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Sample records for met office unified

  1. A seamless approach to assessing monsoon simulations in the Met Office Unified Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, R. C.; Boo, K. O.; Martin, G. M.; Milton, S. F.; Mitra, A.; Sellar, A. A.; Willett, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    We present an assessment of monsoons as simulated by the latest configurations of the Met Office Unified Model. These consist of models of varying complexity that are used for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), climate, and seasonal prediction. A comparison is made between the model biases in different monsoon regions for the different configurations, giving an insight into the nature of the main systematic errors, and also of the time-scales involved in their development. Both the mean state and the variability are assessed using a metric-based approach. The main model bias in the Indian monsoon region is the relatively low precipitation over Indian land. This has been significantly improved in the latest atmospheric component of the climate model, mainly due to changes in the CAPE closure in the convection scheme, which are aimed at reducing the tendency for strong intermittent deep convection. A more detailed comparison of the model with ERA re-analysis data is made for the onset and the pre-monsoon period of the Indian summer monsoon, giving an insight into the impact of various changes to the model. The emphasis is placed on the impacts of the timing of convection, the development of the monsoon jet, the impact of cyclonic vortices, and the moistening rates over India. The interannual variability is further examined through analysis of the ENSO-monsoon teleconnection, the link between El Nino/La Nina events and below/above average rainfall over India, which is assessed using a metric-based approach.

  2. Efficient performance of the Met Office Unified Model v8.2 on Intel Xeon partially used nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermous, I.; Steinle, P.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric Unified Model (UM) developed at the UK Met Office is used for weather and climate prediction by forecast teams at a number of international meteorological centres and research institutes on a wide variety of hardware and software environments. Over its 25 year history the UM sources have been optimised for better application performance on a number of High Performance Computing (HPC) systems including NEC SX vector architecture systems and recently the IBM Power6/Power7 platforms. Understanding the influence of the compiler flags, Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries and run configurations is crucial to achieving the shortest elapsed times for a UM application on any particular HPC system. These aspects are very important for applications that must run within operational time frames. Driving the current study is the HPC industry trend since 1980 for processor arithmetic performance to increase at a faster rate than memory bandwidth. This gap has been growing especially fast for multicore processors in the past 10 years and it can have significant implication for the performance and performance scaling of memory bandwidth intensive applications, such as the UM. Analysis of partially used nodes on Intel Xeon clusters is provided in this paper for short- and medium-range weather forecasting systems using global and limited-area configurations. It is shown that on the Intel Xeon-based clusters the fastest elapsed times and the most efficient system usage can be achieved using partially committed nodes.

  3. Efficient performance of the Met Office Unified Model v8.2 on Intel Xeon partially used nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermous, I.

    2014-11-01

    The atmospheric Unified Model (UM) developed at the UK Met Office is used for weather and climate prediction by forecast teams at a number of international meteorological centres and research institutes on a wide variety of hardware and software environments. Over its 25 year history the UM sources have been optimised for a better application performance on a number of HPC systems including NEC SX vector architecture systems and recently the IBM Power6/Power7 platforms. Understanding the influence of the compiler flags, MPI libraries and run configurations is crucial to achieving the shortest elapsed times for a UM application on any particular HPC system. These aspects are very important for applications that must run within operational time frames. Driving the current study is the HPC industry trend since 1980 for processor arithmetic performance to increase at a faster rate than memory bandwidth. This gap has been growing especially fast for multicore processors in the past 10 years and it can have significant implication for the performance and performance scaling of memory bandwidth intensive applications, such as the UM. Analysis of partially used nodes on Intel Xeon clusters is provided in this paper for short and medium range weather forecasting systems using global and limited-area configurations. It is shown that on the Intel Xeon based clusters the fastest elapsed times and the most efficient system usage can be achieved using partially committed nodes.

  4. Evaluating the Met Office Unified Model simulated land surface temperature (LST) using a multi-platform approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Harlow, Chawn; Best, Martin; Newman, Stuart; Scott, Russell; Edwards, John; Thelen, Jean-Claude; Pavelin, Ed; Weeks, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Met Office Unified Model (UM) has a significant cold bias in land surface temperature (LST) in semi-arid regions at global resolution, and limited area 4.4 km and 2.2 km configurations. The daytime LST cold bias simulated by the JULES land surface scheme within the UM is present throughout the annual cycle in semi-arid regions of the globe in comparison to IASI retrievals. These errors are largest in late spring and early summer and have magnitudes of 5 to 15 K, dependent on model resolution. This work will show verification of model biases through ground-based, in-situ airborne and satellite observations during the Semi-Arid Land Surface Temperature and IASI Calibration Experiment (SALSTICE) in semi-arid south-eastern Arizona in May 2013. Airborne observations of LST from the FAAM research aircraft using the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) were used to investigate the spatial distribution of the model errors and evaluate IASI retrievals. Airborne retrievals of surface temperature were found to broadly agree with IASI retrievals; uncertainties are attributed to the spatial variability in the ARIES measurements compared with the IASI footprints and due to differences within the retrieval, such as assumed emissivity. The UM errors in LST were found to vary with model resolution as well as topographic complexity, with the coarse resolution global model having larger errors than the limited area models. Regions with complex terrain had the highest LST errors while the errors over the less complex basins were lower, in the range of 4-5 K. Evaluation of the JULES land surface scheme has been performed for flux tower sites in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in south-eastern Arizona. An annual dataset of flux tower measurements confirms the LST biases seen with aircraft and satellite observations and indicates that night-time LST biases are of the order of those observed during the day. Comparisons of different model resolutions show

  5. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  6. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    The Met Office has adopted the Service-Orientated Architecture paradigm to deliver services to a range of customers through Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The approach uses standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services to provide information to web-based applications through a range of generic data services. "Invent", the Met Office beta site, is used to showcase Met Office future plans for presenting web-based weather forecasts, product and information to the public. This currently hosts a freely accessible Weather Map Viewer, written in JavaScript, which accesses a Web Map Service (WMS), to deliver innovative web-based visualizations of weather and its potential impacts to the public. The intention is to engage the public in the development of new web-based services that more accurately meet their needs. As the service is intended for public use within the UK, it has been designed to support a user base of 5 million, the analysed level of UK web traffic reaching the Met Office's public weather information site. The required scalability has been realised through the use of multi-tier tile caching: - WMS requests are made for 256x256 tiles for fixed areas and zoom levels; - a Tile Cache, developed in house, efficiently serves tiles on demand, managing WMS request for the new tiles; - Edge Servers, externally hosted by Akamai, provide a highly scalable (UK-centric) service for pre-cached tiles, passing new requests to the Tile Cache; - the Invent Weather Map Viewer uses the Google Maps API to request tiles from Edge Servers. (We would expect to make use of the Web Map Tiling Service, when it becomes an OGC standard.) The Met Office delivers specialist commercial products to market sectors such as transport, utilities and defence, which exploit a Web Feature Service (WFS) for data relating forecasts and observations to specific geographic features, and a Web Coverage Service (WCS) for sub-selections of gridded data. These are locally rendered as maps or

  7. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Jane; Walters, David; Bellouin, Nicolas; Milton, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing longwave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects has significant impacts on the SW radiation particularly at high latitudes due to lower cloud amounts in high latitude clean air regions. This leads to improved surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site. Verification of temperature and height forecasts is also improved in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. This study highlights the importance of including a more realistic treatment of aerosol-cloud interactions in global NWP models and the potential for improved global environmental prediction systems through the incorporation of more complex

  8. In Brief: U.K. Met Office forecast for Atlantic hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    GloSea, the U.K. Meteorological Office's computer model of the global atmosphere-ocean system, has predicted a cooling trend in sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic that will result in a less active hurricane season. The Met Office has predicted that there is a 70% chance of a less active hurricane season in the North Atlantic this year, with only 7-13 named storms occurring within the remaining five months of the season (July through November). There have already been two named storms this year-Andrea and Barry. From 1990-2005, there were an average of 12.4 storms during July-November. The U.K. Met Office forecast contrasts with NOAA's, which was released in May and predicted a busier season than average, with 13-17 named storms.

  9. A seamless approach to understanding and predicting Arctic sea ice in Met Office modelling systems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Helene T; Ridley, Jeff K; Keen, Ann B; West, Alex E; Peterson, K Andrew; Rae, Jamie G L; Milton, Sean F; Bacon, Sheldon

    2015-07-13

    Recent CMIP5 models predict large losses of summer Arctic sea ice, with only mitigation scenarios showing sustainable summer ice. Sea ice is inherently part of the climate system, and heat fluxes affecting sea ice can be small residuals of much larger air-sea fluxes. We discuss analysis of energy budgets in the Met Office climate models which point to the importance of early summer processes (such as clouds and meltponds) in determining both the seasonal cycle and the trend in ice decline. We give examples from Met Office modelling systems to illustrate how the seamless use of models for forecasting on time scales from short range to decadal might help to unlock the drivers of high latitude biases in climate models.

  10. Incorporation of UK Met Office's radiation scheme into CPTEC's global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, Júlio C. S.; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.

    2009-03-01

    Current parameterization of radiation in the CPTEC's (Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil) operational AGCM has its origins in the work of Harshvardhan et al. (1987) and uses the formulation of Ramaswamy and Freidenreich (1992) for the short-wave absorption by water vapor. The UK Met Office's radiation code (Edwards and Slingo, 1996) was incorporated into CPTEC's global model, initially for short-wave only, and some impacts of that were shown by Chagas and Barbosa (2006). Current paper presents some impacts of the complete incorporation (both short-wave and long-wave) of UK Met Office's scheme. Selected results from off-line comparisons with line-by-line benchmark calculations are shown. Impacts on the AGCM's climate are assessed by comparing output of climate runs of current and modified AGCM with products from GEWEX/SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project.

  11. Signal to Noise Ratio Estimations for a Volcanic ASH Detection Lidar. Case Study: The Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoussis, George; Adam, Mariana; Avdikos, George

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we calculate the Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio of a 3-channel commercial (Raymetics) volcanic ash detection system, (LR111-D300), already operating under Met Office organization. The methodology for the accurate estimation is presented for day and nighttime conditions. The results show that SNR values are higher than 10 for ranges up to 13 km for both nighttime and daytime conditions. This is a quite good result compared with other values presented in bibliography and proves that such system is able to detect volcanic ash over a range of 20 km.

  12. INFERNO: a fire and emissions scheme for the UK Met Office's Unified Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeon, Stéphane; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Gilham, Richard; Harper, Anna; Sitch, Stephen; Folberth, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Warm and dry climatological conditions favour the occurrence of forest fires. These fires then become a significant emission source to the atmosphere. Despite this global importance, fires are a local phenomenon and are difficult to represent in large-scale Earth system models (ESMs). To address this, the INteractive Fire and Emission algoRithm for Natural envirOnments (INFERNO) was developed. INFERNO follows a reduced complexity approach and is intended for decadal- to centennial-scale climate simulations and assessment models for policy making. Fuel flammability is simulated using temperature, relative humidity (RH) and fuel load as well as precipitation and soil moisture. Combining flammability with ignitions and vegetation, the burnt area is diagnosed. Emissions of carbon and key species are estimated using the carbon scheme in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model. JULES also possesses fire index diagnostics, which we document and compare with our fire scheme. We found INFERNO captured global burnt area variability better than individual indices, and these performed best for their native regions. Two meteorology data sets and three ignition modes are used to validate the model. INFERNO is shown to effectively diagnose global fire occurrence (R = 0.66) and emissions (R = 0.59) through an approach appropriate to the complexity of an ESM, although regional biases remain.

  13. The UK Met Office global circulation model with a sophisticated radiation scheme applied to the hot Jupiter HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, David S.; Mayne, Nathan J.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Manners, James; Tremblin, Pascal; Drummond, Benjamin; Smith, Chris; Acreman, David M.; Homeier, Derek

    2016-10-01

    To study the complexity of hot Jupiter atmospheres revealed by observations of increasing quality, we have adapted the UK Met Office Global Circulation Model (GCM), the Unified Model (UM), to these exoplanets. The UM solves the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations with a height-varying gravity, avoiding the simplifications used in most GCMs currently applied to exoplanets. In this work we present the coupling of the UM dynamical core to an accurate radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and correlated-k method with state-of-the-art opacities from ExoMol. Our first application of this model is devoted to the extensively studied hot Jupiter HD 209458b. We have derived synthetic emission spectra and phase curves, and compare them to both previous models also based on state-of-the-art radiative transfer, and to observations. We find a reasonable agreement between observations and both our days side emission and hot spot offset, however, our night side emissions is too large. Overall our results are qualitatively similar to those found by Showman et al. (2009, ApJ, 699, 564) with the SPARC/MITgcm, however, we note several quantitative differences: Our simulations show significant variation in the position of the hottest part of the atmosphere with pressure, as expected from simple timescale arguments, and in contrast to the "vertical coherency" found by Showman et al. (2009). We also see significant quantitative differences in calculated synthetic observations. Our comparisons strengthen the need for detailed intercomparisons of dynamical cores, radiation schemes and post-processing tools to understand these differences. This effort is necessary in order to make robust conclusions about these atmospheres based on GCM results.

  14. Toward a unified biological hypothesis for the BDNF Val66Met-associated memory deficits in humans: a model of impaired dendritic mRNA trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Gabriele; Carlino, Davide; Gardossi, Lucia; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents promotesa key molecule for the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons in the central nervous system. BDNF also regulates plasticity-related processes underlying memory and learning. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6265 has been identified on the coding sequence of human BDNF located at 11p13. The SNP rs6265 is a single base mutation with an adenine instead of a guanine at position 196 (G196A), resulting in the amino acid substitution Val66Met. This polymorphism only exists in humans and has been associated with a plethora of effects ranging from molecular, cellular and brain structural modifications in association with deficits in social and cognitive functions. To date, the literature on Val66Met polymorphism describes a complex and often conflicting pattern of effects. In this review, we attempt to provide a unifying model of the Val66Met effects. We discuss the clinical evidence of the association between Val66Met and memory deficits, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved including the reduced transport of BDNF mRNA to the dendrites as well as the reduced processing and secretion of BDNF protein through the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:24198753

  15. Impacts of Increased Vertical Resolution in the Met Office UK Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnenkoetter, Anke; Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Morcrette, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    As computing resources increase, NWP models continue to move to finer grid resolutions in order to improve the representation of small scale atmospheric processes. While improvements resulting from increasing horizontal resolution are often obviously linked to the better orographic representation and finer scale land use data, the benefits seen from an increased vertical resolution can be more subtle and the underlying mechanisms complex to understand. Increasing the number of vertical levels from 70 to 120, we performed a number of case studies with the Met Office's 1.5km horizontal resolution UK model (UKV). Statistical analyses show a slight, but systematic decrease in low rain rates and high-level cloud amount. The most significant impact can be seen in the representation of widespread low-level cloud. While there is little change to cloud top heights, the cloud base lifts in runs with the new vertical level set. The resulting thinned cloud layers are more prone to break up, offering a better agreement with low cloud cover seen in satellite imagery. Ongoing work aims to fully understand the mechanisms leading to the changes in the vertical humidity distribution and the enhanced decoupling seen within the boundary layer.

  16. The Met Office's new operational analysis system for diurnally varying skin-SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    While, James; Mao, Chongyuan; Martin, Matthew; Good, Simon; Sykes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Diurnal variations in skin Sea Surface Temperature (skin SST), which can be as large as several degrees, play an important role in determining the heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere. As such, since February 2015 the Met Office, as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), has been producing an operational analysis of the diurnal cycle of skin SST. This product consists of three components: an underlying 'foundation' SST (based on the OSTIA analysis), a warm layer where solar heating is important, and a cool skin where cooling due to long wave radiation dominates. A major development in this system is the use of a 4D-Var data assimilation technique with multiple outer-loops to improve estimates of the warm layer. Observations assimilated come from the SEVIRI, GOES-W, MTSAT2, and NOAA-AVHRR infra-red satellite instruments. Through their assimilation, the observations act to update the applied heat and wind flux such that the diurnal cycle in the warm layer is improved. In this presentation we describe the analysis system and how it produces a skin SST product. Particular attention is paid to the data assimilation aspects and on the observation processing. We also present results from a three month validation period showing that the system is well able to reproduce a drifter based climatology of the diurnal cycle in SST. A direct validation of our diurnal SST output against near surface Argo data is also given.

  17. Asian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill in the Met Office GloSea5 model and its dependence on mean state biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill; Woolnough, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the circulation and precipitation features of the Asian monsoon on time scales of weeks to the season ahead remains a challenge for prediction centres. Current state-of-the-art models retain large biases, particularly dryness over India, which evolve rapidly from initialization and persist into centennial length climate integrations, illustrating the seamless nature of the monsoon problem. We present initial results from our Ministry of Earth Sciences Indian Monsoon Mission collaboration project to assess and improve weekly-to-seasonal forecasts in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) coupled initialized Global Seasonal Prediction System (GloSea5). Using a 14-year hindcast ensemble of integrations in which atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components are initialized from May start dates, we assess the monsoon seasonal prediction skill and global mean state biases of GloSea5. Initial May and June biases include a lack of precipitation over the Indian peninsula, and a weakened monsoon flow, and these give way to a more robust pattern of excess precipitation in the western north Pacific, lack of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, excess westerlies across the Indian peninsula and Indochina, and cool SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and western north Pacific in July and August. Despite these mean state biases, the interannual correlation of predicted JJA all India rainfall from 1998 to 2009 with TRMM is fairly high at 0.68. Future work will focus on the prospects for further improving this skill with bias correction techniques.

  18. Evaluation of stratocumulus cloud prediction in the Met Office forecast model during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S. J.; Walters, D. N.; Allen, G.

    2010-07-01

    Observations in the subtropical south east Pacific obtained during the VOCALS-REx field experiment are used to evaluate the representation of stratocumulus cloud in the Met Office forecast model and to identify key areas where model biases exist. Marked variations in the large scale structure of the cloud field were observed during the experiment on both day to day and on diurnal timescales. In the remote maritime region the model is shown to have a good representation of synoptically induced variability in both cloud cover and marine boundary layer depth. Satellite observations show a strong diurnal cycle in cloud fraction and liquid water path in the stratocumulus with enhanced clearances of the cloud deck along the Chilean and Peruvian coasts on certain days. The model accurately simulates the phase of the diurnal cycle but is unable to capture the coastal clearing of cloud. Observations along the 20° S latitude line show a gradual increase in the depth of the boundary layer away from the coast. This trend is well captured by the model (typical low bias of 200 m) although significant errors exist at the coast where the model marine boundary layer is too shallow and moist. Drizzle in the model responds to changes in liquid water path in a manner that is consistent with previous ship-borne observations in the region although the intensity of this drizzle is likely to be too high, particularly in the more polluted coastal region where higher cloud droplet number concentrations are typical. Another mode of variability in the cloud field that the model is unable to capture are regions of pockets of open cellular convection embedded in the overcast stratocumulus deck and an example of such a feature that was sampled during VOCALS-REx is shown.

  19. Evaluation of stratocumulus cloud prediction in the Met Office forecast model during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S. J.; Walters, D. N.; Allen, G.

    2010-11-01

    Observations in the subtropical southeast Pacific obtained during the VOCALS-REx field experiment are used to evaluate the representation of stratocumulus cloud in the Met Office forecast model and to identify key areas where model biases exist. Marked variations in the large scale structure of the cloud field were observed during the experiment on both day-to-day and on diurnal timescales. In the remote maritime region the model is shown to have a good representation of synoptically induced variability in both cloud cover and marine boundary layer depth. Satellite observations show a strong diurnal cycle in cloud fraction and liquid water path in the stratocumulus with enhanced clearances of the cloud deck along the Chilean and Peruvian coasts on certain days. The model accurately simulates the phase of the diurnal cycle but is unable to capture the coastal clearing of cloud. Observations along the 20° S latitude line show a gradual increase in the depth of the boundary layer away from the coast. This trend is well captured by the model (typical low bias of 200 m) although significant errors exist at the coast where the model marine boundary layer is too shallow and moist. Drizzle in the model responds to changes in liquid water path in a manner that is consistent with previous ship-borne observations in the region although the intensity of this drizzle is likely to be too high, particularly in the more polluted coastal region where higher cloud droplet number concentrations are typical. Another mode of variability in the cloud field that the model is unable to capture are regions of pockets of open cellular convection embedded in the overcast stratocumulus deck and an example of such a feature that was sampled during VOCALS-REx is shown.

  20. The Met Office NWP-based Nowcasting Demonstration Project for the summer 2012 floods and London Olympics 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Susan P.; Li, Zhihong; Simonin, David; Tubbs, Robert; Kelly, Graeme; Caron, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Met Office developed a high resolution (1.5km) NWP system covering southern England and Wales for nowcasting (NDP) for the London Olympics 2012 using the Unified Model and hourly cycling 4D-Var data assimilation. The system produces 6 hour forecasts every hour. This has been running near-real-time since March 2012 on the IBM Power 6 and moved to the new IBM Power 7 in September 2012. The system uses latent heat nudging of radar derived rain rates provided every 15mins, direct assimilation in VAR of an hourly 3D cloud cover analysis and high time frequency subhourly radar Doppler winds (6 per hour), wind profiler and MSG SEVIRI upper tropospheric water vapour channels every 15mins as well as hourly surface synoptic reports and AMDAR reports. Eumetsat Satellite winds (AMVs) are used but they are very coarse horizontally and temporally eg at T-30mins only. The domain includes 8 of the UK network radars of which 5 were providing Doppler radial winds by the time of the Olympics and 4 wind. Boundary condition updates were provided every 30mins from 1.5km resolution 6hourly forecasts from a 3hourly cycling 3-km 3D-VAR for the UK region, UKV model. The NDP uses a 4D-Var data assimilation system with 1/2 UM resolution (i.e. 3km), hourly assimilation windows with 10 minute LS states, and 100 second timestep. The PF model and its adjoint have dimensions of 180 x 144 x 70. Observations are extracted in the observation time window T-30 mins to T+30 mins. The 1.5km UM (360 x 288 x 70) uses 50 sec time-stepping on 6 nodes in 12 x16 decomposition. 4D-Var increments are added to UM at the initial forecast time T-30 mins (at first UM time step). A 45 minute data cutoff was used and forecasts were available within 1 hour of nominal analysis time ie taking 15mins for observation processing, data assimilation and forecast. Summer 2012 was an excellent time to assess the skill of the system for flash flood prediction due to the extreme weather over the UK during that period

  1. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGES

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extentmore » and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  2. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  3. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGES

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is requiredmore » to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  4. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  5. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management. PMID:27557027

  6. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management.

  7. Improved scheme for parametrization of convection in the Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneguz, Elena; Thomson, David; Witham, Claire; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    NAME is a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model used by the Met Office to predict the dispersion of both natural and man-made contaminants in the atmosphere, e.g. volcanic ash, radioactive particles and chemical species. Atmospheric convection is responsible for transport and mixing of air resulting in a large exchange of heat and energy above the boundary layer. Although convection can transport material through the whole troposphere, convective clouds have a small horizontal length scale (of the order of few kilometres). Therefore, for large-scale transport the horizontal scale on which the convection exists is below the global NWP resolution used as input to NAME and convection must be parametrized. Prior to the work presented here, the enhanced vertical mixing generated by non-resolved convection was reproduced by randomly redistributing Lagrangian particles between the cloud base and cloud top with probability equal to 1/25th of the NWP predicted convective cloud fraction. Such a scheme is essentially diffusive and it does not make optimal use of all the information provided by the driving meteorological model. To make up for these shortcomings and make the parametrization more physically based, the convection scheme has been recently revised. The resulting version, presented in this paper, is now based on the balance equation between upward, entrainment and detrainment fluxes. In particular, upward mass fluxes are calculated with empirical formulas derived from Cloud Resolving Models and using the NWP convective precipitation diagnostic as closure. The fluxes are used to estimate how many particles entrain, move upward and detrain. Lastly, the scheme is completed by applying a compensating subsidence flux. The performance of the updated convection scheme is benchmarked against available observational data of passive tracers. In particular, radioxenon is a noble gas that can undergo significant long range transport: this study makes use of observations of

  8. The seasonal predictability of blocking frequency in two seasonal prediction systems (CMCC, Met-Office) and the associated representation of low-frequency variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiadis, Panos; Gualdi, Silvio; Scaife, Adam A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Hermanson, Leon; MacLachlan, Craig; Arribas, Alberto; Materia, Stefano; Borelli, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Low-frequency variability is a fundamental component of the atmospheric circulation. Extratropical teleconnections, the occurrence of blocking and the slow modulation of the jet streams and storm tracks are all different aspects of low-frequency variability. Part of the latter is attributed to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere and is inherently unpredictable. On the other hand, primarily as a response to boundary forcings, tropospheric low-frequency variability includes components that are potentially predictable. Seasonal forecasting faces the difficult task of predicting these components. Particularly referring to the extratropics, the current generation of seasonal forecasting systems seem to be approaching this target by realistically initializing most components of the climate system, using higher resolution and utilizing large ensemble sizes. Two seasonal prediction systems (Met-Office GloSea and CMCC-SPS-v1.5) are analyzed in terms of their representation of different aspects of extratropical low-frequency variability. The current operational Met-Office system achieves unprecedented high scores in predicting the winter-mean phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, corr. 0.74 at 500 hPa) and the Pacific-N. American pattern (PNA, corr. 0.82). The CMCC system, considering its small ensemble size and course resolution, also achieves good scores (0.42 for NAO, 0.51 for PNA). Despite these positive features, both models suffer from biases in low-frequency variance, particularly in the N. Atlantic. Consequently, it is found that their intrinsic variability patterns (sectoral EOFs) differ significantly from the observed, and the known teleconnections are underrepresented. Regarding the representation of N. hemisphere blocking, after bias correction both systems exhibit a realistic climatology of blocking frequency. In this assessment, instantaneous blocking and large-scale persistent blocking events are identified using daily geopotential height fields at

  9. Evolution of dynamic and thermodynamic fields during the Indian summer monsoon onset in the initialised atmosphere-ocean seasonal forecasting model of the UK Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Arathy; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The onset of the Indian summer monsoon has significant influence on the agricultural planning that affects food production and the gross domestic product of the country. Hence understanding and prediction of the monsoon onset is of paramount importance. Here we use hindcast simulations from the Met Office fully coupled atmosphere-ocean Global Seasonal Forecast System 5 (GloSea5) to study the monsoon onset over India. The GloSea5 hindcast simulations are produced for three different start dates in late April or early May prior to the monsoon season and the atmosphere and ocean components are both initialized. Rather than focus on skill metrics of the performance at simulating the onset timing, we use common objective indices of the onset circulation and wind shears in the meridional (Wang-Fan) and vertical (Webster-Yang) directions to determine the monsoon onset over India. We find that the dynamic indices obtained from GloSea5 ensemble mean are consistent with those from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. GloSea5 is also very effective in capturing the spatial pattern of the monsoon rainfall progression following the onset. We next analyse the composite evolution of various dynamic and thermodynamic fields associated with these indices, focusing on recent findings suggesting the importance of dry air incursions above the surface from the northwest. We further extend our analysis by looking at the physical mechanisms leading to onset in the GloSea5 simulations, and examine case studies comparing late and early onset years in both the model hindcasts and reanalysis data.

  10. An assessment of Indian monsoon seasonal forecasts and mechanisms underlying monsoon interannual variability in the Met Office GloSea5-GC2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephanie J.; Turner, Andrew; Woolnough, Steven; Martin, Gill; MacLachlan, Craig

    2016-06-01

    We assess Indian summer monsoon seasonal forecasts in GloSea5-GC2, the Met Office fully coupled subseasonal to seasonal ensemble forecasting system. Using several metrics, GloSea5-GC2 shows similar skill to other state-of-the-art seasonal forecast systems. The prediction skill of the large-scale South Asian monsoon circulation is higher than that of Indian monsoon rainfall. Using multiple linear regression analysis we evaluate relationships between Indian monsoon rainfall and five possible drivers of monsoon interannual variability. Over the time period studied (1992-2011), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) are the most important of these drivers in both observations and GloSea5-GC2. Our analysis indicates that ENSO and its teleconnection with Indian rainfall are well represented in GloSea5-GC2. However, the relationship between the IOD and Indian rainfall anomalies is too weak in GloSea5-GC2, which may be limiting the prediction skill of the local monsoon circulation and Indian rainfall. We show that this weak relationship likely results from a coupled mean state bias that limits the impact of anomalous wind forcing on SST variability, resulting in erroneous IOD SST anomalies. Known difficulties in representing convective precipitation over India may also play a role. Since Indian rainfall responds weakly to the IOD, it responds more consistently to ENSO than in observations. Our assessment identifies specific coupled biases that are likely limiting GloSea5-GC2 Indian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill, providing targets for model improvement.

  11. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  12. The impact of resolving the Rossby radius at mid-latitudes in the ocean: results from a high-resolution version of the Met Office GC2 coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Helene T.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Hyder, Pat; Graham, Tim; Rae, Jamie; Belcher, Stephen E.; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Copsey, Dan; Coward, Andrew; Guiavarch, Catherine; Harris, Chris; Hill, Richard; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Madec, Gurvan; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Neininger, Erica; New, Adrian L.; Rioual, Jean-Christophe; Sinha, Bablu; Storkey, David; Shelly, Ann; Thorpe, Livia; Wood, Richard A.

    2016-10-01

    There is mounting evidence that resolving mesoscale eddies and western boundary currents as well as topographically controlled flows can play an important role in air-sea interaction associated with vertical and lateral transports of heat and salt. Here we describe the development of the Met Office Global Coupled Model version 2 (GC2) with increased resolution relative to the standard model: the ocean resolution is increased from 1/4 to 1/12° (28 to 9 km at the Equator), the atmosphere resolution increased from 60 km (N216) to 25 km (N512) and the coupling period reduced from 3 hourly to hourly. The technical developments that were required to build a version of the model at higher resolution are described as well as results from a 20-year simulation. The results demonstrate the key role played by the enhanced resolution of the ocean model: reduced sea surface temperature (SST) biases, improved ocean heat transports, deeper and stronger overturning circulation and a stronger Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Our results suggest that the improvements seen here require high resolution in both atmosphere and ocean components as well as high-frequency coupling. These results add to the body of evidence suggesting that ocean resolution is an important consideration when developing coupled models for weather and climate applications.

  13. MET ONE 831

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Met One 831 sensor measures particulate matter (PM) by counting and sizing individual particles using scattered laser light. The unit then converts the count data to mass measurements in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). The Met One 831 counts particles in four different PM...

  14. Meteorological effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015: analysis of UK Met Office automatic weather station data and comparison with automatic weather station data from the Faroes and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Edward; Penman, John; Jónsson, Trausti; Bigg, Grant R; Björnsson, Halldór; Sjúrðarson, Sølvi; Hansen, Mads A; Cappelen, John; Bryant, Robert G

    2016-09-28

    Here, we analyse high-frequency (1 min) surface air temperature, mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), wind speed and direction and cloud-cover data acquired during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 from 76 UK Met Office weather stations, and compare the results with those from 30 weather stations in the Faroe Islands and 148 stations in Iceland. There was a statistically significant mean UK temperature drop of 0.83±0.63°C, which occurred over 39 min on average, and the minimum temperature lagged the peak of the eclipse by about 10 min. For a subset of 14 (16) relatively clear (cloudy) stations, the mean temperature drop was 0.91±0.78 (0.31±0.40)°C but the mean temperature drops for relatively calm and windy stations were almost identical. Mean wind speed dropped significantly by 9% on average during the first half of the eclipse. There was no discernible effect of the eclipse on the wind-direction or MSLP time series, and therefore we can discount any localized eclipse cyclone effect over Britain during this event. Similar changes in air temperature and wind speed are observed for Iceland, where conditions were generally clearer, but here too there was no evidence of an eclipse cyclone; in the Faroes, there was a much more muted meteorological signature.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  15. Meteorological effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015: analysis of UK Met Office automatic weather station data and comparison with automatic weather station data from the Faroes and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Edward; Penman, John; Jónsson, Trausti; Bigg, Grant R; Björnsson, Halldór; Sjúrðarson, Sølvi; Hansen, Mads A; Cappelen, John; Bryant, Robert G

    2016-09-28

    Here, we analyse high-frequency (1 min) surface air temperature, mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), wind speed and direction and cloud-cover data acquired during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 from 76 UK Met Office weather stations, and compare the results with those from 30 weather stations in the Faroe Islands and 148 stations in Iceland. There was a statistically significant mean UK temperature drop of 0.83±0.63°C, which occurred over 39 min on average, and the minimum temperature lagged the peak of the eclipse by about 10 min. For a subset of 14 (16) relatively clear (cloudy) stations, the mean temperature drop was 0.91±0.78 (0.31±0.40)°C but the mean temperature drops for relatively calm and windy stations were almost identical. Mean wind speed dropped significantly by 9% on average during the first half of the eclipse. There was no discernible effect of the eclipse on the wind-direction or MSLP time series, and therefore we can discount any localized eclipse cyclone effect over Britain during this event. Similar changes in air temperature and wind speed are observed for Iceland, where conditions were generally clearer, but here too there was no evidence of an eclipse cyclone; in the Faroes, there was a much more muted meteorological signature.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550769

  16. Meteorological effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015: analysis of UK Met Office automatic weather station data and comparison with automatic weather station data from the Faroes and Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Penman, John; Jónsson, Trausti; Bigg, Grant R.; Björnsson, Halldór; Sjúrðarson, Sølvi; Hansen, Mads A.; Cappelen, John; Bryant, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we analyse high-frequency (1 min) surface air temperature, mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), wind speed and direction and cloud-cover data acquired during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 from 76 UK Met Office weather stations, and compare the results with those from 30 weather stations in the Faroe Islands and 148 stations in Iceland. There was a statistically significant mean UK temperature drop of 0.83±0.63°C, which occurred over 39 min on average, and the minimum temperature lagged the peak of the eclipse by about 10 min. For a subset of 14 (16) relatively clear (cloudy) stations, the mean temperature drop was 0.91±0.78 (0.31±0.40)°C but the mean temperature drops for relatively calm and windy stations were almost identical. Mean wind speed dropped significantly by 9% on average during the first half of the eclipse. There was no discernible effect of the eclipse on the wind-direction or MSLP time series, and therefore we can discount any localized eclipse cyclone effect over Britain during this event. Similar changes in air temperature and wind speed are observed for Iceland, where conditions were generally clearer, but here too there was no evidence of an eclipse cyclone; in the Faroes, there was a much more muted meteorological signature. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550769

  17. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  18. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: References: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  19. Evaluation of the UK Met Office's HadGEM3-RA and HadRM3P regional climate models within South America-CORDEX simulations: ENSO related interannual precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, D.; Rojas, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to investigate and compare the ability of the UK Met Office's HadGEM3-RA and HadRM3P regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate mean and interannual variability of precipitation over South America with a special focus on Chile. The HadGEM3-RA is a regional version of the newly developed HadGEM3 global model and the HadRM3P is based on the earlier HadCM3 global model. The RCMs simulations were carried out at 0.44o x 0.44o degree resolution over South America-CORDEX domain for the period 1989-2008. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by ERA-Interim Reanalysis data available at 6-h intervals with a resolution of 1.5o x 1.5o in the horizontal and 37 pressure levels. We compare the results against a number of observational datasets, including gridded dataset of CRU, UDEL, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, available station data is derived from Direccion General de Aguas (DGA) mainly for Central Chile, which is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The analysis is mainly focused on evaluating the abilities of the RCMs in simulating spatial pattern and ENSO related precipitation variability in different subregions of South America-CORDEX domain. In general, both RCMs have a good skill in reproducing spatial pattern and annual cycle of observed precipitation in climatically different subregions. However, both RCMs tend to underestimate precipitation in the Amazon Basin, which is more pronounced in the HadRM3P simulations. On the contrary, the RCMs tend to overestimate the precipitation over the Andes and southern Chile. The overestimation could be related to the physical core of the RCMs, but the discrepancies could also arise due to insufficient station network, especially in the mountainous areas, potentially yielding smaller precipitation quantities in the observed data than the true ones. In terms of interannual variability, the models capture ENSO related wet and dry interannual precipitation

  20. Perspectives of Key Central Office Staff and School Principals Regarding Resource Allocation Policies and Procedures. A Report Prepared for Los Angeles Unified School District. SSFR Research Report #02 (LAUSD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Jubb, Steve; Manship, Karen; Rosas, Rigo; Brown, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the perspectives and attitudes of a selected set of district and school site administrators whom the authors interviewed in Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) during the fall and winter of the 2009-2010 school year. The authors carried out interviews with selected district administrators and a series of focus groups…

  1. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and "Budgeting for Student Achievement" Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project (called Budgeting for Student Success, or BSA, in Los Angeles Unified School District), the American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on their attitudes and…

  2. Perspectives of Key Central Office Staff and School Principals Regarding Resource Allocation Policies and Procedures. A Report Prepared for Twin Rivers Unified School District. SSFR Research Report #02 (TRUSD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen; Knudson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the perspectives and attitudes of a selected set of district and school site administrators whom the authors interviewed in Twin Rivers Unified School District (TRUSD) during the fall of 2009. The authors carried out interviews and focus groups with these individuals to gain an understanding of how the current budgeting…

  3. Perspectives of Key Central Office Staff and School Principals Regarding Resource Allocation Policies and Procedures--Technical Appendix. A Report Prepared for Twin Rivers Unified School District. SSFR Research Report #02 (TRUSD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen; Knudson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) interviews in Twin Rivers Unified School District (TRUSD) took place in October 2009. Three key district officials were interviewed, and five principals (representing elementary, middle, and high schools) participated in a focus group. District officials were chosen for interviews because of their key…

  4. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  5. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  6. Unified Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. P. K. Yonge Lab. School.

    A humanistic education curriculum program is described. The major objective of the project is to enhance the self-concept of each student. The interdisciplinary humanistic curriculum contains six components. The first component describes Unified Studies departmental ideas, beliefs, and goals which will further humanistic objectives, including…

  7. Fragmentation Chemistry of [Met-Gly]•+, [Gly-Met]•+, and [Met-Met]•+ Radical Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Justin Kai-Chi; Lo, Seydina; Zhao, Junfang; Siu, K. W. Michael; Hopkinson, Alan C.

    2013-04-01

    Radical cations [Met-Gly]•+, [Gly-Met]•+, and [Met-Met]•+ have been generated through collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [CuII(CH3CN)2(peptide)]•2+ complexes. Their fragmentation patterns and dissociation mechanisms have been studied both experimentally and theoretically using density functional theory at the UB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The captodative structure, in which the radical is located at the α-carbon of the N-terminal residue and the proton is on the amide oxygen, is the lowest energy structure on each potential energy surface. The canonical structure, with the charge and spin both located on the sulfur, and the distonic ion with the proton on the terminal amino group, and the radical on the α-carbon of the C-terminal residue have similar energies. Interconversion between the canonical structures and the captodative isomers is facile and occurs prior to fragmentation. However, isomerization to produce the distonic structure is energetically less favorable and cannot compete with dissociation except in the case of [Gly-Met]•+. Charge-driven dissociations result in formation of [ b n - H]•+ and a 1 ions. Radical-driven dissociation leads to the loss of the side chain of methionine as CH3-S-CH = CH2 producing α-glycyl radicals from both [Gly-Met]•+ and [Met-Met]•+. For [Met-Met]•+, loss of the side chain occurs at the C-terminal as shown by both labeling experiments and computations. The product, the distonic ion of [Met-Gly]•+, NH3 +CH(CH2CH2SCH3)CONHCH•COOH dissociates by loss of CH3S•. The isomeric distonic ion NH3 +CH2CONHC•(CH2CH2SCH3)COOH is accessible directly from the canonical [Gly-Met]•+ ion. A fragmentation pathway that characterizes this ion (and the distonic ion of [Met-Met]•+) is homolytic fission of the Cβ-Cγ bond to lose CH3SCH2 •.

  8. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  9. The unified method rules

    SciTech Connect

    Juric, R.

    1996-12-31

    Any methodology for information systems development defines rules and conditions that are to be followed and satisfied when applying it to developing analysis and design models of a system. The newest attempt to achieve a successful systems development and establish standards in object oriented analysis and design technologies resulted in the unified method documentation set, version 0.8 being published in late 1995. In this paper I will analyse the first draft and present a set of rules that must be satisfied by the valid unified method. The rules are divided into different sections: (A) classes/objects and categories, (B) attributes and operations, (C) associations and inheritance, (D) message trace diagram/object message diagram/state diagram/use cases.

  10. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  11. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  12. A Unified Titration Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, P.

    1999-01-01

    In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. In a recent article, some of these cases are discussed in detail. However, a single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.

  13. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  14. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background:...

  15. 49 CFR 26.81 - What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Certification Programs? 26.81 Section 26.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.81 What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs? (a) You and all other DOT recipients in your state must participate in a Unified Certification...

  16. 49 CFR 26.81 - What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certification Programs? 26.81 Section 26.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.81 What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs? (a) You and all other DOT recipients in your state must participate in a Unified Certification...

  17. 49 CFR 26.81 - What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certification Programs? 26.81 Section 26.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.81 What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs? (a) You and all other DOT recipients in your state must participate in a Unified Certification...

  18. 49 CFR 26.81 - What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Certification Programs? 26.81 Section 26.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.81 What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs? (a) You and all other DOT recipients in your state must participate in a Unified Certification...

  19. 49 CFR 26.81 - What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Certification Programs? 26.81 Section 26.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... PROGRAMS Certification Procedures § 26.81 What are the requirements for Unified Certification Programs? (a) You and all other DOT recipients in your state must participate in a Unified Certification...

  20. Unifying Theories of Confidentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael J.; Jacob, Jeremy L.

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about the security of confidential data within software systems. A novelty is that we use Hoare and He's Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) to do so and derive advantage from this choice. We identify how information flow between users can be modelled in the UTP and devise conditions for verifying that system designs may not leak secret information to untrusted users. We also investigate how these conditions can be combined with existing notions of refinement to produce refinement relations suitable for deriving secure implementations of systems.

  1. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock CFR Correction 0 In Title..., the preferred stock is treated as entitled to a distribution no later than the time the...

  2. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock CFR Correction 0 In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.1401 to 1.1550), revised as of April...

  3. Unified Bohm criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  4. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  5. Unified Parallel Software

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Mike

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use of EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.

  6. Unified Parallel Software

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use ofmore » EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.« less

  7. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Jun; Qin, Mao-Chang; Mei, Feng-Xiang

    2005-11-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10272021 and the Doctoral Program Foundation of Institution of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20040007022

  8. Unitary or unified taxonomy?

    PubMed Central

    Scoble, Malcolm J

    2004-01-01

    Taxonomic data form a substantial, but scattered, resource. The alternative to such a fragmented system is a 'unitary' one of preferred, consensual classifications. For effective access and distribution the (Web) revision for a given taxon would be established at a single Internet site. Although all the international codes of nomenclature currently preclude the Internet as a valid medium of publication, elements of unitary taxonomy (UT) still exist in the paper system. Much taxonomy, unitary or not, already resides on the Web. Arguments for and against adopting a unitary approach are considered and a resolution is attempted. Rendering taxonomy essentially Web-based is as inevitable as it is desirable. Apparently antithetical to the UT proposal is the view that in reality multiple classifications of the same taxon exist, since different taxonomists often hold different concepts of their taxa: a single name may apply to many different (frequently overlapping) circumscriptions and more than one name to a single taxon. However, novel means are being developed on single Internet sites to retain the diversity of multiple concepts for taxa, providing hope that taxonomy may become established as a Web-based information discipline that will unify the discipline and facilitate data access. PMID:15253355

  9. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines....

  10. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines....

  11. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines....

  12. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines....

  13. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines....

  14. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Modulates Huntington's Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rebeix, Isabelle; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Charles, Perrine; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Youssov, Katia; Verny, Christophe; Damotte, Vincent; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Simonin, Clémence; Tranchant, Christine; Maison, Patrick; Rialland, Amandine; Schmitz, David; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors modulating the progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). Dopamine levels are affected in HD and modulate executive functions, the main cognitive disorder of HD. We investigated whether the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which influences dopamine (DA) degradation, affects clinical progression in HD. We carried out a prospective longitudinal multicenter study from 1994 to 2011, on 438 HD gene carriers at different stages of the disease (34 pre-manifest; 172 stage 1; 130 stage 2; 80 stage 3; 17 stage 4; and 5 stage 5), according to Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score. We used the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale to evaluate motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional decline. We genotyped participants for COMT polymorphism (107 Met-homozygous, 114 Val-homozygous and 217 heterozygous). 367 controls of similar ancestry were also genotyped. We compared clinical progression, on each domain, between groups of COMT polymorphisms, using latent-class mixed models accounting for disease duration and number of CAG (cytosine adenine guanine) repeats. We show that HD gene carriers with fewer CAG repeats and with the Val allele in COMT polymorphism displayed slower cognitive decline. The rate of cognitive decline was greater for Met/Met homozygotes, which displayed a better maintenance of cognitive capacity in earlier stages of the disease, but had a worse performance than Val allele carriers later on. COMT polymorphism did not significantly impact functional and behavioral performance. Since COMT polymorphism influences progression in HD, it could be used for stratification in future clinical trials. Moreover, DA treatments based on the specific COMT polymorphism and adapted according to disease duration could potentially slow HD progression. PMID:27657697

  15. MET expression during prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Esther I.; van der Steen, Berdine; Hoogland, A. Marije; Sleddens, Hein F.B.M.; Looijenga, Leendert H.J.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET are under investigation for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) metastasis. Analysis of MET protein expression and genetic alterations might contribute to therapeutic stratification of prostate cancer patients. Our objective was to investigate MET on protein, DNA and RNA level in clinical prostate cancer at various stages of progression. Expression of MET was analyzed in hormone-naive primary prostate cancers (N=481), lymph node (N=40) and bone (N=8) metastases, as well as HRPC (N=54) and bone metastases (N=15). MET protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (D1C2 C-terminal antibody). MET mRNA levels and MET DNA copy numbers were determined by in situ hybridization. None of the hormone-naive primary prostate cancer or lymph node metastases demonstrated MET protein or mRNA expression. In contrast, MET protein was expressed in 12/52 (23%) evaluable HRPC resections. RNA in situ demonstrated cytoplasmic signals in 14/54 (26%) of the HRPC patients, and was associated with MET protein expression (p=0.025, χ2), in absence of MET amplification or polysomy. MET protein expression was present in 7/8 (88%) hormone-naive and 10/15 (67%) HRPC bone metastases, without association of HRPC (p=0.37; χ2), with MET polysomy in 8/13 (61%) evaluable cases. In conclusion, MET was almost exclusively expressed in HRPC and prostate cancer bone metastasis, but was not related to MET amplification or polysomy. Evaluation of MET status could be relevant for therapeutic stratification of late stage prostate cancer. PMID:27105539

  16. 34 CFR 472.32 - What other requirements must be met under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What other requirements must be met under this program? 472.32 Section 472.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY...

  17. 34 CFR 472.32 - What other requirements must be met under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What other requirements must be met under this program? 472.32 Section 472.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY...

  18. 34 CFR 472.32 - What other requirements must be met under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other requirements must be met under this program? 472.32 Section 472.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY...

  19. 34 CFR 472.32 - What other requirements must be met under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What other requirements must be met under this program? 472.32 Section 472.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY...

  20. 34 CFR 472.32 - What other requirements must be met under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What other requirements must be met under this program? 472.32 Section 472.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY...

  1. Department of Education Revives Civil Rights Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the mission of the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education to ensure equal access to education through compliance reviews. The Office hopes to use these reviews to provide technical assistance to help districts improve their performance. In late March, the Los Angeles Unified School District became the…

  2. Designers' unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  3. 75 FR 1007 - MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... COMMISSION MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application December 30, 2009. AGENCY.... Summary of Application: MetLife Capital Trust V (the ``Trust'') and MetLife, Inc. (``MetLife'') request an... and pursuant to a Declaration of Trust that MetLife signed as sponsor. As sponsor, MetLife...

  4. Unified theory of effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  5. Recurrence theorems: A unified account

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, David

    2015-02-15

    I discuss classical and quantum recurrence theorems in a unified manner, treating both as generalisations of the fact that a system with a finite state space only has so many places to go. Along the way, I prove versions of the recurrence theorem applicable to dynamics on linear and metric spaces and make some comments about applications of the classical recurrence theorem in the foundations of statistical mechanics.

  6. How best to unify crowding?

    PubMed

    Pachai, Matthew V; Doerig, Adrien C; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-05-01

    In crowding, the perception of an object deteriorates in the presence of nearby elements. Obviously, crowding is a ubiquitous phenomenon, as elements are rarely seen in isolation. One of the main characteristics of crowding is that the elements themselves are not rendered invisible, but their features are averaged[1] or substituted[2] with those of neighboring elements. Recently, Harrison and Bex [3] presented "A Unifying Model of Orientation Crowding in Peripheral Vision", which elegantly explains these two characteristics of crowding with one unifying mechanism. They tested their model using a new crowding paradigm and demonstrated an excellent match between human and model results. A key prediction of their model is that a higher number of flankers leads to stronger crowding, simply because more non-target features contribute to the model's output and thus deteriorate performance. However, several recent studies have shown that increasing the number of flankers can actually improve performance [4-9]. Using the same experimental design as Harrison and Bex [3], we report here that adding more flankers can also improve performance in their paradigm, whereas their model predicts the opposite result. We propose that a truly unified model of crowding must include a grouping stage. PMID:27166689

  7. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Mikito; Otsuki, Sho; Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor, c-MET (MET), play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells. Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or small-molecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells. These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC. PMID:26600931

  8. Microcomputers in the Research Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian E.

    There are three valuable types of computer software needed by the professional researcher--word processing, spreadsheet, and database management. In general, these packages are required for the effective operation of offices; however, researchers may have special needs which can only be met with more specialized software. Recently, word processing…

  9. Assessing the sensitivity to horizontal resolution of Unified Model simulations of Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. P.; Webster, S.

    2012-12-01

    In August 2005 Hurricane Katrina made landfall close to New Orleans with devastating consequences. It was one of the strongest storms to impact the coast of the United States and was also one of the most costly. At peak intensity, its central pressure was 902 hPa and 10 m wind speeds were 175 mph. The extreme nature of this weather system therefore makes it an ideal case study to assess the ability of the Met Office Unified Model to simulate and potentially forecast such phenomena. In this study we assess the ability of the Met Office Unified Model (UM) to simulate Hurricane Katrina at a range of horizontal resolutions. Thus a set of limited area model simulations have been performed at resolutions of 1.5 km, 4 km and 24 km. By careful implementation of the lateral boundary conditions it has been possible to (one way) nest all these simulations inside the 25 km operational global forecast model version of the UM. The configuration of the 1.5 km and 4 km models is based on the 1.5 km and 4 km models used operationally over the UK and hence convection is treated explicitly, whilst the 24 km LAM is configured in the same way as the operational global forecast model and hence convection is parametrized. The simulations are all performed on a 2400 km x 1600 km domain and are all initialised around four days prior to landfall, when the observed central pressure was close to 990 hPa. The initial data for the simulations are ERA-interim analyses with the 25 km global forecast generating hourly LBCs via a series of 24 hour long forecasts initialised from successive 12z analyses. Overall, these simulations have been configured in order to make as clean an assessment as possible of the impact of horizontal resolution on the simulation of Hurricane Katrina. In this presentation we first describe and illustrate results summarising the impact of model resolution on the simulated hurricane. Consistent with the systematic tropical cyclone behaviour of the global forecast model

  10. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on...

  11. Met1-linked ubiquitination in immune signalling

    PubMed Central

    Fiil, Berthe K; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal methionine-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. The molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled the identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how nondegradative ubiquitin modifications control proinflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. In this review, we discuss the current data on Met1-Ub function and regulation, and point to some of the questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:25060092

  12. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  13. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  14. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  15. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  16. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... HOUSE, Washington, April 6, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-8644 Filed 4-7-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 5000-04-P ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of April 6, 2011 Unified Command Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of... the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title 10, United States Code, section 161(b)(2)...

  17. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  18. A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

  19. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  20. MetHumi - Humidity Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitic type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature. Similar device is part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS -instrument (to be launched 2011).

  1. Weldability of AerMet 100

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Hoffman, D.E.; Westrich, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    Several test welds were made on AerMet 100 alloy. Both electron beam and pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding processes were used to make the welds. All welds were satisfactory, with no cracking or porosity noted in weld cross-sections. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2014-09-01

    We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.

  3. Geometer energy unified field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

    GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

  4. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  5. A unified relation for cavitation erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Buckley, D. H.; Matsumura, M.

    1984-01-01

    A power-law relationship between the average erosion rate and cumulative erosion is presented. Data analyses from Venturi, magnetostriction, and liquid-impingement devices conform to this unified relation. A normalization technique is also suggested for prediction purposes.

  6. Toward a Unified Timestamp with explicit precision

    PubMed Central

    Benzler, Justus; Clark, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and health surveillance (DS) systems monitor and document individual and group-level processes in well-defined populations over long periods of time. The resulting data are complex and inherently temporal. Established methods of storing and manipulating temporal data are unable to adequately address the challenges posed by these data. Building on existing standards, a temporal framework and notation are presented that are able to faithfully record all of the time-related information (or partial lack thereof) produced by surveillance systems. The Unified Timestamp isolates all of the inherent complexity of temporal data into a single data type and provides the foundation on which a Unified Timestamp class can be built. The Unified Timestamp accommodates both point- and interval-based time measures with arbitrary precision, including temporal sets. Arbitrary granularities and calendars are supported, and the Unified Timestamp is hierarchically organized, allowing it to represent an unlimited array of temporal entities. PMID:20396403

  7. Rebound Effects Caused by Withdrawal of MET Kinase Inhibitor Are Quenched by a MET Therapeutic Antibody.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Emanuela; Ducano, Nadia; Lupo, Barbara; Vigna, Elisa; Avanzato, Daniele; Perera, Timothy; Trusolino, Livio; Lanzetti, Letizia; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2016-09-01

    MET oncogene amplification is emerging as a major mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapy in lung and colorectal cancers. Furthermore, MET amplification predicts responsiveness to MET inhibitors currently in clinical trials. Among the anti-MET drugs available, ATP-competitive small-molecule kinase inhibitors abrogate receptor autophosphorylation and downstream activation of ERK1/2 and AKT, resulting in cell-cycle arrest. However, this antiproliferative effect allows persistence of a pool of cancer cells that are quiescent but alive. Once the inhibition is removed, rebound activation of MET-driven cell proliferative pathways and tumor growth may occur, an adverse event observed frequently in clinical settings after drug discontinuation. Here we show that inhibitor withdrawal prompts receptor phosphorylation to levels higher than those displayed at steady-state and generates a rebound effect pushing quiescent cancer cells back into the cell cycle, both in vitro and in experimental tumor models in vivo Mechanistically, we found that inhibitor treatment blocks MET endocytosis, causing a local increase in the number of receptors at the plasma membrane. Upon inhibitor washout, the receptor is readily rephosphorylated. The initial phosphorylation is not only increased but also prolonged in duration due to downmodulation of a phosphatase-mediated MET-negative feedback loop, which accompanies receptor internalization. Notably, treatment with a MET therapeutic antibody that induces proteolytic cleavage of the receptor at the cell surface substantially prevents this rebound effect, providing a rationale to combine or alternate these mechanistically different types of MET-targeted therapy. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5019-29. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27364553

  8. Proposal of Unified Fermion Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1998-03-01

    unified form of mass matrix is proposed for neutrinos, charged leptons, up quarks and down quarks. Some constraints for the parameters involved are tentatively postulated. Then, the predictions are neatly consistent with available experimental data. Among the predictions are: (i) mτ ~1776.80 MeV (with the inputs of me and mμ ), (ii) mν_0 ≪ mν_1~(0.6 to )× 10-2 eV and mν_2~ (0.2 to 1)× 10-1 eV (with the atmospheric-neutrino inputs of |mν_22 - mν_12| × (0.0003 to 0.01) eV2 and the νμ → ντ oscillation amplitude × 0.8), and also ( iii) ms ~270 MeV, |Vub/Vcb| ~0.082 and argVub ~-640 (with the inputs of mc = 1.3 GeV, mb = 4.5 GeV, |Vus| = 0.221 and |Vcb| = 0.041, where mu ≪ mc ≪ mt and md ≪ ms ≪ mb ). All elements of the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa matrix are evaluated. All elements of its lepton counterpart are calculated up to an unknown phase (Appendix B). Some items related to dynamical aspects of the proposed fermion ``texture'' are briefly commented on (Appendix A). In particular, the notion of a novel dark matter, free of any Standard Model interactions (and their supersymmetric variants), appears in the case of preon option.

  9. An Innovative Course Featuring Action Research Integrated with Unifying Science Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Charlotte A.; Luera, Gail R.; Everett, Susan A.

    2009-12-01

    In this article, we describe an innovative capstone course for preservice K-8 teachers integrating action research and a unifying theme in science (AAAS in Science for all Americans. Oxford University Press, New York, 1989; NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996). The goals of the capstone course are to increase student knowledge of the unifying theme, improve written communication skills, and introduce students to educational research. We provide evidence that each of these goals is met. Student growth in theme knowledge is demonstrated through concept maps, questionnaires, and previously reported assessments. Improved writing ability is demonstrated using the spelling and grammar checking feature of Microsoft Word. The analysis of action research reports demonstrates that students are able to connect their action research project results to previous research.

  10. Smart Polymeric Nanocarriers of Met-enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Roza; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Otulakowski, Lukasz; Kosowski, Dominik; Hertlein, Justyna; Haladjova, Emi; Rangelov, Stanislav; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel approach to polymeric nanocarriers of the therapeutic peptide met-enkephalin based on the aggregation of thermoresponsive polymers. Thermoresponsive bioconjugate poly((di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate)-ran-(oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) is synthesized by AGET ATRP using modified met-enkephalin as a macroinitiator. The abrupt heating of bioconjugate water solution leads to the self-assembly of bioconjugate chains and the formation of mesoglobules of controlled sizes. Mesoglobules formed by bioconjugates are stabilized by coating with cross-linked two-layer shell via nucleated radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide using a degradable cross-linker. The targeting peptide RGD, containing the fluorescence marker carboxyfluorescein, is linked to a nanocarrier during the formation of the outer shell layer. In the presence of glutathione, the whole shell is completely degradable and the met-enkephalin conjugate is released. It is anticipated that precisely engineered nanoparticles protecting their cargo will emerge as the next-generation platform for cancer therapy and many other biomedical applications. PMID:27409457

  11. Truncated RAF kinases drive resistance to MET inhibition in MET-addicted cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Consalvo; Picco, Gabriele; Martelli, Maria Luisa; Trisolini, Elena; Bucci, Enrico; Perera, Timothy; Isella, Claudio; Medico, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Constitutively active receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known oncogenic drivers and provide valuable therapeutic targets in many cancer types. However, clinical efficacy of RTK inhibitors is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. To identify genes conferring resistance to inhibition of the MET RTK, we conducted a forward genetics screen in the GTL-16 gastric cancer cell line, carrying MET amplification and exquisitely sensitive to MET inhibition. Cells were transduced with three different retroviral cDNA expression libraries and selected for growth in the presence of the MET inhibitor PHA-665752. Selected cells displayed robust and reproducible enrichment of library-derived cDNAs encoding truncated forms of RAF1 and BRAF proteins, whose silencing reversed the resistant phenotype. Transduction of naïve GTL-16 cells with truncated, but not full length, RAF1 and BRAF conferred in vitro and in vivo resistance to MET inhibitors, which could be reversed by MEK inhibition. Induction of resistance by truncated RAFs was confirmed in other MET-addicted cell lines, and further extended to EGFR-addicted cells. These data show that truncated RAF1 and BRAF proteins, recently described as products of genomic rearrangements in gastric cancer and other malignancies, have the ability to render neoplastic cells resistant to RTK-targeted therapy. PMID:25473895

  12. Phoenix `07 MET Pressure sensor: Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Mäkelä, M.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The Phoenix '07 Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region 25.5.2008. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. The seminal questions for the Phoenix mission are: (1) can the Martian arctic support life, (2) what is the history of water at the landing site, and (3) how is the Martian climate affected by polar dynamics. These translate into practical science goals and tasks of characterizing the surface, analyzing samples of the soil and ice, and to observing and monitoring the atmospheric conditions and phenomena. Meteorology experiment (MET) onboard the Phoenix '07 lander will provide the first surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind in the Martian polar region above the polar circle. The MET instrument also includes a lidar for detecting dust and ice particles in the air column above the lander. Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the MET experiment. The Martian atmosphere goes through a large scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation and sublimation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence tell us about the large scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere. The shorter time scale phenomena are also important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust and water vapour. The pressure observations are performed by a FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on micro machined Barocap capacitic pressure sensor heads manufactured by Vaisala Inc. Similar instruments have been used in several earlier missions (Mars-96, Mars Polar Lander, Beagle-2 and Huygens), Phoenix being the first successful landing on Mars. A similar instrument is included also in the Mars Science Laboratory '09 rover. Pressure sensor technology

  13. Met-enkephalin levels during PTCA-induced myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Giancaspro, G; Pizzuto, F; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Vincentelli, G M; Alegiani, F; Negri, M

    2001-07-01

    Met-enkephalin (Met-enk) has been demonstrated to modulate myocardial-ischemia mechanisms via the opioid receptors, but no studies are now available on Met-enk levels in the coronary circulation. In this experience Met-enk levels were evaluated in aortic root and in coronary sinus at baseline (T0), during PTCA induced transient ischemia (T1) and during reperfusion (T2). No significant differences were found at any time. Thus, it appears that there is no Met-enk extraction from the coronary circulation during provoked myocardial ischemia and no Met-enk release from the ischemic heart. PMID:11445249

  14. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  15. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism enhances task switching in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the relevance of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism as a modulator of task-switching performance in healthy elderly by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Task switching was examined in a cue-based and a memory-based paradigm. Val/Val carriers were generally slower, showed enhanced reaction time variability and higher error rates, particularly during memory-based task switching than the Met-allele individuals. On a neurophysiological level these dissociative effects were reflected by variations in the N2 and P3 ERP components. The task switch-related N2 was increased while the P3 was decreased in Met-allele carriers, while the Val/Val genotype group revealed the opposite pattern of results. In cue-based task-switching no behavioral and ERP differences were seen between the genotypes. These data suggest that superior memory-based task-switching performance in elderly Met-allele carriers may emerge due to more efficient response selection processes. The results implicate that under special circumstances the Met-allele renders cognitive processes more efficient than the Val/Val genotype in healthy elderly, corroborating recent findings in young subjects.

  16. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  17. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Guerrero, Héctor; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL), using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. For the precursor mission (MMPM) intended to verify the landing concept and key technology during a real Mars mission all qualification activities are completed and the payload and system flight model components are being manufactured. The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. Details of the current MMPM system and payload configuration and their performance parameters will be shown.

  18. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  19. Selecting Finite Unified Theories with Current Data

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    2008-11-23

    Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories that can be made all-loop finite, leading to a severe reduction of the free parameters. We review the investigation of FUTs based on SU(5) in the context of low-energy phenomenology observables. Using the restrictions from the top and bottom quark masses, it is possible to discriminate between different models. Including further low-energy constraints such as B physics observables, the bound on the lightest Higgs boson mass and the cold dark matter density, we derive the predictions for the supersymmetric particle spectrum and the prospects for discoveries at the LHC.

  20. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA Note: The negative sign is ... the longitude in the following data files: NARSTO_EPA_SS_ATLANTA_GAS_GAS_DATA_1_KB_V1.csv and NARSTO_EPA_SS_ATLANTA_MET_MET_DATA_1_KB_V1.csv Project Title:  NARSTO ...

  1. Determining unmet, adequately met, and overly met needs for health care and services for persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L; Butler, Kenneth R

    2013-08-01

    A statewide needs assessment of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was conducted to determine what is known about access to care, utilization of services, and perceived barriers to receiving care and services. Our objective was to determine which needs were being met or unmet among PLWHA in Mississippi to provide a better understanding of how effectively to allocate funding to provide for the needs of that group. In this cross-sectional study, a true random sample of PLWHA in Mississippi was interviewed in 2005-2006. Questions were asked to identify opinions about respondents' experiences with 23 health care services and 30 public or private assistance services. The kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between level of services needed and level of services provided. Services with the lowest kappa scores revealed which services were being either mostly unmet, or even overly met. Greatest service needs were HIV viral load test, Pap smear, CD4/T-cell count test, and medication for HIV/AIDS, which were reasonably well met. The most significantly unmet needs were dental care and dental exams, eye care and eye exams, help paying for housing, subsidized housing assistance, mental health therapy or counseling, access to emotional support groups, and job placement or employment. Overly met services included medical care at a physician's office or clinic and free condoms. This study identified needs perceived to be significantly unmet by PLWHA, as well as areas that were perceived to be adequately or overly met. This information may be used to target areas with the greatest impact for improvement and provide insight into how to effectively allocate health care resources and public/private assistance. PMID:23252519

  2. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  3. Unifying Quantitative Methodology in Social Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Victor L.

    A case is made for representing quantitative methods in use in the social sciences within a unified framework based on structural equation methodology (SEM). Most of the methods now in use are shown in their SEM representation. It is suggested that the visual and verbal representations of SEM are of most use, while specific estimation and…

  4. A Grand Unified Theory of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2007-01-01

    Aside from the appeal to administrators as a tool to reduce costs by combining less robust departments with heftier relations, interdisciplinarity is a powerful idea because it implies that different branches of knowledge can benefit from talking to one another: a grand, unified theory of knowledge in which each discipline contributes building…

  5. Toward a Unified Theory of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Paivio, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Despite nearly 40 years of scientific theorizing about reading, the field remains fragmented with little progress toward unification. In this article, we (a) emphasize the privileged position of unified theories in all science, (b) compare the growth of theory in cognitive science and reading, (c) identify the phenomenal domain of a unified…

  6. Molecular selection in a unified evolutionary sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    With guidance from experiments and observations that indicate internally limited phenomena, an outline of unified evolutionary sequence is inferred. Such unification is not visible for a context of random matrix and random mutation. The sequence proceeds from Big Bang through prebiotic matter, protocells, through the evolving cell via molecular and natural selection, to mind, behavior, and society.

  7. A Unifying Curriculum for Museum-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povis, Kaleen E.

    2011-01-01

    There are over two dozen schools in the United States with the word "museum" in their names. However, the philosophy and pedagogy that tie these schools together is unclear. A consistent definition, criteria for classification, and a unifying curriculum to guide museum- schools is lacking. Yet, museum-schools continue to open across the country.…

  8. Catholic School Publications: Unifying the Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Frank

    This booklet discusses school publication goals and processes, explaining how to identify and unify a school's image, and then how to project the image through a broad range of printed pieces. The booklet's 10 chapters are as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) The Importance of School Publications and Public Relations; (3) Creating and Securing a…

  9. 76 FR 66505 - Unified Registration System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo... Federal Register on May 12, 2006 (71 FR 27777). The Board's duties include issuing rules and regulations... structure for the Unified Carrier Registration Agreement in the Federal Register (72 FR 48585). The...

  10. Unified chromatography: Fundamentals, instrumentation and applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Meire R; Andrade, Felipe N; Fumes, Bruno H; Lanças, Fernando M

    2015-09-01

    The concept of unified chromatography has been in existence for 50 years after the work of Giddings proposing that all modes of chromatography (gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and so on) may be treated together under a single unified theory. His idea was partially fulfilled 23 years later by Ishii, Takeuchi and colleagues, who demonstrated for the first time the possibility to analyze a complex sample containing substances with a wide range of boiling points and polarities in the same instrument and column, just by varying the mobile phase pressure and temperature to change from one chromatographic mode to another. This approach has been demonstrated through application to the separation of complex mixtures in several areas including crude oil, edible oils and polymers. Still, unified chromatography has not yet been fully developed. In the present work, we will review the fundamentals, instrumentation and several applications of the technique. Also discussed are the drawbacks that still hinder development, as well as the recent developments and trends in instrumentation and columns that suggest the most feasible ways forward to the full development of unified chromatography. PMID:26105757

  11. Unified Technical Concepts. Physics for Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary programs. This UTC classroom textbook, consisting of 14 chapters, deals with physics for technicians. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work, rate, momentum, resistance, power, potential and…

  12. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  13. A Unifying View of Computational Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniasz, L. K.

    2007-11-01

    The current state of development of Computational Electrochemistry is briefly discussed, and a unifying view of the field is proposed, with the aim of stimulating a communication between, and unity of, computationally oriented electrochemists involved in diverse kinds of computations. The most recent work of the author, pertaining to the field, is also reviewed.

  14. Unified Technical Concepts. Math for Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC classroom textbook, consisting of 10 chapters, deals with mathematical concepts as they apply to the study of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the text are the following topics: angles and…

  15. Vertically Integrated Nanowire-Based Unified Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Kang, Min-Ho; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    A vertically integrated nanowire-based device for multifunctional unified memory that combine dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and flash memory in a single transistor is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a gate-all-around (GAA) structure that completely surrounds the nanowire; the structure is built on a bulk silicon wafer. A vertically integrated unified memory (VIUM) device composed of five-story channels was fabricated via the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP) with reliable reproducibility, stiction-free stability, and high uniformity. In each DRAM and flash memory operation, the five-story VIUM showed a remarkably enhanced sensing current drivability compared with one-story unified memory (UM) characteristics. In addition to each independent memory mode, the switching endurance of the VIUM was evaluated in the unified mode, which alternatively activates two memory modes, resulting in an even higher sensing memory window than that of the UM. In addition to our previous work on a logic transistor joining high performance with good scalability, this work describes a novel memory hierarchy design with high functionality for system-on-chip (SoC) architectures, demonstrating the practicality and versatility of the vertically integrated nanowire configuration for use in various applications.

  16. Unified classical path theories of pressure broadening.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.

    1971-01-01

    Derivation of a unified classical path theory of pressure broadening, using only elementary concepts. It is shown that the theory of Smith, Cooper and Vidal (1969) is only correct at all frequencies to first order in the number density of perturbers.

  17. Vertically Integrated Nanowire-Based Unified Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Kang, Min-Ho; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    A vertically integrated nanowire-based device for multifunctional unified memory that combine dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and flash memory in a single transistor is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a gate-all-around (GAA) structure that completely surrounds the nanowire; the structure is built on a bulk silicon wafer. A vertically integrated unified memory (VIUM) device composed of five-story channels was fabricated via the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP) with reliable reproducibility, stiction-free stability, and high uniformity. In each DRAM and flash memory operation, the five-story VIUM showed a remarkably enhanced sensing current drivability compared with one-story unified memory (UM) characteristics. In addition to each independent memory mode, the switching endurance of the VIUM was evaluated in the unified mode, which alternatively activates two memory modes, resulting in an even higher sensing memory window than that of the UM. In addition to our previous work on a logic transistor joining high performance with good scalability, this work describes a novel memory hierarchy design with high functionality for system-on-chip (SoC) architectures, demonstrating the practicality and versatility of the vertically integrated nanowire configuration for use in various applications. PMID:27579769

  18. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  19. Protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes. A study of Met-tRNA f Met binding factor(s) and Met-tRNA f Met binding to ribosomes and AUG codon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N K; Chatterjee, B; Chen, Y C; Majumdar, A

    1975-02-10

    The effects of additions of Mg-2+, ribosomes, and AUG codon on the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex were studied using a Millipore filtration method (J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4500 (1973)). Upon addition of increasing concentration of Mg-2+, the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex dissociates into free Met-tRNAf Met and initiation factor (GTP), with an infection around 1.5 to 2 mM Mg-2+. The Mg-2+-induced dissociation of Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex was enhanced at ice bath temperature. At 37 degrees and in the presence of 1.5 to 2mM Mg-2+, the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex catalyzes the transfer of Met-tRNAf Met to ribosomes and AUG codon. Ribosome bound Met-tRNAf Met is stable to Mg-2+ and low temperature. A Millipore filtration assay for studies of (35S)Met-tRNAf Met binding to ribosomes and Aug codon has been developed. The assay procedure is carried out in three stages. In Stage I, the Met-tRNAf Met is bound to initiation factor in the presence of GTP, AUG codon (required for Stage II reaction), and 3.7 times 10-5 M aurintricarboxylic acid. The incubation is carried out at 37 degrees for 5 min. In Stage II, ribosomes and Mg-2+ (1.5 to 2mM final concentration) are added and the incubation is continued at 37 degrees for 10 min. In Stage III, more Mg-2+ is added to make the final Mg-2+ concentration of the incubation mixture 5 mM, and the reactions are further incubated at ice bath temperature for 10 min. The reactions are then terminated by addition of excess cold wash buffer and filtered through Millipore filters. Under the standard assay conditions, the radioactivity bound to Millipore filters in the absence of ribosomes and AUG codon is markedly reduced. Addition of ribosomes alone gave a significant increase in the radioactivity bound to Millipore filters. A further 2- to 3-fold stimulation of binding of (35S)Met-tRNAf Met to Millipore filters was observed when both ribosomes and AUG codon were added. The Met

  20. The modified obstetric metabolic equivalent (MET): finding a MET that fits in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C G; Foster, R C; Lanningham-Foster, L M; Smith, K M

    2012-06-01

    The Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA) provides the energy expenditure (EE) for hundreds of daily activities reported in metabolic equivalents (MET). It remains to be determined if the metabolic changes of pregnancy alter the use of the CPA MET (METCPA) in this population. The energy cost of rest, activities of daily living (ADL; typing, folding laundry and sweeping) and treadmill walking [2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mph (0% incline), 3.0 mph (3% incline)] were compared with the METCPA from the 2000 and 2011 CPA in 30 pregnant women (10-14 weeks gestation) using indirect calorimetry (IC). The METCPA for each activity was compared against two measured IC values: METabsolute (3.5 ml O2/kg/min) and METratio (EEactivity/EErest). Means for both comparisons were tested by one-sample t-test. Measured MET correlated with the 2011 METCPA: METabsolute v. METCPA R 2 = 0.906, P < 0.0001; METratio v. METCPA R 2 = 0.861, P < 0.0001. Differences between measured MET values and the 2011 METCPA ranged from 16% underestimation to 48% overestimation. Using the absolute definition, the METCPA significantly overestimated the ADL (P < 0.0005); yet, no significant differences were found between walking at 0% grade and METCPA. Conversely, only folding laundry was significantly different with the ratio definition, whereas walking at a level grade was significantly underestimated (P < 0.0001). Similar observations were found using the 2000 CPA. The use of the METCPA to estimate EE in pregnant women can result in significant over- or underestimation, depending on the activity and the definition of the MET that is used.

  1. National Symposium for Business and Office Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Carmela C.; Thomas, Ellis R.

    Symposium participants met to develop guidelines for developing curriculum for the area of business and office education, K through adult. The session reports are presented in outline form according to topic definition, problem areas, and recommendations. Topics discussed include: organizational patterns in the business and office education…

  2. Absence of tpr-met and expression of c-met in human gastric mucosa and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heideman, D A; Snijders, P J; Bloemena, E; Meijer, C J; Offerhaus, G J; Meuwissen, S G; Gerritsen, W R; Craanen, M E

    2001-08-01

    The c-met proto-oncogene, encoding the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, can be activated by various mechanisms. These include, among others, gene amplification with concomitant overexpression and the tpr-met oncogenic rearrangement. In the case of gastric cancer, contradictory results on the presence of the tpr-met oncogenic rearrangement have been published. The current study aimed therefore to assess the prevalence of tpr-met expression in Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas, to evaluate the importance of this oncogene in their carcinogenesis. In addition, the level of c-met expression was determined, to evaluate the role of this alternative mode of activation of the proto-oncogene. A series of Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas (n=43) and normal gastric mucosal samples (n=14) was analysed for tpr-met and c-met expression. Expression of tpr-met mRNA in the samples was performed by two reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, with excellent correlation. The specificity of both methods was confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products of the MNNG-HOS cell line, which is known to contain the rearrangement. The level of c-met expression was assessed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry (IHC). None of the normal gastric mucosal or gastric adenocarcinoma samples expressed tpr-met mRNA, as determined by both RT-PCR assays. Seventy per cent of the adenocarcinomas showed overexpression of c-met, according to elevated c-met mRNA levels, compared with the expression level of normal gastric mucosa. A significant correlation was found between the level of c-met mRNA and protein expression. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that tpr-met activation does not play a role in Caucasian gastric carcinogenesis, while overexpression of the c-met gene occurs in the majority of Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas.

  3. An under-met and over-met expectations model of employee reactions to merit raises.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Merit pay raises were strongly related to reactions only among employees with high raise expectations and high PFP perceptions. The interactive effects of under-met/over-met expectations and PFP perceptions were mediated by the extent to which participants saw the raise as generous and they were happy with the raises they received. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for expectation-fulfillment theories, merit pay research, and the administration of incentives. PMID:18361641

  4. An under-met and over-met expectations model of employee reactions to merit raises.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Merit pay raises were strongly related to reactions only among employees with high raise expectations and high PFP perceptions. The interactive effects of under-met/over-met expectations and PFP perceptions were mediated by the extent to which participants saw the raise as generous and they were happy with the raises they received. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for expectation-fulfillment theories, merit pay research, and the administration of incentives.

  5. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  6. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, Sven; Carlton, James T; Duncan, Richard P; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.

  7. Unified Process Planning, the Allison approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Clair

    Process Planning, the organization of product/process information for the manufacturing enterprise, represents the lead activity within the manufacturing portion of a business. Process planning encompasses all aspects that contribute to the successful manufacture of a quality product. This paper explains the role of process planning and how a 'Unified Process Plan' (UPP) provides Allison with a more effective and organized method of manufacturing information management. This approach allows for a more effective use of the manufacturing engineering staff. Allison is transitioning to a knowledge base of process information that will be continually improved and accessible to every engineer and operator. Unified Process Planning focuses key pieces of information into one manageable and controlled environment.

  8. Grand unified hidden-sector dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2014-10-01

    We explore G×G unified theories with the visible and the hidden or dark sectors paired under a Z2 symmetry. Developing a system of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" we motivate such models on the basis of their ability to generate dark baryons that are confined with a mass scale just above that of the proton, as motivated by asymmetric dark matter. This difference is achieved from the distinct but related confinement scales that develop in unified theories that have the two factors of G spontaneously breaking in an asymmetric manner. We show how Higgs potentials that admit different gauge group breaking chains in each sector can be constructed, and demonstrate the capacity for generating different fermion mass scales. Lastly we discuss supersymmetric extensions of such schemes.

  9. Unifying multisensory signals across time and space.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M T; Roberson, G E; Hairston, W D; Stein, B E; Vaughan, J W; Schirillo, J A

    2004-09-01

    The brain integrates information from multiple sensory modalities and, through this process, generates a coherent and apparently seamless percept of the external world. Although multisensory integration typically binds information that is derived from the same event, when multisensory cues are somewhat discordant they can result in illusory percepts such as the "ventriloquism effect." These biases in stimulus localization are generally accompanied by the perceptual unification of the two stimuli. In the current study, we sought to further elucidate the relationship between localization biases, perceptual unification and measures of a participant's uncertainty in target localization (i.e., variability). Participants performed an auditory localization task in which they were also asked to report on whether they perceived the auditory and visual stimuli to be perceptually unified. The auditory and visual stimuli were delivered at a variety of spatial (0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees ) and temporal (200, 500, 800 ms) disparities. Localization bias and reports of perceptual unity occurred even with substantial spatial (i.e., 15 degrees ) and temporal (i.e., 800 ms) disparities. Trial-by-trial comparison of these measures revealed a striking correlation: regardless of their disparity, whenever the auditory and visual stimuli were perceived as unified, they were localized at or very near the light. In contrast, when the stimuli were perceived as not unified, auditory localization was often biased away from the visual stimulus. Furthermore, localization variability was significantly less when the stimuli were perceived as unified. Intriguingly, on non-unity trials such variability increased with decreasing disparity. Together, these results suggest strong and potentially mechanistic links between the multiple facets of multisensory integration that contribute to our perceptual Gestalt. PMID:15112119

  10. Unified Bertotti-Robinson and Melvin spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a solution for the Einstein-Maxwell equations which unifies both the magnetic Bertotti-Robinson and Melvin solutions as a single metric in the axially symmetric coordinates {t,ρ,z,φ}. Depending on the strength of magnetic field the spacetime manifold, unlike the cases of separate Bertotti-Robinson and Melvin spacetime, develops singularity on the symmetry axis (ρ=0). Our analysis shows, beside other things, that there are regions inaccessible to all null geodesics.

  11. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  12. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  13. Unifying theory for terrestrial research infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirtl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will elaborate on basic steps needed for building a common theoretical base between Research Infrastructures focusing on terrestrial ecosystems. This theoretical base is needed for developing a better cooperation and integrating in the near future. An overview of different theories will be given and ways to a unifying approach explored. In the second step more practical implications of a theory-guided integration will be developed alongside the following guiding questions: • How do the existing and planned European environmental RIs map on a possible unifying theory on terrestrial ecosystems (covered structures and functions, scale; overlaps and gaps) • Can a unifying theory improve the consistent definition of RÍs scientific scope and focal science questions? • How could a division of tasks between RIs be organized in order to minimize parallel efforts? • Where concretely do existing and planned European environmental RIs need to interact to respond to overarching questions (top down component)? • What practical fora and mechanisms (across RIs) would be needed to bridge the gap between PI driven (bottom up) efforts and the centralistic RI design and operations?

  14. Central Office Inquiry: Assessing Organization, Roles, and Functions to Support School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agullard, Kim; Goughnour, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Schools working to raise student achievement need the help of an organized, focused central office. Yet many districts lack unified direction, agreement on the central office role in supporting school improvement, and coherence and alignment between goals and strategies. Drawing on the findings of a three-year study of several districts focused on…

  15. MetRxn: a knowledgebase of metabolites and reactions spanning metabolic models and databases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasingly, metabolite and reaction information is organized in the form of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions that describe the reaction stoichiometry, directionality, and gene to protein to reaction associations. A key bottleneck in the pace of reconstruction of new, high-quality metabolic models is the inability to directly make use of metabolite/reaction information from biological databases or other models due to incompatibilities in content representation (i.e., metabolites with multiple names across databases and models), stoichiometric errors such as elemental or charge imbalances, and incomplete atomistic detail (e.g., use of generic R-group or non-explicit specification of stereo-specificity). Description MetRxn is a knowledgebase that includes standardized metabolite and reaction descriptions by integrating information from BRENDA, KEGG, MetaCyc, Reactome.org and 44 metabolic models into a single unified data set. All metabolite entries have matched synonyms, resolved protonation states, and are linked to unique structures. All reaction entries are elementally and charge balanced. This is accomplished through the use of a workflow of lexicographic, phonetic, and structural comparison algorithms. MetRxn allows for the download of standardized versions of existing genome-scale metabolic models and the use of metabolic information for the rapid reconstruction of new ones. Conclusions The standardization in description allows for the direct comparison of the metabolite and reaction content between metabolic models and databases and the exhaustive prospecting of pathways for biotechnological production. This ever-growing dataset currently consists of over 76,000 metabolites participating in more than 72,000 reactions (including unresolved entries). MetRxn is hosted on a web-based platform that uses relational database models (MySQL). PMID:22233419

  16. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  17. Salmonella typhimurium metC operator-constitutive mutations.

    PubMed

    Park, Y M; Stauffer, G V

    1989-07-15

    We used an Escherichia coli lac deletion strain lysogenized with a metC-lacZ fusion phage (lambda Clac) to select operator-constitutive mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium metC gene control region. The mutations were located in a region containing 2 tandemly repeated 8 bp palindromes previously proposed to be the MetJ repressor binding site. Lysogens carrying lambda Clac mutant phage exhibit high beta-galactosidase levels that are only partially repressible by methionine. The results suggest that the mutations disrupt the methionine control system mediated by the metJ gene product. PMID:2506106

  18. Neon: the UK Met office electro-optic tactical decision aid-current and future capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S.; Wilson, D.; Lewis, W.

    2010-10-01

    The thermal contrast between two surfaces can vary dramatically with the atmospheric conditions. "Neon" is an application to predict the thermal contrast between different surfaces and their backgrounds, and the apparent contrast, given atmospheric conditions, when a target surface and background are viewed through a remotely situated infra-red camera. It is typically used in military assessments of how visible a target will be at a particular range. Recent research work to Neon has concentrated on the conversion of these apparent temperatures to more user-relevant descriptions of the detectability of the target. Accordingly, a development version of Neon now outputs "Detect", "Recognize" and "Identify" guidance. This paper briefly outlines the Neon concepts and then explores the methods behind the calculation of these detectability ranges and probabilities, and their comparison with a simple target acquisition range based only on the apparent contrast of the target and background. It finally explores how variations in the atmosphere impact upon the detectability of a target, and how the atmospheric impact will change with future improvements in sensor technology.

  19. A unified analysis and design procedure for a standardized control module for dc-dc switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Yu, Y.; Mahmoud, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Three basic switching regulators: buck, boost, and buck/boost, employing a multi-loop control module (SCM) were characterized by a common small signal block diagram. Employing the unified model, regulator performances such as stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and step load transient are analyzed and key performance indexes are expressed in simple analytical forms. More importantly, the performance characteristics of all three regulators are shown to enjoy common properties due to the unique SCM control scheme which nullifies the positive zero and provides adaptive compensation to the moving poles of the boost and buck/boost converters. This allows a simple unified design procedure to be devised for selecting the key SCM control parameters for an arbitrarily given power stage configuration and parameter values, such that all regulator performance specifications can be met and optimized concurrently in a single design attempt.

  20. Oncogenic activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein, Tpr-Met, involves exclusion from the endocytic degradative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, H H L; Peschard, P; Lin, T; Naujokas, M A; Zuo, D; Park, M

    2007-11-01

    Multiple mechanisms of dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are observed in human cancers. In addition to gain-of-function, loss of negative regulation also contributes to oncogenic activation of RTKs. Negative regulation of many RTKs involves their internalization and degradation in the lysosome, a process regulated through ubiquitination. RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation, are no longer transmembrane proteins, and are predicted to escape lysosomal degradation. To test this, we used the Tpr-Met oncogene, generated following chromosomal translocation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met). Unlike Met, Tpr-Met is localized in the cytoplasm and also lacks the binding site for Cbl ubiquitin ligases. We determined whether subcellular localization of Tpr-Met, and/or loss of its Cbl-binding site, is important for oncogenic activity. Presence of a Cbl-binding site and ubiquitination of cytosolic Tpr-Met oncoproteins does not alter their transforming activity. In contrast, plasma membrane targeting allows Tpr-Met to enter the endocytic pathway, and Tpr-Met transforming activity as well as protein stability are decreased in a Cbl-dependent manner. We show that transformation by Tpr-Met is in part dependent on its ability to escape normal downregulatory mechanisms. This provides a paradigm for many RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation.

  1. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Falbo, Ryan; Parisi, Fabio; Adeniran, Adebowale; Kluger, Yuval; Kluger, Harriet M.; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P = 0.1). MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R = 0.5) and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P = 0.39). Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents. PMID:26448928

  2. Solving CASMI 2013 with MetFrag, MetFusion and MOLGEN-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Emma L; Gerlich, Michael; Ruttkies, Christoph; Neumann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The second Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification (CASMI) contest took place in 2013. A joint team from the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) participated in CASMI 2013 with an automatic workflow-style entry. MOLGEN-MS/MS was used for Category 1, molecular formula calculation, restricted by the information given for each challenge. MetFrag and MetFusion were used for Category 2, structure identification, retrieving candidates from the compound databases KEGG, PubChem and ChemSpider and joining these lists pre-submission. The results from Category 1 were used to guide whether formula or exact mass searches were performed for Category 2. The Category 2 results were impressive considering the database size and automated regime used, although these could not compete with the manual approach of the contest winner. The Category 1 results were affected by large m/z and ppm values in the challenge data, where strategies beyond pure enumeration from other participants were more successful. However, the combination used for the CASMI 2013 entries was extremely useful for developing decision-making criteria for automatic, high throughput general unknown (non-target) identification and for future contests.

  3. Unified Field Mechanics: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    Recently we hear more and more physicists saying, `spacetime is doomed', `spacetime is a mirage', the `end of spacetime', `spacetime is not fundamental but emergent' etc. "Henceforth space by itself and time by itself are doomed to fade into the mere shadows, and only a union of the two will preserve an independent reality." - 1908 Hermann Minkowski. We have come full circle from the time of Minkowski's 1908 statement to the brink of an imminent new age of discovery. The basis of our understanding of the natural world has evolved in modern times from Newtonian Mechanics to the 2nd regime of Quantum Mechanics; and now to the threshold of a 3rd regime - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). The Planck scale stochastic quantum realm can no longer be considered the `basement' or fundamental level of reality. As hard as quantum reality was to imagine so is the fact that the quantum domain is a manifold of finite radius; and that the `sacrosanct - indelible' Quantum Uncertainty Principle can now be surmounted. For decades main stream physicists have been stymied by efforts to reconcile General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The stumbling block lies with the two theories conflicting views of space and time: For quantum theory, space and time offer a fixed backcloth against which particles move. In Einstein's relativities, space and time are not only inextricably linked, but the resultant spacetime is warped by the matter within it. In our nascent UFM paradigm for arcane reasons the quantum manifold is not the regime of integration with gravity; it is instead integrated with the domain of the unified field where the forces of nature are deemed to unify. We give a simplistic survey of the fundamental premises of UFM and summarize experimental protocols to falsify the model at this stage of the paradigm's development.

  4. Success, but Slowly, as Met School Redefines Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Seven Oaks Met School, the only high school in Canada that is part of the U.S.-based Big Picture Learning network of innovative schools, graduated its first class this spring. Internships with businesses and institutions in the community are a core element of the Met School experience. Students report on their internship experience, as well as on…

  5. Aptamers Binding to c-Met Inhibiting Tumor Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Piater, Birgit; Doerner, Achim; Guenther, Ralf; Kolmar, Harald; Hock, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in the control of critical cellular processes. Since c-Met is frequently over expressed or deregulated in human malignancies, blocking its activation is of special interest for therapy. In normal conditions, the c-Met receptor is activated by its bivalent ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Also bivalent antibodies can activate the receptor by cross linking, limiting therapeutic applications. We report the generation of the RNA aptamer CLN64 containing 2'-fluoro pyrimidine modifications by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). CLN64 and a previously described single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer CLN3 exhibited high specificities and affinities to recombinant and cellular expressed c-Met. Both aptamers effectively inhibited HGF-dependent c-Met activation, signaling and cell migration. We showed that these aptamers did not induce c-Met activation, revealing an advantage over bivalent therapeutic molecules. Both aptamers were shown to bind overlapping epitopes but only CLN3 competed with HGF binding to cMet. In addition to their therapeutic and diagnostic potential, CLN3 and CLN64 aptamers exhibit valuable tools to further understand the structural and functional basis for c-Met activation or inhibition by synthetic ligands and their interplay with HGF binding. PMID:26658271

  6. Proposal for a unified CCN nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Brigstock, D R; Goldschmeding, R; Katsube, K-i; Lam, S C-T; Lau, L F; Lyons, K; Naus, C; Perbal, B; Riser, B; Takigawa, M; Yeger, H

    2003-04-01

    A proposal is put forth to unify the nomenclature of the CCN family of secreted, cysteine rich regulatory proteins. In the order of their description in the literature, CCN1 (CYR61), CCN2 (CTGF), CCN3 (NOV), CCN4 (WISP-1), CCN5 (WISP-2), and CCN6 (WISP-3) constitute a family of matricellular proteins that regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation, at least in part through integrin mediated mechanisms. This proposal is endorsed by the International CCN Society and will serve to eliminate confusion from the multiple names that have been given to these molecules. PMID:12665631

  7. Unified framework for systematic loop transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.C.; Chen, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a formal mathematical framework which unifies the existing loop transformations. This framework also includes more general classes of loop transformations, which can extract more parallelism from a class of programs than the existing techniques. We classify schedules into three classes: uniform, subdomain-variant, and statement-variant. Viewing from the degree of parallelism to be gained by loop transformation, the schedules can also be classified as single-sequential level, multiple-sequential level, and mixed schedules. We also illustrate the usefulness of the more general loop transformation with an example program.

  8. Unified formalism for nonautonomous mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Diego, David Martín de; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2008-06-01

    We present a unified geometric framework for describing both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of regular and nonregular time-dependent mechanical systems, which is based on the approach of Skinner and Rusk ["Generalized Hamiltonian dynamics I. Formulation on T*Q⊗TQ," J. Math. Phys. 24, 2589 (1983)]. The dynamical equations of motion and their compatibility and consistency are carefully studied, making clear that all the characteristics of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are recovered in this formulation. As an example, a semidiscretization of the nonlinear wave equation is studied, proving the applicability of the proposed formalism.

  9. Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Compiler

    2003-04-06

    This program is a portable, open-source, compiler for the UPC language, which is based on the Open64 framework, and has extensive support for optimizations. This compiler operated by translating UPC into ANS/ISO C for compilation by a native compiler and linking with a UPC Runtime Library. This design eases portability to both shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. For proper operation the "Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library" and its dependencies are required. Compatiblemore » replacements which implement "The Berkeley UPC Runtime Specification" are possible.« less

  10. A Unifying Probabilistic View of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Two important ideas about associative learning have emerged in recent decades: (1) Animals are Bayesian learners, tracking their uncertainty about associations; and (2) animals acquire long-term reward predictions through reinforcement learning. Both of these ideas are normative, in the sense that they are derived from rational design principles. They are also descriptive, capturing a wide range of empirical phenomena that troubled earlier theories. This article describes a unifying framework encompassing Bayesian and reinforcement learning theories of associative learning. Each perspective captures a different aspect of associative learning, and their synthesis offers insight into phenomena that neither perspective can explain on its own. PMID:26535896

  11. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  12. Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows.

    PubMed

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-08-01

    Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems. PMID:27627398

  13. Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

  14. Inelastic mechanics: A unifying principle in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Gralka, Matti; Kroy, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Many soft materials are classified as viscoelastic. They behave mechanically neither quite fluid-like nor quite solid-like - rather a bit of both. Biomaterials are often said to fall into this class. Here, we argue that this misses a crucial aspect, and that biomechanics is essentially damage mechanics, at heart. When deforming an animal cell or tissue, one can hardly avoid inducing the unfolding of protein domains, the unbinding of cytoskeletal crosslinkers, the breaking of weak sacrificial bonds, and the disruption of transient adhesions. We classify these activated structural changes as inelastic. They are often to a large degree reversible and are therefore not plastic in the proper sense, but they dissipate substantial amounts of elastic energy by structural damping. We review recent experiments involving biological materials on all scales, from single biopolymers over cells to model tissues, to illustrate the unifying power of this paradigm. A deliberately minimalistic yet phenomenologically very rich mathematical modeling framework for inelastic biomechanics is proposed. It transcends the conventional viscoelastic paradigm and suggests itself as a promising candidate for a unified description and interpretation of a wide range of experimental data. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  15. Toward a unifying framework for evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Tiago; Badkobeh, Golnaz; Barton, Nick; Çörüş, Doğan; Dang, Duc-Cuong; Friedrich, Tobias; Lehre, Per Kristian; Sudholt, Dirk; Sutton, Andrew M.; Trubenová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    The theory of population genetics and evolutionary computation have been evolving separately for nearly 30 years. Many results have been independently obtained in both fields and many others are unique to its respective field. We aim to bridge this gap by developing a unifying framework for evolutionary processes that allows both evolutionary algorithms and population genetics models to be cast in the same formal framework. The framework we present here decomposes the evolutionary process into its several components in order to facilitate the identification of similarities between different models. In particular, we propose a classification of evolutionary operators based on the defining properties of the different components. We cast several commonly used operators from both fields into this common framework. Using this, we map different evolutionary and genetic algorithms to different evolutionary regimes and identify candidates with the most potential for the translation of results between the fields. This provides a unified description of evolutionary processes and represents a stepping stone towards new tools and results to both fields. PMID:26215686

  16. Multicategory Large-Margin Unified Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Liu, Yufeng

    2013-05-01

    Hard and soft classifiers are two important groups of techniques for classification problems. Logistic regression and Support Vector Machines are typical examples of soft and hard classifiers respectively. The essential difference between these two groups is whether one needs to estimate the class conditional probability for the classification task or not. In particular, soft classifiers predict the label based on the obtained class conditional probabilities, while hard classifiers bypass the estimation of probabilities and focus on the decision boundary. In practice, for the goal of accurate classification, it is unclear which one to use in a given situation. To tackle this problem, the Large-margin Unified Machine (LUM) was recently proposed as a unified family to embrace both groups. The LUM family enables one to study the behavior change from soft to hard binary classifiers. For multicategory cases, however, the concept of soft and hard classification becomes less clear. In that case, class probability estimation becomes more involved as it requires estimation of a probability vector. In this paper, we propose a new Multicategory LUM (MLUM) framework to investigate the behavior of soft versus hard classification under multicategory settings. Our theoretical and numerical results help to shed some light on the nature of multicategory classification and its transition behavior from soft to hard classifiers. The numerical results suggest that the proposed tuned MLUM yields very competitive performance.

  17. Minimal realistic SU(5) Grand Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Despite making predictions in unprecedented agreement with experiment, such as the magnetic dipole moment of the electron to one part in a billion, the experimental confirmation of neutrino flavor oscillations, and thus of massive neutrinos, implies that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is incomplete. An extension of the SM, which retains its low energy predictions while accounting for massive neutrinos, is achieved through the introduction of the dimension 5 Weinberg operator and its associated energy scale above the electroweak (102 GeV), but below the Planck scale (1019 GeV). The Beyond Standard Model (BSM) class of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) implicates such a scale (1016 GeV) in the unification of the three SM gauge couplings, thus making the origin of neutrino mass a theoretically appealing probe into particle behavior at energies currently inaccessible experimentally. Here, we compare the 24F and 15H extensions of the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) GUT to accommodate massive neutrinos and to unify SM gauge couplings while minimizing the theory's additional field content. Using the Monte Carlo event generator MadGraph, each extension is found to produce distinct signatures at the run II of the LHC.

  18. Simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songze; Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The equilibrium part of the UGKS flux is calculated by analytical solution instead of the numerical quadrature in velocity space. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conventional discrete ordinate method. Several simplification strategies are tested, through which we can identify the key ingredient of the Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving property. Numerical tests show that, as long as the collision effect is built into the macroscopic numerical flux, the numerical scheme is Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving, regardless the accuracy of the microscopic numerical flux for the velocity distribution function. PMID:27627418

  19. Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-08-01

    Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems.

  20. Simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songze; Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The equilibrium part of the UGKS flux is calculated by analytical solution instead of the numerical quadrature in velocity space. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conventional discrete ordinate method. Several simplification strategies are tested, through which we can identify the key ingredient of the Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving property. Numerical tests show that, as long as the collision effect is built into the macroscopic numerical flux, the numerical scheme is Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving, regardless the accuracy of the microscopic numerical flux for the velocity distribution function.

  1. Annual report, Office of the Inspector General

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    Activities during the period January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 are reported. First, an overview of the progress and problems encountered by this office during the last calendar year is given. Next, certain matters of concern relating to the independence of the office and the ability to work effectively are discussed. Then progress being made and problems being met in forward planning are reviewed. The existing office organizational and staffing patterns are described in the subsequent section. Then weaknesses of the existing DOE overall audit system are discussed. Work done by the IG audit, inspection, and investigative staffs during 1979 is reviewed. Summaries of significant IG findings and recommendations, and of departmental responses thereto, are included. Finally, follow-through activities and certain developments during 1979 that were of importance to the office are described. (RWR)

  2. Work Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers. A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a rapid response police unit. Method Work-related stress was continuously monitored during the 5-year period with both the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured at baseline in January 2009, and in January 2014. 234 out of 290 police officers (81%) completed the follow-up. Results The majority of police officers had high stress levels. At follow-up, police officers in the highest quartile of stress had significantly higher mean levels of triglycerides, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol than their colleagues in the lowest quartile. Police officers with high stress had an increased adjusted risk of developing MetS (aOR = 2.68; CI95% = 1.08–6.70), and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR = 7.86; CI95 = 1.29–48.04). Demand and Effort were significant predictors of MetS. Conclusion Our study supports the hypothesis that work-related stress induces MetS, particularly through its effects on blood lipids. Future longitudinal studies with continuous monitoring of stress levels will definitively confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26641879

  3. Imaging the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (Met) and Assessing Tumor Responses to a Met Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Human Xenograft Mouse Models with a [99mTc] (AH-113018) or Cy 5** (AH-112543) Labeled Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, Elaine M; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Kalen, Joseph; Riffle, Lisa; Leeder, Avrum; Histed, Stephanie; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen J; Xu, Biying; Szajek, Lawrence P; Elbuluk, Osama; Cecchi, Fabiola; Raffensperger, Kristen; Golla, Meghana; Bottaro, Donald P; Choyke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Developing an imaging agent targeting the hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein (Met) status of cancerous lesions would aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of Met-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A peptide targeting Met labeled with [(99m)Tc] had high affinity in vitro (Kd = 3.3 nM) and detected relative changes in Met in human cancer cell lines. In vivo [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide (AH-113018) was retained in Met-expressing tumors, and high-expressing Met tumors (MKN-45) were easily visualized and quantitated using single-photon emission computed tomography or optical imaging. In further studies, MKN-45 mouse xenografts treated with PHA 665752 (Met TKI) or vehicle were monitored weekly for tumor responses by [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide imaging and measurement of tumor volumes. Tumor uptake of [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide was significantly decreased as early as 1 week after PHA 665752 treatment, corresponding to decreases in tumor volumes. These results were comparable to Cy5**-Met peptide (AH-112543) fluorescence imaging using the same treatment model. [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide tumor uptake was further validated by histologic (necrosis, apoptosis) and immunoassay (total Met, p Met, and plasma shed Met) assessments in imaged and nonimaged cohorts. These data suggest that [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide imaging may have clinical diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic monitoring applications. PMID:26461980

  4. Clinical Data Element Ontology for Unified Indexing and Retrieval of Data Elements across Multiple Metadata Registries

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Senator; Kim, Hye Hyeon; Park, Yu Rang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Classification of data elements (DEs), which is used in clinical documents is challenging, even in across ISO/IEC 11179 compliant clinical metadata registries (MDRs) due to no existence of reliable standard for identifying DEs. We suggest the Clinical Data Element Ontology (CDEO) for unified indexing and retrieval of DEs across MDRs. Methods The CDEO was developed through harmonization of existing clinical document models and empirical analysis of MDRs. For specific classification as using data element concept (DEC), The Simple Knowledge Organization System was chosen to represent and organize the DECs. Six basic requirements also were set that the CDEO must meet, including indexing target to be a DEC, organizing DECs using their semantic relationships. For evaluation of the CDEO, three indexers mapped 400 DECs to more than 1 CDEO term in order to determine whether the CDEO produces a consistent index to a given DEC. The level of agreement among the indexers was determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results We developed CDEO with 578 concepts. Through two application use-case scenarios, usability of the CDEO is evaluated and it fully met all of the considered requirements. The ICC among the three indexers was estimated to be 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.66). Conclusions The CDEO organizes DECs originating from different MDRs into a single unified conceptual structure. It enables highly selective search and retrieval of relevant DEs from multiple MDRs for clinical documentation and clinical research data aggregation. PMID:25405066

  5. Conservation biogeography of mammals in the Cerrado biome under the unified theory of macroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Guilherme; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Rangel, Thiago F. L. V. B.

    2009-09-01

    Understanding what limits the distribution and abundance of species is critical for adopting optimal conservation planning strategies, although it is still difficult to obtain abundance data at broad spatial scales. Here we propose conservation priorities in the Brazilian Cerrado based on density values of 108 mammal species. These values were estimated by an abundant-centre model coupled with McGill and Collin's unified theory for macroecology. We assumed that species' densities decay with a Gaussian distribution towards the range borders from a maximum density placed at the centre of each species' range. We used allometric equations to estimate maximum densities, at the Cerrado region we corrected the estimated densities by the natural vegetation remnants. Then we used a Simulated Annealing algorithm to select alternative sets of areas that met several levels of minimum viable population sizes (MVPSs) for each species. With low MVPSs, there were a small number of highly irreplaceable areas located in the northwest region of the biome, whereas with high MVPSs, highly irreplaceable areas occurred in up to 95% of the biome. By incorporating principles from the unified theory of macroecology, we were able to generate a conservation network for the Cerrado biome aiming to prioritise species' persistence and not just their presence.

  6. ASI/MET Within Color-Enhanced Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

    At the bottom of the image, two of the Lander petals are visible. At the extreme right of the image, the Atmospheric Structure Instrument and Meteorology package (ASI/MET) mast, with its three windsocks, is visible.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract

  7. Unified Ultrasonic/Eddy-Current Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging station for detecting cracks and flaws in solid materials developed combining both ultrasonic C-scan and eddy-current imaging. Incorporation of both techniques into one system eliminates duplication of computers and of mechanical scanners; unifies acquisition, processing, and storage of data; reduces setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy-current scans; and increases efficiency of system. Same mechanical scanner used to maneuver either ultrasonic or eddy-current probe over specimen and acquire point-by-point data. For ultrasonic scanning, probe linked to ultrasonic pulser/receiver circuit card, while, for eddy-current imaging, probe linked to impedance-analyzer circuit card. Both ultrasonic and eddy-current imaging subsystems share same desktop-computer controller, containing dedicated plug-in circuit boards for each.

  8. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  9. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  10. A unified approach to the Darwin approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Todd B.; Apte, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2007-10-15

    There are two basic approaches to the Darwin approximation. The first involves solving the Maxwell equations in Coulomb gauge and then approximating the vector potential to remove retardation effects. The second approach approximates the Coulomb gauge equations themselves, then solves these exactly for the vector potential. There is no a priori reason that these should result in the same approximation. Here, the equivalence of these two approaches is investigated and a unified framework is provided in which to view the Darwin approximation. Darwin's original treatment is variational in nature, but subsequent applications of his ideas in the context of Vlasov's theory are not. We present here action principles for the Darwin approximation in the Vlasov context, and this serves as a consistency check on the use of the approximation in this setting.

  11. Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2011-01-15

    We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.

  12. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.; Gu, P.-H.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy ({nu}DE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2){sub R} breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1){sub R} is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  13. Unified constitutive equations of foam materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Fu S.; Song, Y.; Lu, D.X.; DeSilva, C.N.

    1998-07-01

    Foam materials, because of their energy absorbing and recovery behavior during impact as well as lightweight and moldable characteristics, have found more and more applications in the automotive industry. A unified constitutive equation with the effect of compression strain rate, tension strain, and shear strain for foam materials with very low Poisson`s ratio has been developed. The mathematical derivation of the constitutive equation is described in detail. The effect of each parameter in the constitutive equation is studied. Numerical formula and procedure are also included in the paper. The test data of two types of energy absorbing foam materials are used for correlation study: polyurethane foam, which was tested at five compressive strain rates, and polypropylene foam, which was tested for quasi-static compression, tension, and shear. Good correlations have been concluded for both cases.

  14. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  15. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  16. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  17. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction.

    PubMed

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians.

  18. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction.

    PubMed

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  19. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase as an Autism Genetic Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yun; Huentelman, Matthew; Smith, Christopher; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we will briefly discuss recent literature on the role of MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in brain development and how perturbation of MET signaling may alter normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent human genetic studies have established MET as a risk factor for autism, and the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this genetic risk are only beginning to emerge from obscurity. Unlike many autism risk genes that encode synaptic proteins, the spatial and temporal expression pattern of MET RTK indicates this signaling system is ideally situated to regulate neuronal growth, functional maturation, and establishment of functional brain circuits, particularly in those brain structures involved in higher levels of cognition, social skills, and executive functions. PMID:24290385

  20. NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Surface Winds Air Temperature Humidity Solar Irradiance Particulate Matter Ultraviolet Radiation Surface Pressure Nitric Acid Aerosol Extinction Aerosol Backscatter ...

  1. NARSTO PAC2001 LANGLEY GAS PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 LANGLEY GAS PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Chemiliminescence GC-MS Ion Chromatograph Pressure Sensor Temperature Probe Humidity Sensor Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector ...

  2. Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented are first-revision materials of the K-12 unified science program implemented in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are given of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and…

  3. Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented is the second part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are made of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of the bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, a scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

  4. 24 CFR 578.41 - Unified Funding Agency costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Unified Funding Agency costs. 578.41 Section 578.41 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 578.41 Unified Funding Agency costs. (a) In general. UFAs may use up to 3 percent of their FPRN, or...

  5. Educating All Students Together: How School Leaders Create Unified Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrello, Leonard C.; Lashley, Carl; Beatty, Edith E.

    This book established a plan for creating a truly integrated educational system, one that unifies the separate and parallel systems of special and general education. Chapter 1, "Students at the Margins," explores the dual tragedy of discouraged and disinterested students and presents eight essential questions guiding a unified system of…

  6. Unified Early Childhood Personnel Preparation Programs: Perceptions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMontagne, M. J.; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Stayton, Vicki; Carr, Victoria; Bauer, Anne M.; Carpenter, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of unified early childhood personnel preparation programs by 28 faculty members in such programs and by graduates (n=42) of unified, dual, or separate exceptional child education or exceptional child special education programs. Faculty stressed the importance of commitment and collaborative problem solving. The…

  7. A Unified Scaling Law in Spiral Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Koda; Sofue; Wada

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the origin of a unified scaling relation in spiral galaxies. Observed spiral galaxies are spread on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of luminosity L, radius R, and rotation velocity V. The plane is expressed as L~&parl0;VR&parr0;alpha in the I passband, where alpha is a constant. On the plane, observed galaxies are distributed in an elongated region which looks like the shape of a surfboard. The well-known scaling relations L-V (Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), V-R (also the TF relation), and R-L (Freeman's law) can be understood as oblique projections of the surfboard-like plane into two-dimensional spaces. This unified interpretation of the known scaling relations should be a clue to understand the physical origin of all the relations consistently. Furthermore, this interpretation can also explain why previous studies could not find any correlation between TF residuals and radius. In order to clarify the origin of this plane, we simulate formation and evolution of spiral galaxies with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, including cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback. Initial conditions are set to 14 isolated spheres with two free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum. The cold dark matter (h=0.5, Omega0=1) cosmology is considered as a test case. The simulations provide the following two conclusions: (1) The slope of the plane is well reproduced but the zero point is not. This zero-point discrepancy could be solved in a low-density (Omega0<1) and high-expansion (h>0.5) cosmology. (2) The surfboard-shaped plane can be explained by the control of galactic mass and angular momentum.

  8. Unifying drug safety and clinical databases.

    PubMed

    Burnstead, Barry; Furlan, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and drugs safety organisations run their operation independently and use separate databases designed to comply with different data standards. This separation is neither efficient nor effective since investigators need to report serious adverse events both to the clinical and drug safety departments, causing the respective databases to contain partially overlapping data sets containing common elements that need to be reconciled. Electronic data capture provides the opportunity to avoid duplicate storage and obviate reconciliation. It also introduces the risk of non-compliance due to late submission of unexpected serious adverse reactions to competent authorities. This raises the potential for a clinical department to receive a case that the drug safety department is unaware of. However, the most significant inefficiency probably lies in the preparation of aggregate reports and regulatory documents that need to be prepared using data originating from both databases. In a resource-constrained world, unnecessary activities and associated costs are unwelcome, particularly when they are avoidable. The Clinical Data Interchange Consortium (CDISC) has set the standards for clinical trial data, while the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) dictates drug safety ones. CDISC is expanding its Clinical Data Acquisition Standards Harmonisation (CDASH) model to capture adverse event data associated with ICH E2B. All common data items have two labels that have been mapped. This exercise is showing that there is no scientific justification for data segregation. The differences between these two standards can be attributed to conventions or arise from new technology that renders unnecessary the keying in of certain context information (dates, times and recorder ID). Once this mapping is completed then a common data acquisition process will become feasible. This is the prerequisite to ultimately unifying the two databases and to implementing more efficient

  9. COMT val158met predicts reward responsiveness in humans.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T M; Linden, D E; Heerey, E A

    2012-11-01

    A functional variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene [val158met (rs4680)] is frequently implicated in decision-making and higher cognitive functions. It may achieve its effects by modulating dopamine-related decision-making and reward-guided behaviour. Here we demonstrate that individuals with the met/met polymorphism have greater responsiveness to reward than carriers of the val allele and that this correlates with risk-seeking behaviour. We assessed performance on a reward responsiveness task and the Balloon analogue risk task, which measure how participants (N = 70, western European, university and postgraduate students) respond to reward and take risks in the presence of available reward. Individuals with the met/met genotype (n = 19) showed significantly higher reward responsiveness, F2,64 = 4.02, P = 0.02, and reward-seeking behaviour, F(2,68) = 4.52, P = 0.01, than did either val/met (n = 25) or val/val (n = 26) carriers. These results highlight a scenario in which genotype-dependent reward responsiveness shapes reward-seeking, therefore suggesting a novel framework by which COMT may modulate behaviour. PMID:22900954

  10. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: • MetBaro Pressure device • MetHumi Humidity device • MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: • PanCam Panoramic • MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer • DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: • Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA • Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special

  11. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL).The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior.The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined.

  12. Expressions and clinical significances of c-MET, p-MET and E2f-1 in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate on the expressions and the clinical significances of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), phosphorylated c-MET (p-MET) and e2f-1 transcription factor in primary lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Method Tissue samples from the primary lesion of GC in patients who accepted D2/D3 radical gastrectomy with R0/R1 resection were stained by immunohistochemistry of c-MET, p-MET, e2f-1 and Ki-67. The univariate and the multivariate analyses involving in clinicopathological parameters and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results The positivity rates for c-MET (66.12%, 80 cases/121 cases), p-MET (59.50%, 72 cases/121 cases), e2f-1 (38.84%, 47 cases/121 cases) and Ki-67 (72.73%, 88 cases/121 cases) in primary lesion of GC was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous tissue at 5 cm places far from the margin of primary lesion (P < 0.05, respectively). The deeper tumor invasion, the severer lymph node metastasis, the later stage of TNM and the higher expression of Ki-67 was respectively an independent risk factor for the higher expression of c-MET or p-MET, but the younger age and the shorter survival time was an independent risk factor for the higher expression of e2f-1 respectively. Survival analysis showed that the worse prognosis could be observed in the patients with the combination of both c-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.038) or both p-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.042). Cox analysis demonstrated that the severer lymphatic node metastasis and the higher positivity rate of c-MET, p-MET or e2f-1 were an independent prognosis factor respectively. The higher expression of e2f-1 was identified in patients with Stage I-II, which correlated with a shorter survival time. Survival analysis also revealed that the prognosis of patients with positive expression of e2f-1 at Stage I-II was significantly worse than that in patients with negative expression of e2f-1 (χ2 = 13.437, P = 0.001). However, in

  13. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls.

  14. Hyperresonance Unifying Theory and the resulting Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2012-07-01

    Hyperresonance Unifying Theory (HUT) is herein conceived based on theoretical and experimental geophysics, as that absolute extension of both Multiverse and String Theories, in which all universes (the Hyperverse) - of non-prescribed energies and scales - mutually orbit as well as oscillate in tune. The motivation for this is to explain oddities of "attraction at a distance" and physical unit(s) attached to the Newtonian gravitational constant G. In order to make sure HUT holds absolutely, we operate over non-temporal, unitless and quantities with derived units only. A HUT's harmonic geophysical localization (here for the Earth-Moon system; the Georesonator) is indeed achieved for mechanist and quantum scales, in form of the Moon's Equation of Levitation (of Anti-gravity). HUT holds true for our Solar system the same as its localized equation holds down to the precision of terrestrial G-experiments, regardless of the scale: to 10^-11 and 10^-39 for mechanist and quantum scales, respectively. Due to its absolute accuracy (within NIST experimental limits), the derived equation is regarded a law. HUT can indeed be demonstrated for our entire Solar system in various albeit empirical ways. In summary, HUT shows: (i) how classical gravity can be expressed in terms of scale and the speed of light; (ii) the tuning-forks principle is universal; (iii) the body's fundamental oscillation note is not a random number as previously believed; (iv) earthquakes of about M6 and stronger arise mainly due to Earth's alignments longer than three days to two celestial objects in our Solar system, whereas M7+ earthquakes occur mostly during two simultaneous such alignments; etc. HUT indicates: (v) quantum physics is objectocentric, i.e. trivial in absolute terms so it cannot be generalized beyond classical mass-bodies; (vi) geophysics is largely due to the magnification of mass resonance; etc. HUT can be extended to multiverse (10^17) and string scales (10^-67) too, providing a constraint

  15. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30-40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  16. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30–40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  17. Met interacts with EGFR and Ron in canine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    McCleese, J K; Bear, M D; Kulp, S K; Mazcko, C; Khanna, C; London, C A

    2013-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is known to be over-expressed in canine osteosarcoma (OSA). In human cancers, the RTKs Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ron are frequently co-expressed and engage in heterodimerization, altering signal transduction and promoting resistance to targeted therapeutics. We found that EGFR and Ron are expressed in canine OSA cell lines and primary tissues, EGFR and Ron are frequently phosphorylated in OSA tumour samples, and Met is co-associated with EGFR and Ron in canine OSA cell lines. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation induced amplification of ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in OSA cells and Met was phosphorylated following TGFα stimulation providing evidence for receptor cross-talk. Lastly, treatment of OSA cells with combined gefitinib and crizotinib inhibited cell proliferation in an additive manner. Together, these data support the notion that Met, EGFR and Ron interact in OSA cells and as such, may represent viable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Met interacts with EGFR and Ron in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    McCleese, J. K.; Bear, M. D.; Kulp, S. K.; Mazcko, C.; Khanna, C.; London, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is known to be over-expressed in canine osteosarcoma (OSA). In human cancers, the RTKs Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ron are frequently co-expressed and engage in heterodimerization, altering signal transduction and promoting resistance to targeted therapeutics. We found that EGFR and Ron are expressed in canine OSA cell lines and primary tissues, EGFR and Ron are frequently phosphorylated in OSA tumour samples, and Met is co-associated with EGFR and Ron in canine OSA cell lines. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation induced amplification of ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in OSA cells and Met was phosphorylated following TGFα stimulation providing evidence for receptor cross-talk. Lastly, treatment of OSA cells with combined gefitinib and crizotinib inhibited cell proliferation in an additive manner. Together, these data support the notion that Met, EGFR and Ron interact in OSA cells and as such, may represent viable targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22235915

  19. MetAmyl: A METa-Predictor for AMYLoid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Emily, Mathieu; Talvas, Anthony; Delamarche, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins or peptides in amyloid fibrils is associated with a number of clinical disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and prion diseases, medullary thyroid cancer, renal and cardiac amyloidosis. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of fibril formation remain largely unknown. Several lines of evidence revealed that short amino-acid segments (hot spots), located in amyloid precursor proteins act as seeds for fibril elongation. Therefore, hot spots are potential targets for diagnostic/therapeutic applications, and a current challenge in bioinformatics is the development of methods to accurately predict hot spots from protein sequences. In this paper, we combined existing methods into a meta-predictor for hot spots prediction, called MetAmyl for METapredictor for AMYLoid proteins. MetAmyl is based on a logistic regression model that aims at weighting predictions from a set of popular algorithms, statistically selected as being the most informative and complementary predictors. We evaluated the performances of MetAmyl through a large scale comparative study based on three independent datasets and thus demonstrated its ability to differentiate between amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic polypeptides. Compared to 9 other methods, MetAmyl provides significant improvement in prediction on studied datasets. We further show that MetAmyl is efficient to highlight the effect of point mutations involved in human amyloidosis, so we suggest this program should be a useful complementary tool for the diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:24260292

  20. c-Met as a Target for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Giovannetti, Elisa; Biasco, Guido; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2015-01-01

    MET and its ligand HGF are involved in many biological processes, both physiological and pathological, making this signaling pathway an attractive therapeutic target in oncology. Downstream signaling effects are transmitted via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase protein kinase B)/AKT, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT), and nuclear factor-κB. The final output of the terminal effector components of these pathways is activation of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes leading to increases in cell proliferation, survival, mobilization and invasive capacity. In addition to its role as an oncogenic driver, increasing evidence implicates MET as a common mechanism of resistance to targeted therapies including EGFR and VEGFR inhibitors. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the HGF-MET signaling pathway in cancer and its therapeutic targeting (HGF activation inhibitors, HGF inhibitors, MET antagonists and selective/nonselective MET kinase inhibitors). Recent advances in understanding the role of this pathway in the resistance to current anticancer strategies used in lung, kidney and pancreatic cancer are discussed. PMID:26628860

  1. Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library

    2003-03-31

    This software comprises a portable, open source implementation of a runtime library to support applications written in the Unified Parallel C (UPC) language. This library implements the UPC-specific functionality, including shared memory allocation and locks. The network-dependent functionality is implemented as a thin wrapper around a separate library implementing the GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) specification. For true shared memory machines. GASNet is bypassed in favor of direct memory operations and local synchronization mechanisms. The Berkeleymore » UPC Runtime Library is currently the only implementation of the "Berkeley UPC Runtime Specification", and thus the only runtme library usable with the Berkeley UPC Compiler. Also, it is the only UPC runtime known to the author to provide two shared pointer representations: one for arbitrary blocksizes and one to optimize for the common cases of phaseless and blocksize=1. For distributed memory environments a library implementing the GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) specification is required for communication. While no specialized hardware is required, a high-speed interconnet supported by the GASNet implementation is suggested for preformance. If no supported high-speed interconnect is available. GASNet can run over MPI. An external library is reqired for certain local memory allocation operations. A well defined interface allows for multiple implementations of this library, but at present the "umalloc" library from LBNL is the only compatible implementation.« less

  2. Unifying Temporal and Structural Credit Assignment Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    Single-agent reinforcement learners in time-extended domains and multi-agent systems share a common dilemma known as the credit assignment problem. Multi-agent systems have the structural credit assignment problem of determining the contributions of a particular agent to a common task. Instead, time-extended single-agent systems have the temporal credit assignment problem of determining the contribution of a particular action to the quality of the full sequence of actions. Traditionally these two problems are considered different and are handled in separate ways. In this article we show how these two forms of the credit assignment problem are equivalent. In this unified frame-work, a single-agent Markov decision process can be broken down into a single-time-step multi-agent process. Furthermore we show that Monte-Carlo estimation or Q-learning (depending on whether the values of resulting actions in the episode are known at the time of learning) are equivalent to different agent utility functions in a multi-agent system. This equivalence shows how an often neglected issue in multi-agent systems is equivalent to a well-known deficiency in multi-time-step learning and lays the basis for solving time-extended multi-agent problems, where both credit assignment problems are present.

  3. Cell Protrusions and Tethers: A Unified Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pospieszalska, Maria K.; Lasiecka, Irena; Ley, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Low pulling forces applied locally to cell surface membranes produce viscoelastic cell surface protrusions. As the force increases, the membrane can locally separate from the cytoskeleton and a tether forms. Tethers can grow to great lengths exceeding the cell diameter. The protrusion-to-tether transition is known as the crossover. Here we propose a unified approach to protrusions and tethers providing, to our knowledge, new insights into their biomechanics. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a crossover to occur, a formula for predicting the crossover time, conditions for a tether to establish a dynamic equilibrium (characterized by constant nonzero pulling force and tether extension rate), a general formula for the tether material after crossover, and a general modeling method for tether pulling experiments. We introduce two general protrusion parameters, the spring constant and effective viscosity, valid before and after crossover. Their first estimates for neutrophils are 50 pN μm−1 and 9 pN s μm−1, respectively. The tether elongation after crossover is described as elongation of a viscoelastic-like material with a nonlinearly decaying spring (NLDs-viscoelastic material). Our model correctly describes the results of the published protrusion and tether pulling experiments, suggesting that it is universally applicable to such experiments. PMID:21463583

  4. The Unified Radio and Plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J. L.; Caldwell, J.; Canu, P.; De Conchy, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Fainberg, J.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment are twofold: (1) the determination of the direction, angular size, and polarization of radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere and the Jovian magnetosphere and (2) the detailed study of local wave phenomena, which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. A brief discussion of the scientific goals of the experiment is followed by a comprehensive description of the instrument. The URAP sensors consist of a 72.5 m electric field antenna in the spin plane, a 7.5-m electric field monopole along the spin axis of a pair of orthogonal search coil magnetic antennas. The various receivers, designed to encompass specific needs of the investigation, cover the frequency range from dc to 1 MHz. A relaxation sounder provides very accurate electron density measurements. Radio and plasma wave observations are shown to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the URAP instruments: radio observations include solar bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and Jovian bursts; plasma waves include Langmuir waves, ion acousticlike noise, and whistlers.

  5. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic-scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are "random environment" settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic-scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark's law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)-in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes-and present "randomized counterparts" to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  6. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  7. New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.

  8. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  9. Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Lu, N.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

  10. Observational constraints to a unified cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzinatto, Rodrigo R.; de Morais, Eduardo M.; Medeiros, Leo G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological unified model (UM) for dark matter and dark energy based on an equation of state parameter w that scales with the arctan of the redshift. The free parameters of the model are three constants: Ωb0, α and β. Parameter α dictates the transition rate between the matter dominated era and the accelerated expansion period. The ratio β/α gives the redshift of the equivalence between both regimes. Cosmological parameters are fixed by observational data from primordial nucleosynthesis (PN), supernovae of the type Ia (SNIa), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). The calibration of the 138 GRB events is performed using the 580 SNIa of the Union2.1 data set and a new set of 79 high-redshift GRB is obtained. The various sets of data are used in different combinations to constraint the parameters through statistical analysis. The UM is compared to the ΛCDM model and their differences are emphasized.

  11. BC(50): a generalized, unifying affinity descriptor.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Alberto; Francesconi, Oscar; Roelens, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Assessing binding affinities is an unavoidable step that we come across any time interactions between binding species are investigated. A quantitative evaluation of binding affinities relies on the determination of binding constants but, whilst the binding constant fully defines the affinity of a reagent for a ligand when only one complex species is formed, the same is not true when the interacting partners form more than one complex of different stoichiometry, because all complexes contribute to the overall binding affinity. Unfortunately, this situation is the rule rather than the exception in chemical systems, but a generally accepted solution for this issue has not yet been settled. In this Personal Account, we describe the evolution, from the initial idea to a fully developed stage, of a binding descriptor that has been developed with the aim of filling this gap, thereby providing scientists in all fields of chemistry with a unifying tool for the assessment of binding affinities based on the knowledge of the binding constants in systems that involve any number of complex species.

  12. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Balevičius, Vytautas; Abramavicius, Darius; Polívka, Tomáš; Galestian Pour, Arpa; Hauer, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  13. The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archinal, Brent A.; Rosiek, Mark R.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Redding, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a new general unified lunar control network and lunar topographic model based on a combination of Clementine images and a previous network derived from Earth-based & Apollo photographs, and Mariner 10, & Galileo images. This photogrammetric network solution is the largest planetary control network ever completed. It includes the determination of the 3-D positions of 272,931 points on the lunar surface and the correction of the camera angles for 43,866 Clementine images, using 546,126 tie point measurements. The solution RMS is 20 ?m (= 0.9 pixels) in the image plane, with the largest residual of 6.4 pixels. The explanation given here, along with the accompanying files, comprises the release of the network information and of global lunar digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from the network. A paper that will describe the solution and network in further detail will be submitted to a refereed journal, and will include additional background information, solution details, discussion of accuracy and precision, and explanatory figures.

  14. A Unified Taxonomy for Ciliary Dyneins

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Erik F.Y.; Witman, George B.; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Dutcher, Susan K.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Mitchell, David R.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Porter, Mary E.; Sale, Winfield S.; Wirschell, Maureen; Yagi, Toshiki; King, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and function of eukaryotic cilia/flagella require the action of a large array of dynein microtubule motor complexes. Due to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic tractability, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become the premier model system in which to dissect the role of dyneins in flagellar assembly, motility, and signaling. Currently, fifty-four proteins have been described as components of various Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins or as factors required for their assembly in the cytoplasm and/or transport into the flagellum; orthologues of nearly all these components are present in other ciliated organisms including humans. For historical reasons, the nomenclature of these diverse dynein components and their corresponding genes, mutant alleles and orthologues has become extraordinarily confusing. Here, we unify Chlamydomonas dynein gene nomenclature and establish a systematic classification scheme based on structural properties of the encoded proteins. Furthermore, we provide detailed tabulations of the various mutant alleles and protein aliases that have been used and explicitly define the correspondence with orthologous components in other model organisms and humans. PMID:21953912

  15. Unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng Ming, Zheng

    2013-04-01

    In the process of mankind investigate natural rule: people know four kinds of force: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Meanwhile people use these four kinds force to explain all phenomena in the Nature. Obviously people do not know their mechanism of origin until now. On the other hand, these four kinds force is the difference showing form of one force, is not it? For solve these questions and find their mechanism of origin, I do some experiments and discover that the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I also do experiments show that light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. My experiments show that the elementary particles moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force, this effect also produce wave effect. That is to say my experiment and calculate not only reveal the origin of gravitation, but also reveal the origin of electric charge and magnetic force. Base on this I first unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation. The more detail see below website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter.

  16. Unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Zheng Sheng

    2013-04-01

    In the process of mankind investigate natural rule: people know four kinds of force: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Meanwhile people use these four kinds force to explain all phenomena in the Nature. Obviously people do not know their mechanism of origin until now. On the other hand, these four kinds force is the difference showing form of one force, is not it? For solve these questions and find their mechanism of origin, I do some experiments and discover that the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I also do experiments show that light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. My experiments show that the elementary particles moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force, this effect also produce wave effect. That is to say my experiment and calculate not only reveal the origin of gravitation, but also reveal the origin of electric charge and magnetic force. Base on this I first unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation. The more detail see below website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter

  17. Unified creep-plasticity model for halite

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, R. D.

    1980-11-01

    There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior.

  18. Novel interaction partners of the TPR/MET tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Christian P; Benzing, Jörg; Schmitt, Thomas; Erz, Dorothee H R; Tewes, Magdalena; Bartram, Claus R; Janssen, Johannes W G

    2005-02-01

    A large variety of biological processes is mediated by stimulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Screening a mouse embryo cDNA library, we were able to identify several novel, putative intracellular TPR/MET-substrates: SNAPIN, DCOHM, VAV-1, Sorting nexin 2, Death associated protein kinase 3, SMC-1, Centromeric protein C, and hTID-1. Interactions as identified by yeast two-hybrid analysis were validated in vitro and in vivo by mammalian two-hybrid studies, a far-western assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Participation in apoptosis-regulating mechanisms through interaction with DAPK-3 and cell cycle control via binding to nuclear proteins such as CENPC and SMC-1 are possible new aspects of intracellular MET signaling.

  19. Remembering the early days of the Met Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Met Lab was set up by the war-time Manhattan District, US Corp of Engineers to (i) find a system using normal uranium in which a chain reaction would occur; (ii) to show that if such a chain reaction did occur, it would be possible to separate plutonium chemically from the uranium matrix and the fission products formed in the chain reactions; and (iii) to prepare plans for the large-scale production of plutonium. Chemistry Section C-1 of the Met Lab was assigned the responsibility for developing separation methods for plutonium production on the industrial scale. This report describes some aspects of daily life in Section C-1.

  20. Suppression of superheavy magnetic monopoles in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    The superheavy magnetic monopoles predicted by grand unified theories would not be produced in significant numbers if electromagnetic gauge invariance is spontaneously broken when the temperature T is greater than T/sub c/ >approx. 1 TeV.

  1. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  2. A unified optical theorem for scalar and vectorial wave fields.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees; Douma, Huub

    2012-05-01

    The generalized optical theorem is an integral relation for the angle-dependent scattering amplitude of an inhomogeneous scattering object embedded in a homogeneous background. It has been derived separately for several scalar and vectorial wave phenomena. Here a unified optical theorem is derived that encompasses the separate versions for scalar and vectorial waves. Moreover, this unified theorem also holds for scattering by anisotropic elastic and piezoelectric scatterers as well as bianisotropic (non-reciprocal) EM scatterers. PMID:22559339

  3. A unified optical theorem for scalar and vectorial wave fields.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees; Douma, Huub

    2012-05-01

    The generalized optical theorem is an integral relation for the angle-dependent scattering amplitude of an inhomogeneous scattering object embedded in a homogeneous background. It has been derived separately for several scalar and vectorial wave phenomena. Here a unified optical theorem is derived that encompasses the separate versions for scalar and vectorial waves. Moreover, this unified theorem also holds for scattering by anisotropic elastic and piezoelectric scatterers as well as bianisotropic (non-reciprocal) EM scatterers.

  4. A unified multiwavelength model of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Benson, Andrew J.; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Helly, John C.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Mitchell, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new version of the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. This brings together several previous developments of GALFORM into a single unified model, including a different initial mass function (IMF) in quiescent star formation and in starbursts, feedback from active galactic nuclei suppressing gas cooling in massive haloes, and a new empirical star formation law in galaxy discs based on their molecular gas content. In addition, we have updated the cosmology, introduced a more accurate treatment of dynamical friction acting on satellite galaxies, and updated the stellar population model. The new model is able to simultaneously explain both the observed evolution of the K-band luminosity function and stellar mass function, and the number counts and redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies selected at 850 μm. This was not previously achieved by a single physical model within the Λcold dark matter framework, but requires having an IMF in starbursts that is somewhat top-heavy. The new model is tested against a wide variety of observational data covering wavelengths from the far-UV to sub-mm, and redshifts from z = 0 to 6, and is found to be generally successful. These observations include the optical and near-infrared (IR) luminosity functions, H I mass function, fraction of early type galaxies, Tully-Fisher, metallicity-luminosity and size-luminosity relations at z = 0, as well as far-IR number counts, and far-UV luminosity functions at z ˜ 3-6. Discrepancies are, however, found in galaxy sizes and metallicities at low luminosities, and in the abundance of low-mass galaxies at high-z, suggesting the need for a more sophisticated model of supernova feedback.

  5. Unified Model of Multiple Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutule, A.; Kochukov, O.

    2014-08-01

    An approach is proposed to the modelling of wind farms in the electric power system long-term planning. It allows a specialist to perform calculations based on scanty information and offers a set of ready-to-use data for easy, fast, and precise modelling. The authors exemplify the calculations of wind speed probability density and power curves and give an idea for relevant corrections. They also show how to pass from a single wind turbine model to the unified model of multiple wind turbines which would meet the requirements of long-term planning tasks. The paper presents the data on wind farms that are operating in UK and Oceania Rakstā ir apskatīta vēja elektrostaciju modelēšana ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas uzdevumos. Modelēšana tika veikta, izmantojot ierobežotu datu apjomu, kuri bija piejami lietotājam. Gatavie dati deva iespēju veikt ātru un precīzu modelēšanu. Raksts piedāva metodi kā pāriet no viena vēja ģeneratora modeli uz vēja elektrostaciju (vairāki vēja ģeneratori) modeli, kas atbilst ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas prasībām. Rakstā atspoguļoti dati no Okeānijas un Lielbritānijas eksistējošām vēja elektrostacijām

  6. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    PubMed

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts

  7. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    PubMed

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts

  8. NASA combines two offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has completed plans for combining its Office of Space Science and its Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications. The new organization was effective December 3.The new Office of Space Science and Applications will retain the programs and responsibilities of the two program offices with the exception of the Technology Utilization Program, which has been transferred to the Government/Industry Affairs Division of the Office of External Relations.

  9. Seven Oaks Met School Builds Curriculum around Each Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    This article features Seven Oaks School Division Met School in Winnipeg, a high school that limits class size to 15, tailors its curriculum to the needs and interests of its individual students, places students in community-based internships two days a week, and keeps the teacher--called an advisor--with the same group of students from Grade 9…

  10. NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Order Data:  ASDC Order ...

  11. NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter GC Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Volatile Organic Compounds ...

  12. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10.133 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... order to qualify for free entry or a lower rate of duty unless the language of the particular...

  13. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  14. NARSTO SOS99NASH SURFACE MET CHEM DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO SOS99NASH SURFACE MET CHEM DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Aerosols Level:  L2 ... Sulfur Dioxide Ozone Solar Radiation Humidity Surface Winds Air Temperature Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool: ...

  15. The MET Project: The Wrong 45 Million Dollar Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the investigation of a $45 million question: How can we identify and develop effective teaching? Now that the findings from their Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project have been released, it's clear they asked a simpler question, namely, What other measures match up well with value-added…

  16. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Aethaelometer Anemometer Rain Gauge Pressure Sensor Radiometers Temperature Sensor Weighing Balance AA ... Amount Surface Pressure Solar Radiation Surface Air Temperature Particulates Trace Metals Order Data:  ...

  17. Lessons Learned: The MetLife Foundation Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Haynes, Leslie; Liebowitz, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This past year, Jobs for the Future studied strategies that community colleges are using to improve the quality and effectiveness of their services to low-income youth and adults. Much of this research was conducted for the MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Awards Initiative. Across the country, in urban, rural, and suburban…

  18. NARSTO PAC2001 SLOCAN PARK GAS PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 SLOCAN PARK GAS PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Ground Station, Tethered Balloon Instrument:  Temperature Probe Humidity Sensor Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Chemiliminescence TEOM GC-MS Ion Chromatograph Pressure Sensor Aethaelometer Fluorescence Spectroscopy IR CO2 ...

  19. The Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) Model. Volume 1; Technical Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1 presents a technical description of the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model atmosphere and a summary of its historical development. Various programs developed to augment the original capability of the model are discussed in detail. The report also describes each of the individual subroutines developed to enhance the model. Computer codes for these subroutines are contained in four appendices.

  20. The Met-genotype of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced Stroop interference in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by impairments of executive functions that rely on the functional integrity of fronto-striatal networks. This integrity is modulated by the release of neurotrophins like the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we investigate effects of the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on interference processing in 131 healthy elderly subjects using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a Stroop task, participants had to indicate the name or the colour of colour-words while colour was either compatible or incompatible with the name. We show that susceptibility to Stroop-interference is affected by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: the Met-allele carriers showed better performance and enhanced N450 in interference trials. Other processes necessary to prepare and allocate cognitive resources to a particular task were not affected by BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, underlining the specificity of the observed effects. The observed performance and ERP difference is possibly due to dopamine related effects of BDNF in fronto-striatal networks, where it putatively mediates a shift in the balance of the direct and indirect pathway involved in inhibitory functions.

  1. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinway, Steven N.; Dang, Hien; You, Hanning; Rountree, C. Bart; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance. Methods We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+) HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells) were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses. Results We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate

  2. Estimation of METs by Accelerometers while Walking and Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru

    It is quite important for Japan to maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are surmised using 3D accelerometer while the subjects are walking and running. As the result, the exercise intensities were surmised to be within the root mean square error of 1.2[METs] for walking and 3.2[METs] for running respectively.

  3. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Shirai, Satoshi; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on- Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  4. Geographic Information Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) is the principal information office for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), focused on: Information Policy and Services, Information Technology, Science Information, Information Security, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee/Geospatial One Stop.

  5. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  6. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  7. Worldwide distribution of PSEN1 Met146Leu mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, L.; Colao, R.; Rubino, E.; Smirne, N.; Frangipane, F.; Terni, B.; Curcio, S.A.M.; Mirabelli, M.; Clodomiro, A.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Maletta, R.; Anfossi, M.; Gallo, M.; Geracitano, S.; Tomaino, C.; Muraca, M. G.; Leotta, A.; Lio, S. G.; Pinessi, L.; Rainero, I.; Sorbi, S.; Nee, L.; Milan, G.; Pappatá, S.; Postiglione, A.; Abbamondi, N.; Forloni, G.; St. George Hyslop, P.; Rogaeva, E.; Bugiani, O.; Giaccone, G.; Foncin, J. F.; Spillantini, M. G.; Puccio, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Large kindreds segregating familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) offer the opportunity of studying clinical variability as observed for presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations. Two early-onset FAD (EOFAD) Calabrian families with PSEN1 Met146Leu (ATG/CTG) mutation constitute a unique population descending from a remote common ancestor. Recently, several other EOFAD families with the same mutation have been described worldwide. Methods: We searched for a common founder of the PSEN1 Met146Leu mutation in families with different geographic origins by genealogic and molecular analyses. We also investigated the phenotypic variability at onset in a group of 50 patients (mean age at onset 40.0 ± 4.8 years) by clinical, neuropsychological, and molecular methodologies. Results: EOFAD Met146Leu families from around the world resulted to be related and constitute a single kindred originating from Southern Italy before the 17th century. Phenotypic variability at onset is broad: 4 different clinical presentations may be recognized, 2 classic for AD (memory deficits and spatial and temporal disorientation), whereas the others are expressions of frontal impairment. The apathetic and dysexecutive subgroups could be related to orbital-medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Conclusions: Genealogic and molecular findings provided evidence that the PSEN1 Met146Leu families from around the world analyzed in this study are related and represent a single kindred originating from Southern Italy. The marked phenotypic variability might reflect early involvement by the pathologic process of different cortical areas. Although the clinical phenotype is quite variable, the neuropathologic and biochemical characteristics of the lesions account for neurodegenerative processes unmistakably of Alzheimer nature. PMID:20164095

  8. Pediatric office emergencies.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Pediatricians regularly see emergencies in the office, or children that require transfer to an emergency department, or hospitalization. An office self-assessment is the first step in determining how to prepare for an emergency. The use of mock codes and skill drills make office personnel feel less anxious about medical emergencies. Emergency information forms provide valuable, quick information about complex patients for emergency medical services and other physicians caring for patients. Furthermore, disaster planning should be part of an office preparedness plan.

  9. Nothing From Everything- A Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Nothing From Everything-A Unified Theory is a philosophical insight into principles of nature through principle of complementary spontaneity and principle of vertical continuity. This work is intended to explain various cosmological phenomena in light of behaviour of particles in range of their respective and relative speed of light. This theory explains creation of Universe from nothing or zero spacetime through scalar energy field collapsing into Higgs field resulting into giving mass to various particles. The energy particles taking origin from nothing while moving away from zero space-time would create space-time of their own order because energy/matter needs space to exist. The particles while moving away from zero space-time would end up in breaking symmetry of matter/energy at their mass infinity (highest possible mass of any particle, which is function of speed of spin). This break in symmetry would lead to curving of particles upon themselves and hence would lead to creation of antiparticles going back in time towards zero spacetime. Therefore the Universe could have been created by alternate layers of particles and antiparticles and also alternate layers of matter and antimatter with decelerating speed of light, which would lead to creation a closed and flat Universe. With increase in mass of Universe (creation of more and more Universe's matter from nothing), the gravitational force of Universe is bound to increase and hence with quantum by quantum increase in gravity, it would apply brakes on relative speed of photon/light out of its reference frame or designated space and hence speed of photon would decrease. If closed and flat Universe was created with decelerating speed of light, then such Universe is bound to contract back with accelerating speed of light which would have inverse impact on gravitational constant across various spacetime zones of Universe. And hence mass bodies would drift away spontaneously purely on basis and proportional to

  10. A Unifying Theory for Lunar Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Z. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of provocative and apparently contradictory studies have been published in the last several years regarding the water content of the Moon. Several authors claim initial water contents equal to that of the Earth, others argue for a dry Moon and still others fall midway between the extremes. Whether or not the Moon was always an anhydrous planet is critical for understand volatile retention of planets. In this communication, we provide a unifying volatile history for the Moon that reconciles all recent studies. Glass beads and melt inclusions from lunar fire fountain samples have high H abundance, suggesting water contents approaching those of the Earth's mantle. The anion compositions of lunar apatites indicate a moderate hydroxyl melt component during late crystallization. However, the extremely elevated Cl isotope compositions of lunar samples indicate degassing from an anhydrous melt, and thermodynamic calculations of evolved metallic iron-bearing KREEP basalts constrain the water content of the lunar interior to <10ppm. Elevated D/H ratio of apatite (~600%) is interpreted as a cometary water source. The oxygen fugacity (f(O2) of the lunar mantle may be as much as ~5 orders of magnitude lower than that of Earth. On Earth, H2O is the dominant phase in the H-O system for the upper mantle, whereas on the Moon, H2 will predominate. The different speciation has important implications. 1) the diffusion rate of H2 in basalt is >100 times higher than for water. A shallow-level magma can degas H2 far more rapidly than H2O, explaining the immeasurably low H content in most lunar basalts. In an unbuffered system, loss of H2 would increase the H2O/H2 ratio, but as long as Fe metal is present, the f(O2) and H2O/H2 ratio will be buffered, allowing for continued loss of H2. 2) Only samples that were rapidly quenched (glass beads) or preserved as melt inclusions could retain any measurable H. 3) H2 degassing and loss to space would significantly increase the D/H ratio

  11. Office Computers: Ergonomic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganus, Susannah

    1984-01-01

    Each new report of the office automation market indicates technology is overrunning the office. The impacts of this technology are described and some ways to manage and physically "soften" the change to a computer-based office environment are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  12. A novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Zhang, JianHong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things, which abstracts out the `displacement goods' and `physical objects', and expounds the relationship thereof. It details the item coding principles, establishes a one-to-one relationship between three-dimensional spatial coordinates of points and global manufacturers, can infinitely expand, solves the problem of unified coding in production phase and circulation phase with a novel unified coding method, and further explains how to update the item information corresponding to the coding in stages of sale and use, so as to meet the requirement that the Internet of Things can carry out real-time monitoring and intelligentized management to each item.

  13. Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.

    1988-01-01

    Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.

  14. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  15. [Advances and challenges of the Unified Health System planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabíola Sulpino

    2009-10-01

    Since the Unified Health System creation, managers have been expending efforts to discuss the planning and, made attempts to institutionalize it, considering that it's a basic management component. However, despite advances obtained, there are aspects that are priorities and that constitute challenges for the institutionalization of the planning at the Unified Health System. In this direction, this study describes the planning evolution in the system, by legal and technician material analysis of published documents by Ministry of Health. From the planning conception in these publications, it leads a reflection on the used approach, considering the established management instruments, and its entailing to the more currently accepted theory and methodology of health planning. Aspects that need to be observed are pointed for the effectiveness to ascendant planning at the Unified Health System.

  16. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  17. Unified formalism for higher order non-autonomous dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-03-01

    This work is devoted to giving a geometric framework for describing higher order non-autonomous mechanical systems. The starting point is to extend the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk for these kinds of systems, generalizing previous developments for higher order autonomous mechanical systems and first-order non-autonomous mechanical systems. Then, we use this unified formulation to derive the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, including the Legendre-Ostrogradsky map and the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton equations, both for regular and singular systems. As applications of our model, two examples of regular and singular physical systems are studied.

  18. On some unified integrals involving Fox's H-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shoukat

    2013-06-01

    In a recent paper [On Some Unified Integrals, Advances in Comput. Math. and Its Applications, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 151-153 (2012)], the author has evaluated three very interesting integrals involving hypergeometric function in terms of gamma function. In this paper, three new unified integrals involving Fox's H-function have been evaluated. By specializing the parameters, we can easily obtain a large number of new and known integrals including one obtained earlier by Garg and Mittal. The results established in this paper are simple, interesting, easily established and may be useful.

  19. 6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, rear offices: operations assistant office looking north toward security operations officer's office. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  20. LoVo colon cancer cells resistant to oxaliplatin overexpress c-MET and VEGFR-1 and respond to VEGF with dephosphorylation of c-MET.

    PubMed

    Mezquita, Belén; Pineda, Estela; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva; Mora, Conchi; Maurel, Joan; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2016-05-01

    Oxaliplatin-resistant LoVo colon cancer cells overexpressing c-MET and VEGFR-1 were selected to study several signaling pathways involved in chemoresistance, as well as the effect of increasing amounts of VEGF in the regulation of c-MET. In comparison with chemosensitive LoVo colon cancer cells, oxaliplatin-resistant cells (LoVoR) overexpress and phosphorylate c-MET, upregulate the expression of transmembrane and soluble VEGFR-1 and, unexpectedly, downregulate VEGF. In addition, LoVoR cells activate other transduction pathways involved in chemoresistance such as Akt, β-catenin-TCF4 and E-cadherin. While c-MET is phosphorylated in LoVoR cells expressing low levels of VEGF, c-MET phosphorylation decreases when recombinant VEGF is added into the culture medium. Inhibition of c-MET by VEGF is mediated by VEGFR-1, since phosphorylation of c-MET in the presence of VEGF is restored after silencing VEGFR-1. Dephosphorylation of c-MET by VEGF suggests that tumors coexpressing VEGFR-1 and c-MET may activate c-MET as a result of anti-VEGF therapy.

  1. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  2. Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satorra, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…

  3. A Unified Approach for Solving Nonlinear Regular Perturbation Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuri, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simple alternative unified method of solving nonlinear regular perturbation problems. The procedure is based upon the manipulation of Taylor's approximation for the expansion of the nonlinear term in the perturbed equation. An essential feature of this technique is the relative simplicity used and the associated unified…

  4. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  5. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  6. Project CERES. Ceres Unified School District, Ceres, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Octave V.; Lish, Virginia

    This description of career education activities in the Ceres (California) Unified School District was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final…

  7. A Unified Arts Program for the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    1976-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of industrial arts, home economics, and art is being developed at Cox Landing Junior High School, Huntington, West Virginia, through the designing of a unified arts guide. The needs of the early adolescent are emphasized. (LH)

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Integration in a Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodman, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    A unified school district (USD) continues to invest millions of dollars into its technology integration initiatives with minimal academic gains. Since teachers are essential to effective technology integration, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to analyze the perceptions of 13 teachers within the USD relative to how they could more…

  9. Unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1988-01-01

    The iteration-subtraction method for the unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems is compared and contrasted with a similar method for the two-body bound-state problem via nonsingular scattering equations developed recently. We also compare another recent method for solving bound-state problems with the iteration-subtraction method.

  10. Are There Unifying Trends in the Psychologies of 1990?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    The complexity and rapid expansion of the entire field of psychology make it appropriate to speak of "psychologies" when acknowledging the need for specialization of training and expertise. Nevertheless, unifying trends (UTs) exist in psychology, even though there can be no single set of theoretical principles to account for all empirical…

  11. Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John S.; White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2009-01-01

    "Positive Unified Behavior Support" (PUBS) is a school-wide intervention designed to establish uniform attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and roles among faculty, staff, and administration. PUBS is grounded in the general principles of positive behavior support and represents a straightforward, practical implementation model. When…

  12. Does "Science for All" have to be "Unified Science?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several concerns regarding a shift from separate science disciplines to unified science in the secondary school are expresed. As an alternative, a life science--materials science diversion is proposed with applied sciences in each division providing an overlapping of areas. (CP)

  13. A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    Developing a unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation has been proven to be a challenging endeavor. Three papers published in this issue of Temperature take a closer look at this problem and add interesting views to our knowledge about the way that endothermic thermoregulation works.

  14. The Unified Core: A "Major" Learning Community Model in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Johnson, Corey W.; James, J. Joy; Dunlap, Rudy

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Core is an innovative approach to higher education that blends content through linked courses within a major to create a community of learners. This article offers the theoretical background for the approach, describes the implementation, and offers suggestions to educators who would like to design their own version of this innovative…

  15. Four Courses within a Discipline: UGA Unified Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Johnson, Corey W.; James, Joy; Dunlap, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to the Unified Core Curriculum model developed and implemented at the University of Georgia (UGA). Four courses are taught as one course to the juniors coming into the Recreation and Leisure Studies major. An overview of the blended course and sample assignments are provided, as well as a discussion of challenges…

  16. Contingency Analysis: Toward a Unified Theory for Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Draws from the empirical foundations of operant psychology to propose a unified theory, known as contingency analysis, for social work practice. Discusses the four propositions on which the theory is based that account for human behavior at all levels of social work practice. Shows that this approach has great utility for the profession.…

  17. Evaluation of the Unified Compensation and Classification Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Educational Accountability.

    The Unified Classification and Compensation Plan of the Dade County (Florida) Public Schools consists of four interdependent activities that include: (1) developing and maintaining accurate job descriptions, (2) conducting evaluations that recommend job worth and grade, (3) developing and maintaining rates of compensation for job values, and (4)…

  18. Integration Defended: Berkeley Unified's Strategy to Maintain School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Lisa; Frankenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Supreme Court limited the tools that school districts could use to voluntarily integrate schools. In the aftermath of the decision, educators around the country have sought models of successful plans that would also be legal. One such model may be Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) plan. Earlier this year, the California…

  19. A Unified Analysis of Japanese Aspect Marker "te iru."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinzato, Rumiko

    1993-01-01

    Following Jacobson's 1990 work, this study is another attempt to offer a unified analysis of the Japanese aspect marker "te iru" that touches upon Gestalt psychologists' ideas of figure/ground opposition, Langacker's cognitive grammar, and Kunihiro's cognitive analysis. (Contains 34 references.) (LB)

  20. Columbus Unified High School: Every Adult Advocates, Every Student Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Columbus Unified High School, a school that takes pride in knowing that each student will graduate prepared for his or her future. Although poverty (45%) and unemployment (25%) are widespread in this rural Kansas community, the community members are fierce in their loyalty to the school. Last year, 97.8% of the four-year…

  1. In Search of a Unified Model of Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winford, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has pointed to the need for a unified framework for language contact phenomena -- one that would include social factors and motivations, structural factors and linguistic constraints, and psycholinguistic factors involved in processes of language processing and production. While Contact Linguistics has devoted a great deal…

  2. Unified Budget Recommendations for Fiscal Year 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Recommendations for appropriations to each public college and university in Alabama are presented by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education (ACHE) in its 1987-1988 unified budget report. For each institution and type of expenditure (e.g., academic, research, public service, and capital outlay), data are provided for: 1985-1986 appropriations,…

  3. Alameda Unified School District, 2009-2011. Alameda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivot Learning Partners, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When the five-member Board of the Alameda Unified School District selected Kirsten Vital as the new superintendent in 2009, they chose someone from outside their tight-knit community. Board Trustee Margie Sherratt thought Vital was chosen to "get us moving," to be a change agent on closing the achievement gap. Vital, in her initial conversations…

  4. Are grand unified theories compatible with standard cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.B.; Stein, D.L.; Toussaint, D.

    1980-06-15

    The existence of superheavy monopoles is a necessary consequence of grand unified field theories. Estimates of the number of monopoles produced in the early Universe are made under some very general assumptions. Except possibly for the case of small Higgs mass, the number produced is many orders of magnitude greater than that allowed by the standard ''hot'' big-bang cosmology.

  5. Toward a Unified Picture of Elementary Particle Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses progress made over the last two decades concerning the synthesis and possible unification of the three interactions (strong, electromagnetic, gravitational) relevant to high energy experiments. Areas addressed include quantum field theories, a unified quantum field theory, connection with cosmology, and possibilities for further…

  6. Unified (Russian) State Exam in English: Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the study of Reading Comprehension Tasks utilized in preparation for Unified (Russian) State Exam. The corpus of reading tasks was analyzed with the use of the classification algorithm developed by Weir and Urquhart (1998), and aimed at determining the level of engagement (local or global) and type of engagement (literal or…

  7. A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    Developing a unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation has been proven to be a challenging endeavor. Three papers published in this issue of Temperature take a closer look at this problem and add interesting views to our knowledge about the way that endothermic thermoregulation works. PMID:27624651

  8. Unified Technical Concepts. Supplementary Modules S1-S8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    Prepared for use with thirteen modules (CE 025 468-480) in the Unified Technical Concepts postsecondary physics instructional package, this set of eight support modules is designed to strengthen mathematical and laboratory skills in areas such as units, graphing, logarithms, dimensional analysis, and basic trigonometry. Module titles include…

  9. Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2009-05-01

    We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.

  10. Unified symmetry: In the small and in the large

    SciTech Connect

    Kursunoglu, B.N.; Mintz, S.; Perlmutter, A.

    1995-12-31

    The agenda for the Coral Gables conferences is the unification of cosmology and elementary particle physics. This 22nd conference was divided into the following sections: Unified General Relativity and Quantum Theory; The Very Early Universe; Progress in New and Old ideas; Aspects of Particle Physics; and Further Inspirations from the Electroweak Theory, Supersymmetry, Supergravity.

  11. Promise and challenges on the horizon of MET-targeted cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    MET (MNNG HOS transforming gene) is one of the receptor tyrosine kinases whose activities are frequently altered in human cancers, and it is a promising therapeutic target. MET is normally activated by its lone ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), eliciting its diverse biological activities that are crucial for development and physiology. Alteration of the HGF-MET axis results in inappropriate activation of a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways that contributes to hallmark cancer events including deregulated cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Aberrant MET activation results from autocrine or paracrine mechanisms due to overexpression of HGF and/or MET or from a ligand-independent mechanism caused by activating mutations or amplification of MET. The literature provides compelling evidence for the role of MET signaling in cancer development and progression. The finding that cancer cells often use MET activation to escape therapies targeting other pathways strengthens the argument for MET-targeted therapeutics. Diverse strategies have been explored to deactivate MET signaling, and compounds and biologics targeting the MET pathway are in clinical development. Despite promising results from various clinical trials, we are still waiting for true MET-targeted therapeutics in the clinic. This review will explore recent progress and hurdles in the pursuit of MET-targeted cancer drugs and discuss the challenges in such development. PMID:26009700

  12. Regulation of MET by FOXP2, genes implicated in higher cognitive dysfunction and autism risk.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Zohar; Konopka, Genevieve; Wexler, Eric; Osborn, Gregory E; Dong, Hongmei; Bergman, Mica Y; Levitt, Pat; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2011-08-10

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, behaviorally defined, heterogeneous disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Several genetic risk genes have been identified, including the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase MET, which regulates neuronal differentiation and growth. An ASD-associated polymorphism disrupts MET gene transcription, and there are reduced levels of MET protein expression in the mature temporal cortex of subjects with ASD. To address the possible neurodevelopmental contribution of MET to ASD pathogenesis, we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of MET by a transcription factor, FOXP2, which is implicated in regulation of cognition and language, two functions altered in ASD. MET mRNA expression in the midgestation human fetal cerebral cortex is strikingly restricted, localized to portions of the temporal and occipital lobes. Within the cortical plate of the temporal lobe, the pattern of MET expression is highly complementary to the expression pattern of FOXP2, suggesting the latter may play a role in repression of gene expression. Consistent with this, MET and FOXP2 also are reciprocally expressed by differentiating normal human neuronal progenitor cells (NHNPs) in vitro, leading us to assess whether FOXP2 transcriptionally regulates MET. Indeed, FOXP2 binds directly to the 5' regulatory region of MET, and overexpression of FOXP2 results in transcriptional repression of MET. The expression of MET in restricted human neocortical regions, and its regulation in part by FOXP2, is consistent with genetic evidence for MET contributing to ASD risk.

  13. MicroRNA and MET in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-protein coding RNAs that modulate important cellular functions via their post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recent evidences from multiple tumor types and model systems implicate miRNA dysregulation as a common mechanism of tumorigenesis, cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Several miRNAs are dysregulated in cancers and a single miRNA can have multiple targets involved in different oncogenic pathways. MET, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has a central role in lung cancer development and in acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors; it has been predicted and shown to be the target gene of multiple miRNAs, which play a crucial role in controlling its activity in a stimulatory or inhibitory sense. In this review we will focus on the most important and recent studies about the role of miRNAs in the control of MET expression, reporting also the progress made using miRNAs for therapy of lung cancer. PMID:25992367

  14. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  15. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

  16. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  17. Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part II Regulatory Information Service Center Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal...;#7; ] REGULATORY INFORMATION SERVICE CENTER Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Regulatory Information Service Center. ACTION: Introduction to...

  18. GOME-2 total ozone columns from MetOp-A/MetOp-B and assimilation in the MACC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Koukouli, M. E.; Inness, A.; Valks, P.; Loyola, D. G.; Zimmer, W.; Balis, D. S.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    2014-09-01

    The two Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument (GOME-2) sensors operated in tandem are flying onboard EUMETSAT's (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites, launched in October 2006 and September 2012 respectively. This paper presents the operational GOME-2/MetOp-A (GOME-2A) and GOME-2/MetOp-B (GOME-2B) total ozone products provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). These products are generated using the latest version of the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7). The enhancements in GDP 4.7, including the application of Brion-Daumont-Malicet ozone absorption cross sections, are presented here. On a global scale, GOME-2B has the same high accuracy as the corresponding GOME-2A products. There is an excellent agreement between the ozone total columns from the two sensors, with GOME-2B values slightly lower with a mean difference of only 0.55±0.29%. First global validation results for 6 months of GOME-2B total ozone using ground-based measurements show that on average the GOME-2B total ozone data obtained with GDP 4.7 are slightly higher than, both, Dobson observations by about 2.0±1.0% and Brewer observations by about 1.0±0.8%. It is concluded that the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by GOME-2A and GOME-2B are consistent and may be used simultaneously without introducing systematic effects, which has been illustrated for the Antarctic ozone hole on 18 October 2013. GOME-2A total ozone data have been used operationally in the Copernicus atmospheric service project MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation) near-real-time (NRT) system since October 2013. The magnitude of the bias correction needed for assimilating GOME-2A ozone is reduced (to about -6 DU in the global mean) when the GOME-2 ozone retrieval algorithm changed to GDP 4.7.

  19. Biology of MET: a double life between normal tissue repair and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) is a class IV receptor tyrosine kinase, expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. The interaction with the hepatocyte grow factor (HGF) induces MET dimerization and the activation of multiple intracellular pathways leading to cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, morphogenic differentiation, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. Knock out mice have demonstrated that MET is necessary for normal embryogenesis including the formation of striate muscles, liver and trophoblastic structures. The overexpression of MET and HGF are common in solid tumors and contribute to determine their growth. Indeed, MET has been cloned as a transforming gene from a chemically induced human osteosarcoma cell line and therefore is considered a proto-oncogene. Germline MET mutations are characteristic of hereditary papillary kidney cancers and MET amplification is observed in tumors including lung and gastric adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of MET signaling is the target for specific drugs that are raising exciting expectation for medical treatment of cancer. PMID:25992381

  20. Amplification of the MET receptor drives resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bardelli, Alberto; Corso, Simona; Bertotti, Andrea; Hobor, Sebastijan; Valtorta, Emanuele; Siravegna, Giulia; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Scala, Elisa; Cassingena, Andrea; Zecchin, Davide; Apicella, Maria; Migliardi, Giorgia; Galimi, Francesco; Lauricella, Calogero; Zanon, Carlo; Perera, Timothy; Veronese, Silvio; Corti, Giorgio; Amatu, Alessio; Gambacorta, Marcello; Diaz, Luis A.; Sausen, Mark; Velculescu, Victor E.; Comoglio, Paolo; Trusolino, Livio; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Giordano, Silvia; Siena, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    EGFR targeted monoclonal antibodies are effective in a subset of metastatic colorectal tumors (mCRC). Inevitably, all patients develop resistance, which occurs through emergence of KRAS mutations in approximately 50% of the cases. We show that amplification of the MET proto-oncogene is associated with acquired resistance in patients who do not develop KRAS mutations during anti-EGFR therapy. Amplification of the MET locus was present in circulating tumor DNA before relapse was clinically evident. Functional studies demonstrate that MET activation confers resistance to anti-EGFR therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, in patient-derived CRC xenografts, MET amplification correlated with resistance to EGFR blockade which could be overcome by MET kinase inhibitors. These results highlight the role of MET in mediating primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in CRC and encourage the use of MET inhibitors in patients displaying resistance as a result of MET amplification. PMID:23729478

  1. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-03-01

    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26923413

  2. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD or... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (``SJVUAPCD'' or ``District'') Rules 2020 (Exemptions) and... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified...

  3. 76 FR 39991 - Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... July 7, 2011 Part II Regulatory Information Service Center Introduction to the Unified Agenda of..., 2011 / Unified Agenda#0;#0; ] REGULATORY INFORMATION SERVICE CENTER Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Regulatory Information Service Center....

  4. Project UNIFY. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Special Olympics Project UNIFY (Andrea Cahn); (2) The Impact of Project UNIFY; (3) Project UNIFY Brings Youth Together to Learn and Graduate (William H. Hughes); (4) Physical…

  5. Patterns and Predictors of Alcohol Use in Male and Female Urban Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ballenger, James F.; Best, Suzanne R.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Wasserman, David A.; Mohr, David C.; Liberman, Akiva; Delucchi, Kevin; Weiss, Daniel S.; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    In a large sample of urban police officers, 18.1% of males and 15.9% of females reported experiencing adverse consequences from alcohol use and 7.8 % of the sample met criteria for lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence. Female officers had patterns of alcohol use similar to male officers and substantially more than females in the general population. Critical incident exposure and PTSD symptoms were not associated with level of alcohol use. Greater psychiatric symptoms were related to adverse consequences from alcohol use. There was a noteworthy gender by work stress interaction: greater routine work stress related to lower current alcohol use in female officers. PMID:21175917

  6. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Central Office Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Sonia Rodarte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined collaboration around student achievement at the central office leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This study is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  7. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Preparing Students for College and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Preparing Students for College and Careers" was conducted by Harris Interactive and is the twenty-seventh in a series sponsored annually by MetLife since 1984 to give voice to those closest to the classroom. This MetLife Survey examines the priority that all students graduate from high school prepared…

  8. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Collaborating for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Collaborating for Student Success (2009)" was conducted by Harris Interactive and is twenty-sixth in a series sponsored by MetLife since 1984 to give voice to those closest to the classroom. This "MetLife Survey" examines the views of teachers, principals and students about respective roles and…

  9. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Forward A composite unifying theory on causes of obesity related-MetS has been formulated and published in an accompanying article (1). In the current article, the historical and recent past, present and future corollaries of this theory are discussed. By presenting this composite theory and corollaries, it is hoped that human evolution and physiology will be viewed and studied from a new vantage point. The politics of management of ecological farming and nutrition will change, a profound reconfiguration of scientific theory generation and advancement in a ‘high-tech’ world can be made, and pathways for solutions recognised. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome’s underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A ‘dual system’ is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to

  10. The Chief Diversity Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

  11. Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of a number 2 post (chief academic officer) focused on instructional leadership brings a new dynamic to the central office-particularly those headed by nontraditional superintendents. Used in universities, the CAO title lends cache. Women can get stuck in CAO positions; a few districts are eliminating them. (MLH)

  12. A novel antagonist anti-cMet antibody with antitumor activities targeting both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent c-Met receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alexandra; Broussas, Matthieu; Beau-Larvor, Charlotte; Haeuw, Jean-François; Boute, Nicolas; Robert, Alain; Champion, Thierry; Beck, Alain; Bailly, Christian; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Goetsch, Liliane

    2016-10-15

    c-Met is a prototypic member of a sub-family of RTKs. Inappropriate c-Met activation plays a crucial role in tumor formation, proliferation and metastasis. Using a key c-Met dimerization assay, a set of 12 murine whole IgG1 monoclonal antibodies was selected and a lead candidate, m224G11, was humanized by CDR-grafting and engineered to generate a divalent full antagonist humanized IgG1 antibody, hz224G11. Neither m224G11 nor hz224G11 bind to the murine c-Met receptor. Their antitumor activity was investigated in vitro in a set of experiments consistent with the reported pleiotropic effects mediated by c-Met and, in vivo, using several human tumor xenograft models. Both m224G11 and hz224G11 exhibited nanomolar affinities for the receptor and inhibited HGF binding, c-Met phosphorylation, and receptor dimerization in a similar fashion, resulting in a profound inhibition of all c-Met functions in vitro. These effects were presumably responsible for the inhibition of c-Met's major functions including cell proliferation, migration, invasion scattering, morphogenesis and angiogenesis. In addition to these in vitro properties, hz224G11 dramatically inhibits the growth of autocrine, partially autophosphorylated and c-Met amplified cell lines in vivo. Pharmacological studies performed on Hs746T gastric cancer xenografts demonstrate that hz224G11 strongly downregulates c-Met expression and phosphorylation. It also decreases the tumor mitotic index (Ki67) and induces apoptosis. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hz224G11 is a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. This antibody, now known as ABT-700 and currently in Phase I clinical trials, may provide a novel therapeutic approach to c-Met-expressing cancers.

  13. Relationship between the COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphisms, Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Experiences in an Adolescent General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Hugh; Kelleher, Ian; Flannery, Padraig; Clarke, Mary C.; Lynch, Fionnuala; Harley, Michelle; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Morris, Derek W.; Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychotic experiences occur at a much greater prevalence in the population than psychotic disorders. There has been little research to date, however, on genetic risk for this extended psychosis phenotype. We examined whether COMT or BDNF genotypes were associated with psychotic experiences or interacted with childhood trauma in predicting psychotic experiences. Method Psychiatric interviews and genotyping for COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met were carried out on two population-based samples of 237 individuals aged 11-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine for main effects by genotype and childhood trauma, controlling for important covariates. This was then compared to a model with a term for interaction between genotype and childhood trauma. Where a possible interaction was detected, this was further explored in stratified analyses. Results While childhood trauma showed a borderline association with psychotic experiences, COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met genotypes were not directly associated with psychotic experiences in the population. Testing for gene x environment interaction was borderline significant in the case of COMT-Val158Met with individuals with the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype, who had been exposed to childhood trauma borderline significantly more likely to report psychotic experiences than those with Val-Met or Met-Met genotypes. There was no similar interaction by BDNF-Val66Met genotype. Conclusion The COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype may be a genetic moderator of risk for psychotic experiences in individuals exposed to childhood traumatic experiences. PMID:24224001

  14. Metallography at the Met Lab -- The first fifty years

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Met Lab at the University of Chicago was established to build the world`s first nuclear reactor. The object was to see if a pile (CP-1) could be built to create a sustained chain reaction, i.e., controlled nuclear fission. New materials of the very best quality were needed and people of many skills worked together to achieve the goal as quickly as possible. This is the story of a select group of people who were scientific and engineering pioneers in this new field. Research continued at new sites on more advanced reactors and cooling systems. Many problems were encountered in the fabrication of reactor components, and metallography was a crucial method of analyzing the reactions and quality of consolidation. 1996 will be the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the National Laboratories, so it is appropriate to commemorate and recall some pioneering achievements.

  15. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  16. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar-wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. The three simulations are directly or indirectly connected each other based on real-time observa-tion data to reproduce a virtual geo-space region on the super-computer. Informatics is a new methodology to make precise forecast of space weather. Based on new information and communication technologies (ICT), it provides more information in both quality and quantity. At NICT, we have been developing a cloud-computing system named "space weather cloud" based on a high-speed network system (JGN2+). Huge-scale distributed storage (1PB), clus-ter computers, visualization systems and other resources are expected to derive new findings and services of space weather forecasting. The final goal of NICT space weather service is to predict near-future space weather conditions and disturbances which will be causes of satellite malfunctions, tele-communication problems, and error of GPS navigations. In the present talk, we introduce our recent activities on the space weather services and discuss how we are going to develop the services from the view points of space science and practical uses.

  17. Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Orsoni, Alexina; Hounslow, Neil; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Chapman, M John

    2015-12-01

    The impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (-41%), remnant cholesterol (-55%), and LDL-cholesterol (-39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%). Lipidomic analysis, normalized to nonHDL-cholesterol in order to probe statin-induced differences in molecular composition independently of reduction in plasma cholesterol, revealed increment in 132 of 138 lipid species that were subnormal at baseline and significantly shifted toward the control group on statin treatment. Increment in alkyl- and alkenylphospholipids (plasmalogens) was prominent, and consistent with significant statin-induced increase in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Comparison of the statin-mediated lipidomic changes in MetS with the abnormal plasma lipidomic profile characteristic of prediabetes and T2D in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study and San Antonio Family Heart Study cohorts by hypergeometric analysis revealed a significant shift toward the lipid profile of controls, indicative of a marked trend toward a normolipidemic phenotype. Pitavastatin attenuated the abnormal plasma lipidome of MetS patients typical of prediabetes and T2D.

  18. Unified Description of q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogami, I. S.; Koizumi, K.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that a wide class of q-deformed harmonic oscillators, including those of the Macfarlane type and Dubna type, can be described in a unified way. The Hamiltonian of the oscillator is assumed to be given by a q-deformed anti-commutator of the q-deformed ladder operators. By solving q-difference equations, explicit coordinate representations of ladder operators and wave functions are derived, and unified parametric representations are found for q-Hermite functions and related formulas for oscillators of the Macfarlane and Dubna types. In addition to the well-known solutions with globally periodic structure, it is found that there exist an infinite number of solutions with globally aperiodic structure.

  19. Unified Planetary Coordinates System: A Searchable Database of Geodetic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, K. J.a; Gaddis, L. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Archinal, B. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Anderson, J. A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; LaVoie, S.; McAuley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, an enormous quantity of orbital remote sensing data has been collected for Mars from many missions and instruments. Unfortunately these datasets currently exist in a wide range of disparate coordinate systems, making it extremely difficult for the scientific community to easily correlate, combine, and compare data from different Mars missions and instruments. As part of our work for the PDS Imaging Node and on behalf of the USGS Astrogeology Team, we are working to solve this problem and to provide the NASA scientific research community with easy access to Mars orbital data in a unified, consistent coordinate system along with a wide variety of other key geometric variables. The Unified Planetary Coordinates (UPC) system is comprised of two main elements: (1) a database containing Mars orbital remote sensing data computed using a uniform coordinate system, and (2) a process by which continual maintainance and updates to the contents of the database are performed.

  20. Present (unified) and past Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter; Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985). Index values are derived from polar cap magnetic variations and are mainly related to the intensity of the variable transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Thus the PC index is an important Space Weather parameter. Coefficients to calculate PC index values from polar magnetic variations have been derived by several different procedures in the past. Now, a unified procedure (Troshichev et al., 2005) has been adopted for both the PCN (north) and the PCS (south) index values. The presentation outlines and discusses the principles and the details of the unified procedure, which will be submitted to IAGA for formal approval. The PC index can be made available on-line in real-time for Space Weather applications.

  1. Sandia/Stanford Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Model for ANSYS

    2006-09-03

    A unified creep plasticity (UCP) model was developed, based upon the time-dependent and time-independent deformation properties of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (wt.%) soldier that were measured at Sandia. Then, a damage parameter, D, was added to the equation to develop the unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model. The parameter, D, was parameterized, using data obtained at Sandia from isothermal fatigue experiments on a double-lap shear test. The softwae was validated against a BGA solder joint exposed tomore » thermal cycling. The UCPD model was put into the ANSYS finite element as a subroutine. So, the softwae is the subroutine for ANSYS 8.1.« less

  2. Light threshold effects in supersymmetric grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Grinstein, B.

    1993-08-01

    Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories have a rich spectrum of particles barely heavier than the intermediate vector bosons. As their non-supersymmetric counterparts, they lead to many relations among low energy observables. But the precise form of the predictions is modified by the extended spectrum. If the masses of these new particles are comparable to M{sub Z}, the standard computation of their effect becomes inaccurate. The authors, present a detailed discussion of the correct procedure, and carry out the relevant computations to one loop order. Attention is paid to the special treatment that the top and Higgs particles must receive. The size of the effect is explored for a range of parameters in the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand-unified theory with radiative breaking. It is found that the naive (leading-log) computation can be fairly inaccurate.

  3. Development of Unified Lab Test Result Master for Multiple Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kume, Naoto; Suzuki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shinji; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A clinical study requires massive amounts of of lab test data, especially for rare diseases. Before creating a protocol, the hypothesis if the protocol will work with enough amount of patients' dataset has to be proved. However, a single facility, such as a university hospital, often faces a lack of number of patients for specific target diseases. Even if collecting datasets from several facilities, there is no active master table that can merge lab test results between the facility datasets. Therefore, the authors develop a unified lab test result master. Because test master standards such as JLAC10 and LOINC are provided from a viewpoint of academic classification of laboratory medicine, the classification does not fit clinical classification, which doctors understand with a mind-set of establishing a clinical study protocol. The authors establish a method to unify masters using an active lab test result master from two university hospitals. PMID:26262349

  4. Planetary and Solar Data Labeled with IVOA Unified Content Descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louys, Mireille; Cecconi, Baptiste; Derriere, Sébastien; Erard, S.; André, N.; Preite-Martinez, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Henry, F.; Bonnin, X.; Le Sidaner, P.; Chauvin, C.; Fuller, N.; Braga, V. F.; Aboudarham, J.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical data collections are widely using tabular formats to expose their data to the community and especially in the Virtual Observatory. In order to label the content of physical quantities stored in table columns, The Unified Content Descriptors (UCDs) [Preite Martinez et al. (2011)] labels have been standardized and attached as semantic tags to a wide range of measurements and metadata. This unifies the content description across multiple data collections and archive centers. The Planetary and Solar science communities proposed, together with the IVOA Semantics Working group, to extend this bank of semantic labels for the distribution of their own collections and to adopt compatible standards such as VOTable, TAP, etc. This work shows the new UCD set proposed and how it is made available in the Virtual Observatory framework. A reference vocabulary is set up, UCD assigning tools and tests are presented.

  5. NAC 2.0 — Unifying Network Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Stephen

    As information technology becomes more strategic and essential, access to networks and applications must be pervasive yet secure and controlled. The purpose of Network Access Control (NAC) has evolved beyond simply managing network access and ensuring endpoint policy compliance. NAC systems today must integrate with other network security components and increase their built-in capabilities to include support for intrusion detection, role-based application access control, network and application visibility and monitoring, leakage detection, VPNs, and other network security technologies. In fact, we need a new unified vision and understanding of network security: one that involves multiple network security functions working together dynamically using open standards. This vision of unified network security has been called “NAC 2.0.”

  6. Unified Picture for Magnetic Correlations in Iron-Based Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.G.; Lee, E.-C.; Ku, W.

    2010-09-02

    The varying metallic antiferromagnetic correlations observed in iron-based superconductors are unified in a model consisting of both itinerant electrons and localized spins. The decisive factor is found to be the sensitive competition between the superexchange antiferromagnetism and the orbital-degenerate double-exchange ferromagnetism. Our results reveal the crucial role of Hund's rule coupling for the strongly correlated nature of the system and suggest that the iron-based superconductors are closer kin to manganites than cuprates in terms of their diverse magnetism and incoherent normal-state electron transport. This unified picture would be instrumental for exploring other exotic properties and the mechanism of superconductivity in this new class of superconductors.

  7. Development of Unified Lab Test Result Master for Multiple Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kume, Naoto; Suzuki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shinji; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A clinical study requires massive amounts of of lab test data, especially for rare diseases. Before creating a protocol, the hypothesis if the protocol will work with enough amount of patients' dataset has to be proved. However, a single facility, such as a university hospital, often faces a lack of number of patients for specific target diseases. Even if collecting datasets from several facilities, there is no active master table that can merge lab test results between the facility datasets. Therefore, the authors develop a unified lab test result master. Because test master standards such as JLAC10 and LOINC are provided from a viewpoint of academic classification of laboratory medicine, the classification does not fit clinical classification, which doctors understand with a mind-set of establishing a clinical study protocol. The authors establish a method to unify masters using an active lab test result master from two university hospitals.

  8. Unified Formulation of the Aeroelasticity of Swept Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter; Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu

    2001-01-01

    An unified approach for dealing with stability and aeroelastic response to time-dependent pressure pulses of swept wings in an incompressible flow is developed. To this end the indicial function concept in time and frequency domains, enabling one to derive the proper unsteady aerodynamic loads is used. Results regarding stability in the frequency and time domains, and subcritical aeroelastic response to arbitrary time-dependent external excitation obtained via the direct use of the unsteady aerodynamic derivatives for 3-D wings are supplied. Closed form expressions for unsteady aerodynamic derivatives using this unified approach have been derived and used to illustrate their application to flutter and aeroelastic response to blast and sonic-boom signatures. In this context, an original representation of the aeroelastic response in the phase space was presented and pertinent conclusions on the implications of some basic parameters have been outlined.

  9. A unified approach to infinite-dimensional integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, S.; Mazzucchi, S.

    2016-04-01

    An approach to infinite-dimensional integration which unifies the case of oscillatory integrals and the case of probabilistic type integrals is presented. It provides a truly infinite-dimensional construction of integrals as linear functionals, as much as possible independent of the underlying topological and measure theoretical structure. Various applications are given, including, next to Feynman path integrals, Schrödinger and diffusion equations, as well as higher order hyperbolic and parabolic equations.

  10. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  11. Betelgeusean Physics: A Possible Ansatz to a Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz Vrba, Anton

    I use spherical-numbers to model and study interacting wave functions, and recover known physical laws. A wavefunction interacts with and changes space; the natural forces and quantum properties emerge. The study describes an absolute reality that withstands the tests of relativity. A Bohr-like model of the hydrogen atom dilates the transition frequencies. This alternate approach could provide an ansatz for a unified field theory, however it has a price; most present-day accepted truths need revision.

  12. New Constraints on the Unified Model of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.; Ruiz, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Keller, L. D.

    1995-06-01

    We present new 10 microns (N-band) photometry for 70 Seyfert galaxies, 43 of them previously unobserved. These observations, together with those collected from the literature, complete the 10 microns photometry for the CfA Sy galaxies and cover 80% of the Sy found in the RSA and 70% of the Sy in the IRAS 12 microns sample. From this data set, we find that Sy not showing any evidence for broad lines are systematically weaker in 10 microns nuclear emission than Sy nuclei having broad lines. This result may indicate the existence of a group of very low-luminosity Sy2 galaxies that do not have Sy1 counterparts in equal numbers, contrary to the strict unified theory. Alternately, the result can be reconciled with unified theories if a specific type of geometry is assumed for the circumnuclear obscuring material. By comparing the 10 microns ground-based observations with the IRAS 12 microns fluxes, we also study the properties of the extended mid-IR emission, i.e., the star forming activity of the host galaxy of the Sy nucleus. We find Sy2 to lie preferentially in galaxies experiencing enhanced star-forming activity, while Sy1 lie in normal or quiescent galaxies. This result appears to be inconsistent with the strict unified model, since the host galaxy properties should be independent of the orientation of a circumnuclear torus and therefore should be independent of nuclear type. Our finding could be explained by adding to the unified model a link between star-forming activity and the amount of obscuring material collected in the circumnuclear region.

  13. Coordination of platinum therapeutic agents to met-rich motifs of human copper transport protein1.

    PubMed

    Crider, Sarah E; Holbrook, Robert J; Franz, Katherine J

    2010-01-01

    Platinum therapeutic agents are widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer. Various mechanisms for the transport of the drugs have been proposed including passive diffusion across the cellular membrane and active transport via proteins. The copper transport protein Ctr1 is responsible for high affinity copper uptake but has also been implicated in the transport of cisplatin into cells. Human hCtr1 contains two methionine-rich Mets motifs on its extracellular N-terminus that are potential platinum-binding sites: the first one encompasses residues 7-14 with amino acid sequence Met-Gly-Met-Ser-Tyr-Met-Asp-Ser and the second one spans residues 39-46 with sequence Met-Met-Met-Met-Pro-Met-Thr-Phe. In these studies, we use liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the binding interactions between cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin with synthetic peptides corresponding to hCtr1 Mets motifs. The interactions of cisplatin and carboplatin with Met-rich motifs that contain three or more methionines result in removal of the carrier ligands of both platinum complexes. In contrast, oxaliplatin retains its cyclohexyldiamine ligand upon platinum coordination to the peptide.

  14. Total column water vapour measurements from GOME-2 MetOp-A and MetOp-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Valks, P.; Loyola, D.; Aberle, B.; Slijkhuis, S.; Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Lang, R.

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of the total column water vapour (TCWV) global distribution is fundamental for climate analysis and weather monitoring. In this work, we present the retrieval algorithm used to derive the operational TCWV from the GOME-2 sensors aboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites and perform an extensive inter-comparison in order to evaluate their consistency and temporal stability. For the analysis, the GOME-2 data sets are generated by DLR in the framework of the EUMETSAT O3M-SAF project using the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7. The retrieval algorithm is based on a classical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method and combines a H2O and O2 retrieval for the computation of the trace gas vertical column density. We introduce a further enhancement in the quality of the H2O total column by optimizing the cloud screening and developing an empirical correction in order to eliminate the instrument scan angle dependencies. The overall consistency between measurements from the newer GOME-2 instrument on board of the MetOp-B platform and the GOME-2/MetOp-A data is evaluated in the overlap period (December 2012-June 2014). Furthermore, we compare GOME-2 results with independent TCWV data from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, with SSMIS satellite measurements during the full period January 2007-June 2014 and against the combined SSM/I + MERIS satellite data set developed in the framework of the ESA DUE GlobVapour project (January 2007-December 2008). Global mean biases as small as ±0.035 g cm-2 are found between GOME-2A and all other data sets. The combined SSM/I-MERIS sample and the ECMWF ERA-Interim data set are typically drier than the GOME-2 retrievals, while on average GOME-2 data overestimate the SSMIS measurements by only 0.006 g cm-2. However, the size of these biases is seasonally dependent. Monthly average differences can be as large as 0.1 g cm-2, based on the analysis against SSMIS measurements, which include only data over

  15. SB 1082 -- Unified hazardous materials/waste program: Local implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.

    1995-12-31

    California Senate Bill 1082 was signed into law in the fall of 1993 because business and industry believed there were too many hazardous materials inspectors asking the same questions, looking at the same items and requiring similar information on several variations of the same form. Industry was not happy with the large diversity of programs, each with its own inspectors, permits and fees, essentially doing what industry believed was the same inspection. SB 1082 will allow local city and county agencies to apply to the California Environmental Protection Agency to become a Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA) or work with a CUPA as a Participating Agency (PA) to manage specific program elements. The CUPA will unify six regulatory programs including hazardous waste/tiered permitting, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, business and area plans/inventory or disclosure, acutely hazardous materials/risk management prevention and Uniform Fire Code programs related to hazardous materials inventory/plan requirements. The bill requires the CUPA to (1) implement a permit consolidation program; (2) implement a single fee system with a state surcharge; (3) consolidate, coordinate and make consistent any local or regional requirements or guidance documents; and (4) implement a single unified inspection and enforcement program.

  16. CLUBB as a unified cloud parameterization: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Golaz, J.-C.; Donner, L. J.; Wyman, B.; Zhao, M.; Ginoux, P.

    2015-06-01

    CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) is a higher-order closure (HOC) method with an assumed joint probability density function (PDF) for the subgrid variations in vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture. CLUBB has been implemented in the atmospheric component (AM3) of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model AM3-CLUBB and successfully unifies the treatment of shallow convection, resolved clouds, and planetary boundary layer (PBL). In this study, we further explore the possibility for CLUBB to unify the deep convection in a new configuration referred as AM3-CLUBB+. AM3-CLUBB+ simulations with prescribed sea surface temperature are discussed. Cloud, radiation, and precipitation fields compare favorably with observations and reanalyses. AM3-CLUBB+ successfully captures the transition from stratocumulus to deep convection and the modulated response of liquid water path to aerosols. Simulations of tropical variability and the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) are also improved. Deficiencies include excessive tropical water vapor and insufficient ice clouds in the midlatitudes.

  17. Creation and Maintenance of a Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Norman; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Soles, J.; McCann, G.; Cassar, M.; Biemesderfer, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort to update and unify the various vocabularies currently in use in Astronomy into a single thesaurus that can be further developed and updated through broad community participation. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) will be an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the Astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing and the American Institute of Physics. While the AAS has assumed formal ownership of the UAT, the work will be available under a Creative Commons License, ensuring its widest use while protecting the intellectual property of the contributors. We envision that development and maintenance will be stewarded by a broad group of parties having a direct stake in it. This includes professional associations (IVOA, IAU), learned societies (AAS, RAS), publishers (IOP, AIP), librarians and other curators working for major astronomy institutes and data archives. While the impetus behind the creation of a single thesaurus has been the wish to support semantic enrichment of the literature, we expect that use of the UAT (along with other vocabularies and ontologies currently being developed) will be much broader and will have a greater impact on discovery of both literatue and data products.

  18. Masses and mixings in a grand unified toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, David; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Thalapillil, Arun M.

    2007-10-01

    The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggest that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In this paper we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1)F⊗Z2'⊗Z2''⊗Z2''' family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector.

  19. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William; McNamara, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has recently been formed within the Engineering Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. With agency-wide responsibility for defining the meteoroid environments for spacecraft engineering operations purposes, the MEO will distribute a state-of-the-art sporadic meteoroid model as well as meteor shower forecasts for spacecraft operators. To improve these models and forecasts, the MEO will manage an observation and research program. Office responsibilities, products, and plans will be discussed in this paper. The MEO is sponsored by the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters.

  20. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    Presented is the 2009 Chief Financial Officer's Annual Report. The data included in this report has been compiled from the Budget Office, the Controller, Procurement and Property Management and the Sponsored Projects Office.

  1. 19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GROUND STORY, POST OFFICE LOBBY DETAIL OF POST OFFICE BOXES ALONG WEST WALL OF LEXINGTON AVENUE ARM - Grand Central Post Office Annex, Forty-fifth Street & Lexington Avenue, Southwest corner, New York County, NY

  2. Quantitative imaging for development of companion diagnostics to drugs targeting HGF/MET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangjin; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Pollan, Sara; Yuan, Xiaopu; Swartwood, Steven; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Rodriguez, Maria; Mallick, Jayati; Bhele, Sanica; Guindi, Maha; Dhall, Deepti; Walts, Ann E; Bose, Shikha; de Peralta Venturina, Mariza; Marchevsky, Alberto M; Luthringer, Daniel J; Feller, Stephan M; Berman, Benjamin; Freeman, Michael R; Alvord, W Gregory; Vande Woude, George; Amin, Mahul B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The limited clinical success of anti‐HGF/MET drugs can be attributed to the lack of predictive biomarkers that adequately select patients for treatment. We demonstrate here that quantitative digital imaging of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues stained by immunohistochemistry can be used to measure signals from weakly staining antibodies and provides new opportunities to develop assays for detection of MET receptor activity. To establish a biomarker panel of MET activation, we employed seven antibodies measuring protein expression in the HGF/MET pathway in 20 cases and up to 80 cores from 18 human cancer types. The antibodies bind to epitopes in the extra (EC)‐ and intracellular (IC) domains of MET (MET4EC, SP44_METIC, D1C2_METIC), to MET‐pY1234/pY1235, a marker of MET kinase activation, as well as to HGF, pSFK or pMAPK. Expression of HGF was determined in tumour cells (T_HGF) as well as in stroma surrounding cancer (St_HGF). Remarkably, MET4EC correlated more strongly with pMET (r = 0.47) than SP44_METIC (r = 0.21) or D1C2_METIC (r = 0.08) across 18 cancer types. In addition, correlation coefficients of pMET and T_HGF (r = 0.38) and pMET and pSFK (r = 0.56) were high. Prediction models of MET activation reveal cancer‐type specific differences in performance of MET4EC, SP44_METIC and anti‐HGF antibodies. Thus, we conclude that assays to predict the response to HGF/MET inhibitors require a cancer‐type specific antibody selection and should be developed in those cancer types in which they are employed clinically. PMID:27785366

  3. MET expression and copy number heterogeneity in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Taus, Álvaro; Pijuan, Lara; Arumí, Miriam; Lorenzo, Marta; Menéndez, Silvia; Cañadas, Israel; Albanell, Joan; Serrano, Sergio; Espinet, Blanca; Salido, Marta; Arriola, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess MET intratumoral heterogeneity and its potential impact on biomarker-based patient selection as well as potential surrogate biomarkers of MET activation. Methods Our study included 120 patients with non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (nsNSCLC), of which 47 were incorporated in tissue microarrays (TMA). Four morphologically distinct tumor areas were selected to assess MET heterogeneity. MET positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was defined as an above-median H-score and by +2/+3 staining intensity in >50% of tumor cells (Metmab criteria). MET FISH positivity was defined by MET/CEP7 ratio ≥ 2.0 and/or MET ≥ 5.0. MET staining pattern (cytoplasmic vs. membranous) and mesenchymal markers were investigated as surrogates of MET activation. Results Median MET H-score was 140 (range 0–400) and 47.8% of patients were MET positive by Metmab criteria. Eight cases (6.8%) were MET FISH positive and showed higher H-scores (p = 0.021). MET positivity by IHC changed in up to 40% of cases among different tumor areas, and MET amplification in 25–50%. Cytoplasmic MET staining and positivity for vimentin predicted poor survival (p = 0.042 and 0.047, respectively). Conclusions MET status is highly heterogeneous among different nsNSCLC tumor areas, hindering adequate patient selection for MET-targeted therapies. MET cytoplasmic staining and vimentin might represent surrogate markers for MET activation. PMID:26041880

  4. M-COPA, a Golgi Disruptor, Inhibits Cell Surface Expression of MET Protein and Exhibits Antitumor Activity against MET-Addicted Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yoshimi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Hirosawa, Asaka; Tamaki, Naomi; Akatsuka, Akinobu; Wu, Kuo-Ming; Choi, Hyeong-Wook; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Shiina, Isamu; Yamori, Takao; Dan, Shingo

    2016-07-01

    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for transporting, processing, and sorting numerous proteins in the cell, including cell surface-expressed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). The small-molecule compound M-COPA [2-methylcoprophilinamide (AMF-26)] disrupts the Golgi apparatus by inhibiting the activation of Arf1, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. Here, we report an evaluation of M-COPA activity against RTK-addicted cancers, focusing specifically on human gastric cancer (GC) cells with or without MET amplification. As expected, the MET-addicted cell line MKN45 exhibited a better response to M-COPA than cell lines without MET amplification. Upon M-COPA treatment, cell surface expression of MET was downregulated with a concurrent accumulation of its precursor form. M-COPA also reduced levels of the phosphorylated form of MET along with the downstream signaling molecules Akt and S6. Similar results were obtained in additional GC cell lines with amplification of MET or the FGF receptor FGFR2 MKN45 murine xenograft experiments demonstrated the antitumor activity of M-COPA in vivo Taken together, our results offer an initial preclinical proof of concept for the use of M-COPA as a candidate treatment option for MET-addicted GC, with broader implications for targeting the Golgi apparatus as a novel cancer therapeutic approach. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3895-903. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197184

  5. Wild-type p53 controls cell motility and invasion by dual regulation of MET expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chang-Il; Matoso, Andres; Corney, David C.; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Körner, Stefanie; Wang, Wei; Boccaccio, Carla; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Hermeking, Heiko; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that p53 mutations are responsible not only for growth of primary tumors but also for their dissemination. However, mechanisms involved in p53-mediated control of cell motility and invasion remain poorly understood. By using the primary ovarian surface epithelium cell culture, we show that conditional inactivation of p53 or expression of its mutant forms results in overexpression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase, a crucial regulator of invasive growth. At the same time, cells acquire increased MET-dependent motility and invasion. Wild-type p53 negatively regulates MET expression by two mechanisms: (i) transactivation of MET-targeting miR-34, and (ii) inhibition of SP1 binding to MET promoter. Both mechanisms are not functional in p53 absence, but mutant p53 proteins retain partial MET promoter suppression. Accordingly, MET overexpression, cell motility, and invasion are particularly high in p53-null cells. These results identify MET as a critical effector of p53 and suggest that inhibition of MET may be an effective antimetastatic approach to treat cancers with p53 mutations. These results also show that the extent of advanced cancer traits, such as invasion, may be determined by alterations in individual components of p53/MET regulatory network. PMID:21831840

  6. Mutant p53 enhances MET trafficking and signalling to drive cell scattering and invasion.

    PubMed

    Muller, P A J; Trinidad, A G; Timpson, P; Morton, J P; Zanivan, S; van den Berghe, P V E; Nixon, C; Karim, S A; Caswell, P T; Noll, J E; Coffill, C R; Lane, D P; Sansom, O J; Neilsen, P M; Norman, J C; Vousden, K H

    2013-03-01

    Tumour-derived mutant p53 proteins promote invasion, in part, by enhancing Rab coupling protein (RCP)-dependent receptor recycling. Here we identified MET as an RCP-binding protein and showed that mutant p53 promoted MET recycling. Mutant p53-expressing cells were more sensitive to hepatocyte growth factor, the ligand for MET, leading to enhanced MET signalling, invasion and cell scattering that was dependent on both MET and RCP. In cells expressing the p53 family member TAp63, inhibition of TAp63 also lead to cell scattering and MET-dependent invasion. However, in cells that express very low levels of TAp63, the ability of mutant p53 to promote MET-dependent cell scattering was independent of TAp63. Taken together, our data show that mutant p53 can enhance MET signalling to promote cell scattering and invasion through both TAp63-dependent and -independent mechanisms. MET has a predominant role in metastatic progression and the identification of mechanisms through which mutations in p53 can drive MET signalling may help to identify and direct therapy.

  7. Dynamic expression and localization of c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulong; Cheng, Mei; Shi, Zhen; Feng, Zhenqing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreata from Sprague Dawley rats of different developmental stages were studied to determine the expression and cellular localization of different c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas. Pancreatic mRNA and protein expression levels of c-MET at different developmental stages from embryo to adult were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of c-MET protein in the developing rat pancreas, double immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies for cell type-specific markers and for c-MET. The expression of two isoforms of c-MET (190 kDa and 170 kDa) coincided with the development of the pancreas. The 190 kDa isoform of c-MET is expressed during embryonic stages, and its expression is replaced by the expression of the 170 kDa isoform as the pancreas develops. Only the 170 kDa isoform is expressed in the adult rat pancreas. Throughout all stages of pancreatic development, c-MET is expressed by vimentin-positive cells. In contrast, c-MET staining was stronger in rat pancreata from newborn to adult stages and overlapped with insulin-positive beta-cells. The dynamic expression and localization of different c-MET isoforms in the rat pancreas during different developmental stages indicates that distinct c-MET isoform might be involved in different aspects of pancreatic development.

  8. Mechanistic Support for Combined MET and AR Blockade in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Feng, Felix Y; Wang, Yugang; Cao, Xuhong; Han, Sumin; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Navone, Nora M; Logothetis, Christopher; Taichman, Russell S; Keller, Evan T; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Alva, Ajjai S; Smith, David C; Tomlins, Scott A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Morgan, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    A recent phase III trial of the MET kinase inhibitor cabozantinib in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) failed to meet its primary survival end point; however, most men with CRPC have intact androgen receptor (AR) signaling. As previous work supports negative regulation of MET by AR signaling, we hypothesized that intact AR signaling may have limited the efficacy of cabozantinib in some of these patients. To assess the role of AR signaling on MET inhibition, we first performed an in silico analysis of human CRPC tissue samples stratified by AR signaling status ((+) or (-)), which identified MET expression as markedly increased in AR(-) samples. In vitro, AR signaling inhibition in AR(+) CRPC models increased MET expression and resulted in susceptibility to ligand (HGF) activation. Likewise, MET inhibition was only effective in blocking cancer phenotypes in cells with MET overexpression. Using multiple AR(+) CRPC in vitro and in vivo models, we showed that combined cabozantinib and enzalutamide (AR antagonist) treatment was more efficacious than either inhibitor alone. These data provide a compelling rationale to combine AR and MET inhibition in CRPC and may explain the negative results of the phase III cabozantinib study in CRPC. Similarly, the expression of MET in AR(-) disease, whether due to AR inhibition or loss of AR signaling, suggests potential utility for MET inhibition in select patients with AR therapy resistance and in AR(-) prostate cancer.

  9. Tumor and Plasma Met Levels in Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Pinto, Peter A.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Reilly, Joseph; Semerjian, Alice; Rabe, Daniel C.; Gupta, Gopal; Choyke, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure Met protein content in prostate biopsies guided by fused magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, and to measure soluble Met (sMet) protein concentration in plasma samples from patients presenting evidence of prostate cancer. Patients and Methods 345 patients had plasma samples drawn prior to image-guided biopsy of the prostate. Of these, 32% had benign biopsies. Of the 236 that were positive for prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa), 132 treated by total prostatectomy had Gleason scores of 6 (17%), 7, (55%), 8 (16%), or 9–10 (12%). 23% had evidence of local invasion. Plasma samples were also obtained from 80 healthy volunteers. Tissue Met and plasma sMet were measured by two-site immunoassay; values were compared among clinically defined groups using non-parametric statistical tests to determine significant differences or correlations. Results PCa tumor Met correlated significantly with plasma sMet, but median values were similar among benign and malignant groups. Median plasma sMet values were also similar among those groups, although both medians were significantly above normal. Median Met content in primary PCa tumors and sMet concentrations were independent of Gleason score, final pathologic stage and age. Conclusion Plasma sMet is not predictive of PCa or its severity in patients with organ-confined or locally invasive disease. Quantitative analysis of Met protein content and activation state in PCa tumor biopsy samples was highly feasible and may have value in follow-up to genomic and/or transcriptomic-based screens that show evidence of oncogenically relevant MET gene features that occur at relatively low frequency in non-metastatic PCa. PMID:27300295

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HGF/Met in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Simona; Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2015-12-01

    Met tyrosine kinase receptor, also known as c-Met, is the HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor. The HGF/Met pathway has a prominent role in cardiovascular remodelling after tissue injury. The present review provides a synopsis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HGF/Met in the heart and blood vessels. In vivo, HGF/Met function is particularly important for the protection of the heart in response to both acute and chronic insults, including ischaemic injury and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, conditional deletion of Met in cardiomyocytes results in impaired organ defence against oxidative stress. After ischaemic injury, activation of Met provides strong anti-apoptotic stimuli for cardiomyocytes through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Recently, we found that HGF/Met is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes via the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. HGF/Met induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells through Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) activation. In fibroblasts, HGF/Met antagonizes the actions of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor β1) and AngII (angiotensin II), thus preventing fibrosis. Moreover, HGF/Met influences the inflammatory response of macrophages and the immune response of dendritic cells, indicating its protective function against atherosclerotic and autoimmune diseases. The HGF/Met axis also plays an important role in regulating self-renewal and myocardial regeneration through the enhancement of cardiac progenitor cells. HGF/Met has beneficial effects against myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction: the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying repair function in the heart and blood vessels are common and include pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Thus administration of HGF or HGF mimetics may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the

  11. MET is required for the recruitment of anti-tumoural neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Finisguerra, Veronica; Di Conza, Giusy; Di Matteo, Mario; Serneels, Jens; Costa, Sandra; Thompson, A.A. Roger; Wauters, Els; Walmsley, Sarah; Prenen, Hans; Granot, Zvi; Casazza, Andrea; Mazzone, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Mutations or amplification of the MET proto-oncogene are involved in the pathogenesis of several tumours1-4, which rely on the constitutive engagement of this pathway for their growth and survival1,5. However, MET is expressed not only by cancer cells but also by tumour-associated stromal cells although its precise role in this compartment is not well characterized6-11. Here, we show that MET is required for neutrophil chemoattraction and cytotoxicity in response to its ligand HGF. Met deletion in neutrophils enhances tumour growth and metastasis. This phenotype correlates with reduced neutrophil infiltration to both primary tumour and metastatic site. Similarly, Met is necessary for neutrophil transudation during colitis, skin rash or peritonitis. Mechanistically, Met is induced by tumour-derived TNF-α or other inflammatory stimuli in both mouse and human neutrophils. This induction is instrumental for neutrophil transmigration across an activated endothelium and iNOS production upon HGF stimulation. Consequently, HGF/MET-dependent nitric oxide release by neutrophils promotes cancer cell killing, which abates tumour growth and metastasis. Following systemic administration of a MET kinase inhibitor, we prove that the therapeutic benefit of MET targeting in cancer cells is partly countered by the pro-tumoural effect rising from MET blockade in neutrophils. Our work identifies an unprecedented role of MET in neutrophils, suggests a potential “Achilles’ heel” of MET-targeted therapies in cancer, and supports the rationale for evaluating anti-MET drugs in certain inflammatory diseases. PMID:25985180

  12. Effects of met-enkephalin on the mechanical activity and distribution of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the cat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Radomirov, R; Venkova, K; Davidoff, M; Pencheva, N

    1990-01-01

    Naloxone-dependent effects of Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M) on the spontaneous and electrically induced mechanical activities were studied in longitudinal and circular preparations isolated from the cat duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Met-Enkephalin changed the spontaneous activity of all preparations tested with the exception of the circular preparations from the ileum. Met-Enkephalin-induced responses of the longitudinal preparations from the ileum were abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), while the responses of both longitudinal and circular preparations from the duodenum and jejunum were only partially depressed, being resistant to tetrodotoxin components. The latter were most pronounced in the duodenum. The neurogenic electrically induced (0.5 msec, 5 Hz, 150 pulses) responses of all the preparations consisted mainly of contractile components which were significantly and naloxone-dependently reduced by Met-enkephalin (10(-8) M). The contractile components of the responses, which were reduced by Met-enkephalin, were entirely abolished by atropine (3 x 10(-6) M). Both Met-enkephalin and atropine inhibitory effects on the neurogenic responses were more pronounced in the ileum. Met-Enkephalin was found in nerve fibers of the myenteric plexus distributed mainly among the circular muscle. Single immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the longitudinal muscle layer of the duodenum but not in the jejunum and ileum. The distribution of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity along the small intestine did not show significant differences among the three intestinal regions tested. The results obtained suggest that Met-enkephalin can modulate the mechanical activity of the cat small intestine, inhibiting cholinergic transmission and/or activating smooth muscle opioid receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The Tenth Summative Report of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    The University of Delaware's work with computer-based instruction since 1974 is summarized with attention to the history and development of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, university applications, outside user applications, and research and evaluation. PLATO was the system that met the university's criteria, which included support for…

  14. The Ninth Summative Report of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    The University of Delaware's work with computer-based instruction since 1974 is summarized, with attention to the history and development of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, university applications, outside user applications, and research and evaluation. PLATO was the system that met the university's criteria, which included: supporting…

  15. The Eleventh Summative Report of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    The University of Delaware's work with computer-based instruction since 1974 is summarized with attention to the history and development of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, university applications, outside user applications, and research and evaluation. PLATO was the system that met the university's criteria, which included support for…

  16. 76 FR 3133 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Deriving Numeric Criteria for Nitrogen/Phosphorus Pollution in Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and... Nutrient Criteria Review Panel met on December 13-14, 2010 (75 FR 66759) to receive technical briefings...%20TSD?OpenDocument . The EPA Office of Water technical contact for the draft TSD is Elizabeth Behl,...

  17. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of the rights, welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in ...

  18. Cloning and characterization of the Pichia pastoris MET2 gene as a selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Thor, Der; Xiong, See; Orazem, Claire C; Kwan, An-Chun; Cregg, James M; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2005-07-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a new biosynthetic gene, MET2, from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The predicted product of PpMET2 is significantly similar to its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart, ScMET2, which encodes homoserine-O-transacetylase. The ScMET2 was able to complement the P. pastoris met2 strain; however, the converse was not true. Expression vectors based on PpMET2 for the intracellular and secreted production of foreign proteins and corresponding auxotrophic strains were constructed and tested for use in heterologous expression. The expression vectors and corresponding strains provide greater flexibility when using P. pastoris for recombinant protein expression. PMID:15996626

  19. Fusion Welding of AerMet 100 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    ENGLEHART, DAVID A.; MICHAEL, JOSEPH R.; NOVOTNY, PAUL M.; ROBINO, CHARLES V.

    1999-08-01

    A database of mechanical properties for weldment fusion and heat-affected zones was established for AerMet{reg_sign}100 alloy, and a study of the welding metallurgy of the alloy was conducted. The properties database was developed for a matrix of weld processes (electron beam and gas-tungsten arc) welding parameters (heat inputs) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. In order to insure commercial utility and acceptance, the matrix was commensurate with commercial welding technology and practice. Second, the mechanical properties were correlated with fundamental understanding of microstructure and microstructural evolution in this alloy. Finally, assessments of optimal weld process/PWHT combinations for cotildent application of the alloy in probable service conditions were made. The database of weldment mechanical properties demonstrated that a wide range of properties can be obtained in welds in this alloy. In addition, it was demonstrated that acceptable welds, some with near base metal properties, could be produced from several different initial heat treatments. This capability provides a means for defining process parameters and PWHT's to achieve appropriate properties for different applications, and provides useful flexibility in design and manufacturing. The database also indicated that an important region in welds is the softened region which develops in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and analysis within the welding metallurgy studies indicated that the development of this region is governed by a complex interaction of precipitate overaging and austenite formation. Models and experimental data were therefore developed to describe overaging and austenite formation during thermal cycling. These models and experimental data can be applied to essentially any thermal cycle, and provide a basis for predicting the evolution of microstructure and properties during thermal processing.

  20. Simulation of Aerosols and Chemistry with a Unified Global Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2004-01-01

    This project is to continue the development of the global simulation capabilities of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry and aerosols in a unified global model. This is a part of our overall investigation of aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction. In the past year, we have enabled the tropospheric chemistry simulations based on the GEOS-CHEM model, and added stratospheric chemical reactions into the GEOS-CHEM such that a globally unified troposphere-stratosphere chemistry and transport can be simulated consistently without any simplifications. The tropospheric chemical mechanism in the GEOS-CHEM includes 80 species and 150 reactions. 24 tracers are transported, including O3, NOx, total nitrogen (NOy), H2O2, CO, and several types of hydrocarbon. The chemical solver used in the GEOS-CHEM model is a highly accurate sparse-matrix vectorized Gear solver (SMVGEAR). The stratospheric chemical mechanism includes an additional approximately 100 reactions and photolysis processes. Because of the large number of total chemical reactions and photolysis processes and very different photochemical regimes involved in the unified simulation, the model demands significant computer resources that are currently not practical. Therefore, several improvements will be taken, such as massive parallelization, code optimization, or selecting a faster solver. We have also continued aerosol simulation (including sulfate, dust, black carbon, organic carbon, and sea-salt) in the global model to cover most of year 2002. These results have been made available to many groups worldwide and accessible from the website http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/People/Chin/aot.html.

  1. MBAT: A scalable informatics system for unifying digital atlasing workflows

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Digital atlases provide a common semantic and spatial coordinate system that can be leveraged to compare, contrast, and correlate data from disparate sources. As the quality and amount of biological data continues to advance and grow, searching, referencing, and comparing this data with a researcher's own data is essential. However, the integration process is cumbersome and time-consuming due to misaligned data, implicitly defined associations, and incompatible data sources. This work addressing these challenges by providing a unified and adaptable environment to accelerate the workflow to gather, align, and analyze the data. Results The MouseBIRN Atlasing Toolkit (MBAT) project was developed as a cross-platform, free open-source application that unifies and accelerates the digital atlas workflow. A tiered, plug-in architecture was designed for the neuroinformatics and genomics goals of the project to provide a modular and extensible design. MBAT provides the ability to use a single query to search and retrieve data from multiple data sources, align image data using the user's preferred registration method, composite data from multiple sources in a common space, and link relevant informatics information to the current view of the data or atlas. The workspaces leverage tool plug-ins to extend and allow future extensions of the basic workspace functionality. A wide variety of tool plug-ins were developed that integrate pre-existing as well as newly created technology into each workspace. Novel atlasing features were also developed, such as supporting multiple label sets, dynamic selection and grouping of labels, and synchronized, context-driven display of ontological data. Conclusions MBAT empowers researchers to discover correlations among disparate data by providing a unified environment for bringing together distributed reference resources, a user's image data, and biological atlases into the same spatial or semantic context. Through its extensible

  2. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  3. Unified dark matter: constraints from galaxies and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr A.

    2015-11-01

    Unified dark matter models are appealing in that they describe the dark sector in terms of a single component. They however face problems when attempting to account for structure formation: in the linear regime, density fluctuations can become Jeans stable and oscillate rather than collapse, though it is possible that this difficulty may be circumvented by invoking non-linear clustering. Here we examine the behaviour in the fully non-linear regime, of collapsed objects that should mimic standard dark matter haloes. It is shown that the pressure gradient associated with the unified dark matter fluid should be significant in the outer parts of galaxies and clusters, and its effects observable. In this case, no flat or falling rotation curve is possible for any (barotropic) equation of state with associated sound speed decreasing with density (a necessary condition if the fluid is to behave as pressureless matter at high density). The associated density profile is therefore also incompatible with that inferred in the outer part of clusters. For the prototypical case of the generalized Chaplygin gas, it is shown that this limits the values of the equation of state index α that are compatible with observations to α ≲ 0.0001 or α ≳ 2. This is in line from what is deduced from linear analysis. More generally, from the expected properties of dark matter haloes, constraints on the sound speed are derived. For the particular case of the generalized Chaplygin gas, this further constrains the index to α ≲ 10- 9 or α ≳ 6.7. For a unified dark matter fluid to mimic dark halo properties, therefore, it needs to have an equation of state such that the pressure gradients are either minimal or which decrease fast enough so as to be negligible at densities characteristic of the outer parts of haloes.

  4. The role of met-enkephalin in silent myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Campana, E; Giancaspro, G; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Cardarelli, G; Vincentelli, G M; Alegiani, F; Negri, M

    2001-01-01

    Met-enkephalin plasma levels were evaluated in 20 cardioischemic diabetic patients. All the patients had ECG ischemic signs. Ten patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy, experienced no pain during myocarial ischemia. Met-enkephalin levels in the diabetic patients with silent myiocardial ischemia were significantly lower compared to those in the symptomatic patients. This demonstrates that the absence of myocardial ischemic pain in neuropathic diabetic patients is not accounted for by met-enkephalin action. PMID:11958273

  5. Detection of MET Gene Copy Number in Cancer Samples Using the Droplet Digital PCR Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanni; Tang, En-Tzu; Du, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analysis of MET gene copy number (CN) has been considered to be a potential biomarker to predict the response to MET-targeted therapies in various cancers. However, the current standard methods to determine MET CN are SNP 6.0 in the genomic DNA of cancer cell lines and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in tumor models, respectively, which are costly and require advanced technical skills and result in relatively subjective judgments. Therefore, we employed a novel method, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), to determine the MET gene copy number with high accuracy and precision. Methods The genomic DNA of cancer cell lines or tumor models were tested and compared with the MET gene CN and MET/CEN-7 ratio determined by SNP 6.0 and FISH, respectively. Results In cell lines, the linear association of the MET CN detected by ddPCR and SNP 6.0 is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.867). In tumor models, the MET CN detected by ddPCR was significantly different between the MET gene amplification and non-amplification groups according to FISH (mean: 15.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.044). Given that MET gene amplification is defined as MET CN >5.5 by ddPCR, the concordance rate between ddPCR and FISH was 98.0%, and Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.498–1.000; P <0.001). Conclusions The results demonstrated that the ddPCR method has the potential to quantify the MET gene copy number with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from SNP 6.0 and FISH in cancer cell lines and tumor samples, respectively. PMID:26765781

  6. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  7. A unified constructive network model for problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y

    1996-01-01

    We develop a neural network model that relieves time-consuming trial-and-error computer experiments usually performed in problem-solving with networks where problems, including the traveling salesman problem, pattern matching and pattern classification/learning, are formulated as optimization problems with constraint. First, we specify and uniquely distinguish the model as a set of constituent functions that should comply with restrictive conditions. Next, we demonstrate that it is unified, i.e., it yields most current networks. Finally, we verify that it is constructive, that is, we show a standard method that systematically constructs from a given optimization problem a particular network in that model to solve it.

  8. LDRD final report on a unified linear reference system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Mackoy, R.D.; Fletcher, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the project was to describe existing deficiencies in Geographic Information Systems for transportation (GIS-T) applications and prescribe solutions that would benefit the transportation community in general. After an in-depth literature search and much consultation with noted transportation experts, the need for a common linear reference system that integrated and supported the planning and operational needs of the transportation community became very apparent. The focus of the project was set on a unified linear reference system and how to go about its requirements definition, design, implementation, and promulgation to the transportation community.

  9. A Unified Approach to Intra-Domain Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Andrew J.; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2009-01-01

    While a variety of mechanisms have been developed for securing individual intra-domain protocols, none address the issue in a holistic manner. We develop a unified framework to secure prominent networking protocols within a single domain. We begin with a secure version of the DHCP protocol, which has the additional feature of providing each host with a certificate. We then leverage these certificates to secure ARP, prevent spoofing within the domain, and secure SSH and VPN connections between the domain and hosts which have previously interacted with it locally. In doing so, we also develop an incrementally deployable public key infrastructure which can later be leveraged to support inter-domain authentication.

  10. Universality of efficiency at unified trade-off optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchao; Huang, Chuankun; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the efficiency at the unified trade-off optimization criterion (the so-called maximum Ω criterion) representing a compromise between the useful energy and the lost energy of heat engines operating between two reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and demonstrate that the linear coefficient 3/4 and quadratic coefficient 1/32 of the efficiency at maximum Ω are universal for heat engines under strong coupling and symmetry conditions. It is further proved that the conclusions obtained here also apply to the ecological optimization criterion.

  11. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  12. Skinner Rusk unified formalism for optimal control systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Martín de Diego, David; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2007-10-01

    A geometric approach to time-dependent optimal control problems is proposed. This formulation is based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The corresponding unified formalism developed for optimal control systems allows us to formulate geometrically the necessary conditions given by a weak form of Pontryagin's maximum principle, provided that the differentiability with respect to controls is assumed and the space of controls is open. Furthermore, our method is also valid for implicit optimal control systems and, in particular, for the so-called descriptor systems (optimal control problems including both differential and algebraic equations).

  13. Nonlinear/linear unified thermal stress formulations - Transfinite element approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    A new unified computational approach for applicability to nonlinear/linear thermal-structural problems is presented. Basic concepts of the approach including applicability to nonlinear and linear thermal structural mechanics are first described via general formulations. Therein, the approach is demonstrated for thermal stress and thermal-structural dynamic applications. The proposed transfinite element approach focuses on providing a viable hybrid computational methodology by combining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element schemes in conjunction with transform techniques and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Comparative samples of numerical test cases highlight the capabilities of the proposed concepts.

  14. A unified model for slug flow in upward inclined pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Felizola, H.; Shoham, O.

    1995-03-01

    The effect of pipe inclination on upward two-phase slug flow characteristics has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Experimental data were acquired for the entire range of inclination angles, from horizontal to vertical. New correlations were developed for slug length and liquid holdup in the slug body as a function of inclination angle. A unified model has been developed for the prediction of slug flow behavior in upward inclined pipes. Reasonable agreement is observed between the pressure drop predicted by the model and the experimental data.

  15. A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-06-24

    Abstract?In this paper, we propose a new unified differential evolution (uDE) algorithm for single objective global optimization. Instead of selecting among multiple mutation strategies as in the conventional differential evolution algorithm, this algorithm employs a single equation as the mutation strategy. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexbility for broader exploration of different mutation strategies. Numerical tests using twelve basic unimodal and multimodal functions show promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to convential differential evolution algorithms.

  16. Toward construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamano, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A precise knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interactions is becoming one of the crucial issues for a successful determination of the neutrino parameters from the future neutrino-oscillation experiments. It is therefore urgent to have a reliable neutrino-nucleus interactoin model that enables a quantitative description of neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in an accuracy of 10 percent or less. However, the kinematic regions relevant to the neutrino parameter searches extend over the quasi-elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic-scattering regions, where different theoretical treatments based on hadronic or partonic degrees of freedom are usually employed, and this makes the construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model covering those kinematic regions challenging. To tackle on such a challenging issue, we have recently developed a collaboration of experimentalists and theorists in different fields at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center (http://www.nuint.kek.jp/index_e.html). In this talk, I review our efforts toward construction of the unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center. A precise knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interactions is becoming one of the crucial issues for a successful determination of the neutrino parameters from the future neutrino-oscillation experiments. It is therefore urgent to have a reliable neutrino-nucleus interactoin model that enables a quantitative description of neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in an accuracy of 10 percent or less. However, the kinematic regions relevant to the neutrino parameter searches extend over the quasi-elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic-scattering regions, where different theoretical treatments based on hadronic or partonic degrees of freedom are usually employed, and this makes the construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model covering those kinematic regions challenging. To tackle on such a challenging issue, we have

  17. Conceptual Modeling for the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Charles E.; Komorowski, Henryk Jan; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System was proposed by the National Library of Medicine to facilitate the exchange and utilization of information from multiple sources. We are using semantic networks as the knowledge representation scheme in a prototype system to explore how to accomplish these goals. Conceptual modeling helps define a complete and consistent set of objects and relationships to include in the semantic net. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches were found useful in the seven step process of building the semantic network. Theoretical and practical issues are discussed as well as future extensions to the current prototype.

  18. Chassidic Teachings and Modern Psychology: Toward a More Unified Approach.

    PubMed

    Turner, Akiva

    2016-06-01

    This article describes how many modern psychological constructs and theories exist in older as well as newer Chassidic and Jewish teachings, particularly those of Chabad Lubavitch. This exploration points toward a potential benefit for a unification of psychology and Chassidic teachings. Psychological theories and constructs explored are Freudian psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, cognitive restructuring/reframing, self-efficacy/planned behavior, and logotherapy/existentialism. The article then concludes with a discussion of possible implications of moving toward a unified approach for clinical practitioners. PMID:26507951

  19. Fluctuation-response relation unifies dynamical behaviors in neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Mao, Hongzi; Wu, Si

    2015-08-01

    Anticipation is a strategy used by neural fields to compensate for transmission and processing delays during the tracking of dynamical information and can be achieved by slow, localized, inhibitory feedback mechanisms such as short-term synaptic depression, spike-frequency adaptation, or inhibitory feedback from other layers. Based on the translational symmetry of the mobile network states, we derive generic fluctuation-response relations, providing unified predictions that link their tracking behaviors in the presence of external stimuli to the intrinsic dynamics of the neural fields in their absence.

  20. A unified framework for Schelling's model of segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tim; McKane, Alan J.

    2011-07-01

    Schelling's model of segregation is one of the first and most influential models in the field of social simulation. There are many variations of the model which have been proposed and simulated over the last forty years, though the present state of the literature on the subject is somewhat fragmented and lacking comprehensive analytical treatments. In this paper a unified mathematical framework for Schelling's model and its many variants is developed. This methodology is useful in two regards: firstly, it provides a tool with which to understand the differences observed between models; secondly, phenomena which appear in several model variations may be understood in more depth through analytic studies of simpler versions.

  1. A unified cell biological perspective on axon–myelin injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon–myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. In this review, we propose that as a result of the tight cell biological interconnection of axons and myelin, damage to either can spread, which might convert a local inflammatory disease process early in MS into the global progressive disorder seen during later stages. This mode of spreading could also apply to other neurological disorders. PMID:25092654

  2. Orbit sequential estimation using the unified state model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Ernesto Vieira

    1994-02-01

    The hodographic theory, developed first by Hamilton/Mobius in the middle of the nineteenth century and reintroduced by Altman in the 1960's, is presented in this work as the basis for the orbital unified state model in the orbit determination of artificial satellites. The full model defines the trajectory and attitude dynamics of an orbital spacecraft and enables efficient and rapid machine computation for mission analysis, orbit determination, and prediction. In this work, the orbital part of the model, together with the Kalman filter, is implemented for the orbit determination problem and the results are compared with conventional formulations.

  3. Towards a Unifying Framework for Pattern Transformation in Swarm Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Blesson; McKee, Gerard

    2009-03-01

    This paper identifies the major challenges in the area of pattern formation. The work is also motivated by the need for development of a single framework to surmount these challenges. A framework based on the control of macroscopic parameters is proposed. The issue of transformation of patterns is specifically considered. A definition for transformation and four special cases, namely elementary and geometrical transformations by repositioning all or some robots in the pattern are provided. Two feasible tools for pattern transformation namely, a macroscopic parameter method and a mathematical tool—Moebius transformation also known as the linear fractional transformation are introduced. The realization of the unifying framework considering planning and communication is reported.

  4. Food-web based unified model of macro- and microevolution.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2003-10-01

    We incorporate the generic hierarchical architecture of foodwebs into a "unified" model that describes both micro- and macroevolutions within a single theoretical framework. This model describes the microevolution in detail by accounting for the birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms as well as prey-predator interactions on a hierarchical dynamic food web. It also provides a natural description of random mutations and speciation (origination) of species as well as their extinctions. The distribution of lifetimes of species follows an approximate power law only over a limited regime.

  5. Activation of HER family members in gastric carcinoma cells mediates resistance to MET inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is constitutively activated in many gastric cancers and its expression is strictly required for survival of some gastric cancer cells. Thus, MET is considered a good candidate for targeted therapeutic intervention in this type of tumor, and MET inhibitors recently entered clinical trials. One of the major problems of therapies targeting tyrosine kinases is that many tumors are not responsive to treatment or eventually develop resistance to the drugs. Perspective studies are thus mandatory to identify the molecular mechanisms that could cause resistance to these therapies. Results Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that, in MET-addicted gastric cancer cells, the activation of HER (Human Epidermal Receptor) family members induces resistance to MET silencing or inhibition by PHA-665752 (a selective kinase inhibitor). We provide molecular evidences highlighting the role of EGFR, HER3, and downstream signaling pathways common to MET and HER family in resistance to MET inhibitors. Moreover, we show that an in vitro generated gastric cancer cell line resistant to MET-inhibition displays overexpression of HER family members, whose activation contributes to maintenance of resistance. Conclusions Our findings predict that gastric cancer tumors bearing constitutive activation of HER family members are poorly responsive to MET inhibition, even if this receptor is constitutively active. Moreover, the appearance of these alterations might also be responsible for the onset of resistance in initially responsive tumors. PMID:20500904

  6. Petrography of Lunar Meteorite MET 01210, A New Basaltic Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite MET 01210 (hereafter referred to as MET) is a 22.8 g breccia collected during the 2001 field season in the Meteorite Hills, Antarctica. Although initially classified as an anorthositic breccia, MET is a regolith breccia composed predominantly of very-low-Ti (VLT) basaltic material. Four other brecciated lunar meteorites (NWA 773, QUE 94281, EET 87/96, Yamato 79/98) with a significant VLT basaltic component have been identified. We present here the petrography and bulk major element composition of MET and compare it to previously studied basaltic lunar meteorite breccias.

  7. HGF/MET-directed therapeutics in gastroesophageal cancer: a review of clinical and biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Hack, Stephen P; Bruey, Jean-Marie; Koeppen, Hartmut

    2014-05-30

    Aberrant activation of the HGF/MET signaling axis has been strongly implicated in the malignant transformation and progression of gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). MET receptor overexpression in tumor samples from GEC patients has been consistently correlated with an aggressive metastatic phenotype and poor prognosis. In preclinical GEC models, abrogation of HGF/MET signaling has been shown to induce tumor regression as well as inhibition of metastatic dissemination. Promising clinical results in patient subsets in which MET is overexpressed have spurned several randomized studies of HGF/MET-directed agents, including two pivotal global Phase III trials. Available data highlight the need for predictive biomarkers in order to select patients most likely to benefit from HGF/MET inhibition. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of mechanisms of MET activation in GEC, the current status of the clinical evaluation of MET-targeted therapies in GEC, characteristics of ongoing randomized GEC trials and the associated efforts to identify and validate biomarkers. We also discuss the considerations and challenges for HGF/MET inhibitor drug development in the GEC setting.

  8. Unified Electronic Currency Based on the Fourth Party Platform Integrated Payment Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xu; Qiqi, Hu

    This paper presents a solution of unified e-currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. The purpose of the paper is to solve the problem of distribution and resource-wasting caused by the lack of unified electronic currency, and to solve regulatory difficulties due to regulation size caused by a wide variety of e-currency. Methods: This article first analyzes the problems in the development of electronic money, and then proposes the concept of a unified electronic currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. Besides, it proposes a unified mechanism and transaction procedures for unified e-currency, and analyzes the liquidation process, security and regulatory requirements, which are involved in using unified electronic currency.

  9. Methionine uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum by MetQNI and by MetPS, a novel methionine and alanine importer of the NSS neurotransmitter transporter family.

    PubMed

    Trötschel, Christian; Follmann, Martin; Nettekoven, Jeannine A; Mohrbach, Tobias; Forrest, Lucy R; Burkovski, Andreas; Marin, Kay; Krämer, Reinhard

    2008-12-01

    The soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is a model organism in amino acid biotechnology. Here we present the identification of two different L-methionine uptake systems including the first characterization of a bacterial secondary methionine carrier. The primary carrier MetQNI is a high affinity ABC-type transporter specific for l-methionine. Its expression is under the control of the transcription factor McbR, the global regulator of sulfur metabolism in C. glutamicum. Besides MetQNI, a novel secondary methionine uptake system of the NSS (neurotransmitter:sodium symporter) family was identified and named MetP. The MetP system is characterized by a lower affinity for methionine and uses Na(+) ions for energetic coupling. It is also the main alanine transporter in C. glutamicum and is expressed constitutively. These observations are consistent with models of methionine, alanine, and leucine bound to MetP, derived from the X-ray crystal structure of the LeuT transporter from Aquifex aeolicus. Complementation studies show that MetP consists of two components, a large subunit with 12 predicted transmembrane segments and, surprisingly, an additional subunit with one predicted transmembrane segment only. Thus, this new member of the NSS transporter family adds a novel feature to this class of carriers, namely, the functional dependence on an additional small subunit.

  10. The Automated Medical Office

    PubMed Central

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency. PMID:21233899

  11. The automated medical office.

    PubMed

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  12. Mulstiscale Stochastic Generator of Multivariate Met-Ocean Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanche, Yanira; Mínguez, Roberto; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2013-04-01

    The design of maritime structures requires information on sea state conditions that influence its behavior during its life cycle. In the last decades, there has been a increasing development of sea databases (buoys, reanalysis, satellite) that allow an accurate description of the marine climate and its interaction with a given structure in terms of functionality and stability. However, these databases have a limited timelength, and its appliance entails an associated uncertainty. To avoid this limitation, engineers try to sample synthetically generated time series, statistically consistent, which allow the simulation of longer time periods. The present work proposes a hybrid methodology to deal with this issue. It is based in the combination of clustering algorithms (k-means) and an autoregressive logistic regression model (logit). Since the marine climate is directly related to the atmospheric conditions at a synoptic scale, the proposed methodology takes both systems into account; generating simultaneously circulation patterns (weather types) time series and the sea state time series related. The generation of these time series can be summarized in three steps: (1) By applying the clustering technique k-means the atmospheric conditions are classified into a representative number of synoptical patterns (2) Taking into account different covariates involved (such as seasonality, interannual variability, trends or autoregressive term) the autoregressive logistic model is adjusted (3) Once the model is able to simulate weather types time series the last step is to generate multivariate hourly metocean parameters related to these weather types. This is done by an autoregressive model (ARMA) for each variable, including cross-correlation between them. To show the goodness of the proposed method the following data has been used: Sea Level Pressure (SLP) databases from NCEP-NCAR and Global Ocean Wave (GOW) reanalysis from IH Cantabria. The synthetical met-ocean hourly

  13. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a “data modeler” tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets. PMID:26147731

  14. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-02

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a "data modeler" tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  15. Supersymmetric axion grand unified theories and their predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a class of unified supersymmetric axion theories with unified and Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetries broken by the same set of fields at a scale ˜2 ×1 016 GeV . A typical domain wall number of order 30 leads to an axion decay constant fa of order 1 015 GeV . Inflation generates a large saxion condensate, giving a reheat temperature TR below the QCD scale for supersymmetry breaking of order 1-10 TeV. Axion field oscillations commence in the saxion matter-dominated era near the QCD scale, and recent lattice computations of the temperature dependence of the axion mass in this era allow a controlled calculation of the axion dark matter abundance. The observed abundance can be successfully explained by an initial axion misalignment angle of order unity, θi˜1 . A highly correlated set of predictions is discussed for fa, TR, the supersymmetric Higgs mass parameter μ , the amount of dark radiation Δ Neff, the proton decay rate Γ (p →e+π0), isocurvature density perturbations and the B mode of the cosmic microwave background. The last two are particularly interesting when the energy scale of inflation is also of order 1 016 GeV .

  16. Compact steep-spectrum sources and the unified scheme.

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, D J

    1995-01-01

    The compact steep-spectrum sources (CSSs) are an interesting class of objects which are of subgalactic dimensions; they occur more frequently in high-frequency surveys because their spectra often turn over at lower frequencies. We have estimated the symmetry parameters of a well-defined sample of CSSs and compared these with the larger 3CR sources of similar luminosity to understand the evolution and the consistency of CSSs with the unified scheme. We suggest that the majority of CSSs are likely to be young sources advancing outward through an asymmetric, inhomogeneous environment to form the larger ones. The radio properties of the CSSs are consistent with the unified scheme, where the axes of the quasars are seen closer to the line of sight while the radio galaxies lie closer to the plane of the sky. We discuss how radio polarization observations may be used to probe whether the physical conditions in the central regions of the CSSs are different from the larger ones. We present a simple scenario where the depolarization and high rotation measures seen in many CSSs can be consistent with the low rotation measures of cores in the more extended quasars and suggest further observations to test this scenario. PMID:11607610

  17. A unified impulse response model for DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Schabel, Matthias C

    2012-11-01

    We describe the gamma capillary transit time model, a generalized impulse response model for DCE-MRI that mathematically unifies the Tofts-Kety, extended Tofts-Kety, adiabatic tissue homogeneity, and two-compartment exchange models. By including a parameter (α⁻¹) representing the width of the distribution of capillary transit times within a tissue voxel, the GCTT model discriminates tissues having relatively monodisperse transit time distributions from those having a large degree of heterogeneity. All five models were compared using in vivo data acquired in three brain tumors (one glioblastoma multiforme, one pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and one anaplastic meningioma) and Monte Carlo simulations. Our principal findings are : (1) The four most commonly used models for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can be unified within a single formalism. (2) Application of the GCTT model to in vivo data incurs only modest penalties in parameter uncertainty and computational cost. (3) Measured nonparametric impulse response functions in human brain tumors are well described by the GCTT model. (4) Estimation of α⁻¹ is feasible but achieving statistical significance requires higher SNR than is typically obtained in single voxel dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. These results suggest that the GCTT model may be useful for extraction of information about tumor physiology beyond what is obtained using current modeling methodologies.

  18. A unified convention for biological assemblies with helical symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    A new representation of helical structure by four parameters, [n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, twist, rise], is able to generate an entire helical construct from asymmetric units, including cases of helical assembly with a seam. Assemblies with helical symmetry can be conveniently formulated in many distinct ways. Here, a new convention is presented which unifies the two most commonly used helical systems for generating helical assemblies from asymmetric units determined by X-ray fibre diffraction and EM imaging. A helical assembly is viewed as being composed of identical repetitive units in a one- or two-dimensional lattice, named 1-D and 2-D helical systems, respectively. The unification suggests that a new helical description with only four parameters [n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, twist, rise], which is called the augmented 1-D helical system, can generate the complete set of helical arrangements, including coverage of helical discontinuities (seams). A unified four-parameter characterization implies similar parameters for similar assemblies, can eliminate errors in reproducing structures of helical assemblies and facilitates the generation of polymorphic ensembles from helical atomic models or EM density maps. Further, guidelines are provided for such a unique description that reflects the structural signature of an assembly, as well as rules for manipulating the helical symmetry presentation.

  19. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  20. A unified Bayesian hierarchical model for MRI tissue classification.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dai; Liang, Dong; Tierney, Luke

    2014-04-15

    Various works have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue classification extensively to study a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Various noise characteristics and other artifacts make this classification a challenging task. Instead of splitting the procedure into different steps, we extend a previous work to develop a unified Bayesian hierarchical model, which addresses both the partial volume effect and intensity non-uniformity, the two major acquisition artifacts, simultaneously. We adopted a normal mixture model with the means and variances depending on the tissue types of voxels to model the observed intensity values. We modeled the relationship among the components of the index vector of tissue types by a hidden Markov model, which captures the spatial similarity of voxels. Furthermore, we addressed the partial volume effect by construction of a higher resolution image in which each voxel is divided into subvoxels. Finally, We achieved the bias field correction by using a Gaussian Markov random field model with a band precision matrix designed in light of image filtering. Sparse matrix methods and parallel computations based on conditional independence are exploited to improve the speed of the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The unified model provides more accurate tissue classification results for both simulated and real data sets. PMID:24738112

  1. Unifying account of visual motion and position perception

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Tadin, Duje; Knill, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing evidence for perceptual interactions between motion and position, no unifying framework exists to account for these two key features of our visual experience. We show that percepts of both object position and motion derive from a common object-tracking system—a system that optimally integrates sensory signals with a realistic model of motion dynamics, effectively inferring their generative causes. The object-tracking model provides an excellent fit to both position and motion judgments in simple stimuli. With no changes in model parameters, the same model also accounts for subjects’ novel illusory percepts in more complex moving stimuli. The resulting framework is characterized by a strong bidirectional coupling between position and motion estimates and provides a rational, unifying account of a number of motion and position phenomena that are currently thought to arise from independent mechanisms. This includes motion-induced shifts in perceived position, perceptual slow-speed biases, slowing of motions shown in visual periphery, and the well-known curveball illusion. These results reveal that motion perception cannot be isolated from position signals. Even in the simplest displays with no changes in object position, our perception is driven by the output of an object-tracking system that rationally infers different generative causes of motion signals. Taken together, we show that object tracking plays a fundamental role in perception of visual motion and position. PMID:26080410

  2. An Assessment of Evans' Unified Field Theory I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2008-01-01

    Evans developed a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism on the background of a spacetime obeying a Riemann-Cartan geometry. This geometry can be characterized by an orthonormal coframe ϑ α and a (metric compatible) Lorentz connection Γ α β . These two potentials yield the field strengths torsion T α and curvature R α β . Evans tried to infuse electromagnetic properties into this geometrical framework by putting the coframe ϑ α to be proportional to four extended electromagnetic potentials mathcal{A}^{α } ; these are assumed to encompass the conventional Maxwellian potential A in a suitable limit. The viable Einstein-Cartan (-Sciama-Kibble) theory of gravity was adopted by Evans to describe the gravitational sector of his theory. Including also the results of an accompanying paper by Obukhov and the author, we show that Evans’ ansatz for electromagnetism is untenable beyond repair both from a geometrical as well as from a physical point of view. As a consequence, his unified theory is obsolete.

  3. Dynamics systems vs. optimal control--a unifying view.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Stefan; Mohajerian, Peyman; Ijspeert, Auke

    2007-01-01

    In the past, computational motor control has been approached from at least two major frameworks: the dynamic systems approach and the viewpoint of optimal control. The dynamic system approach emphasizes motor control as a process of self-organization between an animal and its environment. Nonlinear differential equations that can model entrainment and synchronization behavior are among the most favorable tools of dynamic systems modelers. In contrast, optimal control approaches view motor control as the evolutionary or development result of a nervous system that tries to optimize rather general organizational principles, e.g., energy consumption or accurate task achievement. Optimal control theory is usually employed to develop appropriate theories. Interestingly, there is rather little interaction between dynamic systems and optimal control modelers as the two approaches follow rather different philosophies and are often viewed as diametrically opposing. In this paper, we develop a computational approach to motor control that offers a unifying modeling framework for both dynamic systems and optimal control approaches. In discussions of several behavioral experiments and some theoretical and robotics studies, we demonstrate how our computational ideas allow both the representation of self-organizing processes and the optimization of movement based on reward criteria. Our modeling framework is rather simple and general, and opens opportunities to revisit many previous modeling results from this novel unifying view.

  4. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  5. Can unified theories of biodiversity explain mammalian macroecological patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kate E.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Isaac, Nick J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a unifying theory of biodiversity linking the diverse array of macroecological patterns into a common theoretical framework is very appealing. We explore this idea to examine currently proposed unified theories of biodiversity (UTBs) and their predictions. Synthesizing the literature on the macroecological patterns of mammals, we critically evaluate the evidence to support these theories. We find general qualitative support for the UTBs' predictions within mammals, but rigorous testing is hampered by the types of data typically collected in studies of mammals. In particular, abundance is rarely estimated for entire mammalian communities or of individual species in multiple locations, reflecting the logistical challenges of studying wild mammal populations. By contrast, there are numerous macroecological patterns (especially allometric scaling relationships) that are extremely well characterized for mammals, but which fall outside the scope of current UTBs. We consider how these theories might be extended to explain mammalian biodiversity patterns more generally. Specifically, we suggest that UTBs need to incorporate the dimensions of geographical space, species' traits and time to reconcile theory with pattern. PMID:21807736

  6. Nonlocal regularization of inverse problems: a unified variational framework

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhili; Jacob, Mathews

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a unifying energy minimization framework for nonlocal regularization of inverse problems. In contrast to the weighted sum of square differences between image pixels used by current schemes, the proposed functional is an unweighted sum of inter-patch distances. We use robust distance metrics that promote the averaging of similar patches, while discouraging the averaging of dissimilar patches. We show that the first iteration of a majorize-minimize algorithm to minimize the proposed cost function is similar to current non-local methods. The reformulation thus provides a theoretical justification for the heuristic approach of iterating non-local schemes, which re-estimate the weights from the current image estimate. Thanks to the reformulation, we now understand that the widely reported alias amplification associated with iterative non-local methods are caused by the convergence to local minimum of the nonconvex penalty. We introduce an efficient continuation strategy to overcome this problem. The similarity of the proposed criterion to widely used non-quadratic penalties (eg. total variation and `p semi-norms) opens the door to the adaptation of fast algorithms developed in the context of compressive sensing; we introduce several novel algorithms to solve the proposed non-local optimization problem. Thanks to the unifying framework, these fast algorithms are readily applicable for a large class of distance metrics. PMID:23014745

  7. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  8. Unified Geometrodynamics:. A Complementarity of Newton's and Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    Newton claimed the influence of gravity is instantaneous; Einstein insisted no influence could propagate faster than the speed of light. Recent experiments to test the speed of gravity have been controversial and inconclusive on technical grounds. Considerable effort is currently expended in the search for a Quantum Gravity; but there is no a priori reason there should be one. We propose that is not the regime of integration which instead occurs in the arena of the Unified Field, UF; further that a completed model of Geometrodynamics inherently includes a Newton/Einstein duality which introduces shock effects in certain arenas. The unified theory predicts that there is no graviton of the usual phenomenal form (an artifact of the incompleteness of Gauge Theory, i.e. gauge theory is only an approximation suggesting new physics). A new Large Scale Additional Dimensional (LSXD) M-Theoretic topological charge alternative is presented. We also attempt to show how the Titius-Bode Law for solar and exoplanetary configurations appears to provide indicia of this multiverse gravitational model. Applications of the dual geometrodynamics formulation include an interpretation of quasar luminosity as the result of gravitational shock waves in a manner countering explanations of large redshift, Z in Big Bang cosmology putatively based on Doppler recession. Instead redshift occurs as the result of a periodic minute photon mass anisotropy caused by periodic coupling to a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum.

  9. Unifying wildfire models from ecology and statistical physics.

    PubMed

    Zinck, Richard D; Grimm, Volker

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wildfire regimes is crucial for both regional forest management and predicting global interactions between fire regimes and climate. Accordingly, spatially explicit modeling of forest fire ecosystems is a very active field of research, including both generic and highly specific models. There is, however, a second field in which wildfire has served as a metaphor for more than 20 years: statistical physics. So far, there has been only limited interaction between these two fields of wildfire modeling. Here we show that two typical generic wildfire models from ecology are structurally equivalent to the most commonly used model from statistical physics. All three models can be unified to a single model in which they appear as special cases of regrowth-dependent flammability. This local "ecological memory" of former fire events is key to self-organization in wildfire ecosystems. The unified model is able to reproduce three different patterns observed in real boreal forests: fire size distributions, fire shapes, and a hump-shaped relationship between disturbance intensity (average annual area burned) and diversity of succession stages. The unification enables us to bring together insights from both disciplines in a novel way and to identify limitations that provide starting points for further research.

  10. Unifying wildfire models from ecology and statistical physics.

    PubMed

    Zinck, Richard D; Grimm, Volker

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wildfire regimes is crucial for both regional forest management and predicting global interactions between fire regimes and climate. Accordingly, spatially explicit modeling of forest fire ecosystems is a very active field of research, including both generic and highly specific models. There is, however, a second field in which wildfire has served as a metaphor for more than 20 years: statistical physics. So far, there has been only limited interaction between these two fields of wildfire modeling. Here we show that two typical generic wildfire models from ecology are structurally equivalent to the most commonly used model from statistical physics. All three models can be unified to a single model in which they appear as special cases of regrowth-dependent flammability. This local "ecological memory" of former fire events is key to self-organization in wildfire ecosystems. The unified model is able to reproduce three different patterns observed in real boreal forests: fire size distributions, fire shapes, and a hump-shaped relationship between disturbance intensity (average annual area burned) and diversity of succession stages. The unification enables us to bring together insights from both disciplines in a novel way and to identify limitations that provide starting points for further research. PMID:19799499

  11. A Unifying Model of Orientation Crowding in Peripheral Vision.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2015-12-21

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited not by the visibility of features, but by the spacing between them [1]. When too close together, visual features can become "crowded" and perceptually indistinguishable. Crowding interferes with basic tasks such as letter and face identification and thus informs our understanding of object recognition breakdown in peripheral vision [2]. Multiple proposals have attempted to explain crowding [3], and each is supported by compelling psychophysical and neuroimaging data [4-6] that are incompatible with competing proposals. In general, perceptual failures have variously been attributed to the averaging of nearby visual signals [7-10], confusion between target and distractor elements [11, 12], and a limited resolution of visual spatial attention [13]. Here we introduce a psychophysical paradigm that allows systematic study of crowded perception within the orientation domain, and we present a unifying computational model of crowding phenomena that reconciles conflicting explanations. Our results show that our single measure produces a variety of perceptual errors that are reported across the crowding literature. Critically, a simple model of the responses of populations of orientation-selective visual neurons accurately predicts all perceptual errors. We thus provide a unifying mechanistic explanation for orientation crowding in peripheral vision. Our simple model accounts for several perceptual phenomena produced by crowding of orientation and raises the possibility that multiple classes of object recognition failures in peripheral vision can be accounted for by a single mechanism.

  12. Warped Supersymmetric Unification with Non-Unified Superparticle Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Yasunori; Tucker-Smith, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2004-03-16

    We present a new supersymmetric extension of the standard model. The model is constructed in warped space, with a unified bulk symmetry broken by boundary conditions on both the Planck and TeV branes. In the supersymmetric limit, the massless spectrum contains exotic colored particles along with the particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). Nevertheless, the model still reproduces the MSSM prediction for gauge coupling unification and does not suffer from a proton decay problem. The exotic states acquire masses from supersymmetry breaking, making the model completely viable, but thereis still the possibility that these states will be detected at the LHC. The lightest of these states is most likely A_5^XY, the fifth component of the gauge field associated with the broken unified symmetry. Because supersymmetry is broken on the SU(5)-violating TeV brane, the gaugino masses generated at the TeV scale are completely independent of one another. We explore some of the unusual features that the superparticle spectrum might have as a consequence.

  13. A unified theory of calcium alternans in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhilin; Liu, Michael B.; Nivala, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca2+ cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca2+ sparks. Each of the two mechanisms can partially explain the experimental observations, but both have their inconsistencies with the experimental results. Here we developed an iterated map model that is composed of two coupled iterated maps, which unifies the two mechanisms into a single cohesive mathematical framework. The unified theory can consistently explain the seemingly contradictory experimental observations and shows that the two mechanisms work synergistically to promote Ca2+ alternans. Predictions of the theory were examined in a physiologically-detailed spatial Ca2+ cycling model of ventricular myocytes. PMID:27762397

  14. Unified formulation for analysis of slopes with general slip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, R.D.; Bourdeau, P.L. . School of Civil Engineering); Muhunthan, B. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The general availability of computers has provided efficient means of assessing the stability of slopes using several analytical methods. However, the increased use of computers coupled with a lack of unified presentation of the various methods sometimes leads to conflicting results. It is shown that the current analytical methods can be grouped into three categories based on the hypotheses used to describe the internal forces, namely: (1) the direction of the internal forces; (2) the height of the line of thrust; and (3) the shape of the distribution function of the internal shear forces. An analytical framework incorporating this idea is presented to facilitate and unify slope stability analysis with general slip surfaces. The study is a generalization of earlier work performed by Espinoza et al. for circular slip surfaces. The framework incorporates most current methods of analysis. The analytical model is implemented in a computer program. The program was used to study several case examples. On this basis, key issues associated with the influence of the internal shear forces on the factor of safety, for both circular and general slip failure surfaces, are discussed. It appears that for circular failure surfaces, even with heterogeneous soil stratigraphy the factor of safety is not affected by the choice of a particular hypothesis. On the contrary, for general slip surfaces this choice may significantly affect the results.

  15. Modern Fysics Phallacies: The Best Way Not to Unify Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James E.

    Too many physicists believe the `phallacy' that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general `phallacies in fysics' that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious `phallacies' exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained - a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension - and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

  16. Structural basis for DNA recognition by the transcription regulator MetR.

    PubMed

    Punekar, Avinash S; Porter, Jonathan; Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V

    2016-06-01

    MetR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR), has been extensively studied owing to its role in the control of methionine biosynthesis in proteobacteria. A MetR homodimer binds to a 24-base-pair operator region of the met genes and specifically recognizes the interrupted palindromic sequence 5'-TGAA-N5-TTCA-3'. Mechanistic details underlying the interaction of MetR with its target DNA at the molecular level remain unknown. In this work, the crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of MetR was determined at 2.16 Å resolution. MetR-DBD adopts a winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) motif and shares significant fold similarity with the DBD of the LTTR protein BenM. Furthermore, a data-driven macromolecular-docking strategy was used to model the structure of MetR-DBD bound to DNA, which revealed that a bent conformation of DNA is required for the recognition helix α3 and the wing loop of the wHTH motif to interact with the major and minor grooves, respectively. Comparison of the MetR-DBD-DNA complex with the crystal structures of other LTTR-DBD-DNA complexes revealed residues that may confer operator-sequence binding specificity for MetR. Taken together, the results show that MetR-DBD uses a combination of direct base-specific interactions and indirect shape recognition of the promoter to regulate the transcription of met genes. PMID:27303893

  17. Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Fen; Shen, Horng-Der; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent menstrual cycle-related problem in women of reproductive age, is associated with negative moods. Whether the menstrual pain and negative moods have a genetic basis remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the production of central sensitization and contributes to chronic pain conditions. BDNF has also been implicated in stress-related mood disorders. We screened and genotyped the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in 99 Taiwanese (Asian) PDMs (20–30 years old) and 101 age-matched healthy female controls. We found that there was a significantly higher frequency of the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in the PDM group. Furthermore, BDNF Met/Met homozygosity had a significantly stronger association with PDM compared with Val carrier status. Subsequent behavioral/hormonal assessments of sub-groups (PDMs = 78, controls = 81; eligible for longitudinal multimodal neuroimaging battery studies) revealed that the BDNF Met/Met homozygous PDMs exhibited a higher menstrual pain score (sensory dimension) and a more anxious mood than the Val carrier PDMs during the menstrual phase. Although preliminary, our study suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with PDM in Taiwanese (Asian) people, and BDNF Met/Met homozygosity may be associated with an increased risk of PDM. Our data also suggest the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a possible regulator of menstrual pain and pain-related emotions in PDM. Absence of thermal hypersensitivity may connote an ethnic attribution. The presentation of our findings calls for further genetic and neuroscientific investigations of PDM. PMID:25383981

  18. Impressions of Psychotherapists' Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2011-01-01

    For counseling settings, research suggests that softness, personalization, and order might affect the experience and the perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and social attractiveness of the therapist. This article discusses exploratory studies on college students' perception of the counseling office environment and whether the likely client…

  19. The Officer's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlov, S. N.

    The handbook is intended to aid military personnel in the expansion of their military-theoretical horizon and in the accomplishment of practical tasks on the instructn and training of subordinates. It is especially designed for young offices. The first sections of the book are devoted to military-theoretical problems. The foundations and…

  20. Optimizing the back office.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tom S

    2015-09-01

    The shift to value-based service calls for new attention to be paid to an area often ignored in such a system: the back office. To reduce administrative costs and maximize compensation, healthcare providers should: Stay current with rules and timelines. Monitor provider eligibility and performance. Prepare for performance data submission. PMID:26548164

  1. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  2. Office Management Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 18 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of office management specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 18 units are as…

  3. The paperless business office.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1997-06-01

    Many providers are launching a variety of initiatives with the intent of eliminating paper in the business offices, thus streamlining operations and cutting costs. While there are some encouraging signs of progress, plenty of roadblocks still exist that will make such a transition difficult. Key technologies involved include EDI, the Internet, document imaging, COLD technology and automated dialers.

  4. Office Simulation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This document consists of nineteen task simulations designed for use in developing the office skills of business education students. Each task simulation unit includes a description of the task, procedures for performing the task, and a listing of materials needed to perform the task. The task simulations included cover: (1) folding and inserting…

  5. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    For the next decade several Mars landing missions and the construction of major installations on the Martian surface are planned. To be able to bring separate large landing units safely to the surface in sufficiently close vicinity to one another, the knowledge of the Martian weather patterns, especially dust and wind, is important. The Finnish - Russian - Spanish low-mass meteorological stations are designed to provide the necessary observation data network which can provide the in-situ observations for model verification and weather forecasts. As the requirements for a transfer vehicle are not very extensive, the MetNet Landers (MNLs) [1] could be launched with any mission going to Mars. This could be a piggy-bag solution to a Martian orbiter from ESA, NASA, Russia or China or an add-on to a planned larger Martian Lander like ExoMars. Also a dedicated launch with several units from LEO is under discussion. The data link implementation uses the UHF-band with Proximity-1 protocol as other current and future Mars lander missions which makes any Mars-orbiting satellite a potential candidate for a data relay to Earth. Currently negotiations for possible opportunities with the European and the Chinese space agencies are ongoing aiming at a launch window in the 2015/16 time frame. In case of favorable results the details will be presented at the EGU. During 2011 the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) has completed all flight qualifications for Lander system and payload. At least two units will be ready for launch in the 2013/14 launch window or beyond. With an entry mass of 22.2kg per unit and 4kg payload allocation the MNL(s) can be easily deployed from a wide range of transfer vehicles. The simple structure allows the manufacturing of further units on short notice and to reasonable prices. The autonomous operations concept makes the implementation of complex commanding options unnecessary while offering a flexible adaptation to different operational scenarios. This

  6. Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Guerrero, H.; Vázquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    For the next decade several Mars landing missions and the construction of major installations on the Martian surface are planned. To be able to bring separate large landing units safely to the surface in sufficiently close vicinity to one another, the knowledge of the Martian weather patterns, especially dust and wind, is important. The Finnish - Russian - Spanish low-mass meteorological stations are designed to provide the necessary observation data network which can provide the in-situ observations for model verification and weather forecasts. As the requirements for a transfer vehicle are not very extensive, the MetNet Landers (MNLs) [1] could be launched with any mission going to Mars. This could be a piggy-bag solution to a Martian orbiter from ESA, NASA, Russia or China or an add-on to a planned larger Martian Lander like ExoMars. Also a dedicated launch with several units from LEO is under discussion. The data link implementation uses the UHF-band with Proximity-1 protocol as other current and future Mars lander missions which makes any Mars-orbiting satellite a potential candidate for a data relay to Earth. Currently negotiations for possible opportunities with the European and the Chinese space agencies are ongoing aiming at a launch window in the 2015/16 time frame. In case of favorable results the details will be presented at the EGU. During 2011 the Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (MMPM) has completed all flight qualifications for Lander system and payload. At least two units will be ready for launch in the 2013/14 launch window or beyond. With an entry mass of 22.2kg per unit and 4kg payload allocation the MNL(s) can be easily deployed from a wide range of transfer vehicles. The simple structure allows the manufacturing of further units on short notice and to reasonable prices. The autonomous operations concept makes the implementation of complex commanding options unnecessary while offering a flexible adaptation to different operational scenarios. This

  7. 76 FR 5391 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in...

  8. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science..., Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  9. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science.... Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science.... Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE...

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor/cMET pathway activation enhances cancer hallmarks in adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Liem M.; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Wu, Weixin; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Sircar, Kanishka; Wood, Christopher G.; Hai, Tao; Jimenez, Camilo; Cote, Gilbert J.; Ozsari, Levent; Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Zheng, Siyuan; Verhaak, Roeland; Pagliaro, Lance; Cortez, Maria Angelica; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J.; Habra, Mouhammed Amir

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited response to chemotherapy. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor cMET augment cancer growth and resistance to chemotherapy, but their role in ACC has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the association between HGF/cMET expression and cancer hallmarks of ACC. Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that increased HGF/cMET expression in human ACC samples was positively associated with cancer-related biological processes including proliferation and angiogenesis, and negatively correlated with apoptosis. Accordingly, treatment of ACC cells with exogenous HCG resulted in increased cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo while short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of cMET suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth. Moreover, exposure of cells to mitotane, cisplatin, or radiation rapidly induced pro-cMET expression and was associated with an enrichment of genes (e.g., CYP450 family) related to therapy resistance further implicating cMET in the anticancer drug response. Together, these data suggest an important role for HGF/cMET signaling in ACC growth and resistance to commonly used treatments. Targeting cMET, alone or in combination with other drugs, could provide a breakthrough in the management of this aggressive cancer. PMID:26282167

  11. 20 CFR 10.205 - What conditions must be met to receive COP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What conditions must be met to receive COP? 10..., AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Eligibility for Cop § 10.205 What conditions must be met to receive COP? (a) To be eligible for COP, a person must: (1) Have a “traumatic injury” as defined at §...

  12. 20 CFR 10.205 - What conditions must be met to receive COP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What conditions must be met to receive COP...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Eligibility for Cop § 10.205 What conditions must be met to receive COP? (a) To be eligible for COP, a person must: (1) Have a “traumatic injury” as defined at §...

  13. 20 CFR 10.205 - What conditions must be met to receive COP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What conditions must be met to receive COP? 10..., AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Eligibility for Cop § 10.205 What conditions must be met to receive COP? (a) To be eligible for COP, a person must: (1) Have a “traumatic injury” as defined at §...

  14. 20 CFR 10.205 - What conditions must be met to receive COP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What conditions must be met to receive COP...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Eligibility for Cop § 10.205 What conditions must be met to receive COP? (a) To be eligible for COP, a person must: (1) Have a “traumatic injury” as defined at §...

  15. 20 CFR 10.205 - What conditions must be met to receive COP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What conditions must be met to receive COP...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Continuation of Pay Eligibility for Cop § 10.205 What conditions must be met to receive COP? (a) To be eligible for COP, a person must: (1) Have a “traumatic injury” as defined at §...

  16. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  17. RNAi technology and lentiviral delivery as a powerful tool to suppress Tpr-Met-mediated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Taulli, Riccardo; Accornero, Paolo; Follenzi, Antonia; Mangano, Tony; Morotti, Alessandro; Scuoppo, Claudio; Forni, Paolo E; Bersani, Francesca; Crepaldi, Tiziana; Chiarle, Roberto; Naldini, Luigi; Ponzetto, Carola

    2005-05-01

    Tpr-Met, the oncogenic counterpart of the Met receptor, has been detected in gastric cancers, as well as in precursor lesions and in the adjacent normal gastric mucosa. This has prompted the suggestion that Tpr-Met may predispose to the development of gastric tumors. Given the sequence specificity of RNA interference, oncogenes activated by point mutation or rearrangements can be targeted while spearing the product of the wild-type allele. In this work, we report specific suppression of Tpr-Met expression and inhibition of Tpr-Met-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis by means of a short interfering RNA (siRNA) directed toward the Tpr-Met junction (anti-TM2). When delivered by a lentiviral vector, anti-TM2 siRNA was effective also in mouse embryonal fibroblasts or epithelial cells expressing high levels of Tpr-Met. Our results suggest that lentiviral-mediated delivery of anti-TM2 siRNA may be developed into a powerful tool to treat Tpr-Met-positive cancers.

  18. Conservation and Functional Importance of Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bonding in AdoMet-Dependent Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Scott; Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Yesselman, Joseph D.; Nimtz, Jennifer S.; Adhikari, Upendra; Mehl, Ryan A.; Scheiner, Steve; Houtz, Robert L.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-09-06

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-based methylation is integral to metabolism and signaling. AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases belong to multiple distinct classes and share a catalytic mechanism that arose through convergent evolution; however, fundamental determinants underlying this shared methyl transfer mechanism remain undefined. A survey of high-resolution crystal structures reveals that unconventional carbon–oxygen (CH···O) hydrogen bonds coordinate the AdoMet methyl group in different methyltransferases irrespective of their class, active site structure, or cofactor binding conformation. Corroborating these observations, quantum chemistry calculations demonstrate that these charged interactions formed by the AdoMet sulfonium cation are stronger than typical CH···O hydrogen bonds. Biochemical and structural studies using a model lysine methyltransferase and an active site mutant that abolishes CH···O hydrogen bonding to AdoMet illustrate that these interactions are important for high-affinity AdoMet binding and transition-state stabilization. Further, crystallographic and NMR dynamics experiments of the wild-type enzyme demonstrate that the CH···O hydrogen bonds constrain the motion of the AdoMet methyl group, potentially facilitating its alignment during catalysis. Collectively, the experimental findings with the model methyltransferase and structural survey imply that methyl CH···O hydrogen bonding represents a convergent evolutionary feature of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, mediating a universal mechanism for methyl transfer.

  19. "Met" Made Simple: Building Research-Based Teacher Evaluations. Issue Analysis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Teacher Project, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Groundbreaking new findings from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project hold the potential to answer crucial questions about how to assess teachers' performance. For the past two years, MET researchers have conducted a research project of unprecedented scope, involving 3,000 teachers in six school…

  20. Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

  1. Rewarding Results: The MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Newton, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At the 2004 AACC Annual Convention, Sybil Jacobson, president and CEO of MetLife Foundation, announced the two recipients of the 2004 MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Award. The award, won by City College of San Francisco (CCSF) and Community College of Denver (CCD), honors two colleges that have made great strides in helping…

  2. Silencing Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling decreased oral tumor growth and increased survival of nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, X.; Hill, K.S.; Gaziova, I.; Sastry, S.K.; Qui, S.; Szaniszlo, P.; Fennewald, S.; Resto, V.A.; Elferink, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) is frequently overexpressed in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), correlating positively with high-grade tumors and shortened patient survival. As such, Met may represent an important therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Met signaling for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination. Materials and methods Using a lentiviral system for RNA interference, we knocked down Met in established HNSCC cell lines that express high levels of the endogenous receptor. The effect of Met silencing on in vitro proliferation, cell survival and migration was examined using western analysis, immunohisto-chemistry and live cell imaging. In vivo tumor growth, dissemination and mouse survival was assessed using an orthotopic tongue mouse model for HNSCC. Results We show that Met knockdown (1) impaired activation of downstream MAPK signaling; (2) reduced cell viability and anchorage independent growth; (3) abrogated HGF-induced cell motility on laminin; (4) reduced In vivo tumor growth by increased cell apoptosis; (5) caused reduced incidence of tumor dissemination to regional lymph nodes and (6) increased the survival of nude mice with orthotopic xenografts. Conclusion Met signaling is important for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination In vivo and that targeting Met may be an important strategy for therapy. PMID:24268630

  3. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Listening to Teachers in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    MetLife has sponsored and Harris Interactive has conducted the annual MetLife Survey of the American Teacher series since 1984 to share the voices of teachers with educators, policymakers and the public. The series examines significant changes and trends over time, highlights important current issues, and explores topics relevant to the future of…

  4. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MetLife, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership" (2012) was conducted by Harris Interactive and is the twenty-ninth in a series sponsored annually by MetLife since 1984 to give voice to those closest to the classroom. This report examines the views of teachers and principals on the responsibilities and challenges…

  5. Non-autocrine, constitutive activation of Met in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, J D; Hermansson, A; Ståhl, T Diaz de; Heldin, N-E

    1999-01-01

    Activation of Met by its ligand HGF has been shown to elicit both mitogenic and motogenic responses in thyrocytes in vitro. In the present study we have investigated the expression of Met in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in culture. There was a variation in expression level and size of Met in the different cell lines; high Met expression was found in four cell lines, compared to non-neoplastic human thyrocytes. Treatment with glucoproteinase F showed that the size differences observed were due to variances in the degree of glycosylation. Interestingly, in cell lines with high expression of Met, the receptor proteins were found to be constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated. None of these cell lines expressed HGF mRNA, and addition of suramin did not affect the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of Met in unstimulated cells, suggesting the absence of autocrine stimulatory pathways. Furthermore, we did not observe MET gene amplification, activating mutations or phosphatase defects. The tyrosine phosphorylated receptors appeared functionally active since the receptors associated with the adaptor molecule Shc. In summary, we have found ligand-independent constitutively activated Met in four out of six anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360640

  6. 42 CFR 51a.6 - What confidentiality requirements must be met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What confidentiality requirements must be met? 51a.6 Section 51a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.6 What confidentiality requirements must be met?...

  7. 42 CFR 51a.6 - What confidentiality requirements must be met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What confidentiality requirements must be met? 51a.6 Section 51a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.6 What confidentiality requirements must be met?...

  8. 42 CFR 51a.6 - What confidentiality requirements must be met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What confidentiality requirements must be met? 51a.6 Section 51a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.6 What confidentiality requirements must be met?...

  9. 42 CFR 51a.6 - What confidentiality requirements must be met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What confidentiality requirements must be met? 51a.6 Section 51a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.6 What confidentiality requirements must be met?...

  10. 42 CFR 51a.6 - What confidentiality requirements must be met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What confidentiality requirements must be met? 51a.6 Section 51a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.6 What confidentiality requirements must be met?...

  11. Conservation and functional importance of carbon-oxygen hydrogen bonding in AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Scott; Dirk, Lynnette M A; Yesselman, Joseph D; Nimtz, Jennifer S; Adhikari, Upendra; Mehl, Ryan A; Scheiner, Steve; Houtz, Robert L; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Trievel, Raymond C

    2013-10-16

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-based methylation is integral to metabolism and signaling. AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases belong to multiple distinct classes and share a catalytic mechanism that arose through convergent evolution; however, fundamental determinants underlying this shared methyl transfer mechanism remain undefined. A survey of high-resolution crystal structures reveals that unconventional carbon-oxygen (CH···O) hydrogen bonds coordinate the AdoMet methyl group in different methyltransferases irrespective of their class, active site structure, or cofactor binding conformation. Corroborating these observations, quantum chemistry calculations demonstrate that these charged interactions formed by the AdoMet sulfonium cation are stronger than typical CH···O hydrogen bonds. Biochemical and structural studies using a model lysine methyltransferase and an active site mutant that abolishes CH···O hydrogen bonding to AdoMet illustrate that these interactions are important for high-affinity AdoMet binding and transition-state stabilization. Further, crystallographic and NMR dynamics experiments of the wild-type enzyme demonstrate that the CH···O hydrogen bonds constrain the motion of the AdoMet methyl group, potentially facilitating its alignment during catalysis. Collectively, the experimental findings with the model methyltransferase and structural survey imply that methyl CH···O hydrogen bonding represents a convergent evolutionary feature of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, mediating a universal mechanism for methyl transfer.

  12. Association between the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Chronicity of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yujin; Lim, Shinn Won; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Jae Won; Kim, Jinwoo; Myung, Woojae; Song, Jihae; Kim, Seonwoo; Carroll, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Both clinical and biological factors influence the course of depressive disorders. This study tested for associations between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene at the Val66Met locus and the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Three hundred ten Korean subjects (209 patients, 101 controls) were genotyped for rs6265 at nucleotide 196 (G/A), which produces an amino acid substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) of the gene for BDNF. Course of illness was evaluated both by chronicity of current episode (episode duration >24 months) and by the lifetime history of recurrences. Results Patients with the Met/Met BDNF genotype had a significantly higher rate of chronic depression than all others. There was a significant dose effect of the Met allele on chronicity. Compared with the Val/Val genotype, the relative risk of chronicity was 1.67 for the Val/Met genotype, and 2.58 for the Met/Met genotype. Lifetime history of recurrent episodes was not related to BDNF genotypes but was significantly associated with younger age of onset and with a history of depression in first degree relatives. Conclusion BDNF genotyping may be informative for anticipating chronicity in major depression. PMID:23482723

  13. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership Between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors to produce accessible and high-quality research to inform pressing problems of practice. The article also presents findings from an ongoing partnership research project analyzing a district policy focused on improving college readiness by aligning high school graduation and college-eligibility requirements. In a cohort that went through high school before the policy became mandatory for all students, less than 1/5 of all students (and 30% of graduates) met the college eligibility criteria. Our findings indicate that academic and behavioral indicators from 8th and 9th grade can help identify for possible intervention students who are not on track to meet these new graduation requirements. PMID:26709340

  14. Mucin glycosylating enzyme GALNT2 suppresses malignancy in gastric adenocarcinoma by reducing MET phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shin-Yun; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Huang, Min-Chuan; Lai, I-Rue

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation affects malignancy in cancer. Here, we report that N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), an enzyme that mediates the initial step of mucin type-O glycosylation, suppresses malignant phenotypes in gastric adenocarcinoma (GCA) by modifying MET (Hepatocyte growth factor receptor) activity. GALNT2 mRNA and protein were downregulated in GCAs, and this reduction was associated with more advanced disease stage and shorter recurrence-free survival. Suppressing GALNT2 expression in GCA cells increased cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro, and tumor metastasis in vivo. GALNT2 knockdown enhanced phosphorylation of MET and decreased expression of the Tn antigen on MET. Inhibiting MET activity with PHA665752 decreased the malignant phenotypes caused by GALNT2 knockdown in GCA cells. Our results indicate that GALNT2 suppresses the malignant potential of GCA cells and provide novel insights into the significance of O-glycosylation in MET activity and GCA progression. PMID:26848976

  15. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    SciTech Connect

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined ({sup 3}H)-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture.

  16. Unified Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Murat; McReynolds, Sean; Zagermann, Marco

    2005-09-01

    We study unified Script N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) and unified Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity theories (YMESGTs) in four dimensions. As their defining property, these theories admit the action of a global or local symmetry group that is (i) simple, and (ii) acts irreducibly on all the vector fields of the theory, including the ``graviphoton''. Restricting ourselves to the theories that originate from five dimensions via dimensional reduction, we find that the generic Jordan family of MESGTs with the scalar manifolds Script M = [SU(1,1)/U(1)]×[SO(2,n)/SO(2)×SO(n)] are all unified in four dimensions with the unifying global symmetry group SO(2,n). Of these theories only one can be gauged so as to obtain a unified YMESGT with the gauge group SO(2,1). Three of the four magical supergravity theories defined by simple euclidean Jordan algebras J3Bbb A(Bbb A = Bbb C,Bbb H,Bbb O) of degree 3 are unified MESGTs in four dimensions. The MESGTs defined by J3Bbb C and J3Bbb O can furthermore be gauged so as to obtain a 4D unified YMESGT with gauge groups SO(3,2) and SO(6,2), respectively. The generic non-Jordan family and the theories whose scalar manifolds are homogeneous but not symmetric do not lead to unified MESGTs in four dimensions. The three infinite families of unified five-dimensional MESGTs defined by simple lorentzian Jordan algebras of degree p≠4, whose scalar manifolds are non-homogeneous, do not lead directly to unified MESGTs in four dimensions under dimensional reduction. However, since their manifolds are non-homogeneous we are not able to completely rule out the existence of symplectic sections in which these theories become unified in four dimensions.

  17. Unified Science - Premises and Prospects. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) (8th, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-5, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Victor, Ed.; And Others

    Included in this record of the proceedings of the eighth annual conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) are texts of major presentations, panel discussions, and contributed papers. Other activities of the conference are also reported. (CP)

  18. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite

  19. The oleocanthal-based homovanillyl sinapate as a novel c-Met inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Akl, Mohamed R; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Dragoi, Ana Maria; Dykes, Samantha; Cardelli, James A; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-05-31

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) signaling axis has gained considerable attention as an attractive molecular target for therapeutic blockade of cancer. Inspired by the chemical structure of S (-)-oleocanthal, a natural secoiridoid from extra-virgin olive oil with documented anticancer activity against c-Met-dependent malignancies, the research presented herein reports on the discovery of the novel olive-derived homovanillyl sinapate (HVS) as a promising c-Met inhibitor. HVS was distinguished for its remarkable potency against wild-type c-Met and its oncogenic variant in cell-free assays and confirmed by in silico docking studies. Furthermore, HVS substantially impaired the c-Met-mediated growth across a broad spectrum of breast cancer cells, while similar treatment doses had no effect on the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell growth. In addition, HVS caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced, cell scattering in addition to HGF-mediated migration, invasion, and 3-dimensional (3D) proliferation of tumor cell spheroids. HVS treatment effects were mediated via inhibition of ligand-mediated c-Met activation and its downstream mitogenic signaling and blocking molecular mediators involved in cellular motility across different cellular contexts. An interesting feature of HVS is its good selectivity for c-Met and Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) when profiled against a panel of kinases. Docking studies revealed interactions likely to impart high dual affinity for both ABL1 and c-Met kinases. HVS markedly reduced tumor growth, showed excellent pharmacodynamics, and suppressed cell proliferation and microvessel density in an orthotopic model of triple negative breast cancer. Collectively, the present findings suggested that the oleocanthal-based HVS is a promising c-Met inhibitor lead entity with excellent therapeutic potential to control

  20. The clinical and functional significance of c-Met in breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Ho-Yen, Colan M; Jones, J Louise; Kermorgant, Stephanie

    2015-04-08

    c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that upon binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), activates downstream pathways with diverse cellular functions that are important in organ development and cancer progression. Anomalous c-Met signalling has been described in a variety of cancer types, and the receptor is regarded as a novel therapeutic target. In breast cancer there is a need to develop new treatments, particularly for the aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative and basal-like cancer, which currently lack targeted therapy. Over the last two decades, much has been learnt about the functional role of c-Met signalling in different models of breast development and cancer. This work has been complemented by clinical studies, establishing the prognostic significance of c-Met in tissue samples of breast cancer. While the clinical trials of anti-c-Met therapy in advanced breast cancer progress, there is a need to review the existing evidence so that the potential of these treatments can be better appreciated. The aim of this article is to examine the role of HGF/c-Met signalling in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer, to describe the mechanisms of aberrant c-Met signalling in human tissues, and to give a brief overview of the anti-c-Met therapies currently being evaluated in breast cancer patients. We will show that the HGF/c-Met pathway is associated with breast cancer progression and suggest that there is a firm basis for continued development of anti-c-Met treatment, particularly for patients with basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer.

  1. Demethylation of a LINE-1 antisense promoter in the cMet locus impairs Met signalling through induction of illegitimate transcription.

    PubMed

    Weber, B; Kimhi, S; Howard, G; Eden, A; Lyko, F

    2010-10-28

    The cytosine analogues 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine are currently the most advanced drugs for epigenetic cancer therapy. Both drugs function as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors and lead to the reactivation of epigenetically silenced tumour suppressor genes. However, not much is known about their target sequence specificity and their possible side effects on normally methylated sequences such as long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 retroelements. It has been shown that demethylation and activation of the LINE-1 antisense promoter can drive the transcription of neighbouring sequences. In this study, we show that demethylation of the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, either by treatment with DNMT inhibitors or by genetic disruption of the major DNMTs, induces the expression of an illegitimate fusion transcript between an intronic LINE-1 element and the proto-oncogene cMet (L1-cMet). Similar findings were also obtained with myeloid leukaemia cells, an established cellular model for the approved indication of azacytidine and decitabine. Interestingly, upregulation of L1-cMet transcription resulted in reduced cMet expression, which in turn led to decreased cMet receptor signalling. Our results thus provide an important paradigm for demethylation-dependent modulation of gene expression, even if the promoter of the corresponding gene is unmethylated.

  2. 40. PRESIDENT, OFFICERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS MEET IN PRESIDENT'S OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PRESIDENT, OFFICERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS MEET IN PRESIDENT'S OFFICE, PUBLISHED IN A BOOK, 'A SYMBOL OF SAFETY' BY HARRY CHASE BREARLEY, 1923 - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. Office managers' forum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M; Hankins, Launa; Dieter, Andrea; Garcia, Sandie; Hepp, Delphine; Jordan, Janet L; Silver, William E; Shorr, Jay Alan; Sullivan, Susan E; Whatcott, Pam; Williams, Edwin F; Waldman, S Randolph

    2010-11-01

    This article is a summary of the key elements presented during the conference held as part of the Practice Management and Development course sponsored by the Multi-Specialty Foundation in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2009. This article represents an amalgam of perspectives from practices across the United States. The Office Managers' Forum brought together the office managers and surgeons from practices across the United States as panelists. The panelists answered a multitude of practice management questions that included wide-ranging topics such as accounting and financing, staff well being, working with a spouse, hiring and firing, staff meetings, accreditation, motivation, and problems and perks specifically associated with a facial plastic surgery practice.

  4. Office support staff.

    PubMed

    Choat, Dennis E

    2005-11-01

    The pace at which we live and practice in this new century leaves little time to manage many of the menial tasks of day-to-day survival. This is especially true in the field of medicine. With today's insurance policies and procedures, Health Information Privacy Protection Act (HIPPA) regulations, and the low return of payment for time invested, it is crucial to have a supportive group of people around you to help make your valuable time as meaningful as possible. This article will describe an arrangement of ancillary office staff for a colorectal practice. There will be detailed information on job descriptions, expectations, and level of training required for each. Upon completion of this article, one should be able to identify the personnel needed to establish and manage an efficient office from the front desk to the billing department and ultimately the practice manager. PMID:20011292

  5. Unified approach for predicting mechanical behaviors of textile composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, H.; Fujita, A.; Maekawa, Z.; Yokoyama, A.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish unified prediction method of mechanical properties and fracture behaviors in the composites reinforced with textile fabric preforms such as two and three-dimensional woven fabrics, braided fabrics and knitted fabrics. In this analysis model, factors deciding weaving structure such as fiber orientation state, crimp and continuity of fiber, transmission of force at cross part between fiber bundles and surface resin of the composite which affect on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites, were considered. The validity of this numerical analysis method was examined by comparing predicted results with experimental data. Consequently, it could be confirmed that this numerical analysis method was valid for predicting the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites. In this analysis model, not only the mechanical properties but also local stress state and fracture behavior of the textile composites could be estimated.

  6. A unified lunar control network - The near side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Colvin, Tim R.; Meyer, Donald L.

    1987-12-01

    A unified lunar control network for the moon's near side, which combines all the data collected by the Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, is presented. Transformations involving translation, rotation, and scale were determined that adjusted the coordinates of the points of three Apollo control networks, computed previously, to the center of mass origin and the mean earth/polar axis coordinate system defined by the lunar ranging retroreflector experiment. The transformed control network computed by the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center was found to be the best fit to the Apollo ALSEP antenna coordinates and was selected as a base to transform all points in Meyer's (1979) telescopic network to the new origin and coordinate system. New coordinates of 1156 of these points are given as are 10 points from a Mariner 10 solution in the north polar region.

  7. Modeling stroke rehabilitation processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In organising and providing rehabilitation procedures for stroke patients, the usual need for many refinements makes it inappropriate to attempt rigid standardisation, but greater detail is required concerning workflow. The aim of this study was to build a model of the post-stroke rehabilitation process. The model, implemented in the Unified Modeling Language, was grounded on international guidelines and refined following the clinical pathway adopted at local level by a specialized rehabilitation centre. The model describes the organisation of the rehabilitation delivery and it facilitates the monitoring of recovery during the process. Indeed, a system software was developed and tested to support clinicians in the digital administration of clinical scales. The model flexibility assures easy updating after process evolution.

  8. DICOM static and dynamic representation through unified modeling language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Martinez, Alfonso; Jimenez-Alaniz, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Marquez, A.; Chavez-Avelar, N.

    2004-04-01

    The DICOM standard, as all standards, specifies in generic way the management in network and storage media environments of digital medical images and their related information. However, understanding the specifications for particular implementation is not a trivial work. Thus, this work is about understanding and modelling parts of the DICOM standard using Object Oriented methodologies, as part of software development processes. This has offered different static and dynamic views, according with the standard specifications, and the resultant models have been represented through the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The modelled parts are related to network conformance claim: Network Communication Support for Message Exchange, Message Exchange, Information Object Definitions, Service Class Specifications, Data Structures and Encoding, and Data Dictionary. The resultant models have given a better understanding about DICOM parts and have opened the possibility of create a software library to develop DICOM conformable PACS applications.

  9. Unified methodology for fire safety assessment and optimal design

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, N.K.; Deaves, D.M.; Gierlinski, J.T.; Dogliani, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a unified, fully-probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology has been developed by integrating Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) techniques with the modern methods of Structural System Reliability Analysis (SRA) and Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). The integration has been achieved by using platform-specific extended event-trees which model in detail the escalation paths leading to the failure of Temporary Refuge (TR), Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) systems or structural collapse of the topside. Probabilities of events for which historical data are not generally available are calculated using structural reliability methods. The optimization of fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system and the cost of failure of the platform (loss of life, loss of asset, environmental damage) is minimized while satisfying reliability constraints.

  10. EMDataBank unified data resource for 3DEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Patwardhan, Ardan; Baker, Matthew L.; Hryc, Corey; Garcia, Eduardo Sanz; Hudson, Brian P.; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pintilie, Grigore; Sala, Raul; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Chiu, Wah

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy (3DEM) has become a key experimental method in structural biology for a broad spectrum of biological specimens from molecules to cells. The EMDataBank project provides a unified portal for deposition, retrieval and analysis of 3DEM density maps, atomic models and associated metadata (emdatabank.org). We provide here an overview of the rapidly growing 3DEM structural data archives, which include maps in EM Data Bank and map-derived models in the Protein Data Bank. In addition, we describe progress and approaches toward development of validation protocols and methods, working with the scientific community, in order to create a validation pipeline for 3DEM data. PMID:26578576

  11. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G; Robinett, III, Rush D

    2015-01-06

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  12. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: II. Holopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a systematic framework for modeling several classes of illness-sickness-disease named as Holopathogenesis. Holopathogenesis is defined as processes of over-determination of diseases and related conditions taken as a whole, comprising selected facets of the complex object Health. First, a conceptual background of Holopathogenesis is presented as a series of significant interfaces (biomolecular-immunological, physiopathological-clinical, epidemiological-ecosocial). Second, propositions derived from Holopathogenesis are introduced in order to allow drawing the disease-illness-sickness complex as a hierarchical network of networks. Third, a formalization of intra- and inter-level correspondences, over-determination processes, effects and links of Holopathogenesis models is proposed. Finally, the Holopathogenesis frame is evaluated as a comprehensive theoretical pathology taken as a preliminary step towards a unified theory of health-disease. PMID:24897040

  13. Unified approach to partition functions of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    RNA secondary structure formation is a field of considerable biological interest as well as a model system for understanding generic properties of heteropolymer folding. This system is particularly attractive because the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties of RNA secondary structure ensembles can be calculated numerically in polynomial time for arbitrary sequences and homopolymer models admit analytical solutions. Such solutions for many different aspects of the combinatorics of RNA secondary structure formation share the property that the final solution depends on differences of statistical weights rather than on the weights alone. Here, we present a unified approach to a large class of problems in the field of RNA secondary structure formation. We prove a generic theorem for the calculation of RNA folding partition functions. Then, we show that this approach can be applied to the study of the molten-native transition, denaturation of RNA molecules, as well as to studies of the glass phase of random RNA sequences.

  14. High-order harmonic generation in solids: A unifying approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Tran Trung; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-09-01

    There have been several experimental reports showing high-order harmonic generation from solids, but there has been no unifying theory presented as of yet for all these experiments. Here we report on the systematic investigation of high-order harmonic generation within the semiconductor Bloch equations, taking into account multiple bands and relaxation processes phenomenologically. In addition to reproducing key experiments, we show the following: (i) Electronic excitations, direct-indirect excitation pathways, and relaxation processes are responsible for high-order harmonic generation and control using midinfrared drivers in zinc oxide. We describe an intuitive picture explaining a two-color experiment involving noninversion symmetric crystals. (ii) High-order harmonic generation can be considered as a general feature of ultrafast strong-field-driven electronic dynamics in solids. We demonstrate this statement by predicting high-order harmonic spectra of solids that have not been studied yet.

  15. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Wu, Zhigang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in cuprates was discovered almost exactly 20 years ago, but a satisfactory theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is still lacking. The isotope effect has played an important role in establishing electron–phonon interaction as the dominant interaction in conventional superconductors. Here we present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon-mediated d-wave pairing model within the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory. We show that this model accounts for the magnitude of the isotope exponent as functions of the doping level as well as the variation between different cuprate superconductors. The isotope effect on the superconducting transition is also found to resemble the effect of pressure on the transition. These results indicate that the role of phonons should not be overlooked for explaining the superconductivity in cuprates. PMID:17360421

  16. Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Guisan, Antoine; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Daehler, Curtis; Kueffer, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change between different geographic areas or time periods has become increasingly important in the context of ongoing global change. However, approaches and findings have remained largely controversial so far, calling for a unification of methods. Here, we build on a review of empirical studies of invasion to formalize a unifying framework that decomposes niche change into unfilling, stability, and expansion situations, taking both a pooled range and range-specific perspective on the niche, while accounting for climatic availability and climatic analogy. This framework provides new insights into the nature of climate niche shifts and our ability to anticipate invasions, and may help in guiding the design of experiments for assessing causes of niche changes.

  17. Unified view of quantum correlations and quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok Chuan; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Park, Chae-Yeun; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we argue that quantum coherence in a bipartite system can be contained either locally or in the correlations between the subsystems. The portion of quantum coherence contained within correlations can be viewed as a kind of quantum correlation which we call correlated coherence. We demonstrate that the framework provided by correlated coherence allows us to retrieve the same concepts of quantum correlations as defined by the asymmetric and symmetric versions of quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement, providing a unified view of these correlations. We also prove that correlated coherence can be formulated as an entanglement monotone, thus demonstrating that entanglement may be viewed as a specialized form of coherence.

  18. The quest for a unified view of bacterial land colonization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Fang, Yongjun; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Exploring molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial water-to-land transition represents a critical start toward a better understanding of the functioning and stability of the terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we perform comprehensive analyses based on a large variety of bacteria by integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and metagenomic data, in the quest for a unified view that elucidates genomic, evolutionary and ecological dynamics of the marine progenitors in adapting to nonaquatic environments. We hypothesize that bacterial land colonization is dominated by a single-gene sweep, that is, the emergence of dnaE2 derived from an early duplication event of the primordial dnaE, followed by a series of niche-specific genomic adaptations, including GC content increase, intensive horizontal gene transfer and constant genome expansion. In addition, early bacterial radiation may be stimulated by an explosion of land-borne hosts (for example, plants and animals) after initial land colonization events. PMID:24451209

  19. Laplace's equation on convex polyhedra via the unified method

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, A. C. L.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a new method to study the classical Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation on a convex polyhedron. This new approach was motivated by Fokas’ unified method for boundary value problems. The central object in this approach is the global relation: an integral equation which couples the known boundary data and the unknown boundary values. This integral equation depends holomorphically on two complex parameters, and the resulting analysis takes place on a Banach space of complex analytic functions closely related to the classical Paley–Wiener space. We write the global relation in the form of an operator equation and prove that the relevant operator is bounded below using some novel integral identities. We give a new integral representation to the solution to the underlying boundary value problem which serves as a concrete realization of the fundamental principle of Ehrenpreis. PMID:27547079

  20. Unified treatment of cosmological perturbations from superhorizon to small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Matarrese, Sabino

    2005-02-15

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations, using a hybrid approximation scheme which upgrades the weak-field limit of Einstein's field equations to account for post-Newtonian scalar and vector metric perturbations and for leading-order source terms of gravitational waves, while including also the first- and second-order perturbative approximations. Our equations, which are derived in the Poisson gauge, provide a unified description of matter inhomogeneities in a Universe filled with a pressureless and irrotational fluid and a cosmological constant, ranging from the linear to the highly nonlinear regime. The derived expressions for scalar, vector and tensor modes may have a wide range of cosmological applications, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization effects, cosmographic relations in a inhomogeneous Universe, gravitational lensing and the stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds generated by nonlinear cosmic structures.