportions, which are related to the demographic events that gave origin to each population. Finally, we provide additional forensic statistical parameters that are useful in the interpretation of genetic analysis where autosomal loci are limited. Our findings illustrate the complex genetic background of the Mexican Mestizo population and reinforce the need to encompass more geographic regions to generate more robust data for forensic applications.

  14. Evaluation of forensic and anthropological potential of D9S1120 in Mestizos and Amerindian populations from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Viviana M; Botello-Ruiz, Miriam; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Phillips, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aim To carry out a deeper forensic and anthropological evaluation of the short tandem repeat (STR) D9S1120 in five Mestizo populations and eight Amerindian groups from Mexico. Methods We amplified the STR D9S1120 based on primers and conditions described by Phillips et al, followed by capillary electrophoresis in the genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310. Genotypes were analyzed with the GeneMapper ID software. In each population we estimated statistical parameters of forensic importance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity and FST-values were compared with those previously obtained with nine STRs of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS-STRs). Results Amerindian and Mestizo populations showed high frequencies of the allele 9 and 16, respectively. Population structure analysis (AMOVA) showed a significant differentiation between Amerindian groups (FST = 2.81%; P < 0.0001), larger than between Mestizos (FST = 0.44%; P = 0.187). D9S1120 showed less genetic diversity but better population differentiation estimates than CODIS-STRs between Amerindian groups and between Amerindians and Mestizos, but not between Mestizo groups. Conclusion This study evaluated the ability of D9S1120 to be used for human identification purposes and demonstrated its anthropological potential to differentiate Mestizos and Amerindian populations. PMID:23100204

  15. The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Mexican mestizo neural-tube defect parents, control mestizo and native populations.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, I P; Olivares, N; Castillo, M T; Cantú, J M; Ibarra, B; Sandoval, L; Morán, M C; Gallegos, M P; Chakraborty, R; Rivas, F

    2000-01-01

    The C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, associated with the thermolabile form of the enzyme, has reportedly been found to be increased in neural-tube defects (NTD), though this association is still unclear. A group of 107 mestizo parents of NTD children and five control populations: 101 mestizo (M), 50 Huichol (H), 38 Tarahumara (T), 21 Purepecha (P) and 20 Caucasian (C) individuals were typed for the MTHFR C677T variant by the PCR/RFLP (HinfI) method. Genotype frequencies were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all six populations. Allele frequency (%) of the C677T variant was 45 in NTD, 44 in M, 56 in H, 36 in T, 57 in P, 35 in C. Pairwise inter-population comparisons of allele frequency disclosed a very similar distribution between NTD and M groups (exact test, P=0.92). Among controls, differences between M and individual native groups were NS (0.06mestizo parents. Otherwise, C677T in Mexico is very frequent, especially in Huichol and Purepecha natives, as compared with other groups world wide.

  16. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic variation of 17 STR loci in a Mexican Mestizo population from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Maria; Rios-Rivas, Ricardo Jesús; Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Lorente, José Antonio; Villegas-Carmona, Dora; Ramirez-Flores, Erika; Vega-Navarrete, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    Genetic data from 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci found in the Powerplex® ESX 17 System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) was evaluated in 162 unrelated Mexican Mestizo individuals from Mexico City. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated for the 17 STRs. All loci analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the studied population and showed not any signs of linkage between loci. The combined power of discrimination and the power of exclusion for the 16 aSTRs studied were 1-2.56409·10(-19) and 99.999938 %, respectively. Genetic distances reveal a close relationship within different populations of Mexican Mestizos. The obtained data might be useful for population genetics research and for individual identification and paternity testing in forensic science.

  18. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    PubMed Central

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27171918

  19. Risk factors and impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Mejía, David; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; López-Medina, Guillermo; Cortes-Espinosa, Leticia; Hernández-Chiu, Maria C; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Vergara-López, Alma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramon M; Canto, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Considering that the Mexican mestizo population seems to be the result of a genetic admixture, we proposed that further research is needed to evaluate the role of ethnicity in conjunction with health-related factors to better understand ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to analyze several risk factors related to the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women. We included 567 postmenopausal Mexican mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was measured in total hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Nonconditional logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratio. Using World Health Organization criteria, 28.7% of postmenopausal women had osteoporosis, 46.4% had osteopenia, and 24.9% had normal BMD. Each clinical risk factor had a different significance for osteopenia/osteoporosis; however, duration of total breast-feeding, body mass index, and number of years since menopause remained significantly associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis after bone density was added to the nonconditional model. Interestingly, extended periods of accumulated breast-feeding for 24 and 36 months were, in both cases, significantly associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Our results confirm the importance of considering the duration of breast-feeding as an important risk factor for osteopenia/osteoporosis. In addition, we find that body mass index is positively associated with BMD. Because of the heterogeneity of the Mexican mestizo population, the risk factor for osteoporosis may not be the same in different ethnic groups.

  20. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients.

    PubMed

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  1. Disease features and outcomes in United States lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterparts in Latin America: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student's t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights

  2. Mexican mestizo population sub-structure: effects on genetic and forensic statistical parameters.

    PubMed

    Noris, Gino; Santana, Carla; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; de Lourdes Munoz, María; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Magaña, Jonathan J; Granados, Julio; Quezada, Rosa; Revilla, María Cristina; Martínez-Salas, Sergio; Xihuitl, Salvador; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Gómez, Rocío

    2012-12-01

    Since Mexican mestizos are an admixed population, it is necessary to determine the effects that the substructure of the population has on genetic and forensic parameters. With this aim, a study was performed with 15 STR loci (CODIS plus D2S1338 and D19S433) on 1,640 unrelated Mexican mestizos. We determine allele and genotypic frequencies observing departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectation (12 out of 15 loci, with an excess of homozygotes, Fis > 0), as well as pairs of loci in an apparent linkage disequilibrium (13 of 92 loci). We conducted a test for genetic population stratification, the results show that the Mexican mestizo population is substructured into three subgroups, which are in HW and linkage equilibrium. The combination of the 15 loci in the whole population has high forensic efficiency with the capacity to genetically discriminate one individual in one quintillion (1/10(18)). Our data potentially validates the use of these 15 STR loci to establish forensic identity and parentage testing for legal purposes, and offers a powerful tool for genetic variation analysis. However, given that the population is stratified, we highly recommend applying a correction with the inbreeding coefficient in calculations of paternity and forensic studies to avoid erroneous assumptions.

  3. A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Juarez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Wegier, Ana; Macías, Antonio; Gomez, Guillermo; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Piñero, Daniel; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    There are limited data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Mexican mestizo population. To examine the genetic diversity and matrilineal ancestry, the full mtDNA hypervariable regions I and II were sequenced in 270 unrelated mestizos from different regions of Mexico. A total of 202 different haplotypes were identified and the haplotype diversity was 0.9945. Amerindian haplotypes predominated in the sample with a proportion of 93.3%, followed by European (6.0%) and African haplotypes (0.7%). The frequency of the Amerindian haplogroups A2, B2, C1 and D1 was 51.1, 17.8, 18.5 and 5.9%, respectively. The frequency of Amerindian haplogroups was higher in the central region than in Mexico City, whereas it was the contrary for European haplogroups. This difference was accounted principally by the high frequency of B2 haplotypes in the central region. The minimum spanning network, the mismatch distribution and Tajima's D neutrality test suggest a population expansion for each Amerindian haplogroup, which could be initiated more recently for haplogroups A2 and D1. The present knowledge combined with other nuclear genetic markers will be essential in future association studies to correct for genetic substructure in mestizo populations.

  4. Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican demography approximates the present-day ancestry of Mestizos throughout the territory of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; González-Martín, Antonio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Anaya-Palafox, Manuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2009-07-01

    Over the last 500 years, admixture among Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, principally, has come to shape the present-day gene pool of Mexicans, particularly Mestizos, who represent about 93% of the total Mexican population. In this work, we analyze the genetic data of 13 combined DNA index system-short tandem repeats (CODIS-STRs) in 1,984 unrelated Mestizos representing 10 population samples from different regions of Mexico, namely North, West, Central, and Southeast. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test demonstrated low but significant differentiation among Mestizos from different regions (F(ST) = 0.34%; P = 0.0000). Although the spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) predicted clustering Mestizo populations into four well-delimited groups, the main differentiation was observed between Northwest when compared with Central and Southeast regions. In addition, we included analysis of individuals of Amerindian (Purepechas), European (Huelva, Spain), and African (Fang) origin. Thus, STRUCTURE analysis was performed identifying three well-differentiated ancestral populations (k = 3). STRUCTURE results and admixture estimations by means of LEADMIX software in Mestizo populations demonstrated genetic heterogeneity or asymmetric admixture throughout Mexico, displaying an increasing North-to-South gradient of Amerindian ancestry, and vice versa regarding the European component. Interestingly, this distribution of Amerindian ancestry roughly reflects pre-Hispanic Native-population density, particularly toward the Mesoamerican area. The forensic, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  5. Interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in Amerindian and Mexican Mestizo populations: considerations for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Mejorado, R; Noris, G; Santana, C; Magaña, J J; Majluf-Cruz, A; Arellano-Galindo, J; De la Peña, A; Hernández-Juárez, J; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Gómez, R

    2015-03-31

    We studied the interethnic variation of the MMP-9 microsatellite in the Mestizo and Amerindian populations using blood samples collected from 435 healthy unrelated individuals from the Central Valley of Mexico. DNA samples were genotyped using the -90 (CA)12-27 repeat near the MMP transcriptional start site using capillary electrophoresis. Our data were compared with those from African, Asian, and European populations (N = 729). Both Mestizo and Amerindian populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P ≥ 0.05). However, strong genetic heterogeneity was found within the Mestizo population (94%, P ≤ 0.0001), which exhibited the highest frequency of Amerindian, African, and European alleles. Likewise, Amerindians showed 6.7% variation among populations (P ≤ 0.0001), suggesting a genetic substructure potentially associated with linguistic affiliations. These findings were corroborated with principal component and population differentiation analyses, which showed relative proximity among the Mestizos and their historical parental populations: Asian (FST ≥ 0.05), European (FST ≥ 0.09), and African (FST ≥ 0.02). Nevertheless, important differences were found between Mestizo and Nahuas (P ≤ 0.0001), and between Mestizo and Me'Phaas (P ≤ 0.0001). These findings highlight the importance of determining local-specific patterns to establish the population variability of MMP-9 and other polymorphic markers. Validation of candidate markers is critical to identifying risk factors; however, this depends on knowledge of population genetic variation, which increases the possibility of finding true causative variants. We also show that dissimilar ethnic backgrounds might lead to spurious associations. Our study provides useful considerations for greater accuracy and robustness in future genetic association studies.

  6. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  7. Resequencing, haplotype construction and identification of novel variants of CYP2D6 in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Alejandra V; Monge-Cazares, Tulia; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Hernandez-Morales, Salvador; Miranda-Ortiz, Haydee; Carrillo-Sanchez, Karol; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma

    2011-05-01

    The CYP2D6 enzyme participates in the metabolism of commonly prescribed drugs: antidepressants, antipsychotics and antihypertensives. The CYP2D6 gene shows a high degree of interindividual and interethnic variability that influences its expression and function. Mexican Mestizos are a recently admixed population resulting from the combination of Amerindian, European and, to a lesser extent, African populations. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the CYP2D6 gene in Mexican Mestizos. We performed linkage disequilibrium and network analyses in resequencing data of 96 individuals from two regions within Mexico with a different history of admixture and particular population dynamics, the Northwestern state of Sonora and the Central-Pacific state of Guerrero. We identified 64 polymorphisms, including 14 novel variants: 13 SNPs and a CYP2D7 exon 2 conversion, that was assigned CYP2D6*82 by the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee. Three novel SNPs were predicted to have functional effects. For CYP2D6*82 we hypothesize an Amerindian origin that is supported by its identification in three Mexican Amerindian groups (Mayas, Tepehuanos and Mixtecos). Frequencies of CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10, *29, *53, *82 and its duplications were 50.0, 25.5, 14.1, 2.0, 2.6, 1.0, 0.5, 2.1 and 3.6%, respectively. We found significant frequency differences in CYP2D6*1 and *2 between Mexican Mestizos and in CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10 and *29 between Mexicans and at least one other population. We observed strong linkage disequilibrium and phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes. To our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive resequencing analysis of CYP2D6 in Mexicans or any other Latin American population, providing information about genetic diversity relevant in the development of pharmacogenomics in this region.

  8. Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Laura Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Loya, Carmen; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Muñoz-Valle, José Franciso; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2012-09-01

    In the nonrecombining region of the Y-chromosome, there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) that establish haplogroups with particular geographical origins (European, African, Native American, etc.). The complex process of admixture that gave rise to the majority of the current Mexican population (~93%), known as Mestizos, can be examined with Y-SNPs to establish their paternal ancestry and population structure. We analyzed 18 Y-SNPs in 659 individuals from 10 Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. In the total population sample, paternal ancestry was predominately European (64.9%), followed by Native American (30.8%) and African (4.2%). However, the European ancestry was prevalent in the north and west (66.7-95%) and, conversely, Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37-50%), whereas the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0-8.8%). Although this paternal landscape concurs with previous studies based on genome-wide SNPs and autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), this pattern contrasts with the maternal ancestry, mainly of Native American origin, based on maternal lineages haplogroups. In agreement with historical records, these results confirm a strong gender-biased admixture history between European males and Native American females that gave rise to Mexican-Mestizos. Finally, pairwise comparisons and analysis of molecular variance tests demonstrated significant population structure (F(ST)=4.68%; P<0.00005), delimiting clusters that were geographically defined as the following: north-west, center-south and southeast.

  9. HLA-DR6 association confers increased resistance to T. rubrum onychomycosis in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Asz-Sigall, Daniel; López-García, Lirio; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Lacy-Niebla, Rosa María; García-Corona, Cristina; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Granados, Julio; Villa, Antonio; Ameen, Mahreen; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Onychomycosis is multifactorial in origin. Studies have suggested an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4) has been shown to protect against onychomycosis in an Ashkenazi Jewish population. This study investigates HLA class II association in a Mexican Mestizo population with Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis. This was a prospective case-control study. Mexican Mestizos with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis and culture positive for T. rubrum were recruited, together with age- and sex-matched controls. First-degree relatives were also investigated for onychomycosis. Case-control samples were HLA typed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer based analysis. Twenty-one cases and 42 controls were recruited with a mean age of 40 years (range: 18-58 years). HLA-DR6 was found in seven (33%) cases and 19 (45%) controls [P < 0.023, odds ratio (OR) = 0.088, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.71]. Six (29%) cases and three (7%) controls had an affected child (P < 0.043, OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 1.07-78.31), and 13 (62%) cases and 12 (29%) controls had an affected first-degree relative (P < 0.02, OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.1-14.3). These results suggest that HLA-DR6 confers protection against the development of onychomycosis in a Mexican Mestizo population. Having an affected first-degree relative significantly increases the risk of onychomycosis, suggesting genetic susceptibility. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Gc types in one Indian group and one Mestizo Mexican group.

    PubMed

    Lisker, R; Pérez-Briceño, R; Ramirez, E; Aizpuru, E

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Gc types was investigated in an Indian group residing in Cuetzalan, Puebla, and in a Mestizo group from Mexico City. Gc1 and Gc2 gene frequencies were 0.862 and 0.138 in Cuetzalan, and 0.858 and 0.142 in Mexico City. These figures are similar to those obtained by other authors in one Northeastern Mexican City. A literature review showed that there appears to be a pattern of high Gc2 frequency in most Brazilian Indians (above 0.3) in contrast to a low frequency (below 0.2) in most other Amerindian groups studied.

  11. Cultural significance of wild mammals in Mayan and mestizo communities of the Lacandon Rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García Del Valle, Yasminda; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Caballero, Javier; Martorell, Carlos; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Enríquez, Paula L

    2015-05-07

    Several ethnobiology studies evaluate the cultural significance (CS) of plants and mushrooms. However, this is not the case for mammals. It is important to make studies of CS allowing the comparison of cultural groups because the value given to groups of organisms may be based on different criteria. Such information would be valuable for wildlife preservation plans. In this study, the most culturally significant species of mammals from the Lacandon Rainforest (Chiapas, Mexico) for people from two Mayan-Lacandon and mestizo communities were identified. The reasons behind the CS of the studied species were explored and the existence of differences among the cultural groups was evaluated. One hundred ninety-eight semi-structured and structured interviews were applied to compile socio-demographic information, qualitative data on CS categories, and free listings. Frequency of mention was a relative indicator to evaluate the CS of each species of mammal. Comparison of responses between communities was carried out through multivariate analyses. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the number of mentioned species by Lacandons and mestizos as well as different responses in the qualitative categories. A χ2 test was used to compare frequency of categories. 38 wild mammal species were identified. The classification and Principal Components Analyses show an apparent separation between Lacandon and mestizo sites based on the relative importance of species. All four communities mentioned the lowland paca the most, followed by peccary, white-tailed deer, armadillo, and jaguar. No significant difference was found in the number of mentioned species between the two groups. Eight CS categories were identified. The most important category was "harmful mammals", which included 28 species. Other relevant categories were edible, medicinal, and appearing in narratives. The data obtained in this study demonstrates the existence of differential cultural patterns in the

  12. Polymorphisms of APLN-APLNR system are associated with essential hypertension in Mexican-Mestizo individuals.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Martínez, Rosa Lilia; Pérez-Razo, Juan Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Cano-Martínez, Luis Javier; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Rojano-Mejía, David; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if polymorphisms of APLN and APLNR genes may play a role as susceptibility markers for hypertension in a group of Mexican-Mestizo patients. A case-control study was carried out including normotensive and hypertensive individuals. For these, two polymorphisms of APLN (rs3761581 and rs56204867) and two of APLNR () genes were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assay in 400 normotensive individuals and 383 patients. The results showed that, under an additive model adjusted by BMI, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and family history of essential hypertension, the rs7119375 and rs10501367 polymorphisms of APLNR gene were associated significantly with a decreased risk of essential hypertension (P=0.039 and P=0.029, respectively). Besides, the haplotypes analysis of these polymorphisms showed that H1 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of essential hypertension (P=0.026), while the H2 haplotype was associated with a decreased risk (P=0.032). Contrary, the rs3761581 and rs56204867 polymorphisms of APLN gene were not associated with essential hypertension (P=0.1707 and P=0.0769, respectively). The data suggest that APLNR rs7119375 and rs10501367 are associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension in our Mexican-Mestizo studied group, but further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E.; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C.; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J.; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ. PMID:27649570

  14. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Olguín, Lizbeth; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ramírez Regalado, Belem; Fernández, Genny; Canto, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women. A case-control study was performed where 127 preeclamptic patients and 263 controls were included. Genotyped and haplotypes for the -768T→C, intron 4 variants, Glu298Asp of eNOS were determined by PCR and real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) was used to test for associations between genotype and preeclampsia under recessive, codominant and dominant models. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r2, and haplotype analysis was conducted. Women homozygous for the Asp298 allele showed an association of preeclampsia. In addition, analysis of the haplotype frequencies revealed that the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype was significantly more frequent in preeclamptic patients than in controls (0.143 vs. 0.041, respectively; OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.74–5.23; P = 2.9 × 10−4). Despite the Asp298 genotype in a recessive model associated with the presence of preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women, we believe that in this population the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype is a better genetic marker. PMID:21897002

  15. VDR polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in post-menopausal Mayan-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Cetina Manzanilla, José Antonio; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. To analyse the association between two polymorphisms of VDR as well as their haplotypes with BMD in post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. This study comprised 600 post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR (rs731236 and rs2228570) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analysed with covariance. Haplotype analysis was conducted. TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR had higher BMD at total hip and femoral neck (FN), and one haplotype formed by the two polymorphisms was associated with only TH-BMD variations. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. The genotype of rs2228570 of VDR analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations. The results showed that the TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR and one haplotype formed by rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms were associated with higher BMD at TH and FN.

  16. Genotyping the High Altitude Mestizo Ecuadorian Population Affected with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Salazar-Ruales, Carolina; Zambrano, Ana Karina; Guevara, Patricia; Leone, Paola E.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in males with 1,114,072 new cases in 2015. The MTHFR enzyme acts in the folate metabolism, which is essential in methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. MTHFR C677T alters homocysteine levels and folate assimilation associated with DNA damage. Androgens play essential roles in prostate growth. The SRD5A2 enzyme metabolizes testosterone and the V89L polymorphism reduces in vivo SRD5A2 activity. The androgen receptor gene codes for a three-domain protein that contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG, GGC). Therefore, it is essential to know how PC risk is associated with clinical features and polymorphisms in high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo populations. We analyzed 480 healthy and 326 affected men from our three retrospective case-control studies. We found significant association between MTHFR C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; P = 0.009), MTHFR C/T+T/T (OR = 2.22; P = 0.009), and PC. The SRD5A2 A49T substitution was associated with higher pTNM stage (OR = 2.88; P = 0.039) and elevated Gleason grade (OR = 3.15; P = 0.004). Additionally, patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC (OR = 2.99; P < 0.001). In conclusion, genotype polymorphism studies are important to characterize genetic variations in high altitude mestizo populations. PMID:28685147

  17. Association of a TFAM haplotype with aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men.

    PubMed

    Granados, Jesús Benítez; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Rojano-Mejía, David; Tapia, André; Canto, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the development of cancer and obesity, being prostate cancer more aggressive in obese men. It has been suggested that the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays a central role in these events. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men. A total of 257 unrelated men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, of Mexican Mestizo ethnic origin, were included. Body mass index was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. The rs1937, rs1049432, and rs11006132, as well as their haplotypes, were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated; haplotype analysis was performed. A higher risk (D'Amico classification) was documented in 56 patients (21.8%). We did not find a significant association among those polymorphisms analyzed; however, one haplotype was significantly associated with cancer aggressiveness. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first study regarding the relationship of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in overweight or obese men; the most frequent haplotype was associated with cancer aggressiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Mexican mestizos: one institution's experience].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Gómez Rangel, J David

    2004-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined as presence of serum monoclonal protein at a concentration of 3 g per deciliter or less, no monoclonal protein or only moderate amounts of monoclonal light chains in urine, absence of lytic bone lesions, anemia, hypercalemia, and renal insufficiency related with monoclonal protein, and with a proportion of plasma cells in bone marrow of 10% or less. In Caucasian population, MGUS affects about 3% of individuals > 70 years of age, whereas in Mexican mestizos this figure is substantially lower (0.7%); on the other hand, MGUS represents in Mexico only 2.4% of all monoclonal gammopathies. In a total of 9081 individuals studied prospectively at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla throughout a 20-year period, 11 patients with MGUS were identified. Median age was 70 years (range 43-83 years). Patients have been followed in periods ranging from 6 to 3270 days (median, 308 days). Two patients evolved into overt multiple myeloma at 308 and 1687 days after diagnosis of MGUS. Overall median survival (SV) of the group has not been reached, whereas 3270 days overall SV is 91%. After discussing underreporting, biasing, and other confounding factors, it would seem that MGUS, like other monoclonal gammopathies, is less frequent in Mexican mestizos than in Caucasians. Routine screening studies to identify the condition should result in increased numbers of patients.

  19. Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Estrada-Gil, Jesus; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Contreras, Alejandra; Balam-Ortiz, Eros; del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Velazquez-Fernandez, David; Lara, Cesar; Goya, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Lemus, Enrique; Davila, Carlos; Barrientos, Eduardo; March, Santiago; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is developing the basis for genomic medicine to improve healthcare of its population. The extensive study of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium structure of different populations has made it possible to develop tagging and imputation strategies to comprehensively analyze common genetic variation in association studies of complex diseases. We assessed the benefit of a Mexican haplotype map to improve identification of genes related to common diseases in the Mexican population. We evaluated genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium patterns, and extent of haplotype sharing using genomewide data from Mexican Mestizos from regions with different histories of admixture and particular population dynamics. Ancestry was evaluated by including 1 Mexican Amerindian group and data from the HapMap. Our results provide evidence of genetic differences between Mexican subpopulations that should be considered in the design and analysis of association studies of complex diseases. In addition, these results support the notion that a haplotype map of the Mexican Mestizo population can reduce the number of tag SNPs required to characterize common genetic variation in this population. This is one of the first genomewide genotyping efforts of a recently admixed population in Latin America. PMID:19433783

  20. Analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms in Mestizo and native populations from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Carrera, Francisco; Castro-Martínez, Xochitl Helga; Leal, Caridad; Portilla-de Buen, Eliseo; Sánchez-Corona, José; Flores-Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; García-Zapién, Alejandra; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Gómez-Espinel, Irene; Báez-Duarte, Blanca Guadalupe; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Guillermo Sánchez-Zazueta, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the well-known genetic structure of the Mexican population observed with other multiallelic markers can be detected by analyzing functional polymorphisms of cytokine and other inflammatory-response-related genes. A total of 834 Mestizo individuals from five Mexican cities and 92 Lacandonians - an Amerindian group from southeastern Mexico - were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in the CRP, IL10, IL6, TGFB1, TNFA, LTA, ICAM1 IFNG, and IL1RN genes. Allele and haplotype frequencies were used for genetic structure analysis using F-statistics pairwise distances and multidimensional scaling plot. Ancestry analysis was performed, as well. Significant interpopulational differences at the allele and haplotype frequency level were observed, mainly between Northern (Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Culiacan) and Southern (Tierra Blanca and Puebla) Mexican populations. Also, low but significant substructure was detected between some populations from these two broad regions. Interestingly, both Lacandonian populations were highly differentiated from each other and with respect to Mestizos. Consistent with previous data, Amerindian ancestry in the Southern Mexican groups was higher compared to Northern ones. The Mexican population exhibits regional differences in functional polymorphisms of inflammatory-response genes, as observed for other genetic markers. This information constitutes a reference for epidemiological studies that include these genetic markers to assess the susceptibility of the Mexican population to several immune-response-related diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and renal disease, which have been shown to be common in the Mexican population but with prevalence differences within this country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Estrada-Gil, Jesus; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Contreras, Alejandra; Balam-Ortiz, Eros; del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Velazquez-Fernandez, David; Lara, Cesar; Goya, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Lemus, Enrique; Davila, Carlos; Barrientos, Eduardo; March, Santiago; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2009-05-26

    Mexico is developing the basis for genomic medicine to improve healthcare of its population. The extensive study of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium structure of different populations has made it possible to develop tagging and imputation strategies to comprehensively analyze common genetic variation in association studies of complex diseases. We assessed the benefit of a Mexican haplotype map to improve identification of genes related to common diseases in the Mexican population. We evaluated genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium patterns, and extent of haplotype sharing using genomewide data from Mexican Mestizos from regions with different histories of admixture and particular population dynamics. Ancestry was evaluated by including 1 Mexican Amerindian group and data from the HapMap. Our results provide evidence of genetic differences between Mexican subpopulations that should be considered in the design and analysis of association studies of complex diseases. In addition, these results support the notion that a haplotype map of the Mexican Mestizo population can reduce the number of tag SNPs required to characterize common genetic variation in this population. This is one of the first genomewide genotyping efforts of a recently admixed population in Latin America.

  2. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ.

  3. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations.

  4. [Relation of leptin in plasma with oxidative damage in indigenous tepehuán and mestizo populations from Durango].

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Guzmán, Dealmy; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha Angélica; Carrera-Gracia, Manuela de la A; Lares-Aseff, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial metabolic disorder that involves lipid peroxidation (LPX), activating the antioxidant systems to counteract cellular damage. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant capacity and LPX levels of /eptin, in indigenous Tepehuan and Mestizo populations of the State of Durango. We conducted a nutritional clinical study and lipid profile to confirm the state of health of a group of 60 indigenous Tepehuan of Mezquital and 68 mestizos subjects of Durango city, aged between 18 to 59 years. We determined the concentrations of leptin, antioxidant capacity and LPX in fasting conditions on plasma of participants, comparing averages, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation through ANOVA and Kruskai-Wal/is. For the correlation of variables, Pearson test was applied, getting the r value. Leptin levels were lower in indigenous Tepehuan than mestizos independent of body mass index. Mestizo subjects and Tepehuan with overweight and obesity (OW/0) or both ethnic groups show a greater degree of LPX (3.39 ± 0.31, 2.72 ± 0.54 MDA J.lmol/1, respectively; p < 0.05); however, OW/0 mestizos show more activation of its (0.37±0. 03 meqltrolox) than Tepehuan normal weight (NW) and OW/0 (0.32 ±0. 01 meq/trolox). The correlation between antioxidant capacity and LPX in mixed OW/0 was positive (r = 0.9; p < 0. 001). There is a correlation between levels of leptin and the antioxidant capacity of Tepehuan subjects both NW and OW/0 (r = 0.40; p < 0.05 and r = -0.66; p < 0.0001, respectively). Tepehuan groups with OW/0 have less oxidative damage, while antioxidant mechanisms have a smaller activation than the top crosses of the same nutritional condition. The results suggest that antioxidant capacity has an implication on the regulation of leptin levels in Tepehuan subjects.

  5. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro–Wilk’s W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Results Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4–6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0–0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women’s and men’s knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student’s test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. Conclusion This

  6. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Mariano, Nestor A; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-01-27

    Worldwide, mestizo communities' ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro-Wilk's W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4-6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0-0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women's and men's knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student's test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. This research improves our understanding of the socio

  7. Genetic Risk Determinants for Cigarette Smoking Dependence in Mexican Mestizo Families.

    PubMed

    Svyryd, Yevgeniya; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatriz; Aguayo-Gómez, Adolfo; Luna-Muñoz, Leonora; Arteaga-Vázquez, Jazmín; Regalado-Pineda, Justino; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Despite antitobacco and smoke-free policies, the prevalence of active smokers in Mexican urban populations has remained stable. Mexican smokers differ from Caucasian and other ethnic groups, probably due to sociocultural and genetic background characteristics. This study explored the effect of known genetic variants on smoking behavior in Mexico City residents. Three hundred sixty-four Mexican Mestizo Mexico City residents from 87 families with at least one smoker were assessed for association of 12 gene variants of six candidate genes (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, DRD2, ANKK1, SLC6A3, and CYP2A6) with cigarette consumption, age of initiation and smoking duration. The Family Based Association Test, an extension of the Transmission Disequilibrium Test, was used to perform family-based association analysis. The Family Based Association Test showed statistically significant association between the rs2072658 polymorphism of the CHRNB2 gene and smoking-related phenotypes such as: smoking status (SS), age of onset (AO), years of smoking, and psychological dependence (PD) evaluated by the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavior Questionnaire. After Bonferroni correction, only the association with AO remained significant (P = .003). Statistically significant association was also observed for the CYP2A6 rs28399433 T allele with SS (P = .003) and PD (P = .003). Our results indicate effects of the rs2072658 CHRNB2 and rs28399433 CYP2A6 gene variants on AO, SS and PD in Mexican Mestizo smokers. A mild effect of other analyzed gene variants, which may contribute to a putative polygenic predisposition for smoking, is suggested. The understanding of genetic and environmental determinants in the Mexican population is important for other Latin American populations as well, living in their own countries or moving to other ones, particular due to the current migration characteristics and particular genetic background

  8. Genetic structure of Mexican Mestizo women with breast cancer based on three STR loci.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana L; Rivera-Prieto, Roxana A; Ortíz-Lopez, Rocio; Rivas, Fernando; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this population genetics study was to compare the genetic structure of Mexican women with breast cancer (BrCa) with previously reported data of four random populations (Nuevo León, Hispanics, Chihuahua, and Central Region of Mexico). A sample of 115 unrelated women with BrCa and whose four grandparents were born in five zones of Mexico were interviewed at a reference hospital in Northeastern Mexico. Noncodifying STRs D7S820, D13S317, and D16S39 were analyzed; genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all three markers. Similar allele frequencies among four random populations and this selected population were found. According with this and previous studies using molecular and nonmolecular nuclear DNA markers not associated with any disease, Mexican Mestizo population is genetically homogeneous and therefore, genetic causes of BrCa are less heterogeneous, simplifying genetic epidemiologic studies.

  9. Gene-environment interaction in skeletal maturity and body dimensions of urban Oaxaca Mestizo schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzed the relationship between skeletal age (SA) and the difference between skeletal and chronological ages (SA-CA) and body size among growth-stunted and well-nourished children. Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) 20 bone, radius-ulna-short (RUS) bone, and carpal SAs were analyzed in three cross-sectional samples of school children aged 6-13 years: Mestizo children (n = 396) from the city of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, and American Black (n = 570) and White (n = 432) from Philadelphia. The Oaxaca children were mild-to-moderately undernourished while the Philadelphia children were well nourished. The total sample included 1398 radiographs assessed with the Tanner-Whitehouse protocol by a single, experienced rater. Maturity scores were converted to TW2 20 bone, RUS and carpal SAs. Correlations of SA and SA-CA differences with body dimensions (height, sitting height, leg length, weight, triceps skinfold, arm and estimated midarm muscle circumferences) were consistent and approximately equal in magnitude for the well-nourished samples but were different among Oaxaca children. SAs of Philadelphia children were significantly more highly correlated with body dimensions than were SA-CA differences compared to Oaxaca Mestizo children. Patterns of RUS and carpal SA correlations with body size (height, sitting height, and leg length) in Oaxaca children were different from the Philadelphia samples. Oaxaca children tended to have advanced RUS SA and delayed carpal SA. Long bone complexes mature earlier than round bone complexes in Oaxaca children compared to Philadelphia Black and White children, resulting in short stature in Oaxaca children. Results suggest a gene-environment interaction effect on the program for skeletal growth and maturation in undernourished Oaxaca children compared to well-nourished Black and White children from Philadelphia.

  10. KIR gene diversity in Mexican mestizos of San Luis Potosí.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Hernández, Diana Lorena; Hernández-Ramírez, Daniel; Noyola, Daniel Ernesto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by different types of membrane-bound receptors of which killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the most complex and diverse. KIRs are encoded by 17 different genes located within the leukocyte receptor complex (19q13.4). The frequency with which KIR gene features are present in different human populations differs. Here, we present our results on the KIR gene diversity observed in a large group of mestizos from the central Mexican city of San Luis Potosí. In total, 53 different KIR genotypes were observed, 47 with previously described gene profiles and six harboring novel KIR gene combinations. Group A homozygous haplotypes were seen in 102 individuals (34%), while group B homozygous haplotypes were present in 45 (15%). Heterozygous combinations of groups A and B haplotypes were seen in 153 individuals (51%). Haplotype frequency estimations based on a true content of 600 chromosomes showed a relatively balanced proportion of group A (59.5%) and group B (40.5%) haplotypes in our study population. A homozygous combination of the cA01|tA01 haplotype was present in 33% of the population with other frequent combinations being cA01|tA01, cB03|tB01 in 14.7% and cA01|tA01, cB02|tA01 in 12%. The dendrogram derived from activating KIR gene phylogenetic analysis revealed five clearly distinct clades corresponding to African, East Asian, Arab/Caucasoid, Mexican mestizo/Amerindian and South Asian populations. Our results illustrate the genetic contribution that Caucasoid and Amerindian populations have made toward present-day Mexicans and suggest an important Southeast Asian genetic contribution to native Amerindian populations.

  11. Characteristics and factors related to quality of life in Mexican Mestizo patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Cervantes, Karen Lizzete; Remes-Troche, José María; Del Pilar Milke-García, María; Romero, Viridiana; Uscanga, Luis F

    2015-01-22

    Celiac disease (CD) is a global health problem and its prevalence is underestimated, especially in Latin American populations. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical features, psychological factors, and health-related quality of life (QoL), before and after diagnosis, in a representative sample of adult Mexican Mestizo patients presenting with CD. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on patients seen at two tertiary referral centers in Mexico. QoL before and after CD diagnosis was evaluated using the EuroQoL 5D, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the disease-specific Celiac Symptom Index (CSI) questionnaires. We included 80 patients (80% were women, with a mean age of 48.6 ± 14.1 years). The most common symptoms were diarrhea (86%), bloating (77.5%), and abdominal pain (71.3%). Mean symptom duration was 10.33 ± 6.3 years. Fifty-one patients (63.8%) had a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 23 (28.8%) had one of functional dyspepsia. Questionnaire respondents rated their health status at 50% before diagnosis (0 = worst imaginable state, 100 = best imaginable state) and there was a significant improvement of 26% after diagnosis. Thirty-nine percent of the patients had a CSI score > 45 and they were the ones that had been previously diagnosed most often with IBS (p = 0.13) or dyspepsia (p = .036). At the time of diagnosis, Mexican Mestizo patients with CD had poor QoL. Long-standing symptoms and a previous diagnosis of functional disorders were associated with worse QoL. As in other populations, our results support the need for a detailed examination of cost-effective strategies for increasing CD awareness in clinical practice.

  12. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36

  13. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ≥ 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations.

  14. FMR1 CGG repeat distribution and linked microsatellite-SNP haplotypes in normal Mexican Mestizo and indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Felix-López, Xóchitl Adriana; Argüello-García, Raúl; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Peñaloza-Espinoza, Rosenda I; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; Estrada-Mena, Francisco Javier; Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Gómez, Fabio Salamanca; Arenas-Aranda, Diego Julio

    2006-10-01

    The (CGG)n repeat size distribution in the FMR1 gene was studied in healthy individuals: 80 X chromosomes of Mexican Mestizos from Mexico City and 33 X chromosomes of Mexican Amerindians from three indigenous communities (Purepechas, Nahuas, and Tzeltales), along with alleles and haplotypes defined by two microsatellite polymorphic markers (DXS548 and FRAXAC1) and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (FMRA and FMRB). Genetic frequencies of Mestizo and Amerindian subpopulations were statistically similar in almost all cases and thus were considered one population for comparisons with other populations. Sixteen (CGG)n alleles in the 17-38 size range were observed, and the most common were the 25 (38.0%), 26 (28.3%), and 24 (12.3%) repeat alleles. This pattern differs from most other populations reported, but a closer relation to Amerindian, European, and African populations was found, as expected from the historical admixture that gave rise to Mexican Mestizos. The results of the CA repeats analysis at DXS548-FRAXAC1 were restricted to nine haplotypes, of which haplotypes 7-4 (52.2%), 8-4 (23.8%), and 7-3 (11.5%) were predominant. The modal haplotype 7-4, instead of the nearly universal haplotype 7-3, had been reported exclusively in Eastern Asian populations. Likewise, only seven different FRAXAC1-FMRA-FMRB haplotypes were observed, including five novel haplotypes (3TA, 4TA, 3 - A, 4 - A, and 5 - A), compared with Caucasians. Of these, haplotypes - A (78.7%) and 3 - A (13.2%) were the most common in the Mexican population. These data suggest a singular but relatively low genetic diversity at FMR1 in the studied Mexican populations that may be related to the recent origin of Mestizos and the low admixture rate of Amerindians.

  15. Genetic variation among four Mexican populations (Huichol, Purepecha, Tarahumara, and Mestizo) revealed by two VNTRs and four STRs.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Villalobos, H; Rivas, F; Sandoval, L; Ibarra, B; Garcìa-Carvajal, Z Y; Cantú, J M; Figuera, L E

    2000-12-01

    Allele distributions of two polymorphisms with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), D1S80 and APOB, and four polymorphisms with short tandem repeats (STR), VWA, TH01, CSF1PO, and HPRTB, were analyzed in three Mexican ethnic groups: Huichol, Purepecha, and Tarahumara. Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for each locus and ethnic group. Heterozygosity (H), power of discrimination, and probability of exclusion were estimated. The three groups presented some distinctive genetic features: (1) a diminished genetic diversity (H = 66.8% to 73.4%) and mean number of alleles by locus (5.8 to 6.3) in comparison with Mexican mestizos (H = 78.3%, 10.5 alleles/locus), and (2) uneven allele distributions as evidenced by "distinctive alleles" with high frequencies, especially in the Tarahumara and the Huichol. Genetic relatedness analysis included data from a previously typed mestizo population, the largest and most widely distributed population in Mexico. Allele distribution differentiation was observed among all four groups, except between mestizo and Purepecha (p > 0.05), which was interpreted as indicating a larger Spanish component in the Purepecha as a result of gene flow effects. Although intrapopulation inbreeding (FIS) was not significant, heterozygote deficiency in the total population (FIT) and divergence among populations (FST) were significant (p < 0.05). Genetic distances displayed a closer relationship among mestizos, Purepechas, and Huichols in relation to Tarahumaras. Correlation between the observed genetic features and the geographic isolation level points to genetic drift as the main cause of differentiation among these Mexican populations.

  16. Genetic Obesity Risk and Attenuation Effect of Physical Fitness in Mexican-Mestizo Population: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Urrutia, Paula; Abud, Carolina; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Colistro, Valentina; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel; Granados, Julio; Seelaender, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed commonly reported European and Asian obesity-related gene variants in a Mexican-Mestizo population through each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 23 selected SNPs. Study subjects were physically active Mexican-Mestizo adults (n  =  608) with body mass index (BMI) values from 18 to 55 kg/m(2) . For each SNP and for the GRS, logistic models were performed to test for simple SNP associations with BMI, fat mass percentage (FMP), waist circumference (WC), and the interaction with VO2max and muscular endurance (ME). To further understand the SNP or GRS*physical fitness components, generalized linear models were performed. Obesity risk was significantly associated to 6 SNPs (ADRB2 rs1042713, APOB rs512535, PPARA rs1800206, TNFA rs361525, TRHR rs7832552 and rs16892496) after adjustment by gender, age, ancestry, VO2max , and ME. ME attenuated the influence of APOB rs512535 and TNFA rs361525 on obesity risk in FMP. WC was significantly associated to GRS. Both ME and VO2max attenuated GRS effect on WC. We report associations for 6 out of 23 SNPs and for the GRS, which confer obesity risk, a novel finding for Mexican-Mestizo physically active population. Also, the importance of including physical fitness components variables in obesity genetic risk studies is highlighted, with special regard to intervention purposes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  17. Population data of 23 STR loci (PowerPlex® Fusion System) in Mexican Mestizos from the West Region.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Velázquez, J A; Martínez-Cortés, G; Inclán-Sánchez, A; Romero-Rentería, O; Díaz-Navarro, X X; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2016-11-01

    We analyzed 238 unrelated Mestizo (admixed) individuals from the West region of Mexico with the PowerPlex® Fusion System (Promega Corp.). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated for the 23 STRs included in this kit. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by locus and non-association between pair of loci were demonstrated by exact tests in this population. The combined PE and PD offered by this HID kit were ≥0.9999999986, representing a substantial improvement with respect to those previously offered by 15 STR systems. Interpopulation comparison by AMOVA tests demonstrated low but significant differences among Mexican Mestizos from West, Center, and Northeast regions (Fst = 0.01558; p = 0.0000), similar to the observed among three main ethnic groups from USA (Fst = 0.02048; p = 0.0000). This finding is consistent with the contrary clines of European and Amerindian ancestries described throughout the Mexican territory for Mestizos, the largest population (~90 %) in this country.

  18. Insulin resistance and β-cell function in Colombian mestizo and Embera-Chamí populations and their relation with adiposity degree.

    PubMed

    Caro-Gomez, María Antonieta; Naranjo-González, Andrés; Parra-Marín, María Victoria; Gallego-Lopera, Natalia; Valencia, Diana María; Rúa-Molina, Diana Carolina; Rosique-Gracia, Javier; García-Pineda, Andres Felipe; Gómez-Isaza, Luis Felipe; Pizano-Ramírez, Norman Diego; Arcos, Edgar Gerardo; Villegas-Perrasse, Alberto; Duque-Botero, Julieta; Bedoya-Berrío, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition favored by metabolic and endocrine changes experienced by adipose tissue in the context of obesity. The prevalence and the presentation of both IR and obesity vary among the populations, and may be affected by ancestral genetic composition among other factors. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of IR and obesity in Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity and Colombian mestizo population. A sample of 630 individuals, 471 mestizos and 159 Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity, from the general population of Colombia were studied. For each participant, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure and the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) of IR and β-cell function (%B) were recorded. These values were compared between the two populations. While prevalence of central obesity was similar in both populations (48.7% and 42.6% in the mestizo and Embera groups respectively; p=0.148), body mass index (BMI) values suggested a higher prevalence of overweight in the Embera than in mestizo population (43.4% Embera, 31.8% mestizo; p=0.027). Despite the similarities in the prevalence of HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B status between both populations, the Embera population had a significantly greater pancreatic β-cell function, higher insulin levels, and better glucose control, across BMI and central obesity categories, than the mestizo population. There are differences in aspects related to energy metabolism between the samples of the mestizo and Amerindian populations analyzed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. HLA Alleles are Genetic Markers for Susceptibility and Resistance towards Leprosy in a Mexican Mestizo Population.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Medina, Maribel; Escamilla-Tilch, Monica; Frías-Castro, Luis Octavio; Romero-Quintana, Geovanni; Estrada-García, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Granados, Julio; Arambula Meraz, Eliakym; Sánchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Khader, Shabaana Abdul; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío

    2017-01-01

    Despite the use of multidrug therapy, leprosy remains endemic in some countries. The association of several human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and gene polymorphisms with leprosy has been demonstrated in many populations, but the major immune contributors associated to the spectrum of leprosy have not been defined yet. In this study, genotyping of HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ alleles was performed in leprosy patients (n = 113) and control subjects (n = 117) from the region with the highest incidence for the disease in México. The odds of developing leprosy and lepromatous subtype were 2.12- and 2.74-fold higher in carriers of HLA-A*28, and 2.48- and 4.14-fold higher for leprosy and dimorphic subtype in carriers of DQB1*06. Interestingly, DQB1*07 was overrepresented in healthy individuals, compared to patients with leprosy (OR = 0.08) and the lepromatous subtype (OR = 0.06). These results suggest that HLA-A*28 is a marker for predisposition to leprosy and the lepromatous subtype and DQB1*06 to leprosy and the dimorphic subtype, while DQB1*07 might be a resistance marker in this Mestizo population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  20. Protective effect of DRB1 locus against type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Perez-Luque, Elva; Alaez, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Garay, M Eugenia; Fajardo, Martha E; Nava, Laura E; Gorodezky, Clara

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the participation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles in the expression of type 2 diabetic and in nondiabetic subjects with and without family history of diabetes. The purpose was to evaluate any HLA association and to look for different patterns of insulin resistance and insulin secretion, comparing subjects with a low probability of developing diabetes, as a result of their family history. We recruited 87 healthy subjects without family history of diabetes, 48 healthy subjects with family history, and 47 type 2 diabetic patients. All of them were Mexican Mestizos of central Mexico. Using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance was determined and insulin secretion was assessed with the HOMA model. DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles were typed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) and sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). Nondiabetic subjects had similar HOMA-IR and DeltaI 30/DeltaG 30 index (HOMA). A significant decreased frequency of DRB1*0403 (p = 0.01; odds ratio [OR] = 0.20) was demonstrated in type 2 diabetic patients, and DRB1*0701 (p = 0.02; OR = 0.17) in nondiabetics with family history of diabetes. These alleles associated with protection against type 2 diabetes, share glutamic acid at position-74 and were previously demonstrated to contribute to protection against type I diabetes.

  1. Genetic structure of Mexican Mestizos with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on three STR loci.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Rivera-Prieto, Roxana A; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana L; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Gallardo-Blanco, Hugo L; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia M; Rivas, Fernando; Figueroa, Andrés; Kshatriya, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this population genetics study were: 1) to ascertain whether Mexicans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were genetically homogeneous and 2) to compare the genetic structure of this selected population with the previously reported data of four random populations (Nuevo León, Hispanics, Chihuahua, and Central Region of Mexico). A sample of 103 unrelated individuals with DM and whose 4 grandparents were born in five zones of Mexico was interviewed in 32 Medical Units in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). The non-coding STRs D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317 were analyzed. Genotype distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all three markers. Allele frequencies were found to be similar between the selected population and the four random populations. Gene diversity analysis suggested that more than 99.57% of the total gene diversity could be attributed to variation between individuals within the population and 0.43% between the populations. According to the present and previous studies using molecular and non-molecular nuclear DNA markers not associated with any disease, the Mexican Mestizo population is found to be genetically homogeneous and therefore the genetic causes of DM are less heterogeneous, thereby simplifying genetic epidemiological studies as has been found in a previous study with the same design in Mexican women with breast cancer. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ultrasound, histopathological, and genetic features of uveal melanoma in a Mexican-Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Delgado, S; Rodriguez Reyes, A; Mora Rios, L; Dueñas-González, A; Taja-Chayeb, L; Moragrega Adame, E

    2017-07-17

    To describe the ultrasound, histopathological and genetic characteristics of uveal melanoma in a Mexican-Mestizo population. A total of 39 enucleated eyes with a histopathological diagnosis of uveal melanoma were assessed by describing the clinical findings, and ultrasound, histopathological and genetic features. A high correlation was observed between tumour height measurement using ultrasound and histopathology. In our cases, tumour size and reflectivity were higher compared with those reported in the literature. The preliminary data on the molecular assessment of the tumours show the presence of an unreported polymorphism (T>C IVS5+34) and one sample with GNAQ mutation (A>C CAA>CCA Gln 209 Pro). Ultrasound is a reliable method to identify the size of the tumour. Furthermore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms promises new perspectives for the development of new targeted therapeutics. Fortunately this leads to progress in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease or prevents it in those at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Microalbuminuria and its Association with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Mexican Mestizo population: the GEA study.

    PubMed

    Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Martínez-Alvarado, Rocío; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is an early marker of atherosclerosis. Ethnic differences for both conditions have been reported. We studied microalbuminuria prevalence and its association with coronary artery calcification as an early atherosclerosis marker in a Mexican-Mestizo population free of diabetes and hypertension (healthy), as well as in hypertensive and diabetic subjects. In 1,472 adults (53.3 ± 9.4 years old, 50.3% women), anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile were determined. A spot urine sample was used to quantify the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and to define microalbuminuria (20-200 mg/g in men, and 30-300 mg/g in women). A coronary artery calcification score was obtained by electron-beam computed tomography and subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a score > 0. Overall microalbuminuria prevalence was 9.3% (5.4% in healthy, 11.6% in obese, 12% in hypertensive, and 25% in diabetic subjects). Compared to "healthy" subjects without microalbuminuria, those with microalbuminuria had a ∼3-fold higher prevalence of coronary artery calcification > 0, while normal-high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (OR: 1.8; p < 0.05) and microalbuminuria (OR: 2.6; p < 0.001) was independently associated with coronary artery calcification > 0 only among diabetic subjects. Microalbuminuria and high-normal albumin-to-creatinine ratio were independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, suggesting that they may confer a higher risk of future cardiovascular events.

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Mexican mestizo patients: a clinical, biochemical and HLA-serological study.

    PubMed

    Nellen, H; Mercado, M; Mendoza, V; Villanueva, S; Pérez, M; Hernández, A; Arellano, J

    1999-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is characterized by episodes of neuromuscular weakness occurring in the context of hypokalemia and hyperthyroidism and has been predominantly described in Oriental populations. Whereas it is uncommon in Caucasians and Blacks, TPP does occur in individuals of Native American descent. The objective was to analyze the clinical, biochemical, and HLA characteristics of a group of Mexican mestizo patients with TPP. The sample was comprised of 14 men with TPP diagnosed since January 1990, based on one or more episodes of flaccid paralysis, accompanied by hypokalemia and occurring in the context of clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Eight were available for HLA testing. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before the development of periodic paralysis in five of the patients, whereas in six it occurred afterward. The severity of paralysis did not correlate with the degree of either hypokalemia or hyperthyroidism. An increased frequency of HLA-DR3 was found in Graves' patients without paralysis but not in those with paralysis, as compared to the general population. TPP is more common than previously thought in Mexicans, in whom it behaves as in other Native American groups. The lack of HLA-DR3 association in Graves' patients with TPP is interesting, but at the moment has no pathophysiological implications.

  5. Parental control over mate choice to prevent marriages with out-group members: a study among mestizos, Mixtecs, and Blacks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V; Dubbs, Shelli

    2012-09-01

    The present research examined how a preference for influencing the mate choice of one's offspring is associated with opposition to out-group mating among parents from three ethnic groups in the Mexican state of Oaxaca: mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and blacks (n = 35). Nearly all of the men in this study were farmworkers or fishermen. Overall, the level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was higher than in Western populations, but lower than in Asian populations. Only among the Mixtecs were fathers more in favor of parental influence on the mate choice of children than mothers were. As predicted, opposition to out-group mating was an important predictor of preferred parental influence on mate choice, more so among fathers than among mothers, especially in the mestizo group-the group with the highest status. In addition, women, and especially mestizo women, expressed more opposition to out-group mating than men did.

  6. Higher prepregnancy body mass index is a risk factor for developing preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Rojano-Mejía, David; Godoy, Sergio Pérez; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2017-04-06

    Preeclampsia and obesity are two closely related syndromes. The high maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for present preeclampsia, independently of the ethnic background of the studied population. The aim of this study was to analyse in a prospective cohort study the relation between prepregnancy BMI and development of preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women. This is a prospective cohort study of 642 pregnant women that were included in the first trimester of the pregnancy (gestational age ≤12 weeks at the first antenatal visit) and all of them were of Maya-Mestizo ethnic origin from the state of Yucatán, México. We assessed the potential risk factors for preeclampsia and documented the prepregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) that was based on measured height and maternal self-report of prepregnancy weight at the initial visit. Besides, in the antenatal visit we documented if the pregnant women developed preeclampsia. Of the 642 pregnant Maya-Mestizo women, 49 developed preeclampsia, with an incidence of 7.6% (44.9% had severe and 55% mild). The prepregnancy BMI was higher in women with developed preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies. Women with overweight or obesity in comparison with normal weight presented a RR = 2.82 (95% CI: 1.32-6.03; P = 0.008) and RR= 4.22 (95% CI: 2.07-8.61; P = 0.001), respectively. Our findings expand the previous studies to show that the higher prepregnancy BMI is a strong, independent risk factor for preeclampsia.

  7. Mestizos with systemic lupus erythematosus develop renal disease early while antimalarials retard its appearance: data from a Latin American cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Alarcón, G S; Burgos, P I; Hachuel, L; Boggio, G; Wojdyla, D; Nieto, R; Alvarellos, A; Catoggio, L J; Guibert-Toledano, M; Sarano, J; Massardo, L; Vásquez, G M; Iglesias-Gamarra, A; Lavras Costallat, L T; Da Silva, N A; Alfaro, J L; Abadi, I; Segami, M I; Huerta, G; Cardiel, M H; Pons-Estel, B A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (n = 1480) from Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus (GLADEL's) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time dependent in alternative analyses. Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.2% were African-Latin Americans, 42.5% Mestizos, and 45.3% Caucasians (p = 0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02-5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, for every five years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99). Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location.

  8. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José

    2004-09-01

    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p<0.005) but similar to that reported in Asian population (p=0.739), probably due to the Asian origin of the Amerindian populations. In addition, the MDR1*l haplotype fequency hin Mestizos was similar to the frequency reported in Caucasians (p=0.49), in agreement with the origin of our population, with a strong influence of Caucasian genes from the Spanish conquerors. The MDR1*2 haplotype distribution, with the three polymoyphisms and probably lower multidrug transporter expression, was similar in the three Chilean populations studied (p>0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  9. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively.

  10. Expression of CXCL12 receptors in B cells from Mexican Mestizos patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by B-cell hyper-reactivity and the production of pathogenic anti-nuclear-directed auto-antibodies (Abs). B-cell ontogeny is partly dependent on the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for which the contribution to SLE pathogenesis remains unclear. CXCR7, the novel receptor for CXCL12, is differentially expressed among memory B-cell subsets. However, its biological role in SLE remains to be explored. Methods Relative CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression levels were compared by quantitative PCR in leukocytes from blood samples of 41 Mexican Mestizos patients with SLE and 45 ethnicity-matched healthy subjects. Intracellular and membrane expression of both receptors was analyzed by flow cytometry in naive and Ab-secreting B cells. B-cell responsiveness to CXCL12 was investigated using Transwell-based chemotaxis assays. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons of values amongst healthy controls and patients with inactive or active SLE, and non-parametrically using the Mann–Whitney U-test for multiple comparisons and unpaired samples. Correlations were determined by Spearman’s ranking. Result SLE leukocytes displayed reduced levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 transcripts. In SLE patients, a significant defect in CXCR4 expression was detected at the surface of naive and Ab-secreting B cells, associated with an abnormal intracellular localization of the receptor. CXCR7 predominantly localized in cytosolic compartments of B cells from healthy and SLE individuals. Disease activity did not impact on these expression patterns. Altered receptor compartmentalization correlated with an impaired CXCL12-promoted migration of SLE B cells. Conclusions Our data highlight a down-regulation of CXCL12 receptors on circulating B cells from SLE patients that likely influences their migratory behavior and distribution. PMID:23244336

  11. Calpain-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexican mestizos.

    PubMed

    Picos-Cárdenas, V J; Sáinz-González, E; Miliar-García, A; Romero-Zazueta, A; Quintero-Osuna, R; Leal-Ugarte, E; Peralta-Leal, V; Meza-Espinoza, J P

    2015-03-27

    The calpain-10 gene is expressed primarily in tissues important in glucose metabolism; thus, some of its polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the association between the calpain-10 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63 and type 2 diabetes in Mexican mestizos. We included 211 patients and 152 non-diabetic subjects. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify alleles. We compared allele, genotype, haplotype, and diplotype frequencies between both groups and used the chi-square test to calculate the risk. The allele frequency of SNP-43 allele 1 was 70% in controls and 72% in patients; the GG, GA, and AA genotype frequencies were 48.7, 42.8, and 8.5% in controls and 51.2, 41.7, and 7.1% in patients, respectively. For SNP- 19, the prevalence of allele 1 (2R) was 32% in controls and 39% in patients. In controls, homozygosity (2R/2R) was 10.5%, heterozygosity was 42.8%, and 3R/3R was 46.7%; in cases, these values were 13.3, 50.7, and 36.0%, respectively. For SNP-63, the frequency of allele 1 was 87% in controls and 83% in patients; genotype frequencies in controls were 75.7% (CC), 23% (CT), and 1.3% (TT), and were 69.7, 27.5, and 2.8%, respectively for the cases. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant intergroup differences for allele, genotype, haplotype, or diplotype frequencies were observed. We found no association between these polymorphisms and diabetes. However, our sample size was small, so the role of calpain-10 risk alleles should be further examined.

  12. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2012-12-30

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. METHODS: We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  13. Contribution of Common Genetic Variation to the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Mexican Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Guerra-García, María Teresa; Guillén-Pineda, Luz Elizabeth; Choudhry, Shweta; del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Escobedo-Aguirre, Fernando; Parra, Adalberto; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have identified nearly 40 different type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci, mainly in European populations, but few of them have been evaluated in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which 24 common genetic variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes are associated in Mexican Mestizos. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes (KCNJ11, PPARG, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, ARHGEF11, JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, FTO, TSPAN8/LGR5, KCNQ1, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, NXPH1, RORA, UBQLNL, and RALGPS2) were genotyped in Mexican Mestizos. A case-control association study comprising 1,027 type 2 diabetic individuals and 990 control individuals was conducted. To account for population stratification, a panel of 104 ancestry-informative markers was analyzed. Association to type 2 diabetes was found for rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs7923837 (HHEX), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs4402960 (IGF2BP2), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), and rs2237892 (KCNQ1). In addition, rs7754840 (CDKAL1) was associated in the nonobese type 2 diabetic subgroup, and for rs7903146 (TCF7L2), association was observed for early-onset type 2 diabetes. Lack of association for the rest of the variants may have resulted from insufficient power to detect smaller allele effects. PMID:22923468

  14. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  15. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements.

  16. Contribution of common genetic variation to the risk of type 2 diabetes in the Mexican Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Ordóñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillén, Rosario; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Guerra-García, María Teresa; Guillén-Pineda, Luz Elizabeth; Choudhry, Shweta; Del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Escobedo-Aguirre, Fernando; Parra, Adalberto; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have identified nearly 40 different type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci, mainly in European populations, but few of them have been evaluated in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which 24 common genetic variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes are associated in Mexican Mestizos. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes (KCNJ11, PPARG, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2A/2B, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, ARHGEF11, JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, FTO, TSPAN8/LGR5, KCNQ1, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, NXPH1, RORA, UBQLNL, and RALGPS2) were genotyped in Mexican Mestizos. A case-control association study comprising 1,027 type 2 diabetic individuals and 990 control individuals was conducted. To account for population stratification, a panel of 104 ancestry-informative markers was analyzed. Association to type 2 diabetes was found for rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs7923837 (HHEX), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs4402960 (IGF2BP2), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), and rs2237892 (KCNQ1). In addition, rs7754840 (CDKAL1) was associated in the nonobese type 2 diabetic subgroup, and for rs7903146 (TCF7L2), association was observed for early-onset type 2 diabetes. Lack of association for the rest of the variants may have resulted from insufficient power to detect smaller allele effects.

  17. El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Andrew Juan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

  18. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  19. Functional Polymorphism rs13306560 of the MTHFR Gene Is Associated With Essential Hypertension in a Mexican-Mestizo Population.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Razo, Juan Carlos; Cano-Martínez, Luis Javier; Vargas Alarcón, Gilberto; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Canto, Patricia; Roque-Ramírez, Bladimir; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Esteban-Martínez, Rosa; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2015-08-01

    Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases; however, results of these studies are still controversial. In this study, we sought to determine whether 2 functional variants (rs1801133 and rs13306560) within the MTHFR are associated with hypertension in Mexican-Mestizos. We performed a case-control study with 1214 subjects including adults and children to test for the association of both single nucleotide polymorphisms with essential hypertension. The adult group included 764 participants (372 patients and 391 controls) and the group of children included 418 participants (209 patients and 209 controls). rs13306560 was associated with essential hypertension in adults (odds ratio, 4.281; 95% confidence interval, 1.841-9.955; P=0.0003) with a statistical power >0.8. In children, none of the polymorphisms was associated with essential hypertension. In addition, we assessed the effect of the rs13306560 polymorphism on the MTHFR promoter region by means of luciferase reporter gene assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Cells transfected with the pMTHFRaLUC construct showed an ≈25% reduction in luciferase activity (P=0.003). Furthermore, the promoter activity was reduced considerably by in vitro methylation of CpG sequences. Our data suggest that the rs13306560 polymorphism of the MTHFR may be part of the observed hypertension process in Mexican-Mestizo populations, but further studies are warranted. In addition, the allele A of the rs13306560 polymorphism as well as the in vitro methylation of CpGs reduced the promoter activity of the MTHFR regulatory region. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin high-risk variants in Mexican mestizo population and their association with lung function values.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rubio, Gloria; Jiménez-Valverde, Luis Octavio; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Camarena, Ángel; Sansores, Raúl H; Flores-Trujillo, Fernando; Reséndiz-Hernández, Juan M; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by restricted airflow. The best-documented genetic factor is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). AAT is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. The PiZ (rs28929474) and PiS (rs17580) variants are believed to cause severe AAT deficiency and are linked to a high risk of developing COPD. This study sought to identify whether genetic polymorphisms rs28929474 and rs17580 are associated with COPD susceptibility and lung function values in a Mexican mestizo population. In this study, 558 smokers were included, of whom 279 had COPD and 279 did not (smokers without COPD - SWC). The PiS and PiZ variants were genotyped by allelic discrimination. Independent populations and lung function values were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A bivariate logistic regression analysis was also conducted. Stage I and iv COPD patients showed significant differences in the frequencies of both heterozygous genotypes compared to SWC. For PiS, individuals with the heterozygous genotype AT demonstrated a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio compared to subjects with the homozygous genotype AA (P=0.037). A significant association was found between the FEV1/FVC ratio and genotype AA for PiS (OR=0.982, β coefficient=-0.019, 95% CI=0.966-0.997). COPD-causing AAT deficiency risk alleles exist at a very low frequency among Mexican mestizo population. Although they are not directly linked in our study population with disease susceptibility, these risk alleles are associated with poorer lung function measurements. It is important to characterize how often these genetic risk variants occur in other Latin American populations. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    González-Mercado, A; Sánchez-López, J Y; Regla-Nava, J A; Gámez-Nava, J I; González-López, L; Duran-Gonzalez, J; Celis, A; Perea-Díaz, F J; Salazar-Páramo, M; Ibarra, B

    2013-07-30

    We investigated associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, FokI T>C (rs2228570), BsmI G>A (rs1544410), ApaI G>T (rs7975232), and TaqI T>C (rs731236), with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Three hundred and twenty postmenopausal women participated, who were classified according to World Health Organization criteria as non-osteoporotic (Non-OP; N = 88), osteopenic (Opn; N = 144), and osteoporotic (OP; N = 88). BMD measurements at the lumbar (L1-L4) spine and at the left and right femoral neck were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probes. Genotype and allelic frequencies of the 4 VDR SNPs were similar among the 3 groups. Polymorphic allele frequencies were as follows: FokI (C) 0.53, 0.49, 0.56; BsmI (A) 0.26, 0.22, 0.23; ApaI (T) 0.43, 0.39, 0.44; TaqI (C) 0.27, 0.22, 0.23 for the Non-OP, Opn, and OP groups, respectively. Although no associations were found between the SNPs and BMD, based on the putative function of the FokI SNP, we constructed, for the first time, the haplotype with the 4 VDR SNPs, and found that the CGGT haplotype differed between the Non- OP and OP groups (21.8 vs 31.8%, P < 0.05). The risk analysis for this haplotype was nearly significant under the dominant model (OR = 1.783, 95%CI = 0.98-3.25, P = 0.058). This result suggests a possible susceptibility effect of the C allele of the FokI SNP for the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

  2. Relation of the estrogen receptor and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Cortes-Espinosa, Leticia; del Carmen Aguirre-García, María; Valencia-Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Since osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetics with metabolic and environmental factors, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association among one polymorphism of VDR and two polymorphisms of ESR1; as well as their haplotypes with BMD in postmenopausal Mexican-mestizo women. We studied 742 postmenopausal Mexican-mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was measured in the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. One polymorphism of VDR (rs11568820) and two of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799) were studied. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used for genotyping. The differences between the means of the BMDs according to genotype were analyzed with covariance. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r(2); haplotype analysis was conducted. Rs9340799 of ESR1 and one haplotype formed by the two polymorphisms of the ESR1 were significantly associated with FN-BMD variations. Moreover, analysis of the genotype of rs11568820 of VDR and the rs2234693 of ESR1 showed no significant differences with BMD variations. Our results showed that rs9340799 and one haplotype of ESR1 were significantly associated with BMD only at the femoral neck and this association remained after adjusting for covariates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  4. HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in a mestizo population from Guadalajara, Mexico, determined by sequence-based typing.

    PubMed

    Leal, C A; Mendoza-Carrera, F; Rivas, F; Rodriguez-Reynoso, S; Portilla-de Buen, E

    2005-12-01

    HLA-A and HLA-B genes were typed by DNA sequencing in a mestizo population from Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Thirty-seven HLA-A and 51 HLA-B alleles were observed in 103 samples. The common typical Amerindian alleles (>5%) and haplotypes (>or=2.0%) found were A*02010101, *24020101, *310102, B*350101, and *4002, and A*310102-B*4002, A*240201-B*350101, and the typical European alleles were A*010101, *29010101, B*1402, B*180101, and A*020101-B*1402, A*020101-B*510101, and A*3002-B*180101. This reflects the blending of the two main parental populations of mestizos: Amerindian and Iberian. Mexicans were found to be relatively closer to the Portuguese than to Spaniards. This proximity may indicate a larger Portuguese influence in Mexicans than previously considered. Present data contribute to the understanding of the genetic structure in Mexico.

  5. Forensic efficiency parameters of the Investigator Argus X-12 kit in women from two Mestizo and seven Amerindian populations from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Trujillo, I; Ramos-González, B; Salas-Salas, O; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Zetina Hernández, A; Martínez-Cortés, G; Ruiz-Hernández, M; González-Martín, A; Ferragut, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2017-05-01

    Allele frequency distribution and statistical parameters of forensic efficiency concerning the Investigator Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were determined in a total sample of 641 unrelated Mexican females, including two Mestizo-admixed- populations (n=309) and seven Amerindian groups (n=332) from the main regions of the country. Most of the 12 X-STRs were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all nine Mexican populations. The power of discrimination in females (PD) and Median exclusion chance for trios (MECT) and duos (MECD) of this genetic system based on X-STRs were >99.99%. Although Mexican populations showed significant pairwise differentiation, a closer relationship was evident between Amerindian groups and nearby Mestizos, in agreement with historical records, previous genetic studies, and X-linked inheritance pattern expectations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustín; Carlos Falcón, Juan; Hernández Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

  7. Distribution of ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms in a Mexican Mestizos population.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; de la Peña, Aurora; Calderón-Cruz, Beatriz; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Fragoso, José Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the gene frequency of six polymorphisms of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 genes in a population resident of Mexico City. The proteins encoded by these genes have been associated with the absorption, and biotransformation of clopidogrel. The ABCB1 T3435C, CYP3A5 V3 A6986G, P2RY12 G52T, P2RY12 C34T, CYP2C19 V2 and V3 (positions G681A and G636A, respectively), polymorphisms were analyzed by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 269 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizo individuals. The CYP2C19 V3 G636A polymorphism was not detected in the Mexican Mestizos population. However, the studied population presented significant differences (P < 0.05) in the distribution of the T3435C, A6986G, G681A, G52T and C34T polymorphisms when compared to reported frequencies of Amerindian of South America, Caucasian, Asian, and African populations. In summary, the distribution of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms distinguishes to the Mexican Mestizos population from other ethnic groups.

  8. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  9. Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 Alpha and the Vitamin D Receptor in Mexican Mestizo Patients with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cervin Serrano, Salvador; González Villareal, Dalia; Aguilar-Medina, Maribel; Romero-Navarro, Jose Guillermo; Romero Quintana, Jose Geovanni; Arámbula Meraz, Eliakym; Osuna Ramírez, Ignacio; Picos-Cárdenas, Veronica; Granados, Julio; Estrada-García, Iris; Sánchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD (n = 100) and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans (n = 100). Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% (P = 0.455) for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% (P = 0.183) for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% (P = 0.262) for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population. PMID:25506053

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-1 alpha and the vitamin d receptor in mexican mestizo patients with intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cervin Serrano, Salvador; González Villareal, Dalia; Aguilar-Medina, Maribel; Romero-Navarro, Jose Guillermo; Romero Quintana, Jose Geovanni; Arámbula Meraz, Eliakym; Osuna Ramírez, Ignacio; Picos-Cárdenas, Veronica; Granados, Julio; Estrada-García, Iris; Sánchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD (n = 100) and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans (n = 100). Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% (P = 0.455) for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% (P = 0.183) for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% (P = 0.262) for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population.

  11. Genetic admixture and diversity estimations in the Mexican Mestizo population from Mexico City using 15 STR polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Zuñiga, Joaquín; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Barquera, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Guillermo J; Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; García-Peña, Maria Del Carmen; Granados, Julio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2008-06-01

    The 15 AmpFlSTR Identifiler loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA were analyzed in a sample of 378 unrelated individuals from Mexico City, Mexico. Significant deviations from HW equilibrium in 14/15 STR loci alleles were not detected. The D18S51 locus had the highest power of discrimination (0.970). Genetic admixture estimations revealed a 69% of Amerindian, 26% of European and 5% of African contribution. Comparative analyses between Mexicans and other neighboring populations reveal significant differences in genetic diversity. Our results are important for future comparative genetic studies in different Latin American ethnic groups, particularly Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians. They should also be helpful in genetics, population evolution, forensic and paternity testing.

  12. Frequency of SMN1 deletion carriers in a Mestizo population of central and northeastern Mexico: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    CONTRERAS-CAPETILLO, SILVINA NOEMI; BLANCO, HUGO LEONID GALLARDO; CERDA-FLORES, RICARDO MARTIN; LUGO-TRAMPE, JOSÉ; TORRES-MUÑOZ, IRIS; BRAVO-ORO, ANTONIO; ESMER, CARMEN; DE VILLARREAL, LAURA ELLA MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who suffer from spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) exhibit progressive muscle weakness that frequently results in mortality in the most severe forms of the disease. In 98% of cases, there is a homozygous deletion of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and both parents carry the same heterozygous genetic abnormality in the majority of cases. Various population studies have been conducted to estimate the frequency of carriers and thereby identify the communities or countries in which children are at a high risk of being affected by SMA. However, the prevalence of SMA in Mexican populations has not yet been established. In the present pilot study, the frequency of the heterozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene was determined in two groups from northeastern (n=287) and central (n=133) Mexican Mestizo populations and compared with other ethnic populations. Amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction analysis yielded a disease carrier frequency of 11/420 (2.62%) healthy individuals, comprising 9/287 (3.14%) northeastern and 2/133 (1.5%) central Mexican individuals. In summary, no significant differences were identified between the northeastern and central populations of Mexico and other ethnic populations, with the exception of the general worldwide Hispanic population, which exhibited the lowest carrier frequency of 8/1,030. The results of the present study may be used to improve the evaluation procedure, and appear to justify further studies involving larger sample populations. PMID:26136935

  13. Primary thrombophilia in Mexico. II. Factor V G1691A (Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in thrombophilic Mexican mestizos.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Garcés-Eisele, J; Reyes-Núñez, V; Ramírez-Cisneros, F J

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that in Mexican mestizo patients with clinical features of primary thrombophilia, 39% have activated protein C resistance phenotype, 5% protein C deficiency, and 2% protein S deficiency. In the present study, in a group of 37 thrombophilic Mexicans and 50 normal controls, we assessed the factor V G1691A (Leiden), the prothrombin G20210A, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms. Four patients were found to be heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 heterozygous for the prothrombin 20210, 16 heterozygous, and 6 homozygous for the MTHFR 677. There were four individuals with co-segregation of alleles: two heterozygotes for the factor V Leiden/prothrombin 20210, one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/MTHFR 677, and one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/homozygote for MTHFR 677. For factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, and MTHFR 677 mutations, the allele frequencies were respectively 1% (+/-0.2%, alpha = 0.05), <1% and 51% (+/-5%, alpha = 0.05), with calculated relative risks for thrombosis of 5.94 (P = 0.08), >7.66 (P < 0.05), and 0.44 (P NS), respectively. In Mexican mestizo thrombophilic patients, the low prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation (10.8%) and the high prevalence of the prothrombin 20210 mutation (13.5%) contrast with those identified in Caucasian thrombophilic patients (21% and 6%, respectively; P < 0.01). On the other hand, the high prevalence of the MTHFR 677 mutation gene both in normal controls (78%) and thrombophilic patients (61%) does not support a role of this mutation in the thrombogenesis of Mexican mestizo patients.

  14. Distribution of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Polymorphisms Associated with Poor Metabolizer Phenotype in Five Amerindian Groups and Western Mestizos from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Flores, Joel; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Muñoz-Valle, José F.; González-González, César; Ramírez, Angélica; Román, Raquel; Méndez, José L.; Barrera, Andrés; Torres, Alfredo; Medina, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background: The distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes allows inferring the potential risk for specific adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic effects in humans. This variability shows differences among human populations. The aim of this study was to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype in nonpreviously studied Amerindian groups and Mestizos (general admixed population) from Mexico. Methods: We detected by SNaPshot® different polymorphisms located in CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *6, *7, and *8) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4 and *5) in western Mestizos (n=145) and five Amerindian groups from Mexico: Tarahumaras from the North (n=88); Purépechas from the Center (n=101); and Tojolabales (n=68), Tzotziles (n=88), and Tzeltales (n=20) from the Southeast. Genotypes were observed by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic relationships among these populations were estimated based on these genes. Results and Discussion: The wild-type allele (*1) of both genes was predominant in the Mexican populations studied. The most widely observed alleles were CYP2C19*2 (range, 0%–31%) and CYP2D6*4 (range, 1.2%–7.3%), whereas CYP2D6*3 was exclusively detected in Mestizos. Conversely, CYP2C19*4 and *5, as well as CYP2D6*3, *6, *7, and *8, were not observed in the majority of the Mexican populations. The Tarahumaras presented a high frequency of the allele CYP2C19*2 (31%) and of homozygotes *2/*2 (10.7%), which represent a high frequency of potentially PM phenotypes in this Amerindian group. The genetic distances showed high differentiation of Tarahumaras (principally for CYP2C19 gene). In general, a relative proximity was observed between most of the Amerindian, Mexican-Mestizo, and Latin-American populations. Conclusion: In general, the wild-type allele (*1) predominates in Mexican populations, outlining a relatively homogeneous distribution for CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The exception is the Tarahumara group that displays a

  15. P2X7 and NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Niño-Moreno, P; Portales-Pérez, D; Hernández-Castro, B; Portales-Cervantes, L; Flores-Meraz, V; Baranda, L; Gómez-Gómez, A; Acuña-Alonzo, V; Granados, J; González-Amaro, R

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Several studies have suggested that genetic factors may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the specific genes involved have not yet been fully characterized. NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 and P2X7 genes have been linked to increased risk for tuberculosis in some African and Asiatic populations. To explore the potential role of these genes in the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Mexican mestizo population, we evaluated the association of D543N and 3′-UTR polymorphisms in NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 and − 762 and A1513C polymorphisms in P2X7 genes with the risk for tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and allelic-specific PCR was employed. We found no significant differences in allelic frequency in NRAMP1/SLC11 A1 gene polymorphisms in 94 patients with tuberculosis compared to 100 healthy contacts. Similarly, no significant association of the P2X7−762 gene polymorphism with tuberculosis was detected. In contrast, the P2X7 A1513C polymorphism was associated significantly with tuberculosis (P= 0·02, odds ratio = 5·28, 95% CI, 0·99–37·69), an association that had not been reported previously. However, when the function of P2X7 was assessed by an l-selectin loss assay, we did not find significant differences in patients compared to healthy contacts or between PPD+ and PPD– control individuals. This study further supports the complex role of P2X7 gene in host regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and demonstrates that different associations of gene polymorphisms and tuberculosis are found in distinct racial populations. PMID:17493019

  16. DQA1 and DQB1 promoter diversity and linkage disequilibrium with class II haplotypes in Mexican Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Alaez, C; Vázquez-García, M N; Gorodezky, C

    2001-06-01

    The upstream sequences in the 5' flanking region of HLA class II genes, regulate their expression and contribute to the development of immunological diseases. We analyzed 105 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizos for QAP and QBP polymorphism. DNA typing for DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, QAP1 and QBP1 was done using a standardized PCR-SSOP. Although all QAP alleles previously described were found in Mexicans, the distribution differed as compared to other populations. QAP-3.1, 4.1 and 4.2 were the most frequent alleles and were associated with DQA1*03, *0501 and *0402 respectively. The prevalent QBP alleles were 3.21, 3.1 and 4.1 found mainly associated with DQB1*0302, *0301 and *0501. Linkage disequilibria between the promoter and the corresponding DQA1 and DQB1 allele, are in general the same as described by others. A total of 61 different haplotypes were defined, only six of them with a frequency above 4%. The haplotypes DRB1*0407-QAP-3.1-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302 (HF = 14.37%) and DRB1*0802-QAP-4.2-DQA1*0401-QBP-4.1-DQB1*0402 (HF = 14.22%), which have an Amerindian ancestry, are the most frequent in Mexicans. Some rare combinations were detected such as DRB1*0405-QAP-1.3-DQA1*0101/4-QBP-5.11/5.12-DQB1*0501 and DRB1*0403-QAP-3.2-DQA1*03-QBP-3.21-DQB1*0302, probably due to ancient recombination events. This knowledge is relevant as a basis to evaluate functional implications and to explore the role of promoter diversity in disease expression.

  17. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  18. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  19. PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms are associated with aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Granados, Jesús Benítez; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Tapia, André; Rojano-Mejía, David; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2017-07-04

    Obesity constitutes a risk factor for the development of aggressive forms of prostate cancer. It has been proposed, that prostate cancer has a genetic predisposition and that PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms play a role in the development of this condition. To analyse the association of two PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity. Two hundred fifty seven men with prostate cancer of Mexican-Mestizo origin were included. Body mass index (BMI) was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained. Rs7665116 and rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs266729 and rs1501299 of ADIPOQ were studied by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium, between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated and haplotype analysis was performed. A higher-risk (D'Amico classification) was observed in 21.8% of patients. An association of cancer aggressiveness with rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs501299 of ADIPOQ, as well as with one haplotype of ADIPOQ was documented. This is the first study regarding the relationship of PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men with overweight or obesity.

  20. Genetic variants in ATP6 and ND3 mitochondrial genes are not associated with aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Benítez Granados, Jesús; Martínez Ramírez, Mónica Adriana; Reyes, Edgardo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Zavala, Esperanza; Tapia, André; Rojano-Mejía, David; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial defects have been related to obesity and prostate cancer. We investigated if Mexican-Mestizo men presenting this type of cancer, exhibited somatic mutations of ATP6 and/or ND3.Body mass index (BMI) was determined; the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the Gleason score. DNA from tumor tissue and from blood leukocytes was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and ATP6 and ND3 were sequenced. We included 77 men: 20 had normal BMI, 38 were overweight and 19 had obesity; ages ranged from 52 to 83. After sequencing ATP6 and ND3, from DNA obtained from leukocytes and tumor tissue, we did not find any somatic mutations. All changes observed, in both genes, were polymorphisms. In ATP6 we identified, in six patients, two non-synonymous nucleotide changes and in ND3 we observed that twelve patients presented non-synonymous polymorphisms. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report where the complete sequences of the ATP6 and ND3 have been analyzed in Mexican-Mestizo men with prostate cancer and diverse BMI. Our results differ with those reported in Caucasian populations, possibly due to ethnic differences.

  1. A Pilot Genome-Wide Association Study in Postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women Implicates the RMND1/CCDC170 Locus Is Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Estrada, Karol; Parra-Torres, Alma Y.; González-Mercado, Anahí; Patiño, Nelly; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Fernandez-López, Juan Carlos; Ibarra, Bertha; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Salmerón, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic variants influencing bone mineral density (BMD) in the Mexican-Mestizo population, we performed a GWAS for femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women. In the discovery sample, 300,000 SNPs were genotyped in a cohort of 411 postmenopausal women and seven SNPs were analyzed in the replication cohort (n = 420). The combined results of a meta-analysis from the discovery and replication samples identified two loci, RMND1 (rs6904364, P = 2.77 × 10−4) and CCDC170 (rs17081341, P = 1.62 × 10−5), associated with FN BMD. We also compared our results with those of the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis (GEFOS) Consortium meta-analysis. The comparison revealed two loci previously reported in the GEFOS meta-analysis: SOX6 (rs7128738) and PKDCC (rs11887431) associated with FN and LS BMD, respectively, in our study population. Interestingly, rs17081341 rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency < 0.03) was found in high frequency in our population, which suggests that this association could be specific to non-Caucasian populations. In conclusion, the first pilot Mexican GWA study of BMD confirmed previously identified loci and also demonstrated the importance of studying variability in diverse populations and/or specific populations. PMID:28840121

  2. Indices of abdominal obesity may be better than the BMI to discriminate Latin American natives/mestizos with a poor cardiovascular status.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the anthropometric index used by the American Heart Association (AHA) to evaluate cardiovascular health (CVH) status, i.e., the body mass index (BMI), could also be of value in ethnic groups phenotypically different than Whites. CVH status was evaluated in 616 Ecuadorian natives/mestizos aged ≥40 years with the seven metrics proposed by the AHA. Then, the BMI was replaced by the waist-to-hip (WtoHp) and the waist-to-height (WtoHt) ratios to estimate whether these changes modify the CVH status and the presence of ≥5 ideal metrics per person. Replacing the BMI for either the WtoHt or the WtoHp ratios reduces the percentage of persons with ≥5 ideal CVH metrics from 13%, to 8% (p<0.004) and to 6.8% (p<0.0003), respectively. The number of persons with a poor CVH status increased when the WtoHt ratio was used instead of the BMI (81.5% versus 69.8%, p<0.0001). These results may explain the paradox "better CVH status/similar stroke prevalence" previously found in Ecuadorian natives/mestizos, and suggest that the WtoHt ratio could be the best anthropometric index to be included in the set of metrics used to evaluate the CVH status in populations that are phenotypically different than Whites. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and glutathione S-transferase P1 A313G are associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez-Wong, Ana C; Villarreal-Molina, María T; Fernández, Genny; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Preeclampsia, a common complication of pregnancy, is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria developing after 20 weeks' gestational age. Susceptibility to this syndrome is believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) A313G polymorphisms are associated with preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women. A case-control study was performed, in which 125 preeclamptic patients and 274 healthy controls were genotyped for the MTHFR C677T and GSTP1 A313G polymorphisms by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using the chi2 tests. The MTHFR 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly more frequent in the controls, suggesting an association with a decreased risk of preeclampsia (p = 0.017 and p = 0.007, respectively). Similarly, GSTP1 313GG/GC genotypes and the G allele were more frequent in controls, showing a significant association with reduced risk of preeclampsia (p = 0.008 and p = 0.013, respectively). Our results suggest, for the first time, that the MTHFR 677T and GSTP1 313G polymorphisms confer a significantly decreased risk of developing preeclampsia in the Mexican Maya-Mestizo population.

  4. Identification of genetic variants in pharmacogenetic genes associated with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rivera, Nidia Samara; Cuautle-Rodríguez, Patricia; Castillo-Nájera, Fernando; Molina-Guarneros, Juan Arcadio

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic pathologies in the world. In developing countries, such as Mexico, its prevalence represents an important public health and research issue. Determining factors triggering T2DM are environmental and genetic. While diet, exercise and proper weight control are the first measures recommended to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients, pharmacological treatment is usually the next step. Within every population there are variations in interindividual drug response, which may be due to genetic background. Some of the most frequent first line T2DM treatments in developing countries are sulfonylureas (SU), whose targets are ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KATP coding genes, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 11 (KCNJ11) and ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 8 (ABCC8) have been associated with SU response variability. To date, there is little information regarding the mechanism by which these SNPs work within Mexican populations. The present study describes the distribution of three SNPs [KCNJ11 rs5219 (E23K), ABCC8 rs757110 (S1369A) and rs1799854 (−3C/T)] among Mestizo Mexican (MM) T2DM patients, and compares it with published data on various healthy subjects and T2DM populations. Through this comparison, no difference in the KCNJ11 rs5219 and ABCC8 rs757110 allelic and genotypic frequencies in MM were observed compared with the majority of the reported populations of healthy and diabetic individuals among other ethnic groups; except for African and Colombian individuals. By contrast, ABCC8 rs1799854 genomic and allelic frequencies among MM were observed to be significantly different from those reported by the 1000 Genomes Project, and from diabetic patients within other populations reported in the literature, such as the European, Asian and Latin-American individuals [T=0.704, G=0.296; CC=0.506, CT=0.397, TT

  5. The whole world will be able to see us: determining the characteristics of a culturally appropriate bed net among mestizo communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steven A; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Leontsini, Elli; Pezo, Clara Bustamante; Pezantes, Luz Marina Olórtegui; Winch, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    The Peruvian Ministry of Health has distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the country's Amazon region since 1999. Net use is nearly universal among mestizo communities in this area, but residents traditionally use non-impregnated muslin nets. We evaluated the cultural acceptability of Ministry ITNs using qualitative methods. Our results show that nets serve various functions for users: protection against insect bites, warmth, privacy, and a sense of security for young children. Because the Ministry-distributed ITNs could not fulfill these functions as well as traditional nets, many recipients disliked or rejected the ITNs they received. Also, because the ITN fabric stains rapidly, recipients washed their nets frequently rather than waiting 6 months as recommended. We propose a two-pronged approach that balances user and health system expectations of bed nets and that should lead to more widespread and effective ITN use in the study communities.

  6. Genetic data of 15 autosomal STRs (Identifiler kit) of three Mexican Mestizo population samples from the States of Jalisco (West), Puebla (Center), and Yucatan (Southeast).

    PubMed

    Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Mena-Rojas, E; Bautista-España, D; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2009-06-01

    We report autosomal STR data (Identifiler PCR amplification kit) of a total sample of 884 unrelated Mestizos from three different regions of Mexico. The population sample included 309, 313 and 262 individuals from the states of Jalisco (West), Puebla (Center) and Yucatan (Southeast), respectively. Allele distribution and forensic statistical parameters are described. Genotype distribution by locus and two-loci combination was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all 15 STRs. Pairwise comparisons including Mexican populations reported in the literature demonstrated a significant differentiation, principally between North/West with regard to Center/Southeast Mexico. These results increase STR data from previously unreported regions of this country, and constitute a valuable guide in forensic casework for choosing an auxiliary STR database in states where it is not available.

  7. Association of KIR3DL1/S1 and HLA-Bw4 with CD4 T cell counts in HIV-infected Mexican mestizos.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramírez, Daniel; Esparza-Pérez, Mario A; Ramirez-Garcialuna, José L; Arguello, J Rafael; Mandeville, Peter B; Noyola, Daniel E; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A

    2015-08-01

    Certain genotypic combinations of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been associated with favourable outcomes after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus in Caucasoid and African populations. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a rapid exhaustion of CD4 cells, which results in impaired cellular immunity. During this early phase of infection, it is thought that the natural killer (NK) cells represent the main effector arm of the host immune response to HIV. This study investigates whether KIR and HLA factors are associated to CD4 T cell numbers after HIV infection in Mexican mestizos as assessed at the time of initial medical evaluation and subsequent clinical follow-up. KIR and HLA-B gene carrier frequency differences were compared between groups of patients stratified by CD4 T cell numbers as assessed during their first medical evaluation (a point in time at which all patients were anti-retroviral therapy naïve). In addition, the influence that these genetic factors have on averaged historical CD4 cell counts in patients subjected to follow-up (mostly therapy-experienced) was also evaluated. Our results suggest a protective role for the HLA-Bw4 and KIR3D + Bw4 combination in both therapy-naïve and therapy-experienced patients. This report furthers our understanding on the way that immune genes modulate HIV disease progression in less-studied human populations such as the Mexican mestizos with a special focus on CD4 T cell number and behaviour.

  8. The 3'UTR 1188A/C polymorphism of IL-12p40 is not associated with susceptibility for developing plaque psoriasis in Mestizo population from western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Talamantes, Ana Karen; Brito-Luna, Myrian Johanna; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Villanueva-Quintero, Delfina Guadalupe; Graciano-Machuca, Omar; Ramírez-Dueñas, María Guadalupe; Alvarado-Navarro, Anabell

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the joints. Psoriasis is characterized by the keratinocyte proliferation, which is induced by cytokines Th1 and Th17. Patients with plaque psoriasis present a chronic inflammatory response with high levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified in the IL12B gene, such as SNP 3' UTR 1188 A/C (SNP rs3212227), which has been associated with susceptibility to developing plaque psoriasis and with the production of IL-12 and IL-23 in individuals of different ethnic groups. In this study, we determined whether there is an association of SNP rs3212227 with the susceptibility of developing plaque psoriasis and with serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23 in Mestizo population in western Mexico. We included 112 patients with psoriasis and 112 clinical healthy individuals in the study. The frequencies of genotypes A/A, A/C, and C/C in patients with plaque psoriasis were 41, 53, and 6%, respectively, while in the control group, these were 37, 53, and 10%, respectively, without finding statistically significant differences between both groups (p>0.05). Although IL-12 and IL-23 serum levels were higher in patients than in controls, we found no significant differences. The group of patients with genotype CC presented the highest levels of IL-23 (p<0.05). These data suggest that the SNP rs3212227 phenotype is not associated with the risk of developing plaque psoriasis or with IL-12 and IL-23 levels in Mestizo population in western Mexico. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. JAG1 and COL1A1 polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo Women.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M; Espinosa, Leticia Cortes; López-Medina, Guillermo; Aguirre-García, María C; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). One of the most important factors that influence BMD is the genetic contribution. The collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) and the JAGGED (JAG1) have been investigated in relation to BMD. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COL1A1, their haplotypes, and one SNP of JAG1 with BMD in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Seven hundred and fifty unrelated postmenopausal women were included. Risk factors were recorded and BMD was measured in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Two SNPs in COL1A1 (rs1800012 and rs1107946) and one in JAG1 (rs2273061) were studied. Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used for genotyping. The differences between the means of the BMDs according to genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r (2), and haplotype analysis of COL1A1 was conducted. Under a dominant model, the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1 showed an association with BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.021). In addition, analysis of the haplotype of COL1A1 showed that the G-G haplotype presented a higher BMD in lumbar spine. We did not find an association between the s1107946 and rs2273061 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 and JAG1, respectively. Our results suggest that the rs1800012 polymorphism of the COL1A1, in addition to one haplotype, were significantly associated with BMD variation in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women.

  10. Polymorphism of LRP5, but not of TNFRSF11B, is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density in postmenopausal Maya-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Polanco Reyes, Lucila; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized principally by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association among one polymorphism of LRP5 and three polymorphisms of TNFRSF11B as well as their haplotypes with BMD variations in Maya-Mestizo postmenopausal women. We studied 583 postmenopausal women of Maya-Mestizo ethnic origin. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was measured in lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. One single-nucleotide polymorphism of LRP5 (rs3736228, p.A1330V) and three of TNFRSF11B (rs4355801, rs2073618, and rs6993813) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analyzed with covariance. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r(2), and haplotype analysis of TNFRSF11B was conducted. The Val genotype of the rs3736228 (p.A1330V) of LRP5 was significantly associated with BMD variations at the LS, TH, and FN. None of the three polymorphisms of TNFRSF11B was associated with BMD variations. Our results show that p.A1330V was significantly associated with BMD variations at all three skeletal sites analyzed; the Val allele and the Val/Val genotype were those most frequently found in our population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Expression of NAT2 in immune system cells and the relation of NAT2 gene polymorphisms in the anti-tuberculosis therapy in Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Salazar-González, R; Gómez, R; Romano-Moreno, S; Medellín-Garibay, S; Núñez-Ruíz, A; Magaña-Aquino, M; Milán-Segovia, R C; Portales-Pérez, D P

    2014-12-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) metabolizes isoniazid (INH) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) responsible for its activity has been reported. The aim of this study in the Mexican mestizo population was to evaluate NAT2 expression at the protein level in immune cells, as well as the distribution and frequency of six NAT2 SNPs and their association with anti-TB therapy, by measuring the plasma levels of INH and Acetyl-INH (AcINH). We performed genotyping assays of NAT2 SNPs in 40 TB patients and 121 healthy volunteers by real-time PCR. A method for detecting NAT2 in immune cells using flow cytometry was developed. Plasma concentrations of INH and AcINH were obtained by HPLC in TB patients and the Metabolic Ratio (MR) was calculated. The phenotypes obtained in the healthy volunteers were as follows; 18.87 % of subjects had the rapid acetylator phenotype, 45.45 % had the intermediate phenotype and 39.66 % exhibited the slow acetylator phenotype. In the TB patient group, 35 % of patients had the rapid acetylator phenotype, 32.5 % were intermediate and 32.5 % showed the slow acetylator phenotype. A higher expression level of NAT2 in innate immune cells from TB patients compared to those from healthy volunteers was detected (P < 0.013). In TB patients the MR showed a bimodal distribution with an antimode of 0.7, which was used as a threshold value for acetylator classification. A high correspondence between the rapid and slow acetylator phenotype with MR was demonstrated. In conclusion, the 282C>T, 341T>C, 481C>T, 590G>A, 803A>G, 857G>A SNPs of NAT2 gene provides accurate for prediction of the acetylator phenotype in Mexican mestizo population. A statistical difference was found in frequency of rapid metabolizer phenotype, which was higher in TB patients. In addition, the expression of NAT2 protein in immune cells can lead to further studies related to its functional role in the innate immune response against M. tuberculosis and other xenobiotics

  12. Anti-malarials exert a protective effect while Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing SLE renal disease: data from a Latin-American cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Soriano, Enrique R.; Saurit, Verónica; Cavalcanti, Fernando S.; Guzman, Renato A.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Alva, Magaly; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the role of ethnicity and the use of anti-malarials (protective) on lupus renal disease. Methods. A nested case–control study (1:2 proportion, n = 265 and 530) within GLADEL's (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort was carried out. The end-point was ACR renal criterion development after diagnosis. Cases and controls were matched for follow-up time (end-point or a comparable time, respectively). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable analyses. Additional analyses were done to determine if the protective effect of anti-malarials persisted after adjusting for intake-associated confounders. Results. Of the cases, 233 (87.9%) were women; their mean (s.d.) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years and their median (Q3–Q1 interquartile range) follow-up time for cases and controls was 8.3 months (Q3–Q1: 23.5); 56.6% of the cases and 74.3% of the controls were anti-malarial users. Mestizo ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48] and hypertension (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.38, 3.70) were independently associated with a higher risk of renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26, 0.58), older age at disease onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and female gender (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.99) were negatively associated with such occurrence. After adjusting for variables associated with their intake, the protective effect of anti-malarials on renal disease occurrence persisted (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25, 0.58). Conclusion. Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease, whereas anti-malarial use protects patients from such an occurrence. PMID:22389125

  13. Interferon regulatory factor 3 as key element of the interferon signature in plasmacytoid dendritic cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients: novel genetic associations in the Mexican mestizo population

    PubMed Central

    Santana-de Anda, K; Gómez-Martín, D; Monsivais-Urenda, A E; Salgado-Bustamante, M; González-Amaro, R; Alcocer-Varela, J

    2014-01-01

    Many genetic studies have found an association between interferon regulatory factors (IRF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, specific dendritic cell (DC) alterations have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to address the expression of IRF3 and IRF5 on different DC subsets from SLE patients, as well as their association with interferon (IFN)-α production and novel SNPs. For the genetic association analyses, 156 SLE patients and 272 healthy controls from the Mexican mestizo population were included. From these, 36 patients and 36 controls were included for functional analysis. Two IRF3 SNPs − rs2304206 and rs2304204 – were determined. We found an increased percentage of circulating pDC in SLE patients in comparison to controls (8·04 ± 1·48 versus 3·35 ± 0·8, P = 0·032). We also observed enhanced expression of IRF3 (64 ± 6·36 versus 36·1 ± 5·57, P = 0·004) and IRF5 (40 ± 5·25 versus 22·5 ± 2·6%, P = 0·010) restricted to this circulating pDC subset from SLE patients versus healthy controls. This finding was associated with higher IFN-α serum levels in SLE (160·2 ± 21 versus 106·1 ± 14 pg/ml, P = 0·036). Moreover, the IRF3 rs2304206 polymorphism was associated with increased susceptibility to SLE [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·401 (1·187–4·858), P = 0·021] as well as enhanced levels of serum type I IFN in SLE patients who were positive for dsDNA autoantibodies. The IRF3 rs2304204 GG and AG genotypes conferred decreased risk for SLE. Our findings suggest that the predominant IRF3 expression on circulating pDC is a key element for the increased IFN-α activation based on the interplay between the rs2304206 gene variant and the presence of dsDNA autoantibodies in Mexican mestizo SLE patients. PMID:25130328

  14. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  15. Association of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms with bone mineral density variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Bertha; Vilchis, Felipe; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Canto, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we investigated potential associations between polymorphisms of genes related to estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study, in which two hundred and ninety postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women were studied. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) was measured. The distribution of the genetic polymorphisms, including rs1799814 and rs1048943 at CYP1A1 as well as rs1056836 at CYP1B1, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), and DNA sequencing. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were tested, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) was calculated by direct correlation (r(2)). Moreover, haplotype analysis was performed. All polymorphisms were in HWE. The genotype and allele distributions of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied showed no significant differences. However, statistical significance was reached when constructing haplotypes. The CG haplotype in CYP1A1 was associated with variations in LS and FN BMD after adjustment for covariates (p = 0.021 and 0.045, respectively), but the association with TH BMD was not significant. These results suggested that the CG haplotype in CYP1A1 may play an important role in the mechanism of osteoporosis and may be useful as a genetic marker.

  16. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of México

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodríguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using χ2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups. PMID:20592457

  17. Polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in a healthy Mexican Mestizo population: Application of the additive model for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Martínez-Ramírez, Ollin C.; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Rubio, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Mexico and worldwide. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of lung cancer cases in young people, which suggests an important role for genetic background in the etiology of this disease. In this study, we genetically characterized 16 polymorphisms in 12 low penetrance genes (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTPI, XRCC1, ERCC2, MGMT, CCND1 and TP53) in 382 healthy Mexican Mestizos as the first step in elucidating the genetic structure of this population and identifying high risk individuals. All of the genotypes analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but different degrees of linkage were observed for polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and EPHX1 genes. The genetic variability of this population was distributed in six clusters that were defined based on their genetic characteristics. The use of a polygenic model to assess the additive effect of low penetrance risk alleles identified combinations of risk genotypes that could be useful in predicting a predisposition to lung cancer. Estimation of the level of genetic susceptibility showed that the individual calculated risk value (iCRV) ranged from 1 to 16, with a higher iCRV indicating a greater genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. PMID:22215955

  18. Analysis of polymorphisms in genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) associated with hypertension, thrombophilia and oxidative stress in Mestizo and Amerindian populations of México.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodríguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)} polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using chi square tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups.

  19. CYP2C9, CYP2C19, ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms and phenytoin plasma concentrations in Mexican-Mestizo patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Vázquez, A; Dorado, P; Fricke-Galindo, I; Jung-Cook, H; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Martínez-Juárez, I E; Familiar-López, I; Peñas-Lledó, E; LLerena, A; López-López, M

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to explore the possible influence of CYP2C9 (*2, *3 and IVS8-109 A>T), CYP2C19 (*2, *3 and *17) and ABCB1 (1236C>T, 2677G>A/T and 3435C>T) on phenytoin (PHT) plasma concentrations in 64 Mexican Mestizo (MM) patients with epilepsy currently treated with PHT in mono- (n=25) and polytherapy (n=39). Genotype and allele frequencies of these variants were also estimated in 300 MM healthy volunteers. Linear regression models were used to assess associations between the dependent variables (PHT plasma concentration and dose-corrected PHT concentration) with independent variables (CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes, ABCB1 haplotypes, age, sex, weight, and polytherapy). In multivariate models, CYP2C9 IVS8-109 T was significantly associated with higher PHT plasma concentrations (t(64)=2.27; P=0.03). Moreover, this allele was more frequent in the supratherapeutic group as compared with the subtherapeutic group (0.13 versus 0.03, respectively; P=0.05, Fisher's exact test). Results suggest that CYP2C9 IVS8-109 T allele may decrease CYP2C9 enzymatic activity on PHT. More research is needed to confirm findings.

  20. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  1. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes (APEX1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and Risk of Preeclampsia in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; La Llave-León, Osmel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in genes involved in DNA repair systems have been proposed as risk factors for the development of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APEX1) Asp148Glu (rs1130409), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln (rs13181), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC) Arg399Gln (rs25487) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met (rs861539) polymorphisms with PE in a Mexican population. Samples of 202 cases and 350 controls were genotyped using RTPCR. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each polymorphism. The allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed statistical significant differences between preeclamptic and normal women (p = 0.036). Although neither of the polymorphisms proved to be a risk factor for the disease, the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed a tendency of association (OR: 1.74, 95% CI = 0.96–3.14) and a significant trend (p for trend = 0.048). A subgroup analyses revealed differences in the allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism between women with mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia (p = 0.035). In conclusion, our results reveal no association between XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms and the risk of PE in a Mexican mestizo population; however, the results in the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism suggest the need for future studies using a larger sample size. PMID:24619222

  2. Genetic variations in toll-like receptor 4 in Mexican-Mestizo patients with intra-abdominal infection and/or pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Lima, Guadalupe; Herrera-Caceres, Jaime O; Villegas-Torres, Beatriz E; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Llorente, Luis; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death around the world, and 73-83% of all sepsis cases requiring attention in intensive care units are linked to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) or pneumonia. The activation of innate immunity is central to the manifestation of sepsis, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays an important role in this activation process. The 299G and 399I alleles of TLR4 have been linked with an increased risk of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections and septic shock in some populations. This case-control study evaluated the prevalence of D299G/T399I polymorphisms in Mexican patients with IAI and/or pneumonia and in healthy controls. Genotyping revealed that 1 in 44 patients (2.3%; CI 95%: 0.05-12.0%) and 4 in 126 controls (3.2%; CI 95%: 0.9-7.9%) were heterozygous for both the D299G and T399l polymorphisms (OR: 0.71, CI 95%: 0.01-7.44, p = NS), confirming the co-segregation of these alleles in this population. Furthermore, the patients with a GNB infection and severe sepsis were not carriers of the risk alleles. In summary, this report shows that the frequency of the D299G and T399I polymorphisms in Mexican-Mestizos is lower than anticipated in comparison with other ethnic groups, emphasizing the variable distribution of TLR4 polymorphisms among different populations. Consequently, this study was not able to detect associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and sepsis in this population.

  3. IKAROS Gene Deleted B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Mestizos: Observations in Seven Patients and a Short Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo José; Cantero-Fortiz, Yahveth; León-Peña, Andrés Aurelio; León-González, Mónica; Nuñez-Cortés, Ana Karen; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo José

    2016-01-01

    In B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, one of the most frequent cytogenetic alterations is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome. Recently, newly identified genetic alterations have been studied, among them the IKZF1 deletion. IKZF1 encodes IKAROS, a zinc finger protein that plays an important role in hematopoiesis involving the regulation process of adhesion, cellular migration, and as a tumor suppressor. We aimed to study the impact of IKAROS deletion in the evolution and prognosis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At a single center we prospectively studied patients diagnosed with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and screened for IKZF1 deletion using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. We did a descriptive analysis of patients positive for the IKZF1 deletion to determine its impact on the evolution of the disease and survival rate. Between 2010 and 2015, 16 Mexican mestizo patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were prospectively screened for IKZF1 deletion; seven (43%) were positive and were included for further analysis. The age range of patients was 13-60 years; six were males and one female. All cases had type B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Of the seven patients, two died, three were lost to follow-up, and two continue in complete remission with treatment. Results are worse than those in a group of patients with non-mutated IKAROS B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia previously studied in our center. Although this is a small sample, the presence of IKAROS deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients could represent a poor-prognosis marker and was probably related to therapy failure. It is also possible that this variant of leukemia may be more prevalent in Mexico. More studies are needed to define the role of IKZF1 deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the real prevalence of the disease in different populations.

  4. Assessment of six cardiovascular risk calculators in Mexican mestizo patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the EULAR 2015/2016 recommendations for cardiovascular risk management.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio A; Azpiri-Lopez, Jose R; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris J; Cardenas-de la Garza, Jesus A; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Serna-Peña, Griselda; Arvizu-Rivera, Rosa I; Martinez-Moreno, Adrian; Wah-Suarez, Martin; Garza Elizondo, Mario A

    2017-02-01

    Variability of the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk predicted by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) using lipids, FRS using body mass index (BMI), Reynolds Risk Score (RRS), QRISK2, Extended Risk Score-Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERS-RA), and algorithm developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association in 2013 (ACC/AHA 2013) according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2015/2016 update of its evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been evaluated in Mexican mestizo patients. CV risk was predicted using six different risk calculators in 116 patients, aged 40-75, who fulfilled the ACR/EULAR 2010 classification criteria. Results were multiplied by 1.5 according to the EULAR 2015/2016 update. Global comparison of the risk predicted by all scales was done using the Friedman test, considering a P value of ≤0.05 as statistically significant. Individual comparison between the algorithms was made using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and a P value of ≤0.003 was considered statistically significant. All calculators showed to be different in the Friedman test (p ≤ 0.001). Median values of predicted 10-year CV risk were 11.02% (6.18-17.55) for FRS BMI; 8.47% (4.6-13.16) for FRS lipids; 5.55% (2.5-11.85) for QRISK2; 5% (3.1-8.65) for ERS-RA; 3.6% (1.5-9.3) for ACC/AHA 2013; and 1.5% (1.5-4.5) for RRS. ERS-RA showed no difference when compared against QRISK2 (p = 0.269). CV risk calculators showed variability among them and cannot be used indistinctly in RA-patients.

  5. The 482Ser of PPARGC1A and 12Pro of PPARG2 Alleles Are Associated with Reduction of Metabolic Risk Factors Even Obesity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Guzmán-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Corona Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara-Patricia; Reyes-Serratos, Eduardo-Alejandro; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional polymorphisms Gly482Ser in PPARGC1A and Pro12Ala in PPARG2 with the presence of obesity and metabolic risk factors. We included 375 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizos and classified by the body mass index (BMI). Body dimensions and distribution of body fat were measured. The HOMA-IR and adiposity indexes were calculated. Adipokines and metabolic profile quantification were performed by ELISA and routine methods. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A difference between obese and nonobese subjects in polymorphism PPARGC1A distribution was observed. Among obese individuals, carriers of genotype 482Gly/Gly were observed to have decreased body fat, BMI, and body fat ratio versus 482Ser/Ser carriers and increased resistin and leptin levels in carriers Gly+ phenotype versus Gly− phenotype. Subjects with PPARG2 Ala− phenotype (genotype 12Pro/Pro) showed a decreased HOMA-IR index versus individuals with Ala+ phenotype (genotypes 12Pro/Ala plus 12Ala/Ala). We propose that, in obese Mexican-Mestizos, the combination of alleles 482Ser in PPARGC1A and 12Pro in PPARG2 represents a reduced metabolic risk profile, even when the adiposity indexes are increased. PMID:26185753

  6. The 482Ser of PPARGC1A and 12Pro of PPARG2 Alleles Are Associated with Reduction of Metabolic Risk Factors Even Obesity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Guzmán-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Corona Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara-Patricia; Reyes-Serratos, Eduardo-Alejandro; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional polymorphisms Gly482Ser in PPARGC1A and Pro12Ala in PPARG2 with the presence of obesity and metabolic risk factors. We included 375 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizos and classified by the body mass index (BMI). Body dimensions and distribution of body fat were measured. The HOMA-IR and adiposity indexes were calculated. Adipokines and metabolic profile quantification were performed by ELISA and routine methods. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A difference between obese and nonobese subjects in polymorphism PPARGC1A distribution was observed. Among obese individuals, carriers of genotype 482Gly/Gly were observed to have decreased body fat, BMI, and body fat ratio versus 482Ser/Ser carriers and increased resistin and leptin levels in carriers Gly+ phenotype versus Gly- phenotype. Subjects with PPARG2 Ala- phenotype (genotype 12Pro/Pro) showed a decreased HOMA-IR index versus individuals with Ala+ phenotype (genotypes 12Pro/Ala plus 12Ala/Ala). We propose that, in obese Mexican-Mestizos, the combination of alleles 482Ser in PPARGC1A and 12Pro in PPARG2 represents a reduced metabolic risk profile, even when the adiposity indexes are increased.

  7. Circulating naive and memory CD4+ T cells and metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from a primarily Mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Sánchez-Zúñiga, César; Gamboa-Cárdenas, Rocío V; Aliaga-Zamudio, Madeley; Zevallos, Francisco; Tineo-Pozo, Giannina; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Mosqueira-Riveros, Ana; Perich-Campos, Risto A; Alfaro-Lozano, José L; Medina, Mariela; Rodríguez-Bellido, Zoila; Alarcón, Graciela S; Pastor-Asurza, Cesar A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the proportions of naive and memory CD4(+) T cell are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with SLE. This cross-sectional study was conducted in SLE patients seen at our rheumatology department between September 2013 and April 2014. CD4(+) T cell subpopulations were examined by flow cytometry. The association of MetS and CD4(+) T cell subpopulations was examined by Mann-Whitney U-test and by multivariable analysis, adjusting for all possible confounding variables. One hundred and seventeen patients were evaluated. Their mean age was 44.6 years (S.D. 12.6), 109 (93.2%) were female and all patients were Mestizo (mixed Caucasian and Amerindian ancestry). Fifty-two patients (44.4%) presented with MetS. Disease duration was 7.6 years (S.D. 6.8). The percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells was 25.0 (S.D. 12.7) and memory CD4(+) T cells was 66.7 (S.D. 13.2) and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio was 4.3 (S.D. 5.6). In multivariable analysis, the percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells was negatively associated with the presence of MetS [odds ratio (OR) 0.959 (95% CI 0.923, 0.997), P = 0.033], whereas the percentage of memory CD4(+)T cells and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio were positively associated with its presence [OR 1.040 (95% CI 1.003, 1.078), P = 0.031 and OR 1.238 (95% CI 1.041, 1.472), P = 0.016, respectively]. In the SLE patients studied, a lower percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells, a higher percentage of memory CD4(+) T cells and the memory:naive CD4(+) T cell ratio were independently associated with the presence of MetS. This association could reflect the impact of immunosenescence among SLE patients with cardiovascular morbidity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Analysis of association of MEF2C, SOST and JAG1 genes with bone mineral density in Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Jiménez-Ortega, Rogelio F; Parra-Torres, Alma Y; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Patiño, Nelly; Quiterio, Manuel; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-11-28

    Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), is an important health problem in Mexico. BMD is a highly heritable trait, with heritability estimates of 50-85%. Several candidate genes have been evaluated to identify those involved in BMD variation and the etiology of osteoporosis. This study investigated the possible association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MEF2C, SOST and JAG1genes with bone mineral density (BMD) variation in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Four hundred unrelated postmenopausal women were included in the study. Risk factors were recorded and BMD was measured in total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In an initial stage, a total of twenty-five SNPs within or near SOST gene and seven SNPs in the JAG1 gene were genotyped using a GoldenGate assay. In a second stage, three MEF2C gene SNPs were also genotyped and SOST and JAG1 gene variants were validated. Real time PCR and TaqMan probes were used for genotyping. Linear regression analyses adjusted by age, body mass index and ancestry estimates, showed that five SNPs in the SOST gene were significantly associated with BMD in total hip and femoral neck but not lumbar spine. The lowest p value was 0.0012, well below the multiple-test significance threshold (p=0.009), with mean effect size of -0.027 SD per risk allele. We did not find significant associations between BMD and MEF2C/JAG1 gene variants [rs1366594 "A" allele: β=0.001 (95% CI -0.016; 0.017), P=0.938; rs2273061 "G" allele: β=0.007 (95% CI -0.007; 0.023), p=0.409]. SOST polymorphisms may contribute to total hip and femoral neck BMD variation in Mexican postmenopausal women. Together, these and prior findings suggest that this gene may contribute to BMD variation across populations of diverse ancestry.

  9. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cantú de León, David; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Villavicencio, Verónica; García Carranca, Alejandro; Mohar Betancourt, Alejandro; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; López-Tello, Alberto; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Barquera, Rodrigo; Yu, Neng; Yunis, Edmond J; Granados, Julio

    2009-02-05

    The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 - 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027-0.223, p = 0.00001). Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican population where high resolutions HLA

  10. Cardiovascular health status and metabolic syndrome in Ecuadorian natives/Mestizos aged 40 years or more with and without stroke and ischemic heart disease--an atahualpa project case-control nested study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Montalván, Martha; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Santamaría, Milton; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of regional-specific cardiovascular risk factors is mandatory to reduce the growing burden of stroke and ischemic heart disease in Latin American populations. We conducted a population-based case-control study to assess which risk factors are associated with the occurrence of vascular events in natives/mestizos living in rural coastal Ecuador. We assessed the cardiovascular health (CVH) status and the presence of the metabolic syndrome in all Atahualpa residents aged 40 years or more with stroke and ischemic heart disease and in randomly selected healthy persons to evaluate differences in the prevalence of such risk factors between patients and controls. A total of 120 persons (24 with stroke or ischemic heart disease and 96 matched controls) were included. A poor CVH status (according to the American Heart Association) was found in 87.5% case-patients and 81.3% controls (P = .464). The metabolic syndrome was present in the same proportion (58.3%) of case-patients and controls. Likewise, both sets of risk factors (poor CVH status and the metabolic syndrome) were equally prevalent among both groups (58.3% versus 49%, P = .501). This case-control study suggests that none of the measured risk factors is associated with the occurrence of vascular events. It is possible that some yet unmeasured risk factors or an unknown genetic predisposition may account for a sizable proportion of stroke and ischemic heart disease occurring in the native/mestizo population of rural coastal Ecuador. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast cancer risk associated with gene expression and genotype polymorphisms of the folate-metabolizing MTHFR gene: a case-control study in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Andrés; Echeverría, Carolina; Oña-Cisneros, Fabián; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Herrera, Camilo; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Rosales, Felipe; Ortiz, Malena; Paz-Y-Miño, César

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in 2014. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and MTR reductase (MTRR) are enzymes that play an important role in folate metabolism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G, alter plasmatic folate and homocysteine concentrations, causing problems during the repairment, synthesis, and methylation of the genetic material. Therefore, it is essential to know how BC risk is associated with histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, genotype polymorphisms, and gene expression in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population. DNA was extracted from 195 healthy and 114 affected women. Genotypes were determined by restriction enzymes and genomic sequencing. mRNA was extracted from 26 glandular breast tissue samples, both from cancerous tissue and healthy tissue adjacent to the tumor. Relative gene expression was determined with the comparative Livak method (2(-ΔΔCT)). We found significant association between the rs1801133 (A222V) genotypes and an increased risk of BC development: C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.2; P = 0.039), T/T (OR = 2.9; 95 % CI = 1.2-7.2; P = 0.025), and C/T + T/T (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.3; P = 0.019). Regarding relative gene expression, we found significant mRNA subexpression between the combined genotypes C/T + T/T (rs1801133) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (P = 0.034). In brief, the MTHFR gene and its protein could act as potential predictive biomarkers of BC, especially TNBC among the high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population.

  12. Comparison of statin eligibility according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline, and presence of carotid plaque by ultrasound in Mexican mestizo patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio A; Azpiri-Lopez, Jose R; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris J; Cardenas-de la Garza, Jesus A; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Garcia-Colunga, Judith I; Arvizu-Rivera, Rosa I; Martinez-Moreno, Adrian; Villarreal-Perez, Jesus Z; Elizondo-Riojas, Guillermo; Garza Elizondo, Mario A

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) differ in their strategies to recommend initiation of statin therapy. The presence of carotid plaque (CP) by carotid ultrasound is an indication to begin statin therapy. We aimed to compare the recommendation to initiate statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines, ATP-III guidelines, and CP by carotid ultrasound. We then carried out an observational, cross-sectional study of 62 statin-naive Mexican mestizo RA patients, aged 40 to 75, who fulfilled the 1987 or 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria. CP was evaluated with B-mode ultrasound. Cohen's kappa (k) was used to assess agreement between ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines, ATP-III guidelines, and the presence of CP, considering a p < 0.05 as statistically significant. Agreement was classified as slight (0.01-0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), substantial (0.61-0.80), and an almost perfect agreement (0.81-1.00). Slight agreement (k = 0.096) was found when comparing statin recommendation between CP and ATP-III. Fair agreement (k = 0.242) was revealed between ACC/AHA 2013 and ATP-III. Comparison between ACC/AHA 2013 and CP showed moderate agreement (k = 0.438). ACC/AHA 2013 guidelines could be an adequate and cost-effective tool to evaluate the need of statin therapy in Mexican mestizo RA patients, with moderate agreement with the presence of CP by ultrasound.

  13. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  14. Forensic-paternity effectiveness and genetics population analysis of six non-CODIS mini-STR loci (D1S1656, D2S441, D6S1043, D10S1248, D12S391, D22S1045) and SE33 in Mestizo and Amerindian populations from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burguete-Argueta, Nelsi; Martínez De la Cruz, Braulio; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; López-Bayghen, Esther; Arellano-Galindo, José; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Antonio Meraz-Ríos, Marco; Gómez, Rocío

    2016-11-01

    STRs are powerful tools intensively used in forensic and kinship studies. In order to assess the effectiveness of non-CODIS genetic markers in forensic and paternity tests, the genetic composition of six mini short tandem repeats-mini-STRs-(D1S1656, D2S441, D6S1043, D10S1248, D12S391, D22S1045) and the microsatellite SE33 in Mestizo and Amerindian populations from Mexico were studied. Using multiplex polymerase chain reactions and capillary electrophoresis, this study genotyped all loci from 870 chromosomes and evaluated the statistical genetic parameters. All mini-STRs studied were in agreement with HW and linkage equilibrium; however, an important HW departure for SE33 was found in the Mestizo population (p ≤ 0.0001). Regarding paternity and forensic statistical parameters, high values of combined power discrimination and mean power of exclusion were found using these seven markers. The principal co-ordinate analysis based on allele frequencies of three mini-STRs showed the complex genetic architecture of the Mestizo population. The results indicate that this set of loci is suitable to genetically identify individuals in the Mexican population, supporting its effectiveness in human identification casework. In addition, these findings add new statistical values and emphasise the importance of the use of non-CODIS markers in complex populations in order to avoid erroneous assumptions.

  15. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  16. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  17. [Group psychotherapy. Operative groups at the Instituto del servico de seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1977-01-01

    An operational group is defined; how operational groups theory was applied at an ISSSTE clinic is described. It is underlined how operational groups promote change around the corerstone of a "task". The vicissitudes of an operational group with four psychiatrists who worked in community psychiatry at the ISSSTE, are described.

  18. [Family psychotherapy in medical institutions of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado].

    PubMed

    Serrano, H

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of family therapy in Mexico is briefly reviewed. It is considered that the reach of this method is limited in institutions due to the lack of qualified psychotherapists with the different orientations of this speciality. The illness, as a sign of family imbalance within the humanistic concept, acquires an even if the treatment is given to the marital couple, the adolescent or the child. Family therapy helps in marital disagreements, behavior problems, anorexia, reactive depression, drug addictions, alcoholism and many other problems. The ISSSTE population has a stable location and is more or less homogeneous; in it family therapy is stimulating and possible; even though the institution imposes certain limitations to family therapy, the enthusiasm for this therapeutic method prevails.

  19. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its correlation with the cardiovascular health status in stroke- and ischemic heart disease-free Ecuadorian natives/mestizos aged ≥40 years living in Atahualpa: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Zambrano, Mauricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Montalván, Martha; Pow-Chon-Long, Freddy; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing cardiovascular risk factors affecting a given population may prove cost-effective to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases in the developing world. We evaluated the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Atahualpa, a village representative of rural coastal Ecuador. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its correlation with the cardiovascular (CVH) status was assessed in a door-to-door survey performed in stroke- and ischemic heart disease-free Ecuadorian native/mestizos aged ≥40 years. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 288 (55.7%) out of 517 persons. Worst individual components were: increased waist circumference (75%), increased fasting glucose (68.1%) and high blood pressure (56.5%). Prevalence of individual components of this condition varied according to age, gender, education, and alcohol intake. However, no differences were found in the odds for having the metabolic syndrome when persons were stratified according to these parameters. A poor CVH status was found in 80.2% persons with and in 55.9% without the metabolic syndrome (p<0.0001). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Atahualpa is high. Most persons with the metabolic syndrome also have a poor CVH status. However, sizable subsets only have either the metabolic syndrome or a poor CVH status. Stratification of cardiovascular risk according to whether the person has both, one, or none of these two sets of risk factors would be of value to evaluate if the metabolic syndrome, a poor CVH status or the combination of both, better predict the occurrence of vascular outcomes in the long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of genetic variants of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 genes on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Pedraza, Javier; Casas, María José; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Vilchis, Felipe; Canto, Patricia

    2013-10-10

    Since obesity and osteoporosis present a high genetic predisposition and polymorphisms of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 may influence the risk of both diseases, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of polymorphisms in these genes, as well as their haplotypes, with BMD variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with grade 2 or grade 3 obesity. One hundred eighty unrelated postmenopausal women with grade 2 or grade 3 obesity were included. BMD was measured in total hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Rs1800795 of IL-6, rs2228145 of IL6R, rs3736228 of LRP5, rs9340799 (XbaI) and rs2234693 (PvuII), of ESR1, rs10876432 and rs2016266, of SP7 (and their haplotypes), were studied by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r(2), and haplotype analysis was conducted. Using WHO criteria, 54.5% had grade 2 obesity, and 45.5% had grade 3 obesity. Regarding DXA results, 11.1% women had osteoporosis, 41.7% had osteopenia, and 47.2% had normal BMD. Genotype and haplotype analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations at the lumbar spine, total hip or femoral neck. We did not find a significant association between the polymorphisms analyzed or their haplotypes and BMD variations in postmenopausal women with obesity. The higher BMD observed in women with obesity could be the result of an adaptive response to the higher loading of the skeleton. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  2. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  4. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  5. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  6. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  7. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  8. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  9. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  10. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  11. Genetic population analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three states (Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) from Southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Julieta Avila, Sandra; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal (DYS19, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic systems were typed in three South West Colombian populations: Valle (short term for Valle del Cauca), Cauca and Nariño. DYS385a/b showed the highest gene diversity in the three populations. A total of 287 different Y-chromosome haplotypes were observed in the 308 males analyzed, and the haplotype diversity among populations was 0.9977. The most frequent haplotype was observed only three times and only nineteen others were observed two times. The highest gene diversity was found in Valle and the lowest in Cauca. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that variation is mainly within populations (99.1%) in agreement with previous results in European populations. In conclusion, these populations could be pooled together in order to create one "Colombian-Mestizo" database for forensic use.

  12. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  13. Status and distribution of Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands in the United States and Mexico (Evaluacion del estado y distribucion de los pastizales del Desierto Chihuahuense en los Estados Unidos y Mexico)

    Treesearch

    Martha Desmond; Jennifer Atchley Montoya

    2006-01-01

    Grasslands comprise a small part of the Chihuahuan Desert but are vital to the biological diversity of the ecoregion. Characteristic grasses of the Chihuahuan Desert are tobosa (Pleuraphis mutica) and black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) but other common species include alakali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), big alkali sacaton (S. wrightii), mesa dropseed (S. flexuosus),...

  14. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  15. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  16. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  17. Kawasaki disease: a rare pediatric pathology in Mexico. Twenty cases report from the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Norberto; González, Luis Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an etiological illness that is relatively unknown and scarcely identified in Mexico; it affects children mainly aged 1-4 years, evolves with fever, vasculitis in diverse organs, and in the heart the disease mainly affects the coronary arteries. Our aim was to inform the clinical findings and evolution of 20 patients diagnosed with KD. We reviewed the patient clinical files retrospectively and descriptively to obtain information with regard to age, sex, clinical signs, laboratory and consultory results, echocardiography findings, complications, evolution during hospitalization, followup, and out-patient ambulatory consultations. Eighteen patients were male, two were female, six developed coronary damage, two aortic mitral-valve insufficiency, one pericardial shedding, and one, myocarditis. All patients received gamma globulin treatment with aspirin, and 16 were controlled during 6-8 months after the acute medical profile. The opportune clinical diagnostic it is fundamental to establish an early treatment with gammmaglobuline to avoid injuries in the arterial coronary level. This injury may cause eventualy ischemia or myocardial infarct

  18. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  19. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    PubMed

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments.

  20. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  1. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  2. [Group psychotherapy. Experience with a changing process at a clinic of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Velasco de Ongay, M E

    1977-01-01

    The problems of an ISSSTE clinic were approached within the general systems theory and it was observed that within the group there existed forces to maintain the status-quo and forces towards change; to produce the latter the group was handled during 20 hours with a slightly directive technique. The goals were to improve interpersonal relationships, to increase communication, to make known to individuals their attitudes within a group and make them sensitive to problems they shared with others. The results were good, the status-quo was broken and change started occurring.

  3. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  4. Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (α2000= 8h 14m 41s, δ2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  5. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  6. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Ácaros del mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  8. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  9. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  10. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  11. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  12. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  13. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Treesearch

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  14. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  15. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  16. Autoimmune vitiligo in rheumatic disease in the mestizo Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza; Pérez-Pérez, Elena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pacheco-Tovar, María-Guadalupe; Herrera-Esparza, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic disease characterized by the dysfunction or destruction of melanocytes with secondary depigmentation. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of vitiligo associated with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The clinical records from a 10-year database of patients with rheumatic diseases and associated vitiligo was analysed, with one group of patients having autoimmune rheumatic disease and another non-autoimmune rheumatic disease. Available serum samples were used to assess the anti-melanocyte antibodies. A total of 5,251 individual clinical files were archived in the last 10 years, and these patients underwent multiple rheumatology consultations, with 0.3% of the group presenting with vitiligo. The prevalence of vitiligo in the autoimmune rheumatic disease group was 0.672%, which was mainly associated with lupus and arthritis. However, patients with more than one autoimmune disease had an increased relative risk to develop vitiligo, and anti-melanocyte antibodies were positive in 92% of these patients. By contrast, the prevalence was 0.082% in the group that lacked autoimmune rheumatic disease and had negative autoantibodies. In conclusion, the association between vitiligo and autoimmune rheumatic diseases was relatively low. However, the relative risk increased when there were other autoimmune comorbidities, such as thyroiditis or celiac disease. Therefore, the presence of multiple autoimmune syndromes should be suspected.

  17. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines.

  18. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  19. Torres del Paine National Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Grinding glaciers and granite peaks mingle in Chile’s Torres del Paine National Park. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this summertime image of the park on January 21, 2013. This image shows just a portion of the park, including Grey Glacier and the mountain range of Cordillera del Paine. The rivers of glacial ice in Torres del Paine National Park grind over bedrock, turning some of that rock to dust. Many of the glaciers terminate in freshwater lakes, which are rich with glacial flour that colors them brown to turquoise. Skinny rivers connect some of the lakes to each other (image upper and lower right). Cordillera del Paine rises between some of the wide glacial valleys. The compact mountain range is a combination of soaring peaks and small glaciers, most notably the Torres del Paine (Towers of Paine), three closely spaced peaks emblematic of the mountain range and the larger park. By human standards, the mountains of Cordillera del Paine are quite old. But compared to the Rocky Mountains (70 million years old), and the Appalachians (about 480 million years), the Cordillera del Paine are very young—only about 12 million years old. A study published in 2008 described how scientists used zircon crystals to estimate the age of Cordillera del Paine. The authors concluded that the mountain range was built in three pulses, creating a granite laccolith, or dome-shaped feature, more than 2,000 meters (7,000 feet) thick. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using Advanced Land Imager data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI View more info: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80266 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  20. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  1. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  2. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these…

  3. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these…

  4. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-10-23

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  5. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  6. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  7. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  9. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  10. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  11. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  12. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  13. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  14. Estudio ab initio del mecanismo de la reacción HSO + O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebot Gil, I.

    La reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista experimental debido a la importancia que tiene el radical HSO en la oxidación de los compuestos de azufre reductores y a que puede contribuir a la producción de H2SO4 [1-4]. Se realizaron diversos estudios teóricos sobre la cinética de la reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono. La reacción del HSO con el ozono presenta tres canales diferentes : HSO + O3 &rightarrow &HSO2 + O2 &rightarrow &HS + 2 O2 &rightarrow &SO + OH + O2 La controversia existente entre los grupos experimentales sobre cuál de las tres vías es la predominante, se ha resuelto mediante un estudio teórico de todas ellas utilizando métodos ab initio. La estructura de todos los reactivos, productos, intermedios y estados de transición ha sido optimizada a nivel ab initio utilizando los métodos UMP2 /6-31G** y QCISD/6-31G**.

  15. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  16. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  17. Dust formation in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Taranova, O. G.; Tatarnikov, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the result of the IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. JHKLM photometry was carried out with 125-cm telescope using a InSb-photometer on:

  18. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  20. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  1. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  2. del universe from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shou-Long; Feng, Xing-Hui; Wei, Hao; Lü, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Gödel universe is a direct product of a line and a three-dimensional spacetime we call G_α . In this paper, we show that the Gödel metrics can arise as exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-Axion, Einstein-Proca-Axion, or Freedman-Schwarz gauged supergravity theories. The last option allows us to embed the Gödel universe in string theory. The ten-dimensional spacetime is a direct product of a line and the nine-dimensional one of an S^3× S^3 bundle over G_α , and it can be interpreted as some decoupling limit of the rotating D1/D5/D5 intersection. For some appropriate parameter choice, the nine-dimensional metric becomes an AdS_3× S^3 bundle over squashed 3-sphere. We also study the properties of the Gödel black holes that are constructed from the double Wick rotations of the Gödel metrics.

  3. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  4. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  5. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  6. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  7. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  8. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  9. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  10. Comunidades de la Cuenca Baja del Río Merrimack

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lista de todas las comunidades que se incluyen en los límites 8, 10 y 12 del código de unidades hidrológicas (HUC) para la cuenca del río Merrimack y las ubicaciones de la ciudad de las estaciones de control de calidad del agua de la EPA.

  11. Evaluacion de los recursos potenciales del petroleo y gas, en Centro y Suramerica [Evaluation of potential petroleum and gas resources in Central and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    El Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos (USGS, por sus siglas en inglés) completó recientemente un estudio evaluativo de recursos potenciales de petróleo y gas en 130 provincias de petróleo seleccionadas en diferentes partes del mundo (USGS, 2000). De estas 130 provincias, 23 se encuentran en Suramérica, Centroamérica, y la región del Caribe (fig. 1). El estudio comprendió desde las provincias de petróleo establecidas con un largo historial de producción, como la Cuenca de Maracaibo, hasta las provincias fronterizas de poca o ninguna producción, como la Cuenca de Guyana-Suriname. No todas las provincias con historial de producción o con potencial de producción fueron evaluadas en el Estudio Evaluativo USGS 2000. Al presente, el USGS está evaluando muchas de las provincias restantes de petróleo y gas, en Centro y Suramérica. En cada provincia hemos (1) definido geológicamente el total de los sistemas de petróleo, (2) definido las unidades evaluadas que forman parte de todos los sistemas de petróleo, y (3) evaluado el volumen potencial de petróleo y gas convencional en cada unidad evaluada. Definimos un total de 26 sistemas de petróleo y 55 unidades evaluadas en las 23 provincias

  12. Del Mod System. 1972 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.

    The overall aim of the Del Mod System is the improvement of science programs taught in Delaware schools; it is a working agreement among the University of Delaware, Delaware Technical and Community College, Delaware State College, State Department of Public Instruction, industry, and the schools. It was formed to bring about changes in science…

  13. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  15. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  16. Agregación de para-H2 en chorros supersónicos: del dímero al sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, José

    En este trabajo se mostrarán los estudios de expansiones supersónicas de para-H2 desde toberas criogénicas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodinámica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, próximo a la línea Q(0) del monómero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, además de la línea Q(0) del monómero, se observan unos picos débiles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transición homóloga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados pequeños (de 2 a 13 moléculas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al líquido y al sólido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbación, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrarán detalles de la instalación experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretación cuantitativa.

  17. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  18. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  19. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  20. Antenatal Rh prophylaxis is unnecessary for "Asia type" DEL women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chao-Peng; Xu, Hua; Xu, Qun; Sun, Guo-Dong; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Zhong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Zhuang, Nai-Bao

    2010-10-01

    Generally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed "Asia type" DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few data discuss whether DEL could be immunized by D antigen clinically although DEL was reported arousing alloimmunization to true Rh-negative patients. To determine whether the DEL variant can be immunized to the D antigen, we retrospectively evaluated 104 Rh-negative pregnancies with allo-anti-D antibodies, and we also tracked 199 consecutive apparent Rh-negative pregnant women, with a history of gestations or parturitions but not subject to anti-D gamma-globulin prophylaxis, for evidence of allo-anti-D. The DEL variant was first excluded by ccee phenotypes and then identified through PCR analysis or sequencing. In the retrospective study, we expected to find 30 DEL variants, yet none of the anti-D alloimmunized women were DEL-positive. And in the second group, none of 44 DEL-positive women versus 38 of 155 (24.5%) true Rh-negative women (those excluding DEL) formed allo-anti-D. The data indicate that the "Asia type" DEL variant does not appear at risk of alloimmunization to the D antigen. It strongly suggests that the antenatal Rh immune globulin prophylaxis is unnecessary for DEL women. Furthermore, it implicates that the "Asia type" DEL may be deemed Rh-positive safely for clinical transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  2. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  3. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de

  4. A Description of Del Mod and Its Final Evaluation, Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.; Bolig, John R.

    This monograph presents an overview of five Del Mod System final reports, comments by the project director, financial structure of the Del Mod System, and descriptions of Del Mod Projects. The Del Mod System was concerned with changing the science and mathematics education programs in the state of Delaware. Between 1970 and 1976, Del Mod conducted…

  5. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  6. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  7. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  8. UBVJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, A. M.; Shenavrin, I. V.; Tatarnikov, M. A.; Tatarnikova, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of the optical and IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. UBV photometry was carried out with 60-cm Zeiss telescope using a photoelectric photometer on August 15.94 UT: U=4.54+/-0.02, B=5.07+/-0.01, V=5.05+/-0.01; on August 16.80 UT: U=4.54+/-0.01, B=4.85+/-0.02, V=4.68+/-0.01; on August 16.86 UT: U=4.66+/-0.01, B=4.92+/-0.01, V=4.73+/-0.01.

  9. FISH and SNP-A karyotyping in myelodysplastic syndromes: improving cytogenetic detection of del(5q), monosomy 7, del(7q), trisomy 8, and del(20q)

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Rataul, Manjot; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Huh, Jungwon; Cook, James R.; Theil, Karl S.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Kuczkowski, Elizabeth; O’Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) complements MC by the ability to evaluate large numbers of both interphase and metaphase nuclei. However, clinically practical FISH strategies are limited to detection of known lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping can reveal unbalanced defects with superior resolution over MC and FISH and identify segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) undetectable by either method. Using a standardized approach, we focused our investigation on detection of -5/del(5q), -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and del(20q) in patients with MDS (N=52), MDS/myeloproliferative overlap syndromes (N=7) and acute myeloid leukemia (N=15) using MC, FISH and SNP-A karyotyping. The detection rate for del(5q) was 30%, 32% and 32% by MC, FISH, and SNP-A, respectively. No single method detected all defects, and detection rates improved when all methods were used. The rate for detection of del(5q) increased incrementally to 35% (MC+FISH), 38% (MC+SNP-A), 38% (FISH+SNP-A) and 39% (all 3 methods). Similar findings were observed for -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and -20/del(20q). We conclude that MC, FISH and SNP-A are complementary techniques that, when applied and interpreted together, can improve the diagnostic yield for identifying genetic lesions in MDS and contribute to the better description of abnormal karyotypes. PMID:19758696

  10. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  11. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  12. Research and Evaluation Within the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    Described is the Del Mod System, its inception, the fundings associated with it, and its objectives. A number of projects have already been completed and implemented. This monograph describes the evaluations of such projects and of the Del Mod systems-approach to science education. The area of evaluation and the method of data collection (with…

  13. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  14. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  15. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  18. A multi-state approach to black-tailed prairie dog conservation and management in the United States (Enfoque multi-estatal para la Conservacion y manejo del perro llanero de cola negra en los Estados Unidos)

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Luce

    2006-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is unusual among species proposed for Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing in that several million individuals currently exist across a large area in the wild. The National Wildlife Federation's 1998 listing petition estimated the current area occupied by the species at 283,500-324,000 ha. Although widespread,...

  19. [Management of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes in Spain. The DESCARTES (Descripción del Estado de los Síndromes Coronarios Agudos en un Registro Temporal ESpañol) study].

    PubMed

    Bueno, Héctor; Bardají, Alfredo; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Martí, Helena; Heras, Magda

    2005-03-01

    There is little information regarding the management of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) in Spain from a population-based perspective. Our objective was to study the status of clinical care in patients with NSTE ACS in Spain from a representative perspective of the situation on a national level. A prospective registry was used for consecutive patients with NSTE ACS admitted to 52 Spanish hospitals with different cardiological facilities. Centers that fulfilled the quality control criteria for the study were randomly selected for inclusion. Between April and May, 2002, 1877 patients were recruited. Median age was 69 years, 93% had at least one risk factor and 73% had antecedents of cardiovascular disease. The electrocardiogram on admission was abnormal in 76% of the cases, and troponin levels were elevated in 53%. Twenty-seven percent of the patients were admitted to a cardiac care unit or intensive care unit. The rates of use of diagnostic techniques were: echocardiography 56%; non-invasive test for detection of ischemia 39%; coronary angiography 41%. During hospitalization, 24% underwent coronary revascularization, 88% received aspirin, 81% heparin, 37% clopidogrel, 12% glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, 63% ss-blockers, 46% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and 52% statins. The final diagnosis was angina in 54%, myocardial infarction in 28%, and other in 18%. Mortality was 3.7% at 28 days and 7.8% at 6 months. DESCARTES is the first representative registry of NSTE ACS management in Spain. It shows that despite their high-risk profile, these patients receive suboptimal medical care according to current clinical recommendations.

  20. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  1. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  2. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  3. [Evolution of type 2 diabetes and carbohydrate intolerance following bariatric surgery in a Mexican mestizo population].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Avilés, Eva; Espinosa-González, Omar; Amado-Galván, Mónica; Maydón-González, Hernán; Sepúlveda-Guerrero, Elisa; Zerrweck-López, Carlos

    Bariatric surgery continues to be the best treatment for weight loss and control of obesity related comorbidities. Gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy have demonstrated to be the most effective surgeries, but this has not been established in a Mexican (non-American) population. To analyse the improvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate intolerance in obese patients after bariatric surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data collected prospectively between 2013 and 2015 on every obese patient with diabetes and carbohydrate intolerance submitted for bariatric surgery. Analysis was performed at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, and included metabolic, clinical, lipid, and anthropometrical parameters. A peri-operative and morbidity and mortality analysis was also performed. Remission rates for patients with diabetes were also established. The analysis included 73 patients, 46 with diabetes and 27 with carbohydrate intolerance. Sixty-two patients were female with a mean age of 42 years. Baseline glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin were 123±34mg/dl and 6.8±1.6%, and at 12 months they were 90.1±8mg/dl and 5.4±0.3%, respectively. Diabetes remission was observed in 68.7% of patients, including 9.3% with partial remission and 21.8% with an improvement. There was also a significant improvement in all metabolic and non-metabolic parameters. Bariatric surgery safely improves the metabolic status of patients with diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance during the first year, inducing high rates of complete remission. It has also shown a significant improvement on blood pressure, lipid, and anthropometric parameters during the first year of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region.

  5. Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This…

  6. HLA Class I and II study in a mestizo family with high incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    de Sorrentino, Alicia Habegger; Young, Marcela; Marinic, Karina; Motta, Patricia Fabiana; Baruzzo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease of which host genetic factors play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the HLA Class I and II genes in a family with a high incidence of AID to establish whether they contribute to the development of these disease. Four of them had been diagnosed with SLE and one with AHA. The patients with SLE showed the presence of HLA-A*02 B*40 DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype with a high statistical significance. This haplotype was not present in the healthy individuals and in the patient with AHA, although the DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype (carried by both parents) was found in the AHA patients and one of the healthy individuals. We must consider how HLA Class I in linkage disequilibrium with HLA Class II may be involved in susceptibility or in the development of SLE. An extensive study in this population should be conducted to establish the true participation of the HLA Class I region.

  7. Population data of nine STRs of Mexican-Mestizos from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vazquez, A; Vilchis-Dorantes, G; Paez-Riberos, L A; Muñoz-Valle, F; González-Martin, A; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2003-09-09

    One hundred and thirteen individuals were PCR-typed for nine STR loci with the AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus PCR amplification kit, including the following autosomal STRs: D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820. Allele frequencies for each STR were estimated, and they were compared to other populations. Genotype distribution by locus and by two-loci combination was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all nine STRs. For this region of Mexico, the combined probability of exclusion (PE) and power of discrimination (PD) were estimated: PE=99.964% and PD>99.999%.

  8. Clan, Sage, and Sky: Indigenous, Hispano, and Mestizo Narratives of Learning in New Mexico Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Ke, Fengfeng; Herrera, Felisha A.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities retain Native American and Latino college students at lower rates than other ethnic groups even when culturally based services, financial assistance, and support are provided. College teaching and conceptions of learning have yet to evolve on a widespread basis toward culturally diverse epistemologies and practice. This…

  9. The Spanish Influence on the Mestizo Folk Dance of Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lawrence Alan

    Folk dances from three regions of Mexico (Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco) are examined. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which these folk dances reflect the history and cultural attitudes of the Mexican people and, particularly, on the influence of Spanish culture and history on Mexican folk dances. For the dances of each of these areas,…

  10. An addition to geographic hematology: chronic myeloproliferative diseases are infrequent in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J; López-Martínez, Briceida; Lobato-Mendizábal, Eduardo; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J

    2002-06-01

    The chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) include chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), primary (essential) thrombocythemia (PT), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), and polycythemia vera (PV). Certain hematological malignancies have a different prevalence in our country than in countries with Caucasian populations. Data indicate that the prevalence of CML in our country is similar to that found in Caucasians; however, the prevalence of the other CMPDs has not been studied. In a total of 8069 individuals studied between June 1983 and March 2001 in the Centro de Hematologia y Medicina Interna de Puebla, we assessed the prevalence of CML, PT, AMM, and PV. Some of the clinical features of these individuals were also assessed. Forty-nine patients with CML, 14 with PT, 7 with AMM, and 3 with PV were identified. The clinical presentations of these CMPDs were not different from those described in Caucasians. We found that CML was more than 3 times more frequent than PT, that both PV and AMM were exceptional, and that PT, AMM, and PV were significantly less frequent in Mexican than in Caucasian populations (P < .01).

  11. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  12. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  13. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a mestizo group of adult patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Zubieta, Victoria; Gonzalez-Villaseñor, Gloria A; Vargas-Ortega, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Ramirez-Renteria, Claudia; Mercado, Moises; Molina-Ayala, Mario A; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo

    2015-04-03

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and metabolic syndrome (MS) have been independently related to cardiovascular morbidities, however this association is still controversial. Mexican population has a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, however its frequency seems to be even higher than expected in patients with PHPT. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients that underwent parathyroidectomy for PHPT in a referral center and used the criteria from the National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) to define MS before surgery. We compared the characteristics between the patients with and without MS. 60 patients were analyzed, 77% were female and 72% had a single parathyroid adenoma. MS was present in 59% of the patients, this group was significantly older (57 vs. 48 years, p = 0.01) and they had lower iPTH (115 vs. 161 ng/ml, p = 0.017). Other parameters did not show differences. MS is frequent in our population diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism, adverse cardiovascular parameters are common and significant differences in calcium metabolism compared to the non-MS group are present.

  14. Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Magaña, Jonathan J.; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence. PMID:25250329

  15. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  16. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54° 25' S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comínguez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.

    2007-05-01

    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tobífera/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yaghán/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km

  17. Polarimetry of the Nova V339 Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Antonyuk, K. A.; Belan, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Polarimetric UBVRI observations of the Nova V339 Del during the 5-108 days following the maximum of the outburst of 2013 reveal a variability in the degree of linear polarization with an amplitude of about 0.2%. The character of the variability in the polarization parameters during the period up to 30 days after the maximum is indicative of a nonspherical diffuse shell, with a geometry that is more likely bipolar than disk-shaped. In the early nebular stage (30-100 days after the maximum) a variability in the position angle of the intrinsic polarization was observed that suggests that the shape of the shell deviates from axial symmetry.

  18. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  19. Wave maps from Gödel's universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Magliaro, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Using a result by Koch (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 307 827-41) we realize Gödel's universe G_{α }^{4}=({{{R}}^{4}},{{g}_{α}}) as the total space of a principal {R}-bundle over a strictly pseudo-convex CR manifold M3 and exploit the analogy between {{g}_{Yalpha;}} and Fefferman's metric {{F}_{θ}} (Fefferman 1976 Ann. Math. 103 395-416 104 393-4) to show that for any {R}-invariant wave map Φ of G_{α}^{4} into a Riemannian manifold N, the corresponding base map φ :{{M}^{3}}\\to N is subelliptic harmonic, with respect to a canonical choice of contact form θ on M3. We show that the subelliptic Jacobi operator J_{b}^{φ} of ϕ has a discrete Dirichlet spectrum on any bounded domain D\\subset {{M}^{3}} supporting the Poincaré inequality on \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN) and Kondrakov compactness, i.e. compactness of the embedding \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ }^{-1}}TN)\\hookrightarrow {{L}^{2}}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN). We exhibit an explicit solution π :G_{α}^{4}\\to {{M}^{3}} to the wave map system on G_{α}^{4}, of index in{{d}^{Ω}}(π)\\geqslant 1 for any bounded domain Ω \\subset G_{α}^{4}. Mounoud's distance (Mounoud 2001 Differ. Geom. Appl. 15 47-57) d_{{{G}_{0}}, Ω }^{∞}({{g}_{α }}, {{F}_{θ}}) is bounded below by a constant depending only on the rotation frequency of Gödel's universe, thus giving a measure of the bias of {{g}_{α}} from being Fefferman like in the region Ω \\subset {{{R}}^{4}}.

  20. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  1. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  2. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  3. Allele frequencies of the 15 AmpF/Str Identifiler loci in the population of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo), México.

    PubMed

    Gorostiza, A; González-Martín, A; Ramírez, C López; Sánchez, C; Barrot, C; Ortega, M; Huguet, E; Corbella, J; Gené, M

    2007-03-02

    The 15 AmpF/STR Identifiler loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were analyzed in the sample of 180 unrelated autochthonous healthy adults born in Meztitlán City from the valley of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo, México). The agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all loci. From the forensic point of view, the heterozygosity value, power of discrimination and the a priori chance of exclusion were calculated.

  4. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of the Del Mod System's Field Agent Component, Final Report, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golts, Uldis R.

    This monograph describes the field agent of the Delaware Del Mod System. The following sections are included in the report: (1) The Duties and Activities of the Del Mod System Field Agents; (2) The Field Agents' Mode of Operation; (3) The Conduct of Projects; (4) The Hiring and Training of Del Mod Field Agents; (5) The Administration of Del Mod…

  6. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  7. On some structure results for Gödel-type spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaue, Matthias; Scherfner, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we prove structure results on Gödel-type spacetimes, which we understand as stationary charged perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with geodesic flow. Given in a standard product form, we investigate relations between the vorticity and the geometry of the fiber. For the four dimensional case in particular, we classify the Gödel-type spacetimes with constant vorticity scalar. We give a complete list of the solutions, which provides a generalization of an observation by Gödel, proved later by Ozsváth: The Gödel spacetime and Einstein's static universe are the only stationary Λ-dust solutions of Einstein's equations with positive energy density that are spatially homogeneous.

  8. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  9. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  10. Extreme Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to extreme conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage important biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an extreme environment for life.

  11. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  12. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  13. Description of the population structure and genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Estado de México, a low prevalence setting from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Mendoza-Damián, Fabiola; Muñoz, Irving Cansino; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Ramírez-Hernández, Ma Dolores; Vázquez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-García, Lorena; Lauzardo, Michael; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify the genetic characteristics of the strains of mycobacteria circulating in the Estado de México, one of the states with the lowest prevalence of tuberculosis in Mexico, spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing were used to genotype tuberculosis clinical isolates. The average age of the 183 patients analyzed was 50 (± 17) years, drug resistance was noted in 57 (31%) and multidrug resistance in 22 (12%) individuals. The results from the isolates recovered showed that 80% were located in four major Euro-American lineages: Haarlem (17%), LAM (15%), T (20%) and X (29%). Other lineages found in lower proportions were: EAI, S, Beijing, West African, Turkey, Vole and Bovis. Eighteen isolates were orphans. Only 57 isolates were grouped in nine clusters and the SIT119 (X1) showed the highest number of members (23). The LAM lineage showed an increased risk for development of drug resistance (RR=4, IC: 95%: 1.05-14.2, p = 0.03). Despite the important prevalence of four major lineages found and the diversity of strains circulating in the population, we found the presence of one of the largest populations of isolates clustered to the X lineage in a setting from a Latin American country.

  14. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

  15. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  16. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  17. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  18. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  19. Development of the Hα profile in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, Alex; Mahmoudian, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of the Hα profile of Nova Del 2013, with resolving power R = 3000. Starting in late August the expected P Cygni profile (blueshifted absorption) was observed. Beginning in September a redshifted absorption appears and strengthens through the month. We will report observations through fall and discuss possible causes of these features.

  20. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  2. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  4. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  5. Del Mod: A State-Wide System for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Daniel C.

    This is a retrospective account of the Del Mod System, a statewide project to improve science and mathematics education in the elementary and secondary schools of Delaware. The project functioned from 1970-76 under the auspices of a committee including the presidents of institutions of higher education, the state superintendent of public…

  6. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  7. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  8. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaracion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York (Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The primary goal of the Regents in their bilingual education program is to provide equal educational opportunity for non-English-speaking children through activities capitalizing on their proficiency in their native language and developing competency in English. Two complementary goals are inherent: (1) a vitally needed national resource, the…

  9. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaraccion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York. Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Large numbers of Puerto Rican and other non-English-speaking students live in school districts throughout New York State. To enable these students to function in an English-speaking society while retaining their own culture, a policy to promote bilingual program planning was established by the Board of Regents of New York State in 1972. In this…

  10. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  11. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  12. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaraccion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York. Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Large numbers of Puerto Rican and other non-English-speaking students live in school districts throughout New York State. To enable these students to function in an English-speaking society while retaining their own culture, a policy to promote bilingual program planning was established by the Board of Regents of New York State in 1972. In this…

  13. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 3. 1973-1974 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    A synopsis of the 1973-74 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented. The activities described were conducted by the University of Delaware, Delaware State College, Delaware Technical and Community College, and the Department of Public Instruction. Activities of field agents, several local district projects, and individual teacher grants…

  14. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  15. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Kim, Young-Mi; Wang, Xianfu; Li, Yan; Lu, Xianglan; Sternenberger, Andrea R.; Li, Shibo; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The most common chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q). When -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q) coexist in patients, a poor prognosis is typically associated. Given that -5/del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) often are accompanied with additional recurrent chromosomal alterations, genetic change(s) on the accompanying chromosome(s) other than chromosomes 5 and 7 may be important factor(s) affecting leukemogenesis and disease prognosis. Using an integrated analysis of karyotype, FISH and array CGH results in this study, we evaluated the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of chromosomes 5 and 7 as well as copy number alterations (CNAs) on the other chromosomes. Moreover, the relationship between the CNAs and del(5q) and -7/del(7q) was investigated by categorizing the cases into three groups based on the abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 7 [group I: cases only with del(5q), group II: cases only with -7/del(7q) and group III: concurrent del(5q) and del(7q) cases]. The overlapping SRO of chromosome 5 from groups I and III was 5q31.1-33.1 and of chromosome 7 from groups II and III was 7q31.31-q36.1. A total of 318 CNAs were observed; ~ 78.3% of them were identified on chromosomes other than chromosomes 5 and 7, which were defined as 'other CNAs'. Group III was a distinctive group carrying the most high number (HN) CNAs, cryptic CNAs and 'other CNAs'. The loss of TP53 was highly associated with del(5q). The loss of ETV6 was specifically associated with group III. These CNAs or genes may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be further evaluated for their clinical significance and influence on therapeutic approaches in patients with MDS/AML carrying del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) in large-scale, patient population study. PMID:26392809

  16. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  17. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  18. El ``Aula del Cel'': astronomy approaching high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Gómez Collado, M.; Gallego Calvente, A. T.

    The “Aula del Cel” is a project carried out by the Astronomical Obsevatory of the University of Valencia, Spain. It offers high-school teachers a tool for teaching Astronomy to 10 to 17 year-old students. Different programs, experiments, and audiovisual presentations have been prepared by a team formed both by professional astronomers and teachers, and are offered in a format chosen to suit each particular age and curriculum group. Special sessions have been designed for students with special needs (for example blind or autistic children) in close contact with the pedagogical teams responsible for their education. Nearly three thousand students have already visited the “Aula del Cel” over the first six months that it has been offered to the school community.

  19. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  20. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  1. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  4. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  5. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  6. Max brödel: illustrating healed valve ring abscesses.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Thomas, Caroline Bedell; Hutchins, Grover M

    2005-09-01

    A 14-year-old adolescent girl presented with severe congestive heart failure, progressive throughout 3 months. A precordial thrill, machinery-like murmur, and right bundle branch block were noted. Death occurred despite digitalis and diuretic therapy and removal of pleural and ascitic fluid. The autopsy revealed 2 multilocular cystic structures in the interventricular septum consistent with being spontaneously drained valve ring abscesses. One of these lesions formed a fistulous communication that penetrated through the interventricular septum between the right aortic sinus of Valsalva and the crista supraventricularis that connected to the right ventricle. Another lesion, an adjacent separate but similar cystlike structure, communicated only with the left ventricular cavity. Although the cause of these lesions is uncertain, it seems probable that they are the residue of spontaneously drained and healed valve ring abscesses. Max Brödel, a medical illustrator and the first director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University, drew previously unpublished figures of this patient's cardiac lesions. These illustrations exhibit Brödel's superb command of both art and medicine essential to his ability to make complex anatomic relationships demonstrable. We discuss Brödel's career and his influence on both the art and science of medicine.

  7. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  8. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  9. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  10. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  11. El bosque estatal del nuevo milenio antes y después del huracán Georges

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo; E. Román Nunci; M. Quinones; H. Marcano Vega; I. Vicéns

    2005-01-01

    We studied changes that occurred between 1997 and 2005 on a secondary wet subtropical urban forest in the University of Puerto Rico’s Botanical Garden (Bosque Estatal del Nuevo Milenio). Hurricane Georges passed south of the forest on November 21, 1998 with 127 km/h winds. The study consisted of identifying species in 40 plots of 254 m2 each, measuring the diameter at...

  12. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  13. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  14. The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-11

    The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. Founded in 1959, Torres del Paine National Park encompasses 450,000 acres in the Patagonia region of Chile. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with an Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is a very sensitive region that is important to scientists because the temperature has been consistently rising causing a subsequent melting of the region’s glaciers. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  16. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  17. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  18. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  19. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner. PMID:27095827

  20. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)-S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment:Perkhaploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/- compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition,Perkdeficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non-Schwann-cell autonomous manner. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Effect of GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG genetic polymorphisms on risk of congenital deafness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhong, M; Chen, J; Yan, Y L; Lin, X F; Li, X

    2017-02-08

    Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, 118 patients with congenital deafness and 242 healthy controls were enrolled into our study. Compared with the GG genotype, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the 235delC GC and CC genotypes were 4.66 (1.77-13.07) and 8.28 (2.06-47.52), respectively. Individuals harboring the GC+CC genotypes were at a greatly increased risk of congenital deafness compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 5.65, 95%CI = 2.54-13.18). However, no significant relationship was established between the 30-35delG variant and this disease. The 235delC polymorphism exhibited an interaction with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in conferring susceptibility to congenital deafness (chi-square = 8.76, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GJB2 235delC polymorphism, but not the 30-35delG variant, contributes to congenital deafness susceptibility in the Chinese population examined, and demonstrates an interaction with consumption of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in exerting this effect.

  2. The highly prevalent BRCA2 mutation c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is located in a mutational hotspot and has multiple origins.

    PubMed

    Infante, Mar; Durán, Mercedes; Acedo, Alberto; Sánchez-Tapia, Eva María; Díez-Gómez, Beatriz; Barroso, Alicia; García-González, María; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Lasa, Adriana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Esteban-Cardeñosa, Eva; Díez, Orland; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Godino, Javier; Teulé, Alexandre; Osorio, Ana; Lastra, Enrique; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Miner, Cristina; Velasco, Eladio A

    2013-11-01

    BRCA2-c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is one of the most reported germ line mutations in non-Ashkenazi breast cancer patients. We investigated its genetic origin in 51 Spanish carrier families that were genotyped with 11 13q polymorphic markers. Three independent associated haplotypes were clearly distinguished accounting for 23 [west Castilla y León (WCL)], 20 [east Castilla y León (ECL)] and 6 (South of Spain) families. Mutation age was estimated with the Disequilibrium Mapping using Likelihood Estimation software in a range of 45-68 and 45-71 generations for WCL and ECL haplotypes, respectively. The most prevalent variants, c.2808_2811del and c.2803G > A, were located in a double-hairpin loop structure (c.2794-c.2825) predicted by Quikfold that was proposed as a mutational hotspot. To check this hypothesis, random mutagenesis was performed over a 923 bp fragment of BRCA2, and 86 DNA variants were characterized. Interestingly, three mutations reported in the mutation databases (c.2680G > A, c.2944del and c.2957dup) were replicated and 20 affected the same position with different nucleotide changes. Moreover, five variants were placed in the same hairpin loop of c.2808_2811del, and one affected the same position (c.2808A > G). In conclusion, our results support that at least three different mutational events occurred to generate c.2808_2811del. Other highly prevalent DNA variants, such as BRCA1-c.68_69delAG, BRCA2-c.5946delT and c.8537delAG, are concentrated in hairpin loops, suggesting that these structures may represent mutational hotspots.

  3. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  4. The probable quadruple systems FK Aql and FZ Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Orbital-period variations of the eclipsing binaries FK Aql and FZ Del are analyzed. For each of the systems, a superposition of two cyclic variations of their orbital periods is found. FK Aql may be a quadruple system that contains two more bodies, besides the eclipsing binary, with masses M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 1.47 M ⊙, and the corresponding periods 15 and 82 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 15 yrs, or with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.30 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 82 yrs. FZ Del may be a quadruple system with the additional componentmasses M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 0.3 M ⊙, with the periods 10.2 and 53.7 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third-body mass M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 10.2 yrs. In both systems, the residual period variations could be due to magnetic cycles of the secondary. The period variations of the eclipsing binary FZ Del could also be due to apsidal motion, together with the influence of a third body or the effects of magnetic activity.

  5. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  6. Perceived Institutional Support among Young Indigenous and Mestizo Students from Chiapas (México): A Group Vitality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Viladot, Maria Àngels; Giles, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) asserts that status, demographic and institutional support (IS) factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups within intergroup relations. Specifically, IS factor refers to the extent to which a language group enjoys representation in the various institutions of a society, in particular, mass media,…

  7. HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, -DRB1 linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity in a Mestizo population from Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortes, L M; Baltazar, L M; Perea, F J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P; Flores, S E; Sandoval, L; Olivares, N; Lorenz, M G O; Xu, H; Barton, S A; Chakraborty, R; Rivas, F

    2004-05-01

    HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, and -DRB1 genes were typed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) in 159 healthy volunteers from 32 families living in Guadalajara, Mexico. Three-locus genotype data from all family members were used to infer haplotypes in 54 unrelated individuals of the sample, from which estimate of segregating haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) between loci were computed. Genotype distributions were concordant with Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) for all three loci, and allele distributions were similar to the ones observed in other Latin-American populations. Of the 56 distinct three-site (DQB1-DQA1-DRB1) haplotypes observed in the sample, the five most common (i.e., with frequencies of five counts or more) were: *0302-*0301-*04, *0201-*0201-*07, *0301-*0501-*14, *0402-*0401-*08, and *0501-*0101-*01. These common three-locus haplotypes also contributed to the majority of the significant two-locus linkage disequilibria of these three sites.

  8. [Population data of five STRs from the INTERPOL series in a mestizo population of western Mexico (State of Jalisco)].

    PubMed

    Quintero-Ramos, Antonio; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge R; Hernández-Zaragoza, Guillermo; Valle, Yeminia; Valdez-Velázquez, Laura L; Olivares, Norma; Rivas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the DNA polymorphisms most widely used in forensic genetics and parentage testing. Most common series of STRs are those from FBI (CODIS) and from INTERPOL. While there are data related to the first group, no studies are still known in Mexican populations in regard of the INTERPOL set. To describe the genetic characteristics of five INTERPOL STRs and to estimate their main forensic parameters in a population from western Mexico. Samples from 100 random volunteers from the State of Jalisco were PCR typed for STRs F13B, D2S1338, FESFPS, Penta D and Penta E. Genotype proportions in all five STRs were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations (p > 0.05). Heterocygosity varied from 0.68 for FESFPS to 0.91 for Penta E markers. Power of discrimination (PD) and exclusion probability (EP) were in the 0.83-0.97 and 0.46-0.75 ranges, respectively. The five combined STRs give a PE > 0.99143 and PD > 0.99999. These results contribute to establish data bases representative of western Mexico and are useful in DNA forensic and parentage studies.

  9. Perceived Institutional Support among Young Indigenous and Mestizo Students from Chiapas (México): A Group Vitality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Viladot, Maria Àngels; Giles, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) asserts that status, demographic and institutional support (IS) factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups within intergroup relations. Specifically, IS factor refers to the extent to which a language group enjoys representation in the various institutions of a society, in particular, mass media,…

  10. Haplotype frequencies of the PowerPlex Y system in a Mexican-Mestizo population sample from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vázquez, A; Vilchis-Dorantes, G; Aguilar-Ruiz, M O; Bautista-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, A; Orea-Ochoa, R; Villanueva-Hernández, D; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2008-01-01

    The PowerPlex Y system including 11 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis in 357 males from Mexico City. Haplotype frequency for this system was reported. The haplotype diversity was 99.56+/-0.04%, and gene diversity ranged from 51.4% for DYS393 to 92.5% for DYS385. AMOVA tests including previous reports from Mexico (Chihuahua and Jalisco States), demonstrated significant genetic heterogeneity between north and western populations regarding Mexico City, justifying the establishment of local databases in this country for male-identification purposes.

  11. Albedo polarimétrico de asteroides del grupo Hungaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    La región del cinturón de asteroides en donde se encuentra el grupo de los Hungarias (a= 1.79 a 1.98 UA, i=15 a 40 grados) es la única zona donde es común encontrar objetos de tipo taxonómico E, caracterizados por altos albedos, colores relativamente neutros y espectros sin detalles. Este tipo de asteroides está relacionado espectralmente con ciertos meteoritos (aubritas) que indican la existencia de episodios de gran calentamiento que ocurrieron durante la formación del Sistema Solar. Como el espectro de los asteroides de tipo E es idéntico a los de tipo M y P, la única forma de clasificar un asteroide en alguno de estos tres tipos taxonómicos es mediante el albedo. En este trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la determinación polarimétrica de albedos para objetos de este grupo utilizando el polarímetro CASPROF de CASLEO.

  12. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  13. Modeling landscapes and past vegetation patterns of New Mexico's Rio Del Oso Valley

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Periman

    2005-01-01

    Humans have interacted with the landscape and ecosystem of New Mexico's Rio del Oso Valley for thousands of years. Throughout the Holocene, various cultures have dramatically affected and altered the Rio del Oso. An interdisciplinary research approach, incorporating geomorphology, paleobotany, archaeology, and history, provides a broad range of methodologies and...

  14. Statistical Comparisons of Pre and Post Del Mod Data, Final Report, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.; Wall, Charles A.

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This report attempts to compare baseline data gathered in 1970-71 to post experimental data gathered in 1975-76. Sections include analyses of achievement test scores, research conducted under the auspices of the Del Mod System, and a follow-up study of…

  15. The Role of the State Department of Public Instruction in the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiher, John F.

    This is one of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System). The State Department of Public Instruction is the agency that represents the public schools of Delaware. The two branches of the state department with which Del Mod interacts are the Instructional Services…

  16. 78 FR 74008 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX AGENCY: Federal... Rio, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new circling approach requirements at... Del Rio, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Laughlin AFB (78 FR 52716) Docket No...

  17. 60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #538, KLAMATH RIVER BR. FROM SO. END, 12/23/55, C.J.T. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. 61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #452 NORTHERLY THROUGH KLAMATH FROM STA. 325+50, 6/22/51, M.C. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  20. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  1. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. A novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Connexin 26 gene causes non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Rahmati, Mohammad; Fazli, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 (Cx26) gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in different populations. In the present study, an Iranian patient with bilateral hearing loss underwent molecular analysis for the causative mutation. DNA studies were performed for the Cx26 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. We describe a novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

  3. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  4. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  5. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  6. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  7. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  8. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  9. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  10. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  11. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  12. Taphonomy of guanaco bones in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis Alberto

    1990-11-01

    Guanaco carcasses are deposited in great quantities in Cabo San Pablo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), as a result of winter stress. Taphonomic studies indicate that the gnawing action of foxes on guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) carcasses produces only very tenuous marks on the bones. Lack of sustained interest in the carcasses by carnivores results in slow disarticulation. The articulated and disarticulated bones are exposed to heavy trampling by guanacos, a process that produces vertical migration of small/dense bones and fracturing of the most weathered bones. An understanding of this ongoing process is important for local archaeology, since modern bones are migrating into archaeological contexts. A regional approach to taphonomy is the most appropriate instrument to solve this and other related problems.

  13. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  14. Noninvasive detection of filaggrin gene mutations using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    González, Francisco J; Valdes-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Elías, Miguel G; Castillo-Martínez, Claudio; Saavedra-Alanis, Victor M; Moncada, Benjamín

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the existence of filaggrin (FLG) gene mutations might be helpful for a subclassification of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) which can be used to introduce individualized treatments. In this work the filaggrin content in the skin is assessed using Raman spectroscopy and the results are compared to FLG genotyping of Mexican-mestizo patients. Results showed that the 2282del4 and R501X mutations present in the European population but absent in people of Asian or African descent are also present in the Mexican-mestizo population. The results also showed that patients with filaggrin gene mutations presented lower filaggrin concentrations measured using the vector correlation of their skin Raman spectra and a fixed spectrum of pure human recombinant filaggrin, these results indicate that Raman spectroscopy may be used as a noninvasive tool to detect FLG gene mutations.

  15. Noninvasive detection of filaggrin gene mutations using Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    González, Francisco J.; Valdes-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Elías, Miguel G.; Castillo-Martínez, Claudio; Saavedra-Alanis, Victor M.; Moncada, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the existence of filaggrin (FLG) gene mutations might be helpful for a subclassification of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) which can be used to introduce individualized treatments. In this work the filaggrin content in the skin is assessed using Raman spectroscopy and the results are compared to FLG genotyping of Mexican-mestizo patients. Results showed that the 2282del4 and R501X mutations present in the European population but absent in people of Asian or African descent are also present in the Mexican-mestizo population. The results also showed that patients with filaggrin gene mutations presented lower filaggrin concentrations measured using the vector correlation of their skin Raman spectra and a fixed spectrum of pure human recombinant filaggrin, these results indicate that Raman spectroscopy may be used as a noninvasive tool to detect FLG gene mutations. PMID:22162825

  16. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  17. The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Nevado del Ruiz is an andesitic stratovolcano located 150 km northwest of Bogota, Columbia characterized by a large hydrothermal system with two very distinctive types of water: acid sulfate waters, and bicarbonate and neutral chloride waters. The waters within each group fall in well-defined lines on compositional cross plots with an apparent lack of mixing between the two water types. The acid sulfate waters appear to be related to the north-west striking and seismically active Villamaria-Termales fault. The neutral chloride waters are clustered to the west and south-east of the volcano. The bicarbonate waters are more widespread. Several hydrothermally-altered samples from Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. It was possible to distinguish two sets of mineral assemblages which correspond to the two water types. The acid sulfate waters produce cristobalite, sulfates, hematite or pyrite, sulfur and minor amounts of trydimite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite. The alteration products at the neutral chloride and bicarbonate waters include mainly carbonates and cristobalite. Simulation of the reaction between the hydrothermal fluids and the basaltic andesites of the lower volcanic units at Ruiz using the computer program CHILLER yielded mineral assemblages which are consistent with the observed alteration mineralogy. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and helium and sulfur isotopes suggest that the acid sulfate waters have an important magmatic contribution. The composition of the neutral chloride an bicarbonate waters suggests mineral equilibria with feldspars and carbonates. Both types of waters appear to be the product of mixing of high salinity end members with different proportions of meteoric water. Linear variations in composition of the gases discharged at Ruiz suggested that the gas phase also represents mixing. Faults and contacts play a key role in the circulation of fluids at Ruiz.

  18. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics.

  19. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  20. General nonextremal rotating charged Gödel black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-28

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds.

  1. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  2. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  3. Strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the strong gravitational lansing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole. The deflection angle is considered by the logarithmic term proposed by Bozza et al. Then we study the variation of deflection angle and its parameters abar and bbar. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole in a Gödel background. Then by the relations between lensing parameters and observables, we estimate the observables for different values of charge, extra dimension and Gödel parameters.

  4. Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1986-11-01

    Max Brödel arrived in the United States in 1894 to work as a medical illustrator at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He brought with him an extensive background in medical sciences and illustration. This allowed him to develop an advanced style and technique that would greatly influence the profession of medical illustration. Much of Brödel's work concerned the head and neck region and is of particular interest to otolaryngologists. This article reviews the historical aspects of Brödel's career and highlights his contributions to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

  5. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.

    1996-09-01

    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  6. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  7. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  8. Pleiotropic mechanisms of action of lenalidomide efficacy in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carla; Carter, Troy; Schafer, Peter; Chopra, Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Lenalidomide has demonstrated clinical activity in myelodysplastic syndromes, particularly in patients with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 5 (del[5q] abnormality). It has a direct effect on the del(5q) clone, which may contribute to its ability to induce cytogenetic responses. Lenalidomide also stimulates erythropoiesis, leading to erythroid responses in certain patients. Other effects include immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory effects and angiogenesis inhibition. New findings indicate that lenalidomide modulates key genes located within the del(5q) region, including tumor suppressor genes, and regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cell membrane. Its effects on cytoskeleton regulation may explain its direct antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. This article provides an overview of the known effects of lenalidomide and new insights into its activity in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.

  9. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 1 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 1 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  10. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 4 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 4 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  11. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 2 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 2 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  12. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 3 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 3 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  13. Fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion and the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. Q.; de S. Oliveira, J. R.; Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze Dirac fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion. We also consider the Gödel-type space-times embedded in a topological defect background. We show that relativistic bound states solutions to the Dirac equation can be obtained by dealing with three cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion, where a cosmic string passes through these three cases of the space-time. We obtain the relativistic energy levels for all cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion with a cosmic string, where we show that there exists an analogy with the Landau levels for Dirac particles. We also show that the presence of torsion in the space-time yields new contributions to the relativistic spectrum of energies and that the presence of the topological defect modifies the degeneracy of the relativistic energy levels.

  14. 90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St.,east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St.,east facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the

  16. Multi-InDel Analysis for Ancestry Inference of Sub-Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan; Ye, Yi; Luo, Tao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM). In this study, we performed a genome-wide scan for multi-InDels as AIM. After examining the FST distributions in the 1000 Genomes Database, 12 candidates were selected and validated for eastern Asian populations. A multiplexed assay was developed as a panel to genotype 12 multi-InDel markers simultaneously. Ancestry component analysis with STRUCTURE and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to estimate its capability for ancestry inference. Furthermore, ancestry assignments of trial individuals were conducted. It proved to be very effective when 210 samples from Han and Tibetan individuals in China were tested. The panel consisting of multi-InDel markers exhibited considerable potency in ancestry inference, and was suggested to be applied in forensic practices and genetic population studies. PMID:28004788

  17. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  18. CHEK2 c.1100delC allele is rarely identified in Greek breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Paraskevi; Fostira, Florentia; Papamentzelopoulou, Myrto; Michelli, Maria; Panopoulos, Christos; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2015-04-01

    The CHEK2 gene encodes a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and the DNA repair mechanism. CHEK2 germline mutations are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. From a clinical perspective, the most significant mutation identified is the c.1100delC mutation, which is associated with an approximately 25% lifetime breast cancer risk. The distribution of this mutation shows wide geographical variation; it is more prevalent in the Northern European countries and less common, or even absent, in Southern Europe. In order to estimate the frequency of the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation in Greek breast cancer patients, we genotyped 2,449 patients (2,408 females and 41 males), which was the largest series ever tested for c.1100delC. The mean age of female and male breast cancer diagnosis was 49 and 59 years, respectively. All patients had previously tested negative for the Greek BRCA1 founder and recurrent mutations. The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was detected in 0.16% (4 of 2,408) of females, all of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 years. Only one c.1100delC carrier was reported with breast cancer family history. The present study indicates that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation does not contribute substantially to hereditary breast cancer in patients of Greek descent.

  19. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-12-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect.

  20. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  1. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  2. [Health profile of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social workers].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Contreras, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between risk factors, dietary habits, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, in the presence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, and cancer, in health care workers (and other categories of employees) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). From March to December 2009, 20,000 surveys were conducted among randomly selected workers on 35 IMSS delegations. The variables of the study included affiliation, sex, age employment status, registration of known diseases, smoking, nicotine addiction, risk drinking, alcohol addiction, eating and exercise habits. Workers with poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle smoking and alcohol abuse are more frequently exposed to the presence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus and these in turn to cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular disease and liver cirrhosis. This study shows that IMSS workers have a high exposure to risk factors associated with the presence of chronic diseases and their complications. It is necessary to enable them to improve significantly their health profile.

  3. Castelvecchio and Castiglione del Lago: Two new Italian iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Pratesi, G.; Caporali, S.; Herd, C. D. K.; Chen, G.

    2017-08-01

    Until 2016 only 38 Italian meteorites have been classified and published on the Meteoritical Bulletin Database. Among these, only 4 were irons. We here report the results of the analyses performed on two iron meteorites recovered in Italy. The first one, Castiglione del Lago, weighing 667g, was recovered in 1970. The textural features observed by means of both optical microscope and SEM, as well as SEM-EDX and ICP-MS analyses, allowed to classify it as IAB-MG iron. The second one, named Castelvecchio, has been recovered at Lignana, near Pontito, in August 2015. In the same locality a fireball was witnessed on October 23, 1986, by Mario Goiorani, a meteorite collector. The main mass, weighing 49.5g, was recovered inside a hollow. A chip, observed with both optical metallographic microscope and SEM, displayed no kamacite lamellae at the centimetric scale, suggesting a classification as IIAB iron. This classification was confirmed by ICP-MS analyses. Both meteorites have been approved by the Meteoritical Society in 2016 and published in the on-line Meteoritical Bulletin Database (https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor).

  4. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  5. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  6. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  7. Use of multi-InDels as novel markers to analyze 13 X-chromosome haplotype loci for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangyao; Ye, Yi; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have been proposed to identify insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms in humans for forensic genetic studies. However, the discriminatory power of InDels is limited by the poor polymorphisms of diallelic markers. To improve their discriminatory power, we developed multi-InDel, a novel autosomal marker comprising more than two InDel loci that are tightly linked by their physical position and combined into a specific marker by a pair of PCR primers. This strategy gives at least three haplotypes for each multi-InDel marker. Such markers can be potentially very useful in forensic applications. In this study, we focused on multi-InDel markers located on X chromosome (ChrX). A multiplex system with 13 multi-InDel markers, including 28 InDel loci in ChrX, was developed. To validate the multi-InDel panel, the haplotype distribution in a population sample and in a set of pedigrees was investigated. This study demonstrates usefulness of these markers for individual identification and relationship studies. We highlight the fact that the multi-InDel markers located on ChrX can provide new supporting information for complex kinship testing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  9. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 2. A Synopsis of the 1972-73 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.

    A synopsis of the 1972-73 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented together with a brief description of the projects within the local schools. Individual teacher research projects are listed by teacher name, school district, and project title. Field agent programs and some conclusions and recommendations about their work are described.…

  10. Magma-tectonic Interaction at Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Peterson, D. E.; Miller, C. A.; Garibaldi, N.; Tikoff, B.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM), Chile, the largest concentration of rhyolite <20 kyr globally, exhibits crustal deformation at rates higher than any non-erupting volcano. The interaction of large magmatic systems with faulting is poorly understood, however, the Chaitén rhyolitic system demonstrated that faults can serve as magma pathways during an eruption. We present a complex fault system at LdM in close proximity to the magma reservoir. In March 2016, 18 CHIRP seismic reflection lines were acquired at LdM to identify faults and analyze potential spatial and temporal impacts of the fault system on volcanic activity. We mapped three key horizons on each line, bounding sediment packages between Holocene onset, 870 ybp, and the present date. Faults were mapped on each line and offset was calculated across key horizons. Our results indicate a system of normal-component faults in the northern lake sector, striking subparallel to the mapped Troncoso Fault SW of the lake. These faults correlate to prominent magnetic lineations mapped by boat magnetic data acquired February 2016 which are interpreted as dykes intruding along faults. We also imaged a vertical fault, interpreted as a strike-slip fault, and a series of normal faults in the SW lake sector near the center of magmatic inflation. Isochron and fault offset maps illuminate areas of growth strata and indicate migration and increase of fault activity from south to north through time. We identify a domal structure in the SW lake sector, coincident with an area of low magnetization, in the region of maximum deformation from InSAR results. The dome experienced 10 ms TWT ( 10 meters) of uplift throughout the past 16 kybp, which we interpret as magmatic inflation in a shallow magma reservoir. This inflation is isolated to a 1.5 km diameter region in the hanging wall of the primary normal fault system, indicating possible fault-facilitated inflation.

  11. Predicting Nonspecific Ion Binding Using DelPhi

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhenirovskyy, Maxim; Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Ions are an important component of the cell and affect the corresponding biological macromolecules either via direct binding or as a screening ion cloud. Although some ion binding is highly specific and frequently associated with the function of the macromolecule, other ions bind to the protein surface nonspecifically, presumably because the electrostatic attraction is strong enough to immobilize them. Here, we test such a scenario and demonstrate that experimentally identified surface-bound ions are located at a potential that facilitates binding, which indicates that the major driving force is the electrostatics. Without taking into consideration geometrical factors and structural fluctuations, we show that ions tend to be bound onto the protein surface at positions with strong potential but with polarity opposite to that of the ion. This observation is used to develop a method that uses a DelPhi-calculated potential map in conjunction with an in-house-developed clustering algorithm to predict nonspecific ion-binding sites. Although this approach distinguishes only the polarity of the ions, and not their chemical nature, it can predict nonspecific binding of positively or negatively charged ions with acceptable accuracy. One can use the predictions in the Poisson-Boltzmann approach by placing explicit ions in the predicted positions, which in turn will reduce the magnitude of the local potential and extend the limits of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, one can use this approach to place the desired number of ions before conducting molecular-dynamics simulations to neutralize the net charge of the protein, because it was shown to perform better than standard screened Coulomb canned routines, or to predict ion-binding sites in proteins. This latter is especially true for proteins that are involved in ion transport, because such ions are loosely bound and very difficult to detect experimentally. PMID:22735539

  12. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  13. Resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2015 we mapped the resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep in the inner California borderlands using a deep towed electromagnetic (EM) source and receiver array. Located in the San Diego trough at a depth of 1km, the seep site is on the flank of a mound associated with a transpressive step in the San Diego trough fault. The seep site has previously been associated with seafloor pockmarks, acoustic wipeouts, chemosynthetic communities, and active methane bubble venting. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed receivers. This transmitted signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Compared to seismic methods, EM methods are largely insensitive to free gas, making it an especially useful tool for detecting electrically resistive methane hydrate in areas of active gas venting. We used a 50m dipole transmitting 100A, with 3-axis electric field receivers spaced at 130m, 230m, 330m, and 430m behind the transmitter dipole center. The receiver data are inverted using MARE2DEM, a finite element 2D inversion routine. The inversion results show the background resistivity of the trough sediments to be about 1-2 ohmm, and are largely featureless outside of the seep site. However at the seep site we see a decanter-shaped 100 ohmm resistor whose base is 100m below the seafloor, and 1km wide at its widest. This feature narrows at the top to form a pipe structure about 200m wide that extends to the seafloor. These resistive structures are interpreted to be methane hydrate resulting from methane rich fluid flow along faults associated with the transpressional system that brackets the seep site.

  14. Incidence of early-onset dementia in Mar del Plata.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Abraham, M; Scharovsky, D; Romano, L M; Ayala, M; Aleman, A; Sottano, E; Etchepareborda, I; Colla Machado, C; García, M I; Gonorazky, S E

    2015-03-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as dementia with onset before the age of 65 years. EOD is increasingly recognised as an important clinical and social problem with devastating consequences for patients and caregivers. Determine the annual crude incidence rate and the specific incidence rates by sex and age in patients with EOD, and the standardised rate using the last national census of the population of Argentina (NCPA), from 2010. Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina, attends a closed population and is the sole healthcare provider for 17 614 people. Using the database pertaining to the Geriatric Care department, we identified all patients diagnosed with EOD between 1 January, 2005 and 31 December, 2011. EOD was defined as dementia diagnosed in patients younger than 65. The study period yielded 14 patients diagnosed with EOD out of a total of 287 patients evaluated for memory concerns. The crude annual incidence of EOD was 11 per 100 000/year (CI 95%: 6.25-19.1): 17 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 7.2-33.1) in men and 8 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 3.4-17.2) in women. We observed a statistically significant increase when comparing incidence rates between patients aged 21 to <55 years and ≥ 55 to <65 years (3 vs 22 per 100 000, P=.0014). The rate adjusted by NCPA census data was 5.8 cases of EOD habitants/year. This study, conducted in a closed population, yielded an EOD incidence rate of 11 per 100 000 inhabitants/year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective epidemiological study in Argentina and in Latin America. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting nonspecific ion binding using DelPhi.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhenirovskyy, Maxim; Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-06-20

    Ions are an important component of the cell and affect the corresponding biological macromolecules either via direct binding or as a screening ion cloud. Although some ion binding is highly specific and frequently associated with the function of the macromolecule, other ions bind to the protein surface nonspecifically, presumably because the electrostatic attraction is strong enough to immobilize them. Here, we test such a scenario and demonstrate that experimentally identified surface-bound ions are located at a potential that facilitates binding, which indicates that the major driving force is the electrostatics. Without taking into consideration geometrical factors and structural fluctuations, we show that ions tend to be bound onto the protein surface at positions with strong potential but with polarity opposite to that of the ion. This observation is used to develop a method that uses a DelPhi-calculated potential map in conjunction with an in-house-developed clustering algorithm to predict nonspecific ion-binding sites. Although this approach distinguishes only the polarity of the ions, and not their chemical nature, it can predict nonspecific binding of positively or negatively charged ions with acceptable accuracy. One can use the predictions in the Poisson-Boltzmann approach by placing explicit ions in the predicted positions, which in turn will reduce the magnitude of the local potential and extend the limits of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, one can use this approach to place the desired number of ions before conducting molecular-dynamics simulations to neutralize the net charge of the protein, because it was shown to perform better than standard screened Coulomb canned routines, or to predict ion-binding sites in proteins. This latter is especially true for proteins that are involved in ion transport, because such ions are loosely bound and very difficult to detect experimentally. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by

  16. Screening for F508del as a first step in the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relevance of screening for the F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) by associating the genotype with various clinical variables. METHODS: We evaluated 180 CF patients regarding the F508del mutation. The clinical data were obtained from the medical records of the patients and from interviews with their parents or legal guardians. RESULTS: Of the 180 patients studied, 65 (36.1%) did not carry the F508del mutation (group 0 [G0]), 67 (37.2%) were F508del heterozygous (G1), and 48 (26.7%) were F508del homozygous (G2). All three groups showed associations with the clinical variables. Homozygosis was associated with younger patients, younger age at CF diagnosis, and younger age at the first isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), as well as with higher prevalence of pancreatic insufficiency (PI) and non-mucoid PA (NMPA) colonization. In comparison with G1+G2 patients, G0 patients were older; first experienced clinical symptoms, digestive disease, and pulmonary disease at an older age; were older at CF diagnosis and at first PA isolation; and had a lower prevalence of PI and meconium ileus, as well as of colonization by NMPA, mucoid PA, and Burkholderia cepacia. In G1 patients, values were intermediate for age at CF diagnosis; age at first PA isolation, first pulmonary symptoms, and first clinical manifestations; MPA colonization; and OR for PI. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of F508del in 63.9% of the patients studied showed that this can be a useful tool as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of CF. The F508del genotype was associated with clinical severity of the disease, especially with the variables related to CF onset. PMID:23857699

  17. The Icelandic founder mutation BRCA2 999del5: analysis of expression

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelsdottir, Evgenia K; Valgeirsdottir, Sigridur; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Rafnar, Thorunn

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A founder mutation in the BRCA2 gene (BRCA2 999del5) accounts for 7–8% of female breast cancers and for 40% of male breast cancers in Iceland. If expressed, the mutant gene would encode a protein consisting of the first 256 amino acids of the BRCA2 protein. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this mutant protein is produced in heterozygous individuals and, if so, what might be the functional consequences of mutant protein production. Methods The presence of BRCA2 999del5 transcripts in fibroblasts from heterozygous individuals was assayed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing. The potential protein-coding portion of BRCA2 999del5 was cloned into the pIND(SP1)/V5-His vector and expressed in COS7 cells. The presence of the mutant protein in cell lysates from heterozygous fibroblasts and from COS7 cells was tested by a number of methods including immunoprecipitation, affinity purification with nickel-coated agarose beads, Western blotting and ELISA, using antibodies to the N-terminal end of BRCA2, antiserum specific for the 16 nonrelevant amino acids at the carboxyl end and antibodies to fusion partners of recombinant proteins. Results The frequency of the BRCA2 999del5 transcript in heterozygous fibroblasts was about one-fifth of the wild-type transcript; however, no mutant protein could be detected. Overexpression of BRCA2 999del5 mRNA in COS7 cells failed to produce a mutant protein unless degradation by proteasomes was blocked. Conclusion Our results show that the protein product of BRCA2 999del5 is extremely unstable. Therefore, an increase in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 999del5 carriers is due to haploinsufficiency at the BRCA2 locus. PMID:15217494

  18. The Icelandic founder mutation BRCA2 999del5: analysis of expression.

    PubMed

    Mikaelsdottir, Evgenia K; Valgeirsdottir, Sigridur; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Rafnar, Thorunn

    2004-01-01

    A founder mutation in the BRCA2 gene (BRCA2 999del5) accounts for 7-8% of female breast cancers and for 40% of male breast cancers in Iceland. If expressed, the mutant gene would encode a protein consisting of the first 256 amino acids of the BRCA2 protein. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this mutant protein is produced in heterozygous individuals and, if so, what might be the functional consequences of mutant protein production. The presence of BRCA2 999del5 transcripts in fibroblasts from heterozygous individuals was assayed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing. The potential protein-coding portion of BRCA2 999del5 was cloned into the pIND(SP1)/V5-His vector and expressed in COS7 cells. The presence of the mutant protein in cell lysates from heterozygous fibroblasts and from COS7 cells was tested by a number of methods including immunoprecipitation, affinity purification with nickel-coated agarose beads, Western blotting and ELISA, using antibodies to the N-terminal end of BRCA2, antiserum specific for the 16 nonrelevant amino acids at the carboxyl end and antibodies to fusion partners of recombinant proteins. The frequency of the BRCA2 999del5 transcript in heterozygous fibroblasts was about one-fifth of the wild-type transcript; however, no mutant protein could be detected. Overexpression of BRCA2 999del5 mRNA in COS7 cells failed to produce a mutant protein unless degradation by proteasomes was blocked. Our results show that the protein product of BRCA2 999del5 is extremely unstable. Therefore, an increase in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 999del5 carriers is due to haploinsufficiency at the BRCA2 locus.

  19. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC associated breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations conferring a 2–3 fold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods With genotype data of 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results The PRS conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.59 [95% CI 1.21–2.09] per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 [1.55–1.62] for non-carriers. No evidence for deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 [0.86–4.78] for CHEK2*1100delC carriers placing them to the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 [0.16–1.74], indicating life-time risk close to population average. Conclusion Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify the carriers at a high life-time risk for clinical actions. PMID:27711073

  20. Telomere dynamics in patients with del (5q) MDS before and under treatment with lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Beier, Fabian; Masouleh, Behzad Kharabi; Buesche, Guntram; Ventura Ferreira, Monica S; Schneider, Rebekka K; Ziegler, Patrick; Wilop, Stefan; Vankann, Lucia; Gattermann, Norbert; Platzbecker, Uwe; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Götze, Katharina S; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Haase, Detlef; Kreipe, Hans; Panse, Jens; Blasco, Maria A; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2015-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with an acquired, isolated deletion of chromosome 5q (del (5q) MDS), represent a clonal disorder of hematopoiesis and a clinically distinct entity of MDS. Treatment of del (5q) MDS with the drug lenalidomide has significantly improved quality of life leading to transfusion independence and complete cytogenetic response rates (CCR) in the majority of patients. Telomeres are located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are linked to replicative history/potential as well as genetic (in) stability of hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we analyzed telomere length (TL) dynamics before and under lenalidomide treatment in the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of del (5q) patients enrolled in the LEMON-5 study (NCT01081431). Hematopoietic cells from del (5q) MDS patients were characterized by significantly shortened TL compared to age-matched healthy controls. Telomere loss was more accelerated in patients with longer disease duration (>2 years) and more pronounced cytopenias. Sequential analysis under lenalidomide treatment revealed that previously shortened TL in peripheral blood cells was significantly "elongated" towards normal levels within the first six months suggesting a shift from clonal del (5q) cells towards normal hematopoiesis in lenalidomide treated MDS patients. Taken together our findings suggest that the development of the del (5q) clone is associated with accelerated telomere shortening at diagnosis. However, upon induction of CCR and reoccurrence of normal hematopoiesis, the lack of a persistent TL deficit argues against telomere-mediated genetic instability neither as a disease-promoting event of del (5q) MDS nor for lenalidomide mediated development of secondary primary malignancies of the hematopoietic system in responding patients.

  1. Prevalence of 35delG and Met34Thr GJB2 variants in Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Dória, Mariana; Neto, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique; Fernandes, Susana; Moura, Carla Pinto

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of 35delG and Met34Thr variants in a Portuguese children's community sample and to compare these frequencies with nonsyndromic hearing-loss patients. 502 children were randomly selected among the 8647 participants of the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI, and screened for Met34Thr and 35delG variants in the GJB2 gene. These variants were also studied on 89 index-cases, observed in the Clinic of "Hereditary Hearing-loss" in Saint John's Hospital Center, presenting a mild to profound nonsyndromic hearing-loss. Among the 502 children from Generation XXI, 10 were heterozygous for the 35delG variant (95% Confidence Interval 1.03-3.68) and 1 homozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.01-1.24). Other 10 children presented heterozygosity for the Met34Thr variant (95% Confidence Interval 1.03-3.68). No homozygous for the Met34Thr or compound heterozygotes (35delG/Met34Thr) were found. In the total of 89 nonsyndromic hearing-loss patients, 5 (95% Confidence Interval 2.11-12.8) were heterozygous and 7 (95% Confidence Interval 3.61-15.6) were homozygous for the 35delG variant. The Met34Thr variant was found in 4 patients, 2 heterozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.13-8.31) and 2 homozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.13-8.31). The carrier frequency of 35delG and Met34Thr variants in a Portuguese sample was 1 in 50. Our data suggests that the 35delG mutation has an association with deafness. For the Met34Thr variant, no association was observed. However, Met34Thr seemed to conform to an additive model in hearing-loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  3. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  4. Frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative donor population of north India.

    PubMed

    Samir, Sazia; Jain, Ashish; Marwaha, Neelam

    2015-08-01

    There is a paucity of data for DEL phenotype in the Indian population. Ours is a tertiary care Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in north India collecting more than 50,000 blood units out of which 8-9% are RhD negative donors. To determine the frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative blood donor population at our centre. A total of 200 RhD-negative blood donor samples were included in this study which was conducted over a period of 4 months (October 2013 to January 2014). All these blood samples were tested for extended Rh typing including C, E, c and e antigens and also for adsorption elution testing. The heat elution method at 56 °C in water bath for 10 minutes was utilized. The eluate and the last wash supernatant were used for indirect antiglobulin test against O RhD positive and O RhD negative cells by gel technique using the LISS Coombs' AHG gel cards (Biorad, Morat, Switzerland). Those donor samples which were found positive on adsorption elution testing were also further investigated by gel technique for Direct Antiglobulin test (DAT), Weak D testing and Auto Control test. Out of the total 200 Rh D negative donor samples tested, 3 (1.5%) samples were found to give positive result and, thus, were the DEL phenotypes. It was found that 20 (10%) donor samples were positive for C antigen, 5 (2.5%) for E antigen, 200 (100%) for c antigen and 200 (100%) for e antigen. Among the DEL negative (= 197), 193 (98%) were E antigen negative and only 4 (2%) were E antigen positive, whereas among the DEL positive samples (= 3), 2 (66.6%) were E antigen negative and 1 (33.3%) was E antigen positive. The C antigen positivity was only in 2 (66.6%) individuals in the DEL positive group and 178 (90.3%) in the DEL negative samples. All the three samples which were found to be positive as DEL phenotype also gave negative result for DAT, Weak D testing and Auto Control. The frequency of DEL phenotype in north Indian RhD negative donor population is 1.5%. Copyright

  5. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  6. Using Del-1 to Tip the Angiogenic Balance in Endothelial Cells in Modular Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Ciucurel, Ema C.; Vlahos, Alexander E.

    2014-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is a method of building vascularized tissue-engineered constructs. Submillimeter-sized collagen pieces (modules) coated with a layer of endothelial cells (EC; vascular component), and with embedded functional cells, are self-assembled into a larger, three-dimensional tissue. In this study, we examined the use of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), an extracellular matrix protein with proangiogenic properties, as a means of tipping the angiogenic balance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporated in modular tissue-engineered constructs. The motivation was to enhance the vascularization of these constructs upon transplantation in vivo, in this case, without the use of exogenous mesenchymal stromal cells. EC were transduced using a lentiviral construct to overexpress Del-1. The Del-1 EC formed more sprouts in a fibrin gel sprouting assay in vitro compared with eGFP (control) transduced EC, as expected. Del-1 EC had a distinct profile of gene expression (upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA/PLAU], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF-A], and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]; downregulation of angiopoietin-2 [Ang2]), also supporting the notion of “tipping the angiogenic balance”. On the other hand, contrary to our expectations, when Del-1 EC-coated modules were implanted subcutaneously in a severe combined immunodeficient/beige animal model, the proangiogenic effect of Del-1 was less remarkable. There was only a small increase in the number of blood vessels formed in Del-1 implants compared with the eGFP implants, and only few blood vessels formed at the implant site in both cases. This was presumed due to limited EC survival after transplantation. We speculate that if we could improve EC survival in our study (for example, by adding other prosurvival factors or supporting cells), we would see a greater Del-1-induced angiogenic benefit in vivo as a

  7. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  8. Del1 Knockout Mice Developed More Severe Osteoarthritis Associated with Increased Susceptibility of Chondrocytes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Tran, Misha C.; Bhatia, Namrata J.; Hsing, Alexander W.; Chen, Carol; LaRussa, Marie F.; Fattakhov, Ernst; Rashidi, Vania; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choo, Kevin J.; Nie, Xingju; Mathy, Jonathan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Helms, Jill A.; Yang, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins with an injury resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Excessive production of inflammatory mediators results in apoptosis of chondrocytes. Because of the limited ability of chondrocytes to regenerate, articular cartilage deteriorates leading to the clinical symptoms including severe pain and decreased mobility. No treatments effectively block the progression of OA. We propose that direct modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis is a key variable in the etiology of OA, and therapies aimed at preventing this important step represent a new class of regenerative medicine targets. PMID:27505251

  9. BRCA1 4153delA founder mutation in Russian ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Nadezhda Yu; Lobeiko, Oksana S; Sokolenko, Anna P; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Gergova, Madina M; Porhanova, Tatiana V; Urmancheyeva, Adel F; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2006-09-15

    The BRCA1 4153delA allele is frequently referred to as the Russian founder mutation, as it was initially detected in several cancer families from Moscow. Our earlier studies have demonstrated 1% occurrence of BRCA1 4153delA heterozygosity in familial and/or early-onset and/or bilateral Russian breast cancer (BC) patients. Since literature data suggest that the 4153delA variant is more associated with ovarian cancer (OC) than with BC, we expected to reveal a highly elevated frequency of this genotype in Russian ovarian cancer series. However, real-time allele-specific PCR genotyping has detected only two BRCA1 4153delA carriers out of 177 unselected OC patients (1.1%). Both these carriers were early-onset and had serous carcinomas of grade 3. Thus, our study supports neither the Russian origin of BRCA1 4153delA mutation, nor its selectivity towards ovarian versus breast cancer predisposition.

  10. Multiplex pyrosequencing of InDel markers for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bus, Magdalena M; Karas, Ognjen; Allen, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology is commonly used for fragment length separation of markers in forensic DNA analysis. In this study, pyrosequencing technology was used as an alternative and rapid tool for the analysis of biallelic InDel (insertion/deletion) markers for individual identification. The DNA typing is based on a subset of the InDel markers that are included in the Investigator(®) DIPplex Kit, which are sequenced in a multiplex pyrosequencing analysis. To facilitate the analysis of degraded DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments were kept short in the primer design. Samples from individuals of Swedish origin were genotyped using the pyrosequencing strategy and analysis of the Investigator(®) DIPplex markers with CE. A comparison between the pyrosequencing and CE data revealed concordant results demonstrating a robust and correct genotyping by pyrosequencing. Using optimal marker combination and a directed dispensation strategy, five markers could be multiplexed and analyzed simultaneously. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that multiplex InDel pyrosequencing analysis is possible. However, further studies on degraded samples, lower DNA quantities, and mixtures will be required to fully optimize InDel analysis by pyrosequencing for forensic applications. Overall, although CE analysis is implemented in most forensic laboratories, multiplex InDel pyrosequencing offers a cost-effective alternative for some applications.

  11. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  12. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Lambrechts, Diether; De Smet, Frederik; Jansen, Sandra; Wang, Jian; Maity, Sunit; Kneer, Paige; von der Ohe, Maren; Swillen, Ann; Maes, Christa; Gewillig, Marc; Molin, Daniel G M; Hellings, Peter; Boetel, Thurid; Haardt, Maartin; Compernolle, Veerle; Dewerchin, Mieke; Plaisance, Stephane; Vlietinck, Robert; Emanuel, Beverly; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Scambler, Peter; Morrow, Bernice; Driscol, Deborah A; Moons, Lieve; Esguerra, Camila V; Carmeliet, Geert; Behn-Krappa, Annett; Devriendt, Koen; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 (del22q11) causes thymic, parathyroid, craniofacial and life-threatening cardiovascular birth defects in 1 in 4,000 infants. The del22q11 syndrome is likely caused by haploinsufficiency of TBX1, but its variable expressivity indicates the involvement of additional modifiers. Here, we report that absence of the Vegf164 isoform caused birth defects in mice, reminiscent of those found in del22q11 patients. The close correlation of birth and vascular defects indicated that vascular dysgenesis may pathogenetically contribute to the birth defects. Vegf interacted with Tbx1, as Tbx1 expression was reduced in Vegf164-deficient embryos and knocked-down vegf levels enhanced the pharyngeal arch artery defects induced by tbx1 knockdown in zebrafish. Moreover, initial evidence suggested that a VEGF promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular birth defects in del22q11 individuals. These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome.

  13. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  14. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  15. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  16. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  17. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  18. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  19. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  20. CASE REPORT: Phenotypic presentation of the Ser63Del MPZ mutation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lindsey J.; Patzko, Agnes; Lewis, Richard A.; Shy, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in MPZ cause CMT1B, the second most frequent cause of CMT1. Elegant studies with Ser63del mice suggest that Ser63del MPZ is retained in the ER where it activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that contributes to the neuropathy. Clinical information about patients with this mutation is limited. We present clinical and electrophysiological data on a large multigenerational family with CMT1B caused by Ser63del MPZ. The patients have a classical CMT1 phenotype that is much less severe than that of patients with Arg98Cys MPZ that also activates the UPR. These results suggest that clinical presentation along cannot predict which MPZ mutations will be retained in the ER and activate the UPR. PMID:22734905

  1. La relatività debole. La fisica dello spazio e del tempo senza paradossi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.

  2. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  3. The novel complex allele [A238V;F508del] of the CFTR gene: clinical phenotype and possible implications for cystic fibrosis etiological therapies.

    PubMed

    Diana, Anna; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Santostasi, Teresa; Ratclif, Luigi; Pantaleo, Maria Giuseppina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Iusco, Danila Rosa; Gallo, Crescenzio; Conese, Massimo; Manca, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Few mutations in cis have been annotated for F508del homozygous patients. Southern Italy patients who at a first analysis appeared homozygous for the F508del mutation (n=63) or compound heterozygous for the F508del and another mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (n=155) were searched for the A238V mutation in exon 6. The allelic frequency of the complex allele [A238V;F508del] was 0.04. When the whole data set was used (comprised also of 56 F508del/F508del and 34 F508del/other mutation controls), no differences reached the statistical significance in the clinical parameters, except chloride concentrations which were lower in [A238V;F508del]/other mutation compared with F508del/other mutation (P=0.03). The two study groups presented less complications than the control groups. Within the minimal data set (34 F508del/F508del, 27 F508del/other mutation, 4 [A238V;F508del]/F508del cases and 5 [A238V;F508del]/other mutation cases); that is, presenting all the variables in each patient, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity presented a trend to lower levels in the study groups in comparison with the F508del/F508del group, and C-reactive protein approximated statistically significant higher levels in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation as compared with F508del/F508del patients (P=0.09). The analysis of statistical dependence among the variables showed a significant anticorrelation between chloride and body mass index in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation group. In conclusion, the complex allele [A238V;F508del] seems to be associated with less general complications than in the control groups, on the other hand possibly giving a worse pulmonary phenotype and higher systemic/local inflammatory response. These findings have implications for the correct recruitment and clinical response of F508del patients in the clinical trials testing the new etiological drugs for cystic fibrosis.

  4. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  5. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  6. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations.

  7. An unexpected effect of TNF-α on F508del-CFTR maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Hollenhorst, Monika; Servel, Nathalie; Moquereau, Christelle; Tondelier, Danielle; Hatton, Aurélie; Urbach, Valérie; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Edelman, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multifactorial disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR), which encodes a cAMP-dependent Cl (-) channel. The most frequent mutation, F508del, leads to the synthesis of a prematurely degraded, otherwise partially functional protein. CFTR is expressed in many epithelia, with major consequences in the airways of patients with CF, characterized by both fluid transport abnormalities and persistent inflammatory responses. The relationship between the acute phase of inflammation and the expression of wild type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. The results show that 10 min exposure to TNF-alpha (0.5-50ng/ml) of F508del-CFTR-transfected HeLa cells and human bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR in primary culture (HBE) leads to the maturation of F508del-CFTR and induces CFTR chloride currents. The enhanced CFTR expression and function upon TNFα is sustained, in HBE cells, for at least 24 h. The underlying mechanism of action involves a protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, and occurs through insertion of vesicles containing F508del-CFTR to the plasma membrane, with TNFα behaving as a corrector molecule. In conclusion, a novel and unexpected action of TNFα has been discovered and points to the importance of systematic studies on the roles of inflammatory mediators in the maturation of abnormally folded proteins in general and in the context of CF in particular.

  8. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  9. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Chothani, Daya L.; Vaghasiya, H. U.

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae), known as ‘desert date,’ is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. It contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, and organic acid. Present review summarizes the traditional claims, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca Del reported in scientific literature. PMID:22096319

  10. Black hole remnant and quantum tunnelling in three-dimensional Gödel spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the modified Dirac equation in a three-dimensional gravity background, we investigate the quantum correction to tunnelling radiation from a Gödel black hole, and discuss the black hole remnant employing fermion's tunnelling. The corrected tunnelling probability is derived, and the modified Hawking temperature is found as well. It is worth emphasizing that, only when the condition j> αω(3 r -- r +) is satisfied, emitting both a mass particle and a massless particle, the remnant of the Gödel black hole may arise.

  11. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Del Cogliano, D.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.

    2010-09-01

    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  12. Ecos del Cosmos: A radio astroexperience at the Universitat de Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Ballesteros, F. J.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2017-03-01

    During the last three years Ecos del Cosmos has been a radio program dedicated to spreading astronomical hot news to the Universitat de València community and beyond, and also topics of general astronomical interest. To do this, this program by Ràdio Universitat has conducted live interviews with researchers, explored relationships of astronomy with humanities and society, performed contests and explained in a simple way the main monthly ephemerides. A version of Ecos del Cosmos was broadcasted in the Onda Cero’s summer program ''Jelo en verano''conducted by Arturo Tellez.

  13. An InDel-based linkage map of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Li, Weipeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Wu, Zhiming; Qin, Cheng; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xin; Cui, Junjie; Zhang, Li; Hu, Kailin

    Two independent pepper (Capsicum annuum) genomes were published recently, opening a new era of molecular genetics research on pepper. However, pepper molecular marker technologies are still mainly focusing on the simple sequence repeats derived from public database or genomic library. The development and application of the third generation marker system such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, structure variations as well as insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) is still in its infancy. In the present study, we developed InDel markers for pepper genetic mapping with the convenience of two whole-genome re-sequenced inbred lines BA3 (C. annuum) and B702 (C. annuum). A total of 154,519 and 149,755 InDel (1-5 bp) sites were identified for BA3 and B702, respectively, by the alignment of re-sequencing reads to Zunla-1 reference genome. Then, 14,498 InDel sites (only 4 and 5 bp) that are different between BA3 and B702 were predicted. Finally, within a random set of 1,000 primer pairs, 251 InDel markers were validated and mapped onto a linkage map using F2 population derived from the intraspecific cross BA3 × B702. The first InDel-based map, named as BB-InDel map, consisted of 12 linkage groups, covered a genetic distance of 1,178.01 cM and the average distance between bin markers was 5.01 cM. Compared to the Zunla-1 reference physical map, high consistency was observed on all 12 chromosomes, and the total length of scaffold anchored and physical distance covered by this map was 299.66 and 2,558.68 Mb, respectively, which accounted for 8.95 and 76.38 % of the Zunla-1 reference genome (3.35 Gb), respectively. Furthermore, 37 scaffolds (total length of 36.21 Mb) from the pseudo-chromosome (P0) of the current genome assembly were newly assigned to the corresponding chromosomes by 40 InDel markers. Thus, this map provided good genome coverage and would be useful for basic and applied research in pepper.

  14. Refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia with subsequent del(5q) MDS: complete remission of both after lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Thomas Bech; Frederiksen, Henrik; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Preiss, Birgitte

    2017-01-04

    A patient with refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) characterised by severe skin and mucosal bleedings was treated with several ITP-directed therapies including cyclophosphamide. He later developed therapy-related del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome with no dysplastic morphological features in bone marrow. He remained severely thrombocytopenic, which suggests ongoing immune mediated platelet destruction. After two 3 week cycles of low-dose lenalidomide, complete cytogenetic remission and complete normalisation of platelet count were observed. This suggests that lenalidomide may be a viable treatment option for ITP in the presence of del(5q) not responding to standard treatments.

  15. A new fish, Peristedion nesium (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bussing, William A

    2010-12-01

    Several expeditions in recent years to Isla del Coco have increased the total number of species of fishes known from the island. Several of these species have been described as new endemics (Bussing 1983, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1997). During the 1972 R/V Searcher Expedition to Costa Rica several trawl collections were made around Isla del Coco. At five localities in depths between 110 and 180m, 86 specimens of a new species of Peristedion were taken and are described herein. A key to the four species of Eastern Pacific Peristedion is included.

  16. Historical survey of the national astronomical observatory in Llano del Hato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Picar, Antonio; Salas Ramirez, Henry

    2007-12-01

    The Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA), the Venezuelan Institute in charge for managing human- and technical resources of the National Astronomical Observatory in Llano del Hato, is one of the younger institutes in its field. However, its foundation is surrounded by a series of curious and interesting eyents that go back to the end of the 18th century. Its equatoriallocation, excellent astronomical equipment and the high-qualified personnel offers a geographical and technical advantage. The paper is a historical oveniew of events, facts and demonstrations of the human activity related to the conception, building and starting the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory.

  17. Casimir force in the Gödel space-time and its possible induced cosmological inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabakhshi, Sh.; Shojai, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel plates in the Gödel universe is computed for a scalar field at finite temperature. It is observed that when the plates' separation is comparable with the scale given by the rotation of the space-time, the force becomes repulsive and then approaches zero. Since it has been shown previously that the universe may experience a Gödel phase for a small period of time, the induced inhomogeneities from the Casimir force are also studied.

  18. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R.; Bernheim, A.

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  19. Identification and functional characterisation of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, causing Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ördög, Balázs; Hategan, Lidia; Kovács, Mária; Seprényi, György; Kohajda, Zsófia; Nagy, István; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Környei, László; Jost, Norbert; Katona, Márta; Szekeres, Miklós; Forster, Tamás; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Sepp, Róbert

    2015-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the KCNJ2 gene encoding for the inward rectifier potassium channel subunit Kir2.1 cause Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (ATS), a rare genetic disorder characterised by periodic paralysis, ventricular arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. Clinical manifestations of the disease appear to vary greatly with the nature of mutation, therefore, functional characterisation of ATS-causing mutations is of clinical importance. In this study, we describe the identification and functional analysis of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, identified in a patient with ATS. Heterologously expressed wild type (WT) and Val302del mutant alleles showed similar subcellular distribution of the Kir2.1 protein with high intensity labelling from the membrane region, demonstrating normal membrane trafficking of the Val302del Kir2.1 variant. Cells transfected with the WT allele displayed a robust current with strong inward rectification, while no current above background was detected in cells expressing the Val302del Kir2.1 subunit. Co-transfection of CHO cells with the WT and the Val302del Kir2.1 revealed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the Val302del Kir2.1 mutant subunit on WT Kir2.1 currents. These observations indicate that the WT and the Val302del mutant subunits co-assemble in the cell membrane and that the mutation affects potassium conductivity and (or) gating of the WT/Val302del heteromeric Kir2.1 channels.

  20. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  1. Del(15q) is a recurrent “minor route” cytogenetic abnormality in the clonal evolution of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, C. Cameron; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Apostolidou, Effrosyni; Cortes, Jorge E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Lu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Del(15q) is known to occur in acute leukemias, but has been described rarely in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We describe five cases of CML associated with del(15q). There were four men and one woman. Bone marrow aspirate smears demonstrated increased blasts in all cases at the time of del(15q) detection, showing accelerated phase in two and myeloid blast phase in three. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed t(9;22) and del(15q), as well as other inconsistent clonal abnormalities. All patients received imatinib mesylate, four received additional chemotherapy, and two underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For the three patients who did not receive ASCT, one died, one was in persistent blast phase, and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of residual disease, 16, 6, and 34 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. For the two patients who underwent ASCT, one died and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of disease, 15 and 64 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. Our findings indicate that del(15q) is a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality that may be seen either at initial presentation of advanced disease or emerge during disease progression. Del(15q) appears to be associated with a poor prognosis in CML. PMID:19480932

  2. Development of EST-based SNP and InDel markers and their utilization in tetraploid cotton genetic mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed in silico in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in cotton. A total of 1349 EST-based SNP and InDel markers were developed by comparing ESTs between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, m...

  3. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  4. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  5. Application of the Angular Overlap Model to Lanthanide Phthalocyanines (Aplicacion Del Modelo de Traslape Angular a Ftalocinaninas de Lantanidos)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-15

    metilicos. Esto trae a la teoria del campo ligante el concepto de grupos funcionales. En este trabajo se us6 el enfoque del MTA desarrollado por...susceptibilidades magne’ticas se hizo de acuerdo a la teoria de perturbaciones usando la ecuacio’n de Van Vleckc. Es importante recordar que a pesar de

  6. Propuesta Para La Creacion Del Cuerpo De Ingenieros De Las Fuerzas Armadas De Honduras. Proposal for the Creation of a Corps of Engineers in the Honduran Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    15 Enunciado del problema ...16 Formulación del problema ... problema central que se presenta a menudo y que amerita su atención se centra en el desarrollo económico enfocados en la competitividad, desarrollo

  7. The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park in Chile provide a backdrop to a herd of guanacos during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-11

    The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park in Chile provide a backdrop to a herd of guanacos during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. Founded in 1959, Torres del Paine National Park encompasses 450,000 acres in the Patagonia region of Chile. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with an Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is a very sensitive region that is important to scientists because the temperature has been consistently rising causing a subsequent melting of the region’s glaciers. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  8. The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park in Chile, photographed during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-11

    The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park in Chile, photographed during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. Founded in 1959, Torres del Paine National Park encompasses 450,000 acres in the Patagonia region of Chile. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with an Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is a very sensitive region that is important to scientists because the temperature has been consistently rising causing a subsequent melting of the region’s glaciers. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  9. Calumenin contributes to ER-Ca(2+) homeostasis in bronchial epithelial cells expressing WT and F508del mutated CFTR and to F508del-CFTR retention.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Réginald; Antigny, Fabrice; Buscaglia, Paul; Norez, Caroline; Huguet, Florentin; Castelbou, Cyril; Trouvé, Pascal; Becq, Frédéric; Frieden, Maud; Férec, Claude; Mignen, Olivier

    2017-02-04

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that the Ca(2+) binding protein Calumenin (CALU) is a key regulator in the maintenance of ER-Ca(2+) calcium homeostasis in both wild type and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Calumenin modulates SERCA pump activity without drastically affecting ER-Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, reducing Calumenin expression in CF cells results in a partial restoration of CFTR activity, highlighting a potential function of Calumenin in CFTR maturation. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for Calumenin in CF cells, providing insights into how modulation of Calumenin expression or activity may be used as a potential therapeutic tool to correct defects in F508del-CFTR.

  10. An experiment of formation of charmoni states in annihilation P-Pbarra. Un esperimento di formazione di stati del charmonio in annichilazione P-Pbarra

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, Marco

    1995-01-01

    Oggetto di questa tesi e la misura di alcune caratteristiche fisiche (massa, larghezza, e larghezza parziale in p - $\\bar{p}$) degli stati 3P1 e 3P2 del charmonio, -ovvero del sistema legato di un quark "charm" e del suo antiquark-, nell'amito dell'esperimento E-760, installato nell'accumulatore di antiprotoni del Fermilab.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p < 0.05) and species richness was higher in central Patagonia (S = 4). No differences in diversity were observed between females and males of central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 139, p < 0.05) and between females of central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  12. Redescripcion de la hembra y descripcion del macho de Pseudomethoca argyrocephala (Hymenoptera Mutillidae)

    Treesearch

    J.A. Genaro; J.A. Torres

    1999-01-01

    La especie Pseudomethoca argyrocephala fue descrita muy brevemente a partir de una hembra colectada en St. John, Islas Vfrgenes (Gerstaecker, 1874). Su presencia, inadvertida por la ausencia de ejemplares en las principales colecciones y la deposicion del holotipo en algun museo de Alemania, posiblemente motivo la omision en una clave para las especies antillanas (...

  13. The Del Mod Approach to Continuing Education for High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Wood, Verne E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an inservice education system for secondary chemistry teachers called the Del Mod System. The activities in the system were based on recommendations gathered from secondary chemistry teachers during a two-year visitation program and included laboratory activities, a study of new developments in curriculum and methodology, and assessment…

  14. The Role of a Technical and Community College in the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantis, Ethel L.

    One of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System) to several audiences, this monograph is intended for those interested in creating cooperative programs with technical schools or community colleges. Program characteristics are stated showing what a two-year…

  15. Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores de la EPA es parte de una estrategia de la evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los pesticidas para las abejas a fin de mejorar la protección de los polinizadores.

  16. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  17. Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits of Australasian affinity from the early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora, Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, María A; Hermsen, Elizabeth J

    2017-03-01

    Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum . The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum . Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region.

  18. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  19. A Failed Utopia in Marcela Del Río's "Proceso a Faubritten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manickam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In Marcela del Río's science fiction novel "Proceso a Faubritten," utopia comes in the form of eternal life for all of humanity, thanks to Dr. Alexander Faubritten's "Bomba L." This polyphonic work includes diaries by Faubritten and his Mexican lover, María Corona. In my analysis of these two diaries, I will show how…

  20. Determining sex and life stage of Del Norte salamanders from external cues

    Treesearch

    Lisa Ollivier; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr

    2003-01-01

    Life stage determination for many western plethodontids often requires dissection of the specimen. Availability of reliable external measures that could be applied under field conditions would enhance future studies of the genus Plethodon. We examined preserved specimens of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, taken from...

  1. New record of Paralomis spinosissima Birstein & Vinogradov (Decapoda: Anomura: Lithodidae) from Mar del Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Nicole; Ocampo, Emiliano H; Farias, Nahuel

    2015-05-14

    The lithodid crab Paralomis spinosissima is previously known only in Sub-Antarctic waters from South Georgia Island to the Drake Passage. Here we recorded a juvenile male obtained off shores of Mar del Plata (~37°S), Argentina. This new occurrence extends the distribution range of the species over 1300 km northwards in the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Climatic controls on debris-flow activity and sediment aggradation: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Scherler, Dirk; Mey, Jürgen; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Central Andes, several studies on alluvial terraces and valley fills have linked sediment aggradation to periods of enhanced sediment supply. However, debate continues over whether tectonic or climatic factors are most important in triggering the enhanced supply. The Del Medio catchment in the Humahuaca Basin (Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina) is located within a transition zone between subhumid and arid climates and hosts the only active debris-flow fan within this intermontane valley. By combining 10Be analyses of boulder and sediment samples within the Del Medio catchment, with regional morphometric measurements of nearby catchments, we identify the surface processes responsible for aggradation in the Del Medio fan and their likely triggers. We find that the fan surface has been shaped by debris flows and channel avulsions during the last 400 years. Among potential tectonic, climatic, and autogenic factors that might influence deposition, our analyses point to a combination of several favorable factors that drive aggradation. These are in particular the impact of occasional abundant rainfall on steep slopes in rock types prone to failure, located in a region characterized by relatively low rainfall amounts and limited transport capacity. These characteristics are primarily associated with the climatic transition zone between the humid foreland and the arid orogen interior, which creates an imbalance between sediment supply and sediment transfer. The conditions and processes that drive aggradation in the Del Medio catchment today may provide a modern analog for the conditions and processes that drove aggradation in other nearby tributaries in the past.

  3. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  4. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  5. CHEK2 ∗1100delC Mutation and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although the causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown, previous studies support the role of genetic factors in the development of prostate cancer. CHEK2 plays a critical role in DNA replication by responding to double-stranded breaks. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of a genetic variant, 1100delC, of CHEK2 on prostate cancer risk and discuss the implication for potential translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. Currently, twelve articles that discussed CHEK2∗1100delC and its association with prostate cancer were identified. Of the twelve prostate cancer studies, five studies had independent data to draw conclusive evidence from. The pooled results of OR and 95% CI were 1.98 (1.23–3.18) for unselected cases and 3.39 (1.78–6.47) for familial cases, indicating that CHEK2∗1100delC mutation is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Screening for CHEK2∗1100delC should be considered in men with a familial history of prostate cancer. PMID:25431674

  6. A Failed Utopia in Marcela Del Río's "Proceso a Faubritten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manickam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In Marcela del Río's science fiction novel "Proceso a Faubritten," utopia comes in the form of eternal life for all of humanity, thanks to Dr. Alexander Faubritten's "Bomba L." This polyphonic work includes diaries by Faubritten and his Mexican lover, María Corona. In my analysis of these two diaries, I will show how…

  7. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  8. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  9. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  10. Functional Rescue of F508del-CFTR Using Small Molecule Correctors

    PubMed Central

    Molinski, Steven; Eckford, Paul D. W.; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Chin, Stephanie; Bear, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screens for small molecules that are effective in “correcting” the functional expression of F508del-CFTR have yielded several promising hits. Two such compounds are currently in clinical trial. Despite this success, it is clear that further advances will be required in order to restore 50% or greater of wild-type CFTR function to the airways of patients harboring the F508del-CFTR protein. Progress will be enhanced by our better understanding of the molecular and cellular defects caused by the F508del mutation, present in 90% of CF patients. The goal of this chapter is to review the current understanding of defects caused by F508del in the CFTR protein and in CFTR-mediated interactions important for its biosynthesis, trafficking, channel function, and stability at the cell surface. Finally, we will discuss the gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of existing correctors, the unmet need to discover compounds which restore proper CFTR structure and function in CF affected tissues and new strategies for therapy development. PMID:23055971

  11. Ouabain Mimics Low Temperature Rescue of F508del-CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Anjos, Suzana M.; Carissimo, Annamaria; Liao, Jie; Carlile, Graeme W.; Balghi, Haouaria; Robert, Renaud; Luini, Alberto; Hanrahan, John W.; Thomas, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by the deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutant F508del-CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, but can be induced by low temperature incubation (29°C) to traffic to the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride channel. Here we show that, cardiac glycosides, at nanomolar concentrations, can partially correct the trafficking of F508del-CFTR in human CF bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o-) and in an F508del-CFTR mouse model. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles obtained with polarized CFBE41o-cells after treatment with ouabain and by low temperature has revealed a striking similarity between the two corrector treatments that is not shared with other correctors. In summary, our study shows a novel function of ouabain and its analogs in the regulation of F508del-CFTR trafficking and suggests that compounds that mimic this low temperature correction of trafficking will provide new avenues for the development of therapeutics for CF. PMID:23060796

  12. Dropouts, Stopouts, Optouts at Del Mar College: Spring 1991. Report of a Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Jo Ann I.; Bonham, L. Adrianne

    A research project investigated 2,313 persons who attended Del Mar College (Texas) during fall 1990 but did not enroll for spring 1991. Four sets of data were collected: (1) limited demographic information on the total student body; (2) demographic information drawn from school records to describe all nonreturnees; (3) demographic information…

  13. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  14. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  15. Shed Some Light on the Subject: Teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's "Luces de bohemia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jason Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to provide parallel and interchangeable approaches to teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's challenging play "Luces de bohemia". A greater understanding of the cultural and mental frameworks of the early twentieth-century Spanish spectator will permit students to penetrate the dense intertextuality that characterizes Valle's…

  16. Diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus): Differences by age, gender, and season.

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Nancy E. Karraker; Hartwell H. Welsh; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are integral components of forest ecosystems and the examination of their feeding habits may provide useful information regarding various ecosystem processes. We studied the diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus) and assessed diet differences between age classes, genders, and seasons. The stomachs of 309...

  17. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  18. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  19. Public Participation and Natural Habitat Preservation Along Arcade Creek, Del Paso Regional Park, Sacramento, California

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Vendlinski; Steven N. Talley

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-six hectares (90 acres) of riparian forest, high terrace oak woodland-savanna, and upland vernal pools were preserved along Arcade Creek in Sacramento, California as a result of citizen involvement in a city-sponsored master plan process for Del Paso Regional Park. Citizens formed an organization and called for a comprehensive Environmental Impact Report to...

  20. Use of saltcedar vegetation by landbirds migrating through the Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    We compared diversity, abundance and energetic condition of migrant landbirds captured in four different vegetation types in the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We found lower species diversity among migrants caught in exotic saltcedar vegetation than in native willow or cottonwood. In general, Migrants were most abundant in agricultural edge and least...