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Sample records for metabolic pathways hormonal

  1. Alternate pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sing-Yung; Green, William L; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Hays, Marguerite T; Chopra, Inder J

    2005-08-01

    The major thyroid hormone (TH) secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine (T(4)). Triiodothyronine (T(3)), formed chiefly by deiodination of T(4), is the active hormone at the nuclear receptor, and it is generally accepted that deiodination is the major pathway regulating T(3) bioavailability in mammalian tissues. The alternate pathways, sulfation and glucuronidation of the phenolic hydroxyl group of iodothyronines, the oxidative deamination and decarboxylation of the alanine side chain to form iodothyroacetic acids, and ether link cleavage provide additional mechanisms for regulating the supply of active hormone. Sulfation may play a general role in regulation of iodothyronine metabolism, since sulfation of T(4) and T(3) markedly accelerates deiodination to the inactive metabolites, reverse triiodothyronine (rT(3)) and T(2). Sulfoconjugation is prominent during intrauterine development, particularly in the precocial species in the last trimester including humans and sheep, where it may serve both to regulate the supply of T(3), via sulfation followed by deiodination, and to facilitate maternal-fetal exchange of sulfated iodothyronines (e.g., 3,3'-diiodothyronine sulfate [T(2)S]). The resulting low serum T(3) may be important for normal fetal development in the late gestation. The possibility that T(2)S or its derivative, transferred from the fetus and appearing in maternal serum or urine, can serve as a marker of fetal thyroid function is being studied. Glucuronidation of TH often precedes biliary-fecal excretion of hormone. In rats, stimulation of glucuronidation by various drugs and toxins may lead to lower T(4) and T(3) levels, provocation of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion, and goiter. In man, drug induced stimulation of glucuronidation is limited to T(4), and does not usually compromise normal thyroid function. However, in hypothyroid subjects, higher doses of TH may be required to maintain euthyroidism when these drugs are given. In addition, glucuronidates and

  2. Dietary modification of metabolic pathways via nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Caiozzi, Gianella; Wong, Brian S; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), as ligand-dependent transcription factors, have emerged as important mediators in the control of whole body metabolism. Because of the promiscuous nature of several members of this superfamily that have been found to bind ligand with lower affinity than the classical steroid NHRs, they consequently display a broader ligand selectivity. This promiscuous nature has facilitated various bioactive dietary components being able to act as agonist ligands for certain members of the NHR superfamily. By binding to these NHRs, bioactive dietary components are able to mediate changes in various metabolic pathways, including, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis among others. This review will provide a general overview of the nuclear hormone receptors that have been shown to be activated by dietary components. The physiological consequences of such receptor activation by these dietary components will then be discussed in more detail.

  3. Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Paula L; Freedman, Neal D; Hu, Nan; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin; Golozar, Asieh; Wheeler, William; Yu, Kai; Yuenger, Jeff; Burdett, Laurie; Chanock, Stephen J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R

    2013-05-01

    In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations.

  4. Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations. PMID:23358850

  5. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  6. Possible role of the aromatase-independent steroid metabolism pathways in hormone responsive primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Toru; Niwa, Toshifumi; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Ito, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) exert antiproliferative effects by reducing local estrogen production from androgens in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer. Previous reports have shown that androgen metabolites generated by the aromatase-independent enzymes, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol), androst-5-ene-3β, and 17β-diol (A-diol), also activate estrogen receptor (ER) α. Estradiol (E2) can also reportedly be generated from estrone sulfate (E1S) pooled in the plasma. Estrogenic steroid-producing aromatase-independent pathways have thus been proposed as a mechanism of AI resistance. However, it is unclear whether these pathways are functional in clinical breast cancer. To investigate this issue, we assessed the transcriptional activities of ER in 45 ER-positive human breast cancers using the adenovirus estrogen-response element-green fluorescent protein assay and mRNA expression levels of the ER target gene, progesterone receptor, as indicators of ex vivo and in vivo ER activity, respectively. We also determined mRNA expression levels of 5α-reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3β-HSD type 1; HSD3B1), which produce 3β-diol from androgens, and of steroid sulfatase (STS) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD type 1; HSD17B1), which produce E2 or A-diol from E1S or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. SRD5A1 and HSD3B1 expression levels were positively correlated with ex vivo and in vivo ER activities. STS and HSD17B1 expression levels were positively correlated with in vivo ER activity alone. Elevated expression levels of these steroid-metabolizing enzymes in association with high in vivo ER activity were particularly notable in postmenopausal patients. Analysis of the expression levels of steroid-metabolizing enzymes revealed positive correlations between SRD5A1 and HSD3B1, and STS and HSD17B1. These findings suggest that the SRD5A1-HSD3B1 as well as the STS-HSD17B pathways, could contributes

  7. Historical perspectives in fat cell biology: the fat cell as a model for the investigation of hormonal and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Lafontan, Max

    2012-01-15

    For many years, there was little interest in the biochemistry or physiology of adipose tissue. It is now well recognized that adipocytes play an important dynamic role in metabolic regulation. They are able to sense metabolic states via their ability to perceive a large number of nervous and hormonal signals. They are also able to produce hormones, called adipokines, that affect nutrient intake, metabolism and energy expenditure. The report by Rodbell in 1964 that intact fat cells can be obtained by collagenase digestion of adipose tissue revolutionized studies on the hormonal regulation and metabolism of the fat cell. In the context of the advent of systems biology in the field of cell biology, the present seems an appropriate time to look back at the global contribution of the fat cell to cell biology knowledge. This review focuses on the very early approaches that used the fat cell as a tool to discover and understand various cellular mechanisms. Attention essentially focuses on the early investigations revealing the major contribution of mature fat cells and also fat cells originating from adipose cell lines to the discovery of major events related to hormone action (hormone receptors and transduction pathways involved in hormonal signaling) and mechanisms involved in metabolite processing (hexose uptake and uptake, storage, and efflux of fatty acids). Dormant preadipocytes exist in the stroma-vascular fraction of the adipose tissue of rodents and humans; cell culture systems have proven to be valuable models for the study of the processes involved in the formation of new fat cells. Finally, more recent insights into adipocyte secretion, a completely new role with major metabolic impact, are also briefly summarized.

  8. Endocrine and Metabolic Pathways Linked to Keratoconus: Implications for the Role of Hormones in the Stromal Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tina B; Hjortdal, Jesper; Sejersen, Henrik; Asara, John M; Wu, Jennifer; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in regulating tissue function by promoting cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Our study explores the influence of endocrine function in regulating metabolism and inflammatory pathways in Keratoconus (KC), which is a corneal thinning disease associated with reduced stromal deposition. KC is known to be a multifactorial disease with an elusive pathogenesis. We utilized a cross-sectional study analyzing clinical features and saliva samples from sixty-four KC patients and fourteen healthy controls. In order to determine if endocrine function varied between healthy controls and KC, we measured hormone levels in saliva and found significantly increased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced estrone levels in KC patients compared to healthy controls. We measured significant variations in metabolites associated with pro-inflammatory processes, including myoinositol and 1-methyl-histidine, by targeted mass spectrometry. We also measured significantly increased IL-16 and stem cell factor in KC saliva samples compared to healthy controls, with higher expression of these pro-inflammatory proteins correlating with increased KC clinical grade, corneal curvature, and stromal thinning. Our results identify a novel mechanism linking KC and pro-inflammatory markers and suggest that altered hormone levels modulate metabolism, cytokine, and growth factor expression leading to increased severity of the KC condition. PMID:27157003

  9. The association of polymorphisms in hormone metabolism pathway genes, menopausal hormone therapy, and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the California Teachers Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The female sex steroids estrogen and progesterone are important in breast cancer etiology. It therefore seems plausible that variation in genes involved in metabolism of these hormones may affect breast cancer risk, and that these associations may vary depending on menopausal status and use of hormone therapy. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort. We analyzed 317 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 hormone pathway genes in 2746 non-Hispanic white women: 1351 cases and 1395 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting conditional logistic regression models using all women or subgroups of women defined by menopausal status and hormone therapy use. P values were adjusted for multiple correlated tests (PACT). Results The strongest associations were observed for SNPs in SLCO1B1, a solute carrier organic anion transporter gene, which transports estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate from the blood into hepatocytes. Ten of 38 tagging SNPs of SLCO1B1 showed significant associations with postmenopausal breast cancer risk; 5 SNPs (rs11045777, rs11045773, rs16923519, rs4149057, rs11045884) remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing within this gene (PACT = 0.019-0.046). In postmenopausal women who were using combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) at cohort enrollment, the OR of breast cancer was 2.31 (95% CI = 1.47-3.62) per minor allele of rs4149013 in SLCO1B1 (P = 0.0003; within-gene PACT = 0.002; overall PACT = 0.023). SNPs in other hormone pathway genes evaluated in this study were not associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found evidence that genetic variation in SLCO1B1 is associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, particularly among those using EPT. PMID:21457551

  10. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  11. Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Prunier, Armelle

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews state-of-the-art knowledge on steroid biosynthesis pathways in the pig and provides an updated characterization of the porcine genes involved in these pathways with particular focus on androgens, estrogens, and 16-androstenes. At least 21 different enzymes appear to be involved in these pathways in porcine tissues together with at least five cofactors. Until now, data on several porcine genes were scarce or confusing. We characterized the complete genomic and transcript sequences of the single porcine CYP11B gene. We analyzed the porcine AKR1 gene cluster and identified four AKR1C, one AKR1C like genes and one AKR1E2 gene. We provide evidence that porcine AKR1C genes are not orthologous to human AKR1C. A new nomenclature is thus needed for this gene family in the pig. Thirty-two genes are now described: transcript (30+2 characterized in this study) and genomic (complete: 18+1 and partial: 12+1) sequences are identified. However, despite increasing knowledge on steroid metabolism in the pig, there is still no explanation of why porcine testes can produce androstenone and epiandrosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is also a reduced steroid.

  12. Food restriction in young Japanese quails: effects on growth, metabolism, plasma thyroid hormones and mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Mortensen, Anne S; Moe, Børge; Chastel, Olivier; Arukwe, Augustine; Bech, Claus

    2009-10-01

    Young birds, in their post-natal growth period, may reduce their growth and metabolism when facing a food shortage. To examine how such responses can be mediated by endocrine-related factors, we exposed Japanese quail chicks to food restriction for either 2 days (age 6-8 days) or 5 days (age 6-11 days). We then measured growth and resting metabolic rate (RMR), and circulating 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4) levels as well as expression patterns of genes involved in growth (insulin-like growth factor-I: IGF-I) and thyroid hormone signalling (thyroid-stimulating hormone-beta: TSHbeta, type II iodothyronine deiodinase: D2, thyroid hormone receptors isoforms: TRalpha and TRbeta). The food-restricted chicks receiving a weight-maintenance diet showed reductions in structural growth and RMR. Plasma levels of both T3 and T4 were reduced in the food-restricted birds, and within the 5 days food-restricted group there was a positive correlation between RMR and T3. IGF-I mRNA showed significantly higher abundance in the liver of ad libitum fed birds at day 8 compared with food-restricted birds. In the brain, TSHbeta mRNA level tended to be lower in food-restricted quails on day 8 compared with controls. Furthermore, TRalpha expression was lower in the brain of food-restricted birds at day 8 compared with birds fed ad libitum. Interestingly, brain D2 mRNA was negatively correlated with plasma T3 levels, tending to increase with the length of food restriction. Overall, our results show that food restriction produced significant effects on circulating thyroid hormones and differentially affected mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway. Thus, we conclude that the effects of food restriction observed on growth and metabolism were partly mediated by changes in the endocrine-related factors investigated.

  13. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  14. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight.

  15. Central melanin-concentrating hormone influences liver and adipose metabolism via specific hypothalamic nuclei and efferent autonomic/JNK1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Imbernon, Monica; Beiroa, Daniel; Vázquez, María J; Morgan, Donald A; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Porteiro, Begoña; Díaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Senra, Ana; Busquets, Silvia; Velásquez, Douglas A; Al-Massadi, Omar; Varela, Luis; Gándara, Marina; López-Soriano, Francisco-Javier; Gallego, Rosalía; Seoane, Luisa M; Argiles, Josep M; López, Miguel; Davis, Roger J; Sabio, Guadalupe; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Rahmouni, Kamal; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2013-03-01

    Specific neuronal circuits modulate autonomic outflow to liver and white adipose tissue. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-deficient mice are hypophagic, lean, and do not develop hepatosteatosis when fed a high-fat diet. Herein, we sought to investigate the role of MCH, an orexigenic neuropeptide specifically expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, on hepatic and adipocyte metabolism. Chronic central administration of MCH and adenoviral vectors increasing MCH signaling were performed in rats and mice. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We showed that the activation of MCH receptors promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through the parasympathetic nervous system, whereas it increases fat deposition in white adipose tissue via the suppression of sympathetic traffic. These metabolic actions are independent of parallel changes in food intake and energy expenditure. In the liver, MCH triggers lipid accumulation and lipid uptake, with c-Jun N-terminal kinase being an essential player, whereas in adipocytes MCH induces metabolic pathways that promote lipid storage and decreases lipid mobilization. Genetic activation of MCH receptors or infusion of MCH specifically in the lateral hypothalamic area modulated hepatic lipid metabolism, whereas the specific activation of this receptor in the arcuate nucleus affected adipocyte metabolism. Our findings show that central MCH directly controls hepatic and adipocyte metabolism through different pathways. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the thyroid hormone exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the thyroid hormone receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma thyroid hormone at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, thyroid hormone actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and thyroid hormone receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and thus understanding the contribution of the thyroid hormone to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant. PMID:24697152

  17. Hypothalamic Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Liu Lin

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for medically intractable epilepsy and may have antiepileptogenic, neuroprotective, and antitumor properties. While on a ketogenic diet, the body obtains most of its calories from fat rather than carbohydrates. This dramatic change in caloric composition results in a unique metabolic state. In turn, these changes in caloric composition and metabolism alter some of the neurohormones that participate in the complex neuronal network regulating energy homeostasis. Two observed changes are an increase in serum leptin and a decrease in serum insulin. These opposing changes in leptin and insulin are unique compared to other metabolic stimuli and may modify the activity of several cell signaling cascades including phosphoinositidyl-3 kinase (PI3K), adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These cell signaling pathways may mediate the anticonvulsant and other beneficial effects of the diet, though the neurohormonal changes induced by the ketogenic diet and the physiological consequences of these changes remain poorly characterized. PMID:21856125

  18. Uniconazole-induced starch accumulation in the bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata) II: transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism and endogenous hormone crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Yang; Huang, Mengjun; Jin, Yanling; Sun, Jiaolong; Tao, Xiang; Zhang, Guohua; He, Kaize; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Landoltia punctata is a widely distributed duckweed species with great potential to accumulate enormous amounts of starch for bioethanol production. We found that L. punctata can accumulate starch rapidly accompanied by alterations in endogenous hormone levels after uniconazole application, but the relationship between endogenous hormones and starch accumulation is still unclear. After spraying fronds with 800 mg/L uniconazole, L. punctata can accumulate starch quickly, with a dry weight starch content of up to 48% after 240 h of growth compared to 15.7% in the control group. Electron microscopy showed that the starch granule content was elevated after uniconazole application. The activities of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis were also significantly increased. Moreover, the expression of regulatory elements of the cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) signaling pathways that are involved in chlorophyll and starch metabolism also changed correspondingly. Importantly, the expression levels of key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis were up-regulated, while transcript-encoding enzymes involved in starch degradation and other carbohydrate metabolic branches were down-regulated. The increase of endogenous ABA and CK levels positively promoted the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and chlorophyll content, while the decrease in endogenous GA levels inactivated α-amylase. Thus, the alterations of endogenous hormone levels resulted in starch accumulation due to regulation of the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolism pathway.

  19. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Metabolic analysis reveals changes in the mevalonate and juvenile hormone synthesis pathways linked to the mosquito reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Lamboglia, Ivanna; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects; therefore interruption of JH biosynthesis has been considered as a strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. The corpora allata (CA) from mosquitoes is highly specialized to supply variable levels of JH, which are linked to ovarian developmental stages and influenced by nutritional signals. However, very little is known about how changes in JH synthesis relate to reproductive physiology and how JH synthesis regulation is translated into changes in the CA machinery. With the advent of new methods that facilitate the analysis of transcripts, enzymes and metabolites in the minuscule CA, we were able to provide comprehensive descriptions of the mevalonic (MVA) and JH synthesis pathways by integrating information on changes in the basic components of those pathways. Our results revealed remarkable dynamic changes in JH synthesis and exposed part of a complex mechanism that regulates CA activity. Principal component (PC) analyses validated that both pathways (MVAP and JH-branch) are transcriptionally co-regulated as a single unit, and catalytic activities for the enzymes of the MVAP and JH-branch also changed in a coordinate fashion. Metabolite studies showed that global fluctuations in the intermediate pool sizes in the MVAP and JH-branch were often inversely related. PC analyses suggest that in female mosquitoes, there are at least 4 developmental switches that alter JH synthesis by modulating the flux at distinctive points in both pathways.

  1. Hormone metabolism genes and mammographic density in Singapore Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Su, Yu-Chen; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Hsu, Chris; Van den Berg, David; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Stram, Daniel O.; Yu, Mimi C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Female steroid hormone levels and exogenous hormone use influence breast cancer risk. We investigated the association between genetic variation in the hormone metabolism and signaling pathway and mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. Methods We genotyped 161 SNPs in 15 hormone metabolism pathway gene regions and evaluated MD in 2,038 Singapore Chinese women. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate SNP-MD association. An overall pathway summary was obtained using the adaptive ranked truncated product test. Results We did not find any of the individually tested SNPs to be associated with MD after a multiple testing correction. There was no evidence of an overall effect on MD of genetic variation in the hormone metabolism pathway. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, genetic variation in hormone metabolism pathway was not associated with MD in Singapore Chinese women. Impact Consistent with existing data from Caucasian populations, polymorphisms in hormone pathway genes are not likely to be strong predictors of MD in Asian women. PMID:23429186

  2. Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic manipulations in the VTA and NAc produce more consistent effects on feeding and food choice. More recent genetic evidence supports a role for the substantia nigra-striatal dopamine pathways in food intake, while the VTA-NAc circuit is more likely involved in higher-order aspects of food acquisition, such as motivation and cue associations. This rich and complex literature should be considered in models of how peripheral hormones influence feeding behavior via action on the midbrain circuits. PMID:19836414

  3. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    McAninch, Elizabeth A; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-04-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. TH signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the TH exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the TH receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma TH at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, TH actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and TH receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and, thus, understanding the contribution of the TH to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant.

  4. Thyroid Hormones, Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Pes, Giovanni M; Maioli, Margherita; Delitala, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of various metabolic parameters, which included diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. It has merged as a worldwide epidemic and a major public health care concern. However, due to the different criteria used for the assessment, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in the general population is variable but it more common in the older people. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to cardiovascular risk and increases cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. Recent evidences showed that alterations of the thyroid function could have an impact on the components of the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that thyroid hormones have a variety of effects on energy homeostasis, lipid and glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. In this review we summarize available data on the action of thyroid hormone on the components of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Selenium and the control of thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Köhrle, Josef

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action require adequate availability of the essential trace elements iodine and selenium, which affect homeostasis of thyroid hormone-dependent metabolic pathways. The three selenocysteine-containing iodothyronine deiodinases constitute a novel gene family. Selenium is retained and deiodinase expression is maintained at almost normal levels in the thyroid gland, the brain and several other endocrine tissues during selenium deficiency, thus guaranteeing adequate local and systemic levels of the active thyroid hormone T(3). Due to their low tissue concentrations and their mRNA SECIS elements deiodinases rank high in the cellular and tissue-specific hierarchy of selenium distribution among various selenoproteins. While systemic selenium status and expression of abundant selenoproteins (glutathione peroxidase or selenoprotein P) is already impaired in patients with cancer, disturbed gastrointestinal resorption, unbalanced nutrition or patients requiring intensive care treatment, selenium-dependent deiodinase function might still be adequate. However, disease-associated alterations in proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, hormones and pharmaceuticals modulate deiodinase isoenzyme expression independent from altered selenium status and might thus pretend causal relationships between systemic selenium status and altered thyroid hormone metabolism. Limited or inadequate supply of both trace elements, iodine and selenium, leads to complex rearrangements of thyroid hormone metabolism enabling adaptation to unfavorable conditions.

  6. Metabolic effects of thyroid hormone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Maria; de Lange, Pieter; Lombardi, Assunta; Silvestri, Elena; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2008-02-01

    The processes and pathways mediating the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all affected by thyroid hormones (THs) in almost all tissues. Particular attention has been devoted by scientists to the effects of THs on lipid metabolism. Among others, effects related to cholesterol, lipid handling, and cardiac performance have been the subject of study. Many reports are present in the literature concerning the calorigenic effect of THs, with most of them aimed at identifying the molecular basis of this effect. However, at the moment the mechanism(s) underlying the metabolic effects of THs remain to be elucidated. THs exert most of their effects though TH receptors (TRs). However, some effects of THs cannot be explained by a nuclear-mediated pathway, and recently an increasing number of nonnuclear actions have been described, which can provide a regulatory system of which the effects differ from those mediated on the transcriptional level by TRs. Some of the TH derivatives (naturally occurring metabolites and analogs) possess biological activities. TH-related biological effects have been described for physiological products such as tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac) and triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac) (via oxidative deamination and decarboxylation of thyroxine [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3] alanine chain), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) (via T4 and T3 deiodination), 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) (via T4, T3, and rT3 deiodination), and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) and thyronamine (T0AM) (via T4 and T3 deiodination and amino acid decarboxylation), as well as for TH structural analogs, such as 3,5,3'-triiodothyropropionic acid (Triprop), 3,5-dibromo-3-pyridazinone-l-thyronine (L-940901), N-[3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylphenoxy)-phenyl]-oxamic acid (CGS 23425), 3,5-dimethyl-4[(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylbenzyl)-phenoxy] acetic acid (GC-1), 3,5-dichloro-4[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl] acetic acid (KB-141

  7. MPW : the metabolic pathways database.

    SciTech Connect

    Selkov, E., Jr.; Grechkin, Y.; Mikhailova, N.; Selkov, E.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Russian Academy of Sciences

    1998-01-01

    The Metabolic Pathways Database (MPW) (www.biobase.com/emphome.html/homepage. html.pags/pathways.html) a derivative of EMP (www.biobase.com/EMP) plays a fundamental role in the technology of metabolic reconstructions from sequenced genomes under the PUMA (www.mcs.anl.gov/home/compbio/PUMA/Production/ ReconstructedMetabolism/reconstruction.html), WIT (www.mcs.anl.gov/home/compbio/WIT/wit.html ) and WIT2 (beauty.isdn.msc.anl.gov/WIT2.pub/CGI/user.cgi) systems. In October 1997, it included some 2800 pathway diagrams covering primary and secondary metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction pathways, intracellular traffic, translation and transcription. In the current public release of MPW (beauty.isdn.mcs.anl.gov/MPW), the encoding is based on the logical structure of the pathways and is represented by the objects commonly used in electronic circuit design. This facilitates drawing and editing the diagrams and makes possible automation of the basic simulation operations such as deriving stoichiometric matrices, rate laws, and, ultimately, dynamic models of metabolic pathways. Individual pathway diagrams, automatically derived from the original ASCII records, are stored as SGML instances supplemented by relational indices. An auxiliary database of compound names and structures, encoded in the SMILES format, is maintained to unambiguously connect the pathways to the chemical structures of their intermediates.

  8. Hormone signaling pathways under stress combinations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies. Plant hormones might be a key regulator of the tailored responses of plants to different stress combinations. Co-ordination between different hormone signaling, or hormone signaling and other pathways such as ROS regulatory mechanisms could be flexible, being altered by timing and types of stresses, and could be different depending on plant species under the stress combinations. In this review, update on recent studies focusing on complex-mode of hormone signaling under stress combinations will be provided.

  9. Representations of metabolic knowledge: Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, P.D.; Paley, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The automatic generation of drawings of metabolic pathways is a challenging problem that depends intimately on exactly what information has been recorded for each pathway, and on how that information is encoded. The chief contributions of the paper are a minimized representation for biochemical pathways called the predecessor list, and inference procedures for converting the predecessor list into a pathway-graph representation that can serve as input to a pathway-drawing algorithm. The predecessor list has several advantages over the pathway graph, including its compactness and its lack of redundancy. The conversion between the two representations can be formulated as both a constraint-satisfaction problem and a logical inference problem, whose goal is to assign directions to reactions, and to determine which are the main chemical compounds in the reaction. We describe a set of production rules that solves this inference problem. We also present heuristics for inferring whether the exterior compounds that are substrates of reactions at the periphery of a pathway are side or main compounds. These techniques were evaluated on 18 metabolic pathways from the EcoCyc knowledge base.

  10. Novel metabolic pathways in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2011-06-01

    The Archaea harbor many metabolic pathways that differ to previously recognized classical pathways. Glycolysis is carried out by modified versions of the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Thermophilic archaea have recently been found to harbor a bi-functional fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase for gluconeogenesis. A number of novel pentose-degrading pathways have also been recently identified. In terms of anabolic metabolism, a pathway for acetate assimilation, the methylaspartate cycle, and two CO2-fixing pathways, the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle and the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, have been elucidated. As for biosynthetic pathways, recent studies have clarified the enzymes responsible for several steps involved in the biosynthesis of inositol phospholipids, polyamine, coenzyme A, flavin adeninedinucleotide and heme. By examining the presence/absence of homologs of these enzymes on genome sequences, we have found that the majority of these enzymes and pathways are specific to the Archaea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The plasticizer benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) alters the ecdysone hormone pathway, the cellular response to stress, the energy metabolism, and several detoxication mechanisms in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-06-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products, and its presence in the aquatic environment is expected for decades. In the present study, the toxicity of BBP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects of acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in genes related to the stress response, the endocrine system, the energy metabolism, and detoxication pathways, as well as in the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. 24-h exposures to high doses affected larval survival and lead to a significant response of several heat-shock genes (hsp70, hsp40, and hsp27), and to a clear endocrine disrupting effect by upregulating the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR). Longer treatments with low doses triggered a general repression of transcription and GST activity. Furthermore, delayed toxicity studies were specially relevant, since they allowed us to detect unpredictable toxic effects, not immediately manifested after contact with the phthalate. This study provides novel and interesting results on the toxic effects of BBP in C. riparius and highlights the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshahi, Sepideh; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE) was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems. PMID:26904095

  13. Folate metabolic pathways in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Tim J.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania are autotrophic for both folate and unconjugated pteridines. Leishmania salvage these metabolites from their mammalian hosts and insect vectors through multiple transporters. Within the parasite, folates are reduced by a bifunctional DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase)-TS (thymidylate synthase) and by a novel PTR1 (pteridine reductase 1), which reduces both folates and unconjugated pteridines. PTR1 can act as a metabolic bypass of DHFR inhibition, reducing the effectiveness of existing antifolate drugs. Leishmania possess a reduced set of folate-dependent metabolic reactions and can salvage many of the key products of folate metabolism from their hosts. For example, they lack purine synthesis, which normally requires 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and instead rely on a network of purine salvage enzymes. Leishmania elaborate at least three pathways for the synthesis of the key metabolite 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, required for the synthesis of thymidylate, and for 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, whose presumptive function is for methionyl-tRNAMet formylation required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that the synthesis of methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is dispensable, as is the activity of the glycine cleavage complex, probably due to redundancy with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Although not always essential, the loss of several folate metabolic enzymes results in attenuation or loss of virulence in animal models, and a null DHFR-TS mutant has been used to induce protective immunity. The folate metabolic pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted chemotherapy, with strong potential for ‘repurposing’ of compounds developed originally for treatment of human cancers or other infectious agents. PMID:22023442

  14. Folate metabolic pathways in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Tim J; Beverley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania are autotrophic for both folate and unconjugated pteridines. Leishmania salvage these metabolites from their mammalian hosts and insect vectors through multiple transporters. Within the parasite, folates are reduced by a bifunctional DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase)-TS (thymidylate synthase) and by a novel PTR1 (pteridine reductase 1), which reduces both folates and unconjugated pteridines. PTR1 can act as a metabolic bypass of DHFR inhibition, reducing the effectiveness of existing antifolate drugs. Leishmania possess a reduced set of folate-dependent metabolic reactions and can salvage many of the key products of folate metabolism from their hosts. For example, they lack purine synthesis, which normally requires 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and instead rely on a network of purine salvage enzymes. Leishmania elaborate at least three pathways for the synthesis of the key metabolite 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, required for the synthesis of thymidylate, and for 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, whose presumptive function is for methionyl-tRNAMet formylation required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that the synthesis of methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is dispensable, as is the activity of the glycine cleavage complex, probably due to redundancy with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Although not always essential, the loss of several folate metabolic enzymes results in attenuation or loss of virulence in animal models, and a null DHFR-TS mutant has been used to induce protective immunity. The folate metabolic pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted chemotherapy, with strong potential for 'repurposing' of compounds developed originally for treatment of human cancers or other infectious agents.

  15. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages.

  16. From hormones to secondary metabolism: the emergence of metabolic gene clusters in plants.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hoi Yee; Wegel, Eva; Osbourn, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Gene clusters for the synthesis of secondary metabolites are a common feature of microbial genomes. Well-known examples include clusters for the synthesis of antibiotics in actinomycetes, and also for the synthesis of antibiotics and toxins in filamentous fungi. Until recently it was thought that genes for plant metabolic pathways were not clustered, and this is certainly true in many cases; however, five plant secondary metabolic gene clusters have now been discovered, all of them implicated in synthesis of defence compounds. An obvious assumption might be that these eukaryotic gene clusters have arisen by horizontal gene transfer from microbes, but there is compelling evidence to indicate that this is not the case. This raises intriguing questions about how widespread such clusters are, what the significance of clustering is, why genes for some metabolic pathways are clustered and those for others are not, and how these clusters form. In answering these questions we may hope to learn more about mechanisms of genome plasticity and adaptive evolution in plants. It is noteworthy that for the five plant secondary metabolic gene clusters reported so far, the enzymes for the first committed steps all appear to have been recruited directly or indirectly from primary metabolic pathways involved in hormone synthesis. This may or may not turn out to be a common feature of plant secondary metabolic gene clusters as new clusters emerge.

  17. Metabolic pathways of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Huang, Lingli; Kuča, Kamil; Wang, Xu; Chen, Guyue; Yuan, Zonghui

    2011-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) as a carcinogenic of group 2B to humans is produced by various fungi strains as Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is one of the most common contaminant in foodstuff. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and immunotoxic and is assumed to cause Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), a chronic kidney disease in humans when it is digested in combination with mycotoxin citrinin. The metabolism affects greatly the fates and the toxicity of a mycotoxins in humans, animals, and plants. The understanding of the metabolism of mycotoxins by the organism as fungi, yeast, bacteria and enzymes would be very helpful for the control of the contamination by the mycotoxins in foods and feeds, and understanding of the biotransformation of the mycotoxin in the body of humans, animals, plants, microorganisms would be beneficial to the risk assessment of food safety. In animals and humans, OTA can be metabolized in the kidney, liver and intestines. Hydrolysis, hydroxylation, lactone-opening and conjugation are the major metabolic pathways. OTalpha (OTα) formed by the cleavage of the peptidic bond in OTA is a major metabolite not only in animals and humans, but also in microorganisms and enzyme systems. It is considered as a nontoxic product. However, the lactone-opened product (OP-OTA), found in rodents, is higher toxic than its parent, OTA.. (4R)-4-OH-OTA is the major hydroxy product in rodents, whereas the 4S isomer is the major in pigs. 10-OH-OTA is currently found only in rabbits. Furthermore, OTA can lose the chlorine on C-5 to produce ochratoxin B (OTB), and OTB is further to 4-OH-OTB and ochratoxin β (OTβ). Ochratoxin quinine/hydroquinone (OTQ/OTHQ) is the metabolite of OTA in animals. In addition, the conjugates of OTA such as hexose and pentose conjugates can be found in animals. Such more polar metabolites make OTA to eliminate faster. Currently, a debate exits on the formation of OTA-DNA adducts. Plants can metabolize OTA as well. OH-OTA methyl ester

  18. Minireview: Nuclear Receptor-Controlled Steroid Hormone Synthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinhan; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xie, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential in normal physiology whereas disruptions in hormonal homeostasis represent an important etiological factor for many human diseases. Steroid hormones exert most of their functions through the binding and activation of nuclear hormone receptors (NRs or NHRs), a superfamily of DNA-binding and often ligand-dependent transcription factors. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that NRs can also regulate the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. This review will focus on the recent progress in our understanding of the regulatory role of NRs in hormonal homeostasis and the implications of this regulation in physiology and diseases. PMID:19762543

  19. Finding metabolic pathways using atom tracking

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Allison P.; Bennett, George N.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Finding novel or non-standard metabolic pathways, possibly spanning multiple species, has important applications in fields such as metabolic engineering, metabolic network analysis and metabolic network reconstruction. Traditionally, this has been a manual process, but the large volume of metabolic data now available has created a need for computational tools to automatically identify biologically relevant pathways. Results: We present new algorithms for finding metabolic pathways, given a desired start and target compound, that conserve a given number of atoms by tracking the movement of atoms through metabolic networks containing thousands of compounds and reactions. First, we describe an algorithm that identifies linear pathways. We then present a new algorithm for finding branched metabolic pathways. Comparisons to known metabolic pathways demonstrate that atom tracking enables our algorithms to avoid many unrealistic connections, often found in previous approaches, and return biologically meaningful pathways. Our results also demonstrate the potential of the algorithms to find novel or non-standard pathways that may span multiple organisms. Availability: The software is freely available for academic use at: http://www.kavrakilab.org/atommetanet Contact: kavraki@rice.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20421197

  20. Hepatic Transporter Expression in Metabolic Syndrome: Phenotype, Serum Metabolic Hormones, and Transcription Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the alteration of multiple metabolic hormones. Obesity rates have been rising worldwide, which increases our need to understand how this population will respond to drugs and exposure to other chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine in lean and obese mice the ontogeny of clinical biomarkers such as serum hormone and blood glucose levels as well as the physiologic markers that correlate with nuclear receptor- and transporter-related pathways. Livers from male and female wild-type (WT) (C57BL/6) and ob/ob mice littermates were collected before, during, and after the onset of obesity. Serum hormone and mRNA levels were analyzed. Physiologic changes and gene expression during maturation and progression to obesity were performed and correlation analysis was performed using canonical correlations. Significant ontogenic changes in both WT and ob/ob mice were observed and these ontogenic changes differ in ob/ob mice with the development of obesity. In males and females, the ontogenic pattern of the expression of genes such as Abcc3, 4, Abcg2, Cyp2b10, and 4a14 started to differ from week 3, and became significant at weeks 4 and 8 in ob/ob mice compared with WT mice. In obese males, serum resistin, glucagon, and glucose levels correlated with the expression of most hepatic ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporters, whereas in obese females, serum glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were correlated with most hepatic uptake transporters and P450 enzymes. Overall, the correlation between physiologic changes and gene expression indicate that metabolism-related hormones may play a role in regulating the genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Hepatic Transporter Expression in Metabolic Syndrome: Phenotype, Serum Metabolic Hormones, and Transcription Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Donepudi, Ajay C.; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the alteration of multiple metabolic hormones. Obesity rates have been rising worldwide, which increases our need to understand how this population will respond to drugs and exposure to other chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine in lean and obese mice the ontogeny of clinical biomarkers such as serum hormone and blood glucose levels as well as the physiologic markers that correlate with nuclear receptor– and transporter-related pathways. Livers from male and female wild-type (WT) (C57BL/6) and ob/ob mice littermates were collected before, during, and after the onset of obesity. Serum hormone and mRNA levels were analyzed. Physiologic changes and gene expression during maturation and progression to obesity were performed and correlation analysis was performed using canonical correlations. Significant ontogenic changes in both WT and ob/ob mice were observed and these ontogenic changes differ in ob/ob mice with the development of obesity. In males and females, the ontogenic pattern of the expression of genes such as Abcc3, 4, Abcg2, Cyp2b10, and 4a14 started to differ from week 3, and became significant at weeks 4 and 8 in ob/ob mice compared with WT mice. In obese males, serum resistin, glucagon, and glucose levels correlated with the expression of most hepatic ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporters, whereas in obese females, serum glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were correlated with most hepatic uptake transporters and P450 enzymes. Overall, the correlation between physiologic changes and gene expression indicate that metabolism-related hormones may play a role in regulating the genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. PMID:26847773

  2. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  3. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  4. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones.

  5. Thyroid hormone regulation of hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rohit A; Singh, Brijesh K; Yen, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic lipid, cholesterol, and glucose metabolism. Recent findings suggest that clinical conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are associated with dysregulated hepatic metabolism, may involve altered intracellular TH action. In addition, TH has key roles in lipophagy in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial quality control, and the regulation of metabolic genes. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the functions of TH in hepatic metabolism, the relationship between TH and metabolic disorders, and the potential therapeutic use of thyromimetics to treat metabolic dysfunction in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Sex Hormone Metabolism on the Vascular Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C.; Beauregard, Katie G.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to age-related changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  7. Impact of sex hormone metabolism on the vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C; Beauregard, Katie G; Khalil, Raouf A

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to agerelated changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  8. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  9. Metabolism pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Barzilai, Merav; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell metabolism have been studied by several investigators. Unlike normal B lymphocytes or other leukemia cells, CLL cells, like adipocytes, store lipids and utilize free fatty acids (FFA) to produce chemical energy. None of the recently identified mutations in CLL directly affects metabolic pathways, suggesting that genetic alterations do not directly contribute to CLL cells' metabolic reprogramming. Conversely, recent data suggest that activation of STAT3 or downregulation of microRNA-125 levels plays a crucial role in the utilization of FFA to meet the CLL cells' metabolic needs. STAT3, known to be constitutively activated in CLL, increases the levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) that mediates lipoprotein uptake and shifts the CLL cells' metabolism towards utilization of FFA. Herein, we review the evidence for altered lipid metabolism, increased mitochondrial activity and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CLL cells, and discuss the possible therapeutic strategies to inhibit lipid metabolism pathways in patient with CLL.

  10. Metabolic pathways for the whole community.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hawley, Alyse K; Altman, Tomer; Karp, Peter D; Hallam, Steven J

    2014-07-22

    A convergence of high-throughput sequencing and computational power is transforming biology into information science. Despite these technological advances, converting bits and bytes of sequence information into meaningful insights remains a challenging enterprise. Biological systems operate on multiple hierarchical levels from genomes to biomes. Holistic understanding of biological systems requires agile software tools that permit comparative analyses across multiple information levels (DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolites) to identify emergent properties, diagnose system states, or predict responses to environmental change. Here we adopt the MetaPathways annotation and analysis pipeline and Pathway Tools to construct environmental pathway/genome databases (ePGDBs) that describe microbial community metabolism using MetaCyc, a highly curated database of metabolic pathways and components covering all domains of life. We evaluate Pathway Tools' performance on three datasets with different complexity and coding potential, including simulated metagenomes, a symbiotic system, and the Hawaii Ocean Time-series. We define accuracy and sensitivity relationships between read length, coverage and pathway recovery and evaluate the impact of taxonomic pruning on ePGDB construction and interpretation. Resulting ePGDBs provide interactive metabolic maps, predict emergent metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and energy production and differentiate between genomic potential and phenotypic expression across defined environmental gradients. This multi-tiered analysis provides the user community with specific operating guidelines, performance metrics and prediction hazards for more reliable ePGDB construction and interpretation. Moreover, it demonstrates the power of Pathway Tools in predicting metabolic interactions in natural and engineered ecosystems.

  11. Metabolic pathways in the apicoplast of apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Frank; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa harbor a plastid-like organelle called apicoplast that is the most reduced organelle of this type known. Due to the medical importance of some members of Apicomplexa, a number of fully sequenced genomes are available that have allowed to assemble metabolic pathways also from the apicoplast and have revealed initial clues to its essential nature for parasite survival in the host. We provide a compilation of Internet resources useful to access, reconstruct, verify, or annotate metabolic pathways. Then we show detailed and updated metabolic maps and discuss the three major biosynthetic pathways leading to the generation of isoprenoids, fatty acids, and heme, and compare these routes in the different species. Moreover, several auxiliary pathways, like iron-sulfur cluster assembly, are covered and put into context with the major metabolic routes. Finally, we highlight some aspects that emerged from recent publications and were not discussed previously with regard to Apicomplexa.

  12. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  13. New developments in engineering plant metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Tatsis, Evangelos C; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2016-12-01

    Plants contain countless metabolic pathways that are responsible for the biosynthesis of complex metabolites. Armed with new tools in sequencing and bioinformatics, the genes that encode these plant biosynthetic pathways have become easier to discover, putting us in an excellent position to fully harness the wealth of compounds and biocatalysts (enzymes) that plants provide. For overproduction and isolation of high-value plant-derived chemicals, plant pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous hosts. Alternatively, plant pathways can be modified in the native producer to confer new properties to the plant, such as better biofuel production or enhanced nutritional value. This perspective highlights a range of examples that demonstrate how the metabolic pathways of plants can be successfully harnessed with a variety of metabolic engineering approaches.

  14. Principles for circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thurley, Kevin; Herbst, Christopher; Wesener, Felix; Koller, Barbara; Wallach, Thomas; Maier, Bert; Kramer, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms govern multiple aspects of animal metabolism. Transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-wide measurements have revealed widespread circadian rhythms in metabolism governed by a cellular genetic oscillator, the circadian core clock. However, it remains unclear if and under which conditions transcriptional rhythms cause rhythms in particular metabolites and metabolic fluxes. Here, we analyzed the circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways by direct measurement of enzyme activities, analysis of transcriptome data, and developing a theoretical method called circadian response analysis. Contrary to a common assumption, we found that pronounced rhythms in metabolic pathways are often favored by separation rather than alignment in the times of peak activity of key enzymes. This property holds true for a set of metabolic pathway motifs (e.g., linear chains and branching points) and also under the conditions of fast kinetics typical for metabolic reactions. By circadian response analysis of pathway motifs, we determined exact timing separation constraints on rhythmic enzyme activities that allow for substantial rhythms in pathway flux and metabolite concentrations. Direct measurements of circadian enzyme activities in mouse skeletal muscle confirmed that such timing separation occurs in vivo. PMID:28159888

  15. Altered Metabolism of Growth Hormone Receptor Mutant Mice: A Combined NMR Metabonomics and Microarray Study

    PubMed Central

    Schirra, Horst Joachim; Anderson, Cameron G.; Wilson, William J.; Kerr, Linda; Craik, David J.; Waters, Michael J.; Lichanska, Agnieszka M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum) or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. Conclusions/Significance The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone receptor, and

  16. Evolutionary algorithm for metabolic pathways synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Matias F; Stegmayer, Georgina; Milone, Diego H

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic pathway building is an active field of research, necessary to understand and manipulate the metabolism of organisms. There are different approaches, mainly based on classical search methods, to find linear sequences of reactions linking two compounds. However, an important limitation of these methods is the exponential increase of search trees when a large number of compounds and reactions is considered. Besides, such models do not take into account all substrates for each reaction during the search, leading to solutions that lack biological feasibility in many cases. This work proposes a new evolutionary algorithm that allows searching not only linear, but also branched metabolic pathways, formed by feasible reactions that relate multiple compounds simultaneously. Tests performed using several sets of reactions show that this algorithm is able to find feasible linear and branched metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic function of the CTRP family of hormones

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Marcus M.; Tan, Stefanie Y.; Wong, G. William

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining proper energy balance in mammals entails intimate crosstalk between various tissues and organs. These inter-organ communications are mediated, to a great extent, by secreted hormones that circulate in blood. Regulation of the complex metabolic networks by secreted hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, FGF21) constitutes an important mechanism governing the integrated control of whole-body metabolism. Disruption of hormone-mediated metabolic circuits frequently results in dysregulated energy metabolism and pathology. As part of an effort to identify novel metabolic hormones, we recently characterized a highly conserved family of fifteen secreted proteins, the C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRP1–15). While related to adiponectin in sequence and structural organization, each CTRP has its own unique tissue expression profile and non-redundant function in regulating sugar and/or fat metabolism. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the physiological functions of CTRPs, emphasizing their metabolic roles. Future studies using gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models will provide greater mechanistic insights into the critical role CTRPs play in regulating systemic energy homeostasis. PMID:23963681

  18. Metabolic control of signalling pathways and metabolic auto-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lorendeau, Doriane; Christen, Stefan; Rinaldi, Gianmarco; Fendt, Sarah-Maria

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic alterations have emerged as an important hallmark in the development of various diseases. Thus, understanding the complex interplay of metabolism with other cellular processes such as cell signalling is critical to rationally control and modulate cellular physiology. Here, we review in the context of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase and p53, the orchestrated interplay between metabolism and cellular signalling as well as transcriptional regulation. Moreover, we discuss recent discoveries in auto-regulation of metabolism (i.e. how metabolic parameters such as metabolite levels activate or inhibit enzymes and thus metabolic pathways). Finally, we review functional consequences of post-translational modification on metabolic enzyme abundance and/or activities.

  19. Unique sugar metabolic pathways of bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fushinobu, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Bifidobacteria have many beneficial effects for human health. The gastrointestinal tract, where natural colonization of bifidobacteria occurs, is an environment poor in nutrition and oxygen. Therefore, bifidobacteria have many unique glycosidases, transporters, and metabolic enzymes for sugar fermentation to utilize diverse carbohydrates that are not absorbed by host humans and animals. They have a unique, effective central fermentative pathway called bifid shunt. Recently, a novel metabolic pathway that utilizes both human milk oligosaccharides and host glycoconjugates was found. The galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I metabolic pathway plays a key role in colonization in the infant gastrointestinal tract. These pathways involve many unique enzymes and proteins. This review focuses on their molecular mechanisms, as revealed by biochemical and crystallographic studies.

  20. The evolution of fungal metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Slot, Jason C; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-12-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters

  1. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters

  2. Light regulation of metabolic pathways in fungi.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Doris; Schmoll, Monika

    2010-02-01

    Light represents a major carrier of information in nature. The molecular machineries translating its electromagnetic energy (photons) into the chemical language of cells transmit vital signals for adjustment of virtually every living organism to its habitat. Fungi react to illumination in various ways, and we found that they initiate considerable adaptations in their metabolic pathways upon growth in light or after perception of a light pulse. Alterations in response to light have predominantly been observed in carotenoid metabolism, polysaccharide and carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, nucleotide and nucleoside metabolism, and in regulation of production of secondary metabolites. Transcription of genes is initiated within minutes, abundance and activity of metabolic enzymes are adjusted, and subsequently, levels of metabolites are altered to cope with the harmful effects of light or to prepare for reproduction, which is dependent on light in many cases. This review aims to give an overview on metabolic pathways impacted by light and to illustrate the physiological significance of light for fungi. We provide a basis for assessment whether a given metabolic pathway might be subject to regulation by light and how these properties can be exploited for improvement of biotechnological processes.

  3. PATHWAY OF INORGANIC ARSENIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A remarkable aspect of the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans is its conversion to methylated metabolites. These metabolites account for most of the arsenic found in urine after exposure to inorganic arsenic. At least some of the adverse health effects attributed to inor...

  4. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  5. The critical role of metabolic pathways in aging.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, Nir; Huffman, Derek M; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Bartke, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    Aging is characterized by a deterioration in the maintenance of homeostatic processes over time, leading to functional decline and increased risk for disease and death. The aging process is characterized metabolically by insulin resistance, changes in body composition, and physiological declines in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and sex steroids. Some interventions designed to address features of aging, such as caloric restriction or visceral fat depletion, have succeeded in improving insulin action and life span in rodents. Meanwhile, pharmacologic interventions and hormonal perturbations have increased the life span of several mammalian species without necessarily addressing features of age-related metabolic decline. These interventions include inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and lifetime deficiency in GH/IGF-1 signaling. However, strategies to treat aging in humans, such as hormone replacement, have mostly failed to achieve their desired response. We will briefly discuss recent advances in our understanding of the complex role of metabolic pathways in the aging process and highlight important paradoxes that have emerged from these discoveries. Although life span has been the major outcome of interest in the laboratory, a special focus is made in this study on healthspan, as improved quality of life is the goal when translated to humans.

  6. Origin and evolution of metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fani, Renato; Fondi, Marco

    2009-03-01

    The emergence and evolution of metabolic pathways represented a crucial step in molecular and cellular evolution. In fact, the exhaustion of the prebiotic supply of amino acids and other compounds that were likely present in the ancestral environment, imposed an important selective pressure, favoring those primordial heterotrophic cells which became capable of synthesizing those molecules. Thus, the emergence of metabolic pathways allowed primitive organisms to become increasingly less-dependent on exogenous sources of organic compounds. Comparative analyses of genes and genomes from organisms belonging to Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya revealed that, during evolution, different forces and molecular mechanisms might have driven the shaping of genomes and the arisal of new metabolic abilities. Among these gene elongations, gene and operon duplications undoubtedly played a major role since they can lead to the (immediate) appearance of new genetic material that, in turn, might undergo evolutionary divergence giving rise to new genes coding for new metabolic abilities. Gene duplication has been invoked in the different schemes proposed to explain why and how the extant metabolic pathways have arisen and shaped. Both the analysis of completely sequenced genomes and directed evolution experiments strongly support one of them, i.e. the patchwork hypothesis, according to which metabolic pathways have been assembled through the recruitment of primitive enzymes that could react with a wide range of chemically related substrates. However, the analysis of the structure and organization of genes belonging to ancient metabolic pathways, such as histidine biosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, suggested that other different hypothesis, i.e. the retrograde hypothesis or the semi-enzymatic theory, may account for the arisal of some metabolic routes.

  7. Hormonal alterations in PCOS and its influence on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Abhaya; Muthusami, Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented. Hormones, which include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the leutinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, estrogens, growth hormones (GH), cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin are disturbed in PCOS women. These hormones influence bone metabolism in human subjects directly as well as indirectly. The imbalance in these hormones results in increased prevalence of osteoporosis in PCOS women. Limited evidence suggests that the drugs taken during the treatment of PCOS increase the risk of bone fracture in PCOS patients through endocrine disruption. This review is aimed at the identification of the relationship between bone mineral density and hormonal changes in PCOS subjects and identifies potential areas to study bone-related disorders in PCOS women. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  9. Cubilin dysfunction causes abnormal metabolism of the steroid hormone 25(OH) vitamin D(3).

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, A; Fyfe, J C; Kozyraki, R; Leheste, J R; Jacobsen, C; Nielsen, M S; Verroust, P J; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Moestrup, S K; Ray, R; Gliemann, J; Willnow, T E; Christensen, E I

    2001-11-20

    Steroid hormones are central regulators of a variety of biological processes. According to the free hormone hypothesis, steroids enter target cells by passive diffusion. However, recently we demonstrated that 25(OH) vitamin D(3) complexed to its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, enters renal proximal tubules by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockout mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin lose 25(OH) vitamin D(3) in the urine and develop bone disease. Here, we report that cubilin, a membrane-associated protein colocalizing with megalin, facilitates the endocytic process by sequestering steroid-carrier complexes on the cellular surface before megalin-mediated internalization of the cubilin-bound ligand. Dogs with an inherited disorder affecting cubilin biosynthesis exhibit abnormal vitamin D metabolism. Similarly, human patients with mutations causing cubilin dysfunction exhibit urinary excretion of 25(OH) vitamin D(3). This observation identifies spontaneous mutations in an endocytic receptor pathway affecting cellular uptake and metabolism of a steroid hormone.

  10. Towards imaging metabolic pathways in tissues.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Tim J A; Jones, Emrys A; Corver, Willem E; van Zeijl, René J M; Deelder, André M; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Mesker, Wilma E; Morreau, Hans; McDonnell, Liam A

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging using 9-aminoacridine as the matrix leads to the detection of low mass metabolites and lipids directly from cancer tissues. These included lactate and pyruvate for studying the Warburg effect, as well as succinate and fumarate, metabolites whose accumulation is associated with specific syndromes. By using the pathway information present in the human metabolome database, it was possible to identify regions within tumor tissue samples with distinct metabolic signatures that were consistent with known tumor biology. We present a data analysis workflow for assessing metabolic pathways in their histopathological context.

  11. Association between thyroid hormones, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hari K; Yadav, Raj K; Prajapati, Jayaram; Reddy, Challa V K; Raghunath, Manchala; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2009-07-01

    To determine the association between thyroid hormones, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in euthyroid women. Forty-five women with no past medical history were studied in this cross-sectional study at the Department of Endocrinology, Medwin Hospitals, Hyderabad, India, from August 2008 to September 2008. The body fat was estimated using bio-impedance method, and fasting blood sample was analyzed for total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), lipid profile, insulin, and glucose. The mean age of the participants was 32.6 +/= 9.6 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 29.9 +/= 3.8 kg/m2. Evidence of homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) more than 3 was seen in 34 (75%) and metabolic syndrome in 29 (64%) participants. Total T3 showed a positive correlation with triglycerides, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, insulin, HOMA-IR and negatively with body fat. Thyroid-stimulating hormone correlated positively with BMI, insulin, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and negatively with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Free triiodothyronine correlated positively with waist circumference and T4 did not correlate with metabolic syndrome parameters. Our preliminary data show an association between thyroid hormones and some components specific of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid women. Total triiodothyronine and TSH correlated more with variables of metabolic syndrome than FT3 and T4.

  12. Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Visek, W J

    1984-03-01

    The physical, chemical properties of ammonia, its sources and detoxification, its effects in biological systems, its influence upon insulin action and glucose metabolism, and its possible effects on reproduction are discussed. Present chemical methods do not distinguish nonionic from ionic forms. At physiological pH, nonionic ammonia concentrations remain low but are primarily responsible for toxic effects. Thus, biologically significant changes of ammonia concentrations may not be revealed by determinations of ammonia in blood plasma. For these and other reasons the subacute toxicity of ammonia often is unrecognized, and its effects on intermediary metabolism and the hormonal milieu in normal and disease states remain poorly understood. Effects of ammonia may be stimulatory at low concentrations and inhibitory as concentrations rise or exposure is extended. Extensive experiments in eight ureotelic species, including man, show that urinary excretion of orotic acid becomes significantly elevated when the quantity of ammonia presented to the liver exceeds the capacity for normal detoxification. Present evidence with arginine and other intermediates of the urea cycle suggest that these substances influence glucose metabolism and insulin action. Recent studies of dairy cattle provide speculative evidence that high protein feeding or forms of protein that lead to elevated ammonia concentrations in tissue decrease conception rates and increase the calving to conception interval of dairy cows. Limited data concerning luteinizing hormone concentrations and steroid hormone metabolism are insufficient to establish whether differences in reproductive performance are due to changes of hormonal physiology, intrauterine environment, or metabolism.

  13. Prenatal Exposures to Multiple Thyroid Hormone Disruptors: Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Molehin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal human fetal development and play a major role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Delivery of TH to target tissues is dependent on processes including TH synthesis, transport, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone endocrine disruptors (TH-EDCs) are chemical substances that interfere with these processes, potentially leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives. This review focuses on the effects of prenatal exposures to combinations of TH-EDCs on fetal and neonatal glucose and lipid metabolism and also discusses the various mechanisms by which TH-EDCs interfere with other hormonal pathways. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive narrative review on the effects of TH-EDCs with particular emphasis on exposure during pregnancy. Discussion. TH imbalance has been linked to many metabolic processes and the effects of TH imbalance are particularly pronounced in early fetal development due to fetal dependence on maternal TH for proper growth and development. The pervasive presence of EDCs in the environment results in ubiquitous exposure to either single or mixtures of EDCs with deleterious effects on metabolism. Conclusions. Further evaluation of combined effects of TH-EDCs on fetal metabolic endpoints could improve advice provided to expectant mothers. PMID:26989557

  14. New pathway for the metabolism of pentitols

    PubMed Central

    London, Jack; Chace, Nina M.

    1977-01-01

    Certain strains of Lactobacillus casei can grow at the expense of one or more pentitols. These microorganisms possess a pentitol phosphate pathway that appears to be analogous to the hexitol phosphate pathway found in many facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Pentitol is transported into the cell by a phospho enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system that converts it to pentitol phosphate, whereupon a specific dehydrogenase oxidizes the intermediate product to ketopentose phosphate. The ketopentose phosphate is subsequently converted to xylulose-5-P and enters one of the pathways of central metabolism. Images PMID:16592445

  15. Hormonal components of altered developmental pathways in the annual killifish, Austrofundulus limnaeus.

    PubMed

    Pri-Tal, Benjamin M; Blue, Steven; Pau, Francis K-Y; Podrabsky, Jason E

    2011-11-01

    The annual killifish, Austrofundulus limnaeus, typically enters embryonic diapause at two distinct points of development, termed diapause II and III. This study explores the role of maternal and embryonic steroid hormones, including 17-β-estradiol (E2), androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T), in regulating the developmental decision to enter or escape diapause II. Steroid hormone levels were measured in tissues isolated from adult female killifish during the normal lifespan of this species and in individuals of the same age that were producing either high or low proportions of escape embryos. Levels of steroid hormones were also measured during early development and in fertilized eggs that were predicted to be on either an escape or diapausing developmental trajectory. Decreases in maternal E2 levels associated with age are correlated with decreasing escape embryo production. Maternal production of escape embryos is correlated with increased ratios of E2 to T in adult ovary tissue. Interestingly, neither hormone is significantly different in fish producing embryos on different developmental pathways when examined independently. Levels of steroid hormones in fertilized eggs are not correlated with entry or escape from diapause II, though levels of A4 tend to be higher in escape embryos. Escape embryos exhibit faster hormone metabolism and earlier hormone synthesis than embryos that will enter diapause II. Incubation of embryos in exogenous E2 is associated with a 7-fold increase in escape embryo production, and significantly elevated A4 levels. These data suggest that steroid hormones may be critical factors involved in determining developmental pathways in embryos of A. limnaeus.

  16. Establishing Adverse Outcome Pathways of Thyroid Hormone Disruption in an Amphibian Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) provides a framework for understanding the relevance of toxicology data in ecotoxicological hazard assessments. The AOP concept can be applied to many toxicological pathways including thyroid hormone disruption. Thyroid hormones play a critical r...

  17. Establishing Adverse Outcome Pathways of Thyroid Hormone Disruption in an Amphibian Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) provides a framework for understanding the relevance of toxicology data in ecotoxicological hazard assessments. The AOP concept can be applied to many toxicological pathways including thyroid hormone disruption. Thyroid hormones play a critical r...

  18. Thyroid hormone metabolism and the developing human lung.

    PubMed

    Hume, R; Richard, K; Kaptein, E; Stanley, E L; Visser, T J; Coughtrie, M W

    2001-05-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of fetal lung development, and maturation is accelerated in animal models by antepartum exposure to raised concentrations of the receptor-active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine and glucocorticoids. It is essential that the nature of the regulation of the spatial and temporal metabolism of iodothyronines in the human fetus and infant is known before effective therapies can be developed to modify human lung maturation. Thyroid hormone bioavailability to the human fetus is regulated in part by enzymatic deiodination and reversible sulfation of iodothyronines, with contributions from other factors such as fetomaternal and fetoamniotic hormone transfers, fetal thyroid gland production, and the activities of plasma membrane transporters mediating uptake of iodothyronines from plasma into tissues. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. An evolutionary approach for searching metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Matias F; Stegmayer, Georgina; Milone, Diego H

    2013-11-01

    Searching metabolic pathways that relate two compounds is a common task in bioinformatics. This is of particular interest when trying, for example, to discover metabolic relations among compounds clustered with a data mining technique. Search strategies find sequences to relate two or more states (compounds) using an appropriate set of transitions (reactions). Evolutionary algorithms carry out the search guided by a fitness function and explore multiple candidate solutions using stochastic operators. In this work we propose an evolutionary algorithm for searching metabolic pathways between two compounds. The operators and fitness function employed are described and the effect of mutation rate is studied. Performance of this algorithm is compared with two classical search strategies. Source code and dataset are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sourcesinc/files/eamp/ © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotransformation of cobicistat: metabolic pathways and enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengcheng; Shehu, Amina I.; Liu, Ke; Lu, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    Background Cobicistat (COBI) is a pharmacoenhancer for antiretroviral therapy. Objective The current study was designed to profile the metabolic pathways of COBI and to determine the enzymes that contribute to COBI metabolism. Method We screened COBI metabolites in mice and human liver microsomes. We also used cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P450 (CYPs) to explore the role of human enzymes in COBI metabolism. Results Twenty new and three known metabolites of COBI were identified in mouse urine and feces. These new metabolic pathways of COBI include glycine conjugation, N-acetyl cysteine conjugation, morpholine ring-opening, and thiazole ring-opening. Twelve of COBI metabolites were further confirmed in mouse and human liver microsomes, including nine new metabolites. Consistent with the previous report, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were determined as the major enzymes that contribute to COBI metabolism. Conclusion This study provided a full map of COBI metabolism. These results can be used to manage CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions that are associated with COBI-containing regimens in human. PMID:26935921

  1. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  2. On the origin of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The heterotrophic theory of the origin of life is the only proposal available with experimental support. This comes from the ease of prebiotic synthesis under strongly reducing conditions. The prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds by reduction of CO(2) to monomers used by the first organisms would also be considered an heterotrophic origin. Autotrophy means that the first organisms biosynthesized their cell constituents as well as assembling them. Prebiotic synthetic pathways are all different from the biosynthetic pathways of the last common ancestor (LCA). The steps leading to the origin of the metabolic pathways are closer to prebiotic chemistry than to those in the LCA. There may have been different biosynthetic routes between the prebiotic and the LCAs that played an early role in metabolism but have disappeared from extant organisms. The semienzymatic theory of the origin of metabolism proposed here is similar to the Horowitz hypothesis but includes the use of compounds leaking from preexisting pathways as well as prebiotic compounds from the environment.

  3. On the origin of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The heterotrophic theory of the origin of life is the only proposal available with experimental support. This comes from the ease of prebiotic synthesis under strongly reducing conditions. The prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds by reduction of CO(2) to monomers used by the first organisms would also be considered an heterotrophic origin. Autotrophy means that the first organisms biosynthesized their cell constituents as well as assembling them. Prebiotic synthetic pathways are all different from the biosynthetic pathways of the last common ancestor (LCA). The steps leading to the origin of the metabolic pathways are closer to prebiotic chemistry than to those in the LCA. There may have been different biosynthetic routes between the prebiotic and the LCAs that played an early role in metabolism but have disappeared from extant organisms. The semienzymatic theory of the origin of metabolism proposed here is similar to the Horowitz hypothesis but includes the use of compounds leaking from preexisting pathways as well as prebiotic compounds from the environment.

  4. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF HORMONE THERAPY IN TRANSGENDER PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, John David; Tannock, Lisa R

    2016-04-01

    Transgender patients may seek hormone therapy to induce physical changes to simulate their expressed or experienced gender. However, many providers are uncomfortable prescribing transgender hormones due to fears over safety. The goal of this study was to determine if transgender hormone therapy with estrogen and spironolactone for male-to-female (MtF) patients or with testosterone for female-to-male (FtM) patients had adverse anthropomorphic or metabolic effects. This retrospective chart review study analyzed changes over time for 33 MtF and 19 FtM endocrine clinic patients at an academic endocrine practice with follow-up for up to 18 months after hormone initiation. Compared to baseline labs obtained prior to the initiation of hormone therapy, significant changes for the MtF cohort included an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease in creatinine; however, triglycerides did not show a statistically significant change. In the FtM cohort, there were significant increases in body mass index, creatinine, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Although statistically significant, these changes were minimal for both cohorts. In our practice, hormone therapy was found to be safe in this retrospective study.

  5. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2011-05-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback regulation. Recent studies have made clear that during NTIS differential changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in various tissues, the net effect of which may be either activation or inhibition of thyroid hormone action. In this review we discuss systemic and local changes in thyroid hormone metabolism during illness, highlighting their physiological implications in terms of disease course.

  6. Metabolic profiling reveals reprogramming of lipid metabolic pathways in treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with 3-iodothyronamine.

    PubMed

    Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Sabatini, Martina; Rogowski, Michael; Chiellini, Grazia; Zucchi, Riccardo; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2017-01-01

    Complex diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with intricate pathophysiological, hormonal, and metabolic feedbacks that make their early diagnosis challenging, thus increasing the prevalence risks for obesity, cardiovascular, and fatty liver diseases. To explore the crosstalk between endocrine and lipid metabolic pathways, we administered 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), a natural analog of thyroid hormone, in a mouse model of PCOS and analyzed plasma and tissue extracts using multidisciplinary omics and biochemical approaches. T1AM administration induces a profound tissue-specific antilipogenic effect in liver and muscle by lowering gene expression of key regulators of lipid metabolism, PTP1B and PLIN2, significantly increasing metabolites (glucogenic, amino acids, carnitine, and citrate) levels, while enhancing protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, T1AM has an opposing effect on the regulation of estrogenic pathways in the ovary by upregulating STAR, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1. Biochemical measurements provide further evidence of significant reduction in liver cholesterol and triglycerides in post-T1AM treatment. Our results shed light onto tissue-specific metabolic vs. hormonal pathway interactions, thus illuminating the intricacies within the pathophysiology of PCOS This study opens up new avenues to design drugs for targeted therapeutics to improve quality of life in complex metabolic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. Secondary Metabolic Pathway-Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaino, Maria I.; Crawford, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides step-by-step methods for building secondary metabolic pathway-targeted molecular networks to assess microbial natural product biosynthesis at a systems level and to aid in downstream natural product discovery efforts. Methods described include high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)-based comparative metabolomics, pathway-targeted tandem MS (MS/MS) molecular networking, and isotopic labeling for the elucidation of natural products encoded by orphan biosynthetic pathways. The metabolomics network workflow covers the following six points: (1) method development, (2) bacterial culture growth and organic extraction, (3) HRMS data acquisition and analysis, (4) pathway-targeted MS/MS data acquisition, (5) mass spectral network building, and (6) network enhancement. This chapter opens with a discussion on the practical considerations of natural product extraction, chromatographic processing, and enhanced detection of the analytes of interest within complex organic mixtures using liquid chromatography (LC)-HRMS. Next, we discuss the utilization of a chemometric platform, focusing on Agilent Mass Profiler Professional software, to run MS-based differential analysis between sample groups and controls to acquire a unique set of molecular features that are dependent on the presence of a secondary metabolic pathway. Using this unique list of molecular features, the chapter then details targeted MS/MS acquisition for subsequent pathway-dependent network clustering through the online Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GnPS) platform. Genetic information, ionization intensities, isotopic labeling, and additional experimental data can be mapped onto the pathway-dependent network, facilitating systems biosynthesis analyses. The finished product will provide a working molecular network to assess experimental perturbations and guide novel natural product discoveries. PMID:26831709

  8. An algorithm for efficient identification of branched metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Heath, Allison P; Bennett, George N; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a new graph-based algorithm for identifying branched metabolic pathways in multi-genome scale metabolic data. The term branched is used to refer to metabolic pathways between compounds that consist of multiple pathways that interact biochemically. A branched pathway may produce a target compound through a combination of linear pathways that split compounds into smaller ones, work in parallel with many compounds, and join compounds into larger ones. While branched metabolic pathways predominate in metabolic networks, most previous work has focused on identifying linear metabolic pathways. The ability to automatically identify branched pathways is important in applications that require a deeper understanding of metabolism, such as metabolic engineering and drug target identification. The algorithm presented in this article utilizes explicit atom tracking to identify linear metabolic pathways and then merges them together into branched metabolic pathways. We provide results on several well-characterized metabolic pathways that demonstrate that the new merging approach can efficiently find biologically relevant branched metabolic pathways.

  9. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  10. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  11. Knowledge representation in metabolic pathway databases.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Miranda D; Jansen, Gerbert A; Moerland, Perry D; van Kampen, Antoine H C

    2014-05-01

    The accurate representation of all aspects of a metabolic network in a structured format, such that it can be used for a wide variety of computational analyses, is a challenge faced by a growing number of researchers. Analysis of five major metabolic pathway databases reveals that each database has made widely different choices to address this challenge, including how to deal with knowledge that is uncertain or missing. In concise overviews, we show how concepts such as compartments, enzymatic complexes and the direction of reactions are represented in each database. Importantly, also concepts which a database does not represent are described. Which aspects of the metabolic network need to be available in a structured format and to what detail differs per application. For example, for in silico phenotype prediction, a detailed representation of gene-protein-reaction relations and the compartmentalization of the network is essential. Our analysis also shows that current databases are still limited in capturing all details of the biology of the metabolic network, further illustrated with a detailed analysis of three metabolic processes. Finally, we conclude that the conceptual differences between the databases, which make knowledge exchange and integration a challenge, have not been resolved, so far, by the exchange formats in which knowledge representation is standardized.

  12. Chemical Shifts to Metabolic Pathways: Identifying Metabolic Pathways Directly from a Single 2D NMR Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhinav; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Pal, Debnath; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2015-12-15

    Identifying cellular processes in terms of metabolic pathways is one of the avowed goals of metabolomics studies. Currently, this is done after relevant metabolites are identified to allow their mapping onto specific pathways. This task is daunting due to the complex nature of cellular processes and the difficulty in establishing the identity of individual metabolites. We propose here a new method: ChemSMP (Chemical Shifts to Metabolic Pathways), which facilitates rapid analysis by identifying the active metabolic pathways directly from chemical shifts obtained from a single two-dimensional (2D) [(13)C-(1)H] correlation NMR spectrum without the need for identification and assignment of individual metabolites. ChemSMP uses a novel indexing and scoring system comprised of a "uniqueness score" and a "coverage score". Our method is demonstrated on metabolic pathways data from the Small Molecule Pathway Database (SMPDB) and chemical shifts from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). Benchmarks show that ChemSMP has a positive prediction rate of >90% in the presence of decluttered data and can sustain the same at 60-70% even in the presence of noise, such as deletions of peaks and chemical shift deviations. The method tested on NMR data acquired for a mixture of 20 amino acids shows a success rate of 93% in correct recovery of pathways. When used on data obtained from the cell lysate of an unexplored oncogenic cell line, it revealed active metabolic pathways responsible for regulating energy homeostasis of cancer cells. Our unique tool is thus expected to significantly enhance analysis of NMR-based metabolomics data by reducing existing impediments.

  13. [Lead compound optimization strategy (1)--changing metabolic pathways and optimizing metabolism stability].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Liu, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Lead compound optimization plays an important role in new drug discovery and development. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways can modulate pharmacokinetic properties, prolong the half life, improve metabolism stability and bioavailability of lead compounds. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways and improving metabolism stability are reviewed. These methods include blocking metabolic site, reduing lipophilicity, changing ring size, bioisosterism, and prodrug.

  14. kpath: integration of metabolic pathway linked data

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Delgado, Ismael; García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; Rybinski, Maciej; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the Life Sciences domain has experienced a rapid growth in the amount of available biological databases. The heterogeneity of these databases makes data integration a challenging issue. Some integration challenges are locating resources, relationships, data formats, synonyms or ambiguity. The Linked Data approach partially solves the heterogeneity problems by introducing a uniform data representation model. Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. This article introduces kpath, a database that integrates information related to metabolic pathways. kpath also provides a navigational interface that enables not only the browsing, but also the deep use of the integrated data to build metabolic networks based on existing disperse knowledge. This user interface has been used to showcase relationships that can be inferred from the information available in several public databases. Database URL: The public Linked Data repository can be queried at http://sparql.kpath.khaos.uma.es using the graph URI “www.khaos.uma.es/metabolic-pathways-app”. The GUI providing navigational access to kpath database is available at http://browser.kpath.khaos.uma.es. PMID:26055101

  15. Customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongbo; Du, Jing; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of a heterologous metabolic pathway into a platform microorganism for applications in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology is often technically straightforward. However, the major challenge is to balance the flux in the pathway to obtain high yield and productivity in a target microorganism. To address this limitation, we recently developed a simple, efficient, and programmable approach named "customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering" (COMPACTER) for balancing the flux in a pathway under distinct metabolic backgrounds. Here we use two examples including a cellobiose-utilizing pathway and a xylose-utilizing pathway to illustrate the key steps in the COMPACTER method.

  16. Thyroid hormones changes in infants and children with metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Tahirović, H F

    1991-10-01

    The influence of the acidotic state on the thyroxine (T4) peripheral metabolism was studied in two different forms of metabolic acidosis, ie infantile diarrhea and diabetic ketoacidosis. The serum concentrations of T4, free T4 (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) were measured and compared to healthy control groups. Lower T4 and T3 and higher rT3 serum concentrations were found in both tested groups of patients in relation to the control groups. In infants with severe metabolic acidosis FT4 values were lower than those observed in the control group. In addition, serum TBG levels were lower in diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Despite the reduced serum T3 and T4 concentrations in both groups of patients, TSH concentrations, were within the normal range. Therefore, we concluded that acidosis caused either by diarrhea (not so far described) or by diabetes mellitus (well documented up to now) affects the thyroid hormones metabolism in a similar way, at least as far as the thyroid hormones blood levels are concerned.

  17. Synthesis of inositol phosphate ligands of plant hormone-receptor complexes: pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover.

    PubMed

    Hanke, David E; Parmar, Paroo N; Caddick, Samuel E K; Green, Porntip; Brearley, Charles A

    2012-06-15

    Reduction of phytate is a major goal of plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of crops. Remarkably, except for the storage organs of crops such as barley, maize and soybean, we know little of the stereoisomeric composition of inositol phosphates in plant tissues. To investigate the metabolic origins of higher inositol phosphates in photosynthetic tissues, we have radiolabelled leaf tissue of Solanum tuberosum with myo-[2-3H]inositol, undertaken a detailed analysis of inositol phosphate stereoisomerism and permeabilized mesophyll protoplasts in media containing inositol phosphates. We describe the inositol phosphate composition of leaf tissue and identify pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism that we reveal to be common to other kingdoms. Our results identify the metabolic origins of a number of higher inositol phosphates including ones that are precursors of cofactors, or cofactors of plant hormone-receptor complexes. The present study affords alternative explanations of the effects of disruption of inositol phosphate metabolism reported in other species, and identifies different inositol phosphates from that described in photosynthetic tissue of the monocot Spirodela polyrhiza. We define the pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover and shed light on the occurrence of a number of inositol phosphates identified in animals, for which metabolic origins have not been defined.

  18. p53 regulation of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Vousden, Karen H

    2010-04-01

    During the course of tumorigenesis, cells acquire a number of alterations that contribute to the acquisition of the malignant phenotype, allowing them to survive and flourish in increasingly hostile environments. Cancer cells can be characterized by perturbations in the control of cell proliferation and growth, resistance to death, and alterations in their interactions with the microenvironment. Underpinning many of these changes are shifts in metabolism that allow cancer cells to use alternative pathways for energy production and building the macromolecules necessary for growth, as well as regulating the generation of signaling molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the past few years, it became clear that p53, the most studied, if not most important, tumor suppressor protein, can also directly control metabolic traits of cells.

  19. kpath: integration of metabolic pathway linked data.

    PubMed

    Navas-Delgado, Ismael; García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; Rybinski, Maciej; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the Life Sciences domain has experienced a rapid growth in the amount of available biological databases. The heterogeneity of these databases makes data integration a challenging issue. Some integration challenges are locating resources, relationships, data formats, synonyms or ambiguity. The Linked Data approach partially solves the heterogeneity problems by introducing a uniform data representation model. Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. This article introduces kpath, a database that integrates information related to metabolic pathways. kpath also provides a navigational interface that enables not only the browsing, but also the deep use of the integrated data to build metabolic networks based on existing disperse knowledge. This user interface has been used to showcase relationships that can be inferred from the information available in several public databases.

  20. Molecular pathways: regulation of metabolism by RB.

    PubMed

    Clem, Brian F; Chesney, Jason

    2012-11-15

    The discovery of the retinoblastoma (RB-1) gene as a tumor suppressor that is disrupted in a majority of human cancers either via direct or indirect genetic alterations has resulted in increased interest in its functions and downstream effectors. Although the canonical pathway that links this tumor suppressor to human cancers details its interaction with the E2F transcription factors and cell-cycle progression, recent studies have shown an essential role for RB-1 in the suppression of glycolytic and glutaminolytic metabolism. Characterization of the precise metabolic transporters and enzymes suppressed by the RB-E2F axis should enable the identification of small molecule antagonists that have selective and potent antitumor properties. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Braidy, Nady; Grant, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Immune-mediated activation of tryptophan (TRYP) catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is a consistent finding in all inflammatory disorders. Several studies by our group and others have examined the neurotoxic potential of neuroreactive TRYP metabolites, including quinolinic acid (QUIN) in neuroinflammatory neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis, amylotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and AIDS related dementia complex (ADC). Our current work aims to determine whether there is any benefit to the affected individuals in enhancing the catabolism of TRYP via the KP during an immune response. Under physiological conditions, QUIN is metabolized to the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which represents an important metabolic cofactor and electron transporter. NAD+ also serves as a substrate for the DNA ‘nick sensor’ and putative nuclear repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Free radical initiated DNA damage, PARP activation and NAD+ depletion may contribute to brain dysfunction and cell death in neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:28250737

  2. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies.

  3. Metabolic and hormonal changes during aerobic exercise in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pastor, V J; Ruiz, M; Diego-Acosta, A M; Avila, C; García, J C; Pérez, F; Guirado, F; Noguer, N

    1999-03-01

    A group of long-distance runners is studied in order to clarify aspects concerning neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating organic adaptation to maximum effort, with special interest in the function of the growth hormone in fat metabolism and the possible use of ketone bodies as an alternative source of energy. A test is designed on a treadmill with a gradient of 3% and progressive increases in speed of 2 Km/h every 10 min, starting at 6 Km/h, and continuing until exhaustion. Masks are worn to enable the breath by breath measurement of expired gases and the subjects are monitored electrocardiographically using V5. For blood sample collection an antecubital vein is catheterized with a system enabling the replacement of the blood volume extracted by means of perfusion with physiological saline solution, and the increasing concentration of hormones in the blood is evaluated. The results obtained, indicate that epinephrine as well as GH hormones increase significatively from 20 min of exercise in runners promoting changes from carbohydrates to lipids as fuels to carry out exercise. The concomitant variations in energy substrates support the former hypothesis of work. Moreover, the muscle could employ acetylCoA originating from acetoacetate as an alternative metabolic source of fuel during maximum effort.

  4. Novel biological and clinical aspects of thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Refetoff, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone (TH) and availability of the active hormone T3 is regulated by three selenoprotein iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). D1 and D2 convert the precursor T4 into the active hormone, T3. D3 is the principal inactivator of T4 and T3 to their respective metabolites, rT3 and T2. While acquired changes in D activities are common, inherited defects in humans were not known. Recently, two families with abnormal thyroid function tests, high serum T4, high rT3, low T3 and slightly increased TSH, were identified. Linkage analysis and sequencing excluded abnormalities in all 3 DIO genes, yet clinical studies showed reduced responsiveness to T4 but not to T3. Extensive search for putative defects in genes involved in D2 metabolism led to the identification of mutations in the Sec insertion sequence binding protein (SBP)2 gene, involved in the synthesis of selenoproteins, including Ds. Affected children were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for these mutations. Other selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidase, were also reduced in affected subjects, confirming a generalized effect of the SBP2 defect. Opposite thyroid test abnormalities are found in mutations of the TH transporter MCT8, and appear to be caused by the resulting increases in D2 and D1 activities.

  5. Chronic exposure to pentachlorophenol alters thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone pathway mRNAs in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Qin; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Feng, Min; Wen, Wu; Li, Kun; Zhang, Pan-Wei; Peng, Xi; Huo, Wei-Jie; Zhou, Huai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is frequently detected in the aquatic environment and has been implicated as an endocrine disruptor in fish. In the present study, 4-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 1 of 4 concentrations of PCP (0.1, 1, 9, and 27 µg/L) for 70 d. The effects of PCP exposure on plasma thyroid hormone levels, and the expression levels of selected genes, were measured in the brain and liver. The PCP exposure at 27 µg/L resulted in elevated plasma thyroxine concentrations in male and female zebrafish and depressed 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine concentrations in males only. In both sexes, PCP exposure resulted in decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (tshβ) and thyroid hormone receptor β (trβ) in the brain, as well as increased liver levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (ugt1ab) and decreased deiodinase 1 (dio1). The authors also identified several sex-specific effects of PCP exposure, including changes in mRNA levels for deiodinase 2 (dio2), cytosolic sulfotransferase (sult1 st5), and transthyretin (ttr) genes in the liver. Environmental PCP exposure also caused an increased malformation rate in offspring that received maternal exposure to PCP. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to environmental levels of PCP alters plasma thyroid hormone levels, as well as the expression of genes associated with thyroid hormone signaling and metabolism in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and liver, resulting in abnormal zebrafish development.

  6. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  7. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12-dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR-nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage.

  8. Hormonal and metabolic changes in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Mayor, F; Cuezva, J M

    1985-01-01

    A review of some hormonal and metabolic changes occurring during the four stages of the perinatal period is presented. Glucocorticoids and insulin are the hormones that mediate liver glycogen accumulation during late fetal stage. In the presuckling period, muscle glycogenolysis supplies the lactate moieties that are oxidized by the neonatal tissues, representing the alternative substrate until glucose and ketone bodies become available. The postnatal increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations and the decrease in the insulin/glucagon ratio triggers liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and hence postnatal hypoglycemia is reversed. In the suckling period, the oxidation of fatty acids, ketone bodies utilization and active gluconeogenesis supply the bulk of the energy and carbon components required to support the rapid growth rate of this period. The increase in the insulin/glucagon ratio that occurs with the change to a carbohydrate-rich diet starts the induction of lipogenesis at weaning.

  9. Metabolic clearance rate of radioiodinated human growth hormone in man

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Donald P.; Burger, Henry G.; Catt, Kevin J.; Doig, Alison

    1969-01-01

    The nature of the disappearance of radioiodinated human growth hormone (HGH) from plasma has been reexamined. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) was determined both from single injection and constant infusion studies. After single injection of highly purified radioiodinated HGH, the disappearance curve remained multiexponential during the period of study (4 hr). The shape of the curve was independent of the growth hormone preparation used. Similar disappearance curves were obtained with unlabeled HGH. MCR values calculated from constant infusion studies were 203 ±7.8 liters/day per m2 and values derived from single injection studies agreed closely with this. The multiexponential nature of the disappearance curve does not permit meaningful calculation of volume of distribution or half-time of disappearance. PMID:5822572

  10. Data-Driven Metabolic Pathway Compositions Enhance Cancer Survival Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Noam; Wagner, Allon; Oberhardt, Matthew; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular metabolism is an important characteristic and driver of cancer. Surprisingly, however, we find here that aggregating individual gene expression using canonical metabolic pathways fails to enhance the classification of noncancerous vs. cancerous tissues and the prediction of cancer patient survival. This supports the notion that metabolic alterations in cancer rewire cellular metabolism through unconventional pathways. Here we present MCF (Metabolic classifier and feature generator), which incorporates gene expression measurements into a human metabolic network to infer new cancer-mediated pathway compositions that enhance cancer vs. adjacent noncancerous tissue classification across five different cancer types. MCF outperforms standard classifiers based on individual gene expression and on canonical human curated metabolic pathways. It successfully builds robust classifiers integrating different datasets of the same cancer type. Reassuringly, the MCF pathways identified lead to metabolites known to be associated with the pertaining specific cancer types. Aggregating gene expression through MCF pathways leads to markedly better predictions of breast cancer patients’ survival in an independent cohort than using the canonical human metabolic pathways (C-index = 0.69 vs. 0.52, respectively). Notably, the survival predictive power of individual MCF pathways strongly correlates with their power in predicting cancer vs. noncancerous samples. The more predictive composite pathways identified via MCF are hence more likely to capture key metabolic alterations occurring in cancer than the canonical pathways characterizing healthy human metabolism. PMID:27673682

  11. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways for the cattle genome.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seongwon; Lewin, Harris A

    2009-03-12

    Metabolic reconstruction of microbial, plant and animal genomes is a necessary step toward understanding the evolutionary origins of metabolism and species-specific adaptive traits. The aims of this study were to reconstruct conserved metabolic pathways in the cattle genome and to identify metabolic pathways with missing genes and proteins. The MetaCyc database and PathwayTools software suite were chosen for this work because they are widely used and easy to implement. An amalgamated cattle genome database was created using the NCBI and Ensembl cattle genome databases (based on build 3.1) as data sources. PathwayTools was used to create a cattle-specific pathway genome database, which was followed by comprehensive manual curation for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The curated database, CattleCyc 1.0, consists of 217 metabolic pathways. A total of 64 mammalian-specific metabolic pathways were modified from the reference pathways in MetaCyc, and two pathways previously identified but missing from MetaCyc were added. Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways revealed the absence of mammalian genes for 22 metabolic enzymes whose activity was reported in the literature. We also identified six human metabolic protein-coding genes for which the cattle ortholog is missing from the sequence assembly. CattleCyc is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of ruminants and other cetartiodactyl species. In addition, the approach used to develop CattleCyc provides a framework for the metabolic reconstruction of other newly sequenced mammalian genomes. It is clear that metabolic pathway analysis strongly reflects the quality of the underlying genome annotations. Thus, having well-annotated genomes from many mammalian species hosted in BioCyc will facilitate the comparative analysis of metabolic pathways among different species and a systems approach to comparative physiology.

  12. Library of Apicomplexan Metabolic Pathways: a manually curated database for metabolic pathways of apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundram, Achchuthan; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Vasieva, Olga; Jones, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The Library of Apicomplexan Metabolic Pathways (LAMP, http://www.llamp.net) is a web database that provides near complete mapping from genes to the central metabolic functions for some of the prominent intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. This phylum includes the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and theileriosis—diseases with a huge economic and social impact. A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced, but the accurate annotation of gene function remains challenging. We have adopted an approach called metabolic reconstruction, in which genes are systematically assigned to functions within pathways/networks for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Cryptosporidium and Theileria species, and Babesia bovis. Several functions missing from pathways have been identified, where the corresponding gene for an essential process appears to be absent from the current genome annotation. For each species, LAMP contains interactive diagrams of each pathway, hyperlinked to external resources and annotated with detailed information, including the sources of evidence used. We have also developed a section to highlight the overall metabolic capabilities of each species, such as the ability to synthesize or the dependence on the host for a particular metabolite. We expect this new database will become a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research on the Apicomplexa. PMID:23193253

  13. Pro-protein convertases in intermediary metabolism: islet hormones, brain/gut hormones and integrated physiology.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    Many peptide hormones implicated in the regulation of intermediary metabolism arise from larger precursors called prohormones. These precursors are cut into pieces by proprotein convertases, more precisely those called prohormone convertases (PCs) that cleave at the C terminus of basic doublets. The remaining basic amino acids are eliminated by a specialized carboxypeptidase, leading to the active hormone. This processing may provide, from a single precursor, several peptides with different biological activities depending on the site(s) of cleavage on the precursor. When the processing is tissue-specific, this mechanism allows to produce, from a single protein, different sets of hormones depending on the tissue considered, leading to novel regulatory processes. The archetype of such a pluripotent prohormone in the field of intermediary metabolism is pro-glucagon that, when cut by PC1 in intestinal L cells, produces four different peptides with different specificities [glicentin, oxyntomodulin (OXM), glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-like peptide-2], whereas, when cut by PC2 in the alpha cells of the endocrine pancreas, glucagon is produced and, through the supplementary action of NRD convertase, a fragment of glucagon (miniglucagon) with original properties.

  14. Metabolic pathways in immune cell activation and quiescence.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Erika L; Pearce, Edward J

    2013-04-18

    Studies of immune system metabolism ("immunometabolism") segregate along two paths. The first investigates the effects of immune cells on organs that regulate whole-body metabolism, such as adipose tissue and liver. The second explores the role of metabolic pathways within immune cells and how this regulates immune response outcome. Distinct metabolic pathways diverge and converge at many levels, and, therefore, cells face choices as to how to achieve their metabolic goals. There is interest in fully understanding how and why immune cells commit to particular metabolic fates and in elucidating the immunologic consequences of reaching a metabolic endpoint by one pathway versus another. This is particularly intriguing, given that metabolic commitment is influenced not only by substrate availability but also by signaling pathways elicited by metabolites. Thus, metabolic choices in cells enforce fate and function, and this area will be the subject of this review.

  15. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  16. Plant responses to insect herbivory: interactions between photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species and hormonal signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    Under herbivore attack plants mount a defence response characterized by the accumulation of secondary metabolites and inhibitory proteins. Significant changes are observed in the transcriptional profiles of genes encoding enzymes of primary metabolism. Such changes have often been interpreted in terms of a requirement for an increased investment of resources to 'fuel' the synthesis of secondary metabolites. While enhanced secondary metabolism undoubtedly exerts an influence on primary metabolism, accumulating evidence suggests that rather than stimulating photosynthesis insect herbivory reduces photosynthetic carbon fixation and this response occurs by a re-programming of gene expression. Within this context, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reductant/oxidant (redox) signalling play a central role. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS signalling pathways are closely interwoven with hormone-signalling pathways in plant-insect interactions. Here we consider how insect infestation impacts on the stress signalling network through effects on ROS and cellular redox metabolism with particular emphasis on the roles of ROS in the plant responses to phloem-feeding insects.

  17. Melatonin regulates aging and neurodegeneration through energy metabolism, epigenetics, autophagy and circadian rhythm pathways.

    PubMed

    Jenwitheesuk, Anorut; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Mukda, Sujira; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2014-09-22

    Brain aging is linked to certain types of neurodegenerative diseases and identifying new therapeutic targets has become critical. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, associates with molecules and signaling pathways that sense and influence energy metabolism, autophagy, and circadian rhythms, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Forkhead box O (FoxOs), sirtuins and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current understanding of how melatonin, together with molecular, cellular and systemic energy metabolisms, regulates epigenetic processes in the neurons. This information will lead to a greater understanding of molecular epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase lifespan under healthy conditions.

  18. Regulatory Cross-Talks and Cascades in Rice Hormone Biosynthesis Pathways Contribute to Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Arindam; Grewal, Rumdeep K.; Kundu, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus, independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each others production directly. Thus, multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones. PMID:27617021

  19. Metabolic pathway visualization in living yeast by DNP-NMR.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sebastian; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille R; Lerche, Mathilde H; Duus, Jens Ø

    2011-10-01

    Central carbon metabolism of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae is visualized by DNP-NMR. Experiments are conducted as real time assays that detect metabolic bottlenecks, pathway use, reversibility of reactions and reaction mechanisms in vivo with subsecond time resolution.

  20. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23401689

  1. Applied evolutionary theories for engineering of secondary metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Brian O

    2016-12-01

    An expanded definition of 'secondary metabolism' is emerging. Once the exclusive provenance of naturally occurring organisms, evolved over geological time scales, secondary metabolism increasingly encompasses molecules generated via human engineered biocatalysts and biosynthetic pathways. Many of the tools and strategies for enzyme and pathway engineering can find origins in evolutionary theories. This perspective presents an overview of selected proposed evolutionary strategies in the context of engineering secondary metabolism. In addition to the wealth of biocatalysts provided via secondary metabolic pathways, improving the understanding of biosynthetic pathway evolution will provide rich resources for methods to adapt to applied laboratory evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Cheng-Chen; He, Jin; Zhang, Qing-Ye; Yu, Zi-Niu

    2011-10-01

    A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hotspot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. anthracis,,6 strain of B. thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides a new way to study and use food toxin, anthrax toxin, and insecticidal toxin of these strains in future.

  3. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-06-27

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  4. M-path: a compass for navigating potential metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Araki, Michihiro; Cox, Robert Sidney; Makiguchi, Hiroki; Ogawa, Teppei; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Miyaoku, Kohei; Nakatsui, Masahiko; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-15

    Construction of synthetic metabolic pathways promises sustainable production of diverse chemicals and materials. To design synthetic metabolic pathways of high value, computational methods are needed to expand present knowledge by mining comprehensive chemical and enzymatic information databases. Several computational methods have been already reported for the metabolic pathway design, but until now computation complexity has limited the diversity of chemical and enzymatic data used. We introduce a computational platform, M-path, to explore synthetic metabolic pathways including putative enzymatic reactions and compounds. M-path is an iterative random algorithm, which makes efficient use of chemical and enzymatic databases to find potential synthetic metabolic pathways. M-path can readily control the search space and perform well compared with exhaustively enumerating possible pathways. A web-based pathway viewer is also developed to check extensive metabolic pathways with evaluation scores on the basis of chemical similarities. We further produce extensive synthetic metabolic pathways for a comprehensive set of alpha amino acids. The scalable nature of M-path enables us to calculate potential metabolic pathways for any given chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Updating and curating metabolic pathways of TB.

    PubMed

    Slayden, Richard A; Jackson, Mary; Zucker, Jeremy; Ramirez, Melissa V; Dawson, Clinton C; Crew, Rebecca; Sampson, Nicole S; Thomas, Suzanne T; Jamshidi, Neema; Sisk, Peter; Caspi, Ron; Crick, Dean C; McNeil, Michael R; Pavelka, Martin S; Niederweis, Michael; Siroy, Axel; Dona, Valentina; McFadden, Johnjoe; Boshoff, Helena; Lew, Jocelyne M

    2013-01-01

    The sequencing of complete genomes has accelerated biomedical research by providing information about the overall coding capacity of bacterial chromosomes. The original TB annotation resulted in putative functional assignment of ∼60% of the genes to specific metabolic functions, however, the other 40% of the encoded ORFs where annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins, hypothetical proteins or encoding proteins of unknown function. The TB research community is now at the beginning of the next phases of post-genomics; namely reannotation and functional characterization by targeted experimentation. Arguably, this is the most significant time for basic microbiology in recent history. To foster basic TB research, the Tuberculosis Community Annotation Project (TBCAP) jamboree exercise began the reannotation effort by providing additional information for previous annotations, and refining and substantiating the functional assignment of ORFs and genes within metabolic pathways. The overall goal of the TBCAP 2012 exercise was to gather and compile various data types and use this information with oversight from the scientific community to provide additional information to support the functional annotations of encoding genes. Another objective of this effort was to standardize the publicly accessible Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference sequence and its annotation. The greatest benefit of functional annotation information of genome sequence is that it fuels TB research for drug discovery, diagnostics, vaccine development and epidemiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variations in metabolic pathways create challenges for automated metabolic reconstructions: Examples from the tetrahydrofolate synthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The availability of thousands of sequenced genomes has revealed the diversity of biochemical solutions to similar chemical problems. Even for molecules at the heart of metabolism, such as cofactors, the pathway enzymes first discovered in model organisms like Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae are often not universally conserved. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) (or its close relative tetrahydromethanopterin) is a universal and essential C1-carrier that most microbes and plants synthesize de novo. The THF biosynthesis pathway and enzymes are, however, not universal and alternate solutions are found for most steps, making this pathway a challenge to annotate automatically in many genomes. Comparing THF pathway reconstructions and functional annotations of a chosen set of folate synthesis genes in specific prokaryotes revealed the strengths and weaknesses of different microbial annotation platforms. This analysis revealed that most current platforms fail in metabolic reconstruction of variant pathways. However, all the pieces are in place to quickly correct these deficiencies if the different databases were built on each other's strengths. PMID:25210598

  7. CREB controls hepatic lipid metabolism through nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma.

    PubMed

    Herzig, Stephan; Hedrick, Susan; Morantte, Ianessa; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Galimi, Francesco; Montminy, Marc

    2003-11-13

    Fasting triggers a series of hormonal cues that promote energy balance by inducing glucose output and lipid breakdown in the liver. In response to pancreatic glucagon and adrenal cortisol, the cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB activates gluconeogenic and fatty acid oxidation programmes by stimulating expression of the nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1 (refs 2-5). In parallel, fasting also suppresses lipid storage and synthesis (lipogenic) pathways, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that mice deficient in CREB activity have a fatty liver phenotype and display elevated expression of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma, a key regulator of lipogenic genes. CREB inhibits hepatic PPAR-gamma expression in the fasted state by stimulating the expression of the Hairy Enhancer of Split (HES-1) gene, a transcriptional repressor that is shown here to be a mediator of fasting lipid metabolism in vivo. The coordinate induction of PGC-1 and repression of PPAR-gamma by CREB during fasting provides a molecular rationale for the antagonism between insulin and counter-regulatory hormones, and indicates a potential role for CREB antagonists as therapeutic agents in enhancing insulin sensitivity in the liver.

  8. REGULATION OF APPETITE, BODY COMPOSITION AND METABOLIC HORMONES BY VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE (VIP)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, John; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Li-Jung, Liang; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph; Germano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68% homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken, and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety together with feeding behavior, metabolic hormone release, body mass composition and energy balance. Aims To elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones and body mass composition. Methods VIP deficient (VIP −/−) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. Results The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP−/− mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP−/− mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. Conclusions Our data show that endogenous VIP is involved in the

  9. The Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones in Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mells, Jamie Eugene; Anania, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the form of triglycerides constitutes the metabolic basis for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent data demonstrate that excess FFA hepatocyte storage is likely to lead to lipotoxicity and hepatocyte apoptosis. Hence, FFA-mediated hepatocyte injury is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and other common medical problems together comprise metabolic syndrome. Evidence suggests that peptide hormones from the L cells of the distal small intestine, which comprise the core of the enteroendocrine system (EES), play two key roles, serving either as incretins, or as mediators of appetite and satiety in the central nervous system. Recent data related to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other known L-cell hormones have accumulated due to the increasing frequency of bariatric surgery, which increase delivery of bile salts to the hindgut. Bile acids are a key stimulus for the TGR5 receptor of the L cells. Enhanced bile-salt flow and subsequent EES stimulation may be central to elimination of hepatic steatosis following bariatric surgery. Although GLP-1 is a clinically relevant pharmacological analogue that drives pancreatic β-cell insulin output, GLP-1 analogues also have independent benefits via their effects on hepatocellular FFA metabolism. The authors also discuss recent data regarding the role of the major peptides released by the EES, which promote satiety and modulate energy homeostasis and utilization, as well as those that control fat absorption and intestinal permeability. Taken together, elucidating novel functions for EES-related peptides and pharmacologic development of peptide analogues offer potential far-ranging treatment for obesity-related human disease. PMID:24222092

  10. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Modulates Adipose Metabolism Through PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Yu, Zaixin; Patel, Shailja; Jue, Dyron; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2010-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is rate-limiting for diacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in adipose tissue and essential for complete hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Gene expression profiling in HSL−/− mice suggests that HSL is important for modulating adipogenesis and adipose metabolism. To test whether HSL is required for the supply of intrinsic ligands for PPARγ for normal adipose differentiation, HSL−/− and wild type (WT) littermates were fed normal chow (NC) and high fat (HF) diets supplemented with or without rosiglitazone (200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. Results show that supplementing rosiglitazone to a NC diet completely normalized the decreased body weight and adipose depots in HSL−/− mice. Additionally, rosiglitazone resulted in similar serum glucose, total cholesterol, FFA and adiponectin values in WT and HSL−/− mice. Furthermore, rosiglitazone normalized the expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and metabolism, and cholesteryl ester homeostasis, in HSL−/− mice. Supplementing rosiglitazone to a HF diet resulted in improved glucose tolerance in both WT and HSL−/− animals and also partial normalization in HSL−/− mice of abnormal WAT gene expression, serum chemistries, organ and body weight changes. In vitro studies showed that adipocytes from WT animals can provide ligands for activation of PPARγ, and that activation is further boosted following lipolytic stimulation; whereas adipocytes from HSL−/− mice displayed attenuated activation of PPARγ, with no change following lipolytic stimulation. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which HSL modulates adipose metabolism is by providing intrinsic ligands or pro-ligands for PPARγ. PMID:20950707

  11. Minimal metabolic pathway structure is consistent with associated biomolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Aarash; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E; Latif, Haythem; Ebrahim, Ali; Federowicz, Stephen; Schellenberger, Jan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-01-01

    Pathways are a universal paradigm for functionally describing cellular processes. Even though advances in high-throughput data generation have transformed biology, the core of our biological understanding, and hence data interpretation, is still predicated on human-defined pathways. Here, we introduce an unbiased, pathway structure for genome-scale metabolic networks defined based on principles of parsimony that do not mimic canonical human-defined textbook pathways. Instead, these minimal pathways better describe multiple independent pathway-associated biomolecular interaction datasets suggesting a functional organization for metabolism based on parsimonious use of cellular components. We use the inherent predictive capability of these pathways to experimentally discover novel transcriptional regulatory interactions in Escherichia coli metabolism for three transcription factors, effectively doubling the known regulatory roles for Nac and MntR. This study suggests an underlying and fundamental principle in the evolutionary selection of pathway structures; namely, that pathways may be minimal, independent, and segregated. PMID:24987116

  12. Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator: role in hormone action, metabolism, growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2005-06-01

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC) (also referred to as activating signal cointegrator-2, thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-interacting protein, and 250-kDa receptor associated protein) belongs to a growing class of nuclear cofactors widely known as coregulators or coactivators that are necessary for transcriptional activation of target genes. The NRC gene is also amplified and overexpressed in breast, colon, and lung cancers. NRC is a 2063-amino acid protein that harbors a potent N-terminal activation domain (AD1) and a second more centrally located activation domain (AD2) that is rich in Glu and Pro. Near AD2 is a receptor-interacting domain containing an LxxLL motif (LxxLL-1), which interacts with a wide variety of ligand-bound nuclear hormone receptors with high affinity. A second LxxLL motif (LxxLL-2) located in the C-terminal region of NRC is more restricted in its nuclear hormone receptor specificity. The intrinsic activation potential of NRC is regulated by a C-terminal serine, threonine, leucine-regulatory domain. The potential role of NRC as a cointegrator is suggested by its ability to enhance transcriptional activation of a wide variety of transcription factors and from its in vivo association with a number of known transcriptional regulators including CBP/p300. Recent studies in mice indicate that deletion of both NRC alleles leads to embryonic lethality resulting from general growth retardation coupled with developmental defects in the heart, liver, brain, and placenta. NRC(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts spontaneously undergo apoptosis, indicating the importance of NRC as a prosurvival and antiapoptotic gene. Studies with 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice indicate that NRC is a pleiotropic regulator that is involved in growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and wound healing.

  13. The metabolic effects of growth hormone in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Júnior, Fernando Mesquita; Bertolini, Gisele Lopes

    2013-10-01

    There is a general consensus that a reduction in growth hormone (GH) secretion results in obesity. However, the pathophysiologic role of GH in the metabolism of lipids is yet to be fully understood. The major somatic targets of GH are bones and muscles, but GH stimulates lipolysis and seems to regulate lipid deposition in adipose tissue. Patients with isolated GH deficiency (GHD) have enlarged fat depots due to higher fat cell volume, but their fat cell numbers are lower than those of matched controls. The treatment of patients with GH results in a relative loss of body fat and shifts both fat cell number and fat cell volume toward normal, indicating an adipogenic effect of GH. Adults with GHD are characterized by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile, and bone mineral density. It is well established that GHD is usually accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation; GH replacement in GHD results in the reduction of fat mass, particularly abdominal fat mass. In addition, abdominal obesity results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion that is reversible with weight loss. However, whereas GH replacement in patients with GHD leads to specific depletion of intra-abdominal fat, administering GH to obese individuals does not seem to result in a consistent reduction or redistribution of body fat. Although administering GH to obese non-GHD subjects has only led to equivocal results, more recent studies indicate that GH still remains a plausible metabolic candidate.

  14. Glucose metabolic gene expression in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Fournier, Jeanne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonids are generally known to be glucose intolerant. However, previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon display modified nutritional regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis compared to non-transgenic fish, suggesting the potential for better use of glucose in GH transgenic fish. To examine this in detail, GH transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon were subjected to glucose tolerance test and subsequent metabolic assessments. After intra-peritoneal injection of 250mg/kg glucose, we analysed post-injection kinetics of glycaemia and expression of several key target genes highly involved in glucose homeostasis in muscle and liver tissues. Our data show no significant differences in plasma glucose levels during peak hyperglycaemia (3-6h after injection), demonstrating a similar glucose tolerance between transgenic and non transgenic. However, and unrelated to the hyperglycaemic episode, GH transgenic fish return to a slightly lower basal glycaemia values 24h after injection. Correspondingly, GH transgenic fish exhibited higher mRNA levels of glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in liver, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) in muscle. These data suggest that these metabolic actors may be involved in different glucose use in GH transgenic fish, which would be expected to influence the glucose challenge response. Overall, our data demonstrate that GH transgenic coho salmon may be a pertinent animal model for further study of glucose metabolism in carnivorous fish.

  15. [Genes in the cAMP pathway causing skeletal dysplasia with or without hormonal resistance].

    PubMed

    Silve, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Acrodysostosis refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gsa, as observed in PHP1a. Defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR-Gsa-cAMP-PKA signaling, were recently identified in patients affected with acrodysostosis. This has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: acrodysostosis type 1 due to PRKAR1A defects, and acrodysostosis type 2, due to PDE4D defects. The existence of hormone resistance is typical of the acrodysostosis type 1 syndrome. We discuss here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, in particular in regard to phenotypically related diseases caused by Gsa gene defects in the same signaling pathway. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  16. Production of bulk chemicals via novel metabolic pathways in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Dong In; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has been playing important roles in developing high performance microorganisms capable of producing various chemicals and materials from renewable biomass in a sustainable manner. Synthetic and systems biology are also contributing significantly to the creation of novel pathways and the whole cell-wide optimization of metabolic performance, respectively. In order to expand the spectrum of chemicals that can be produced biotechnologically, it is necessary to broaden the metabolic capacities of microorganisms. Expanding the metabolic pathways for biosynthesizing the target chemicals requires not only the enumeration of a series of known enzymes, but also the identification of biochemical gaps whose corresponding enzymes might not actually exist in nature; this issue is the focus of this paper. First, pathway prediction tools, effectively combining reactions that lead to the production of a target chemical, are analyzed in terms of logics representing chemical information, and designing and ranking the proposed metabolic pathways. Then, several approaches for potentially filling in the gaps of the novel metabolic pathway are suggested along with relevant examples, including the use of promiscuous enzymes that flexibly utilize different substrates, design of novel enzymes for non-natural reactions, and exploration of hypothetical proteins. Finally, strain optimization by systems metabolic engineering in the context of novel metabolic pathways constructed is briefly described. It is hoped that this review paper will provide logical ways of efficiently utilizing 'big' biological data to design and develop novel metabolic pathways for the production of various bulk chemicals that are currently produced from fossil resources.

  17. Metabolic Pathways Visualization Skills Development by Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Vanessa J. S. V.; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a metabolic pathways visualization skill test (MPVST) to gain greater insight into our students' abilities to comprehend the visual information presented in metabolic pathways diagrams. The test is able to discriminate students' visualization ability with respect to six specific visualization skills that we identified as key to…

  18. Metabolic Pathways Visualization Skills Development by Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Vanessa J. S. V.; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a metabolic pathways visualization skill test (MPVST) to gain greater insight into our students' abilities to comprehend the visual information presented in metabolic pathways diagrams. The test is able to discriminate students' visualization ability with respect to six specific visualization skills that we identified as key to…

  19. Role of hormones in cartilage and joint metabolism: understanding an unhealthy metabolic phenotype in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Slagboom, Eline; Chen-An, Pingping; Alexandersen, Peter; Qvist, Per; Christiansen, Claus; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Karsdal, Morten A

    2013-05-01

    Joint health is affected by local and systemic hormones. It is well accepted that systemic factors regulate the metabolism of joint tissues, and that substantial cross-talk between tissues actively contributes to homeostasis. In the current review, we try to define a subtype of osteoarthritis (OA), metabolic OA, which is dependent on an unhealthy phenotype. Peer-reviewed research articles and reviews were reviewed and summarized. Only literature readily available online, either by download or by purchase order, was included. OA is the most common joint disease and is more common in women after menopause. OA is a disease that affects the whole joint, including cartilage, subchondral bone, synovium, tendons, and muscles. The clinical endpoints of OA are pain and joint space narrowing, which is characterized by cartilage erosion and subchondral sclerosis, suggesting that cartilage is a central tissue of joint health. Thus, the joint, more specifically the cartilage, may be considered a target of endocrine function in addition to the well-described traditional risk factors of disease initiation and progression such as long-term loading of the joint due to obesity. Metabolic syndrome affects a range of tissues and may in part be molecularly described as a dysregulation of cytokines, adipokines, and hormones (e.g., estrogen and thyroid hormone). Consequently, metabolic imbalance may both directly and indirectly influence joint health and cartilage turnover, altering the progression of diseases such as OA. There is substantial evidence for a connection between metabolic health and development of OA. We propose that more focus be directed to understanding this connection to improve the management of menopausal health and associated comorbidities.

  20. Oxygen and the evolution of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    While a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated about the history of oxygen on this planet, little is known about the relative amounts to which primitive cells might have been exposed. One clue may be found in the metabolic pathways of extant microorganisms. While eucaryotes are principally aerobic organisms, a number are capable of anaerobic growth by fermentation. One such eucaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, will grow in the complete absence of oxygen when supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. Oxygen-requiring enzymes are involved in the synthesis of both of these compounds. Studies have demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of palmitic acid and the conversion of squalene to sterols occur in the range of 10-(3) to 10(-2) PAL. Thus, if the oxygen requirements of these enzymatic processes are an indication, eucaryotes might be more primitive than anticipated from the microfossil record. Results of studies on the oxygen requirements for sterol and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a more primitive procaryotic system are also discussed.

  1. Oxygen and the evolution of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    While a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated about the history of oxygen on this planet, little is known about the relative amounts to which primitive cells might have been exposed. One clue may be found in the metabolic pathways of extant microorganisms. While eucaryotes are principally aerobic organisms, a number are capable of anaerobic growth by fermentation. One such eucaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, will grow in the complete absence of oxygen when supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. Oxygen-requiring enzymes are involved in the synthesis of both of these compounds. Studies have demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of palmitic acid and the conversion of squalene to sterols occur in the range of 10-(3) to 10(-2) PAL. Thus, if the oxygen requirements of these enzymatic processes are an indication, eucaryotes might be more primitive than anticipated from the microfossil record. Results of studies on the oxygen requirements for sterol and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a more primitive procaryotic system are also discussed.

  2. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  3. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S.; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or “foraging gene” Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg–JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders. PMID

  4. The hormonal pathway to cognitive impairment in older men.

    PubMed

    Maggio, M; Dall'Aglio, E; Lauretani, F; Cattabiani, C; Ceresini, G; Caffarra, P; Valenti, G; Volpi, R; Vignali, A; Schiavi, G; Ceda, G P

    2012-01-01

    In older men there is a multiple hormonal dysregulation with a relative prevalence of catabolic hormones such as thyroid hormones and cortisol and a decline in anabolic hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor 1 levels. Many studies suggest that this catabolic milieu is an important predictor of frailty and mortality in older persons. There is a close relationship between frailty and cognitive impairment with studies suggesting that development of frailty is consequence of cognitive impairment and others pointing out that physical frailty is a determinant of cognitive decline. Decline in cognitive function, typically memory, is a major symptom of dementia. The "preclinical phase" of cognitive impairment occurs many years before the onset of dementia. The identification of relevant modifiable factors, including the hormonal dysregulation, may lead to therapeutic strategies for preventing the cognitive dysfunction. There are several mechanisms by which anabolic hormones play a role in neuroprotection and neuromodulation. These hormones facilitate recovery after brain injury and attenuate the neuronal loss. In contrast, elevated thyroid hormones may increase oxidative stress and apoptosis, leading to neuronal damage or death. In this mini review we will address the relationship between low levels of anabolic hormones, changes in thyroid hormones and cognitive function in older men. Then, giving the contradictory data of the literature and the multi-factorial origin of dementia, we will introduce the hypothesis of multiple hormonal derangement as a better determinant of cognitive decline in older men.

  5. JNK pathway decreases thyroid hormones via TRH receptor: a novel mechanism for disturbance of thyroid hormone homeostasis by PCB153.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiang; Ha, Mei; Cui, Yushan; Wang, Chengmin; Yan, Maosheng; Fu, Wenjuan; Quan, Chao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Kedi

    2012-12-08

    PCBs, widespread and well-characterized endocrine disruptors, cause the disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. In order to verify the hypotheses that MAPK pathways would play roles in disturbance of TH levels caused by PCBs, and that TH-associated receptors could function in certain MAPK pathway, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0, 4, 16 and 32mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 30min. Results showed that after the treatment with PCB153, serum total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were decreased, whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were not altered. In vivo and in vitro studies indicated that JNK pathway was activated after PCB153 exposure. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was suppressed after the activation of JNK pathway and was elevated after the inhibition of JNK pathway, but TSH receptor (TSHr) level was not affected by the status of JNK pathway though it was reduced after PCB153 treatment. The activated signs of ERK and P38 pathways were not observed in this study. Taken together, observed effects suggested that JNK pathway could decrease TH levels via TRHr, and that would be one novel mechanism of PCB153-mediated disruption of THs.

  6. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Peter D.

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  7. Activation of the nuclear receptor LXR by oxysterols defines a new hormone response pathway.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J M; Kliewer, S A; Moore, L B; Smith-Oliver, T A; Oliver, B B; Su, J L; Sundseth, S S; Winegar, D A; Blanchard, D E; Spencer, T A; Willson, T M

    1997-02-07

    Accumulation of cholesterol causes both repression of genes controlling cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular uptake and induction of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which leads to the removal of cholesterol by increased metabolism to bile acids. Here, we report that LXRalpha and LXRbeta, two orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are activated by 24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol at physiologic concentrations. In addition, we have identified an LXR response element in the promoter region of the rat cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene. Our data provide evidence for a new hormonal signaling pathway that activates transcription in response to oxysterols and suggest that LXRs play a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

  8. Customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Si, Tong; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-10-01

    A major challenge in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology is to balance the flux of an engineered heterologous metabolic pathway to achieve high yield and productivity in a target organism. Here, we report a simple, efficient and programmable approach named 'customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering (COMPACTER)' for rapid tuning of gene expression in a heterologous pathway under distinct metabolic backgrounds. Specifically, a library of mutant pathways is created by de novo assembly of promoter mutants of varying strengths for each pathway gene in a target organism followed by high-throughput screening/selection. To demonstrate this approach, a single round of COMPACTER was used to generate both a xylose utilizing pathway with near-highest efficiency and a cellobiose utilizing pathway with highest efficiency that were ever reported in literature for both laboratory and industrial yeast strains. Interestingly, these engineered xylose and cellobiose utilizing pathways were all host-specific. Therefore, COMPACTER represents a powerful approach to tailor-make metabolic pathways for different strain backgrounds, which is difficult if not impossible to achieve by existing pathway engineering methods.

  9. Customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Si, Tong; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology is to balance the flux of an engineered heterologous metabolic pathway to achieve high yield and productivity in a target organism. Here, we report a simple, efficient and programmable approach named ‘customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering (COMPACTER)’ for rapid tuning of gene expression in a heterologous pathway under distinct metabolic backgrounds. Specifically, a library of mutant pathways is created by de novo assembly of promoter mutants of varying strengths for each pathway gene in a target organism followed by high-throughput screening/selection. To demonstrate this approach, a single round of COMPACTER was used to generate both a xylose utilizing pathway with near-highest efficiency and a cellobiose utilizing pathway with highest efficiency that were ever reported in literature for both laboratory and industrial yeast strains. Interestingly, these engineered xylose and cellobiose utilizing pathways were all host-specific. Therefore, COMPACTER represents a powerful approach to tailor-make metabolic pathways for different strain backgrounds, which is difficult if not impossible to achieve by existing pathway engineering methods. PMID:22718979

  10. Metabolic and Hormonal Derangements in Pulmonary Hypertension: From Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Meredith E.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent animal and human studies have highlighted abnormalities in regulation and metabolism of insulin, sex hormones, adipokines, and lipids that may play a role in disease development. Mouse studies suggest features of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, deficiencies in PPARγ and apolipoprotein E, and low adiponectin are linked to development of PAH. In humans, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein have been associated with PAH. In addition, abnormal metabolism of estrogens has been demonstrated in human and animal models of PAH, suggesting an important relationship of sex hormones and pulmonary vascular disease. Improved understanding of how metabolic and hormonal derangements relate to development and progression of pulmonary hypertension may lead to better disease therapies and understanding of potential risk factors. This review will focus on the animal and human data regarding metabolic and sex hormone derangements in PAH. PMID:20939841

  11. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth

    PubMed Central

    Boroughs, Lindsey K.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further. PMID:25774832

  12. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Lindsey K; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2015-04-01

    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further.

  13. Metabolic pathway resources at MaizeGDB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two maize metabolic networks are available at MaizeGDB: MaizeCyc (http://maizecyc.maizegdb.org, also at Gramene) and CornCyc (http://corncyc.maizegdb.org, also at the Plant Metabolic Network). MaizeCyc was developed by Gramene, and CornCyc by the Plant Metabolic Network, both in collaboration with M...

  14. EXPath: a database of comparative expression analysis inferring metabolic pathways for plants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In general, the expression of gene alters conditionally to catalyze a specific metabolic pathway. Microarray-based datasets have been massively produced to monitor gene expression levels in parallel with numerous experimental treatments. Although several studies facilitated the linkage of gene expression data and metabolic pathways, none of them are amassed for plants. Moreover, advanced analysis such as pathways enrichment or how genes express under different conditions is not rendered. Description Therefore, EXPath was developed to not only comprehensively congregate the public microarray expression data from over 1000 samples in biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone secretion but also allow the usage of this abundant resource for coexpression analysis and differentially expression genes (DEGs) identification, finally inferring the enriched KEGG pathways and gene ontology (GO) terms of three model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays. Users can access the gene expression patterns of interest under various conditions via five main functions (Gene Search, Pathway Search, DEGs Search, Pathways/GO Enrichment, and Coexpression analysis) in EXPath, which are presented by a user-friendly interface and valuable for further research. Conclusions In conclusion, EXPath, freely available at http://expath.itps.ncku.edu.tw, is a database resource that collects and utilizes gene expression profiles derived from microarray platforms under various conditions to infer metabolic pathways for plants. PMID:25708775

  15. EXPath: a database of comparative expression analysis inferring metabolic pathways for plants.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Chow, Chi-Nga; Wu, Nai-Yun; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Hou, Ping-Fu; Chang, Wen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    In general, the expression of gene alters conditionally to catalyze a specific metabolic pathway. Microarray-based datasets have been massively produced to monitor gene expression levels in parallel with numerous experimental treatments. Although several studies facilitated the linkage of gene expression data and metabolic pathways, none of them are amassed for plants. Moreover, advanced analysis such as pathways enrichment or how genes express under different conditions is not rendered. Therefore, EXPath was developed to not only comprehensively congregate the public microarray expression data from over 1000 samples in biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone secretion but also allow the usage of this abundant resource for coexpression analysis and differentially expression genes (DEGs) identification, finally inferring the enriched KEGG pathways and gene ontology (GO) terms of three model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays. Users can access the gene expression patterns of interest under various conditions via five main functions (Gene Search, Pathway Search, DEGs Search, Pathways/GO Enrichment, and Coexpression analysis) in EXPath, which are presented by a user-friendly interface and valuable for further research. In conclusion, EXPath, freely available at http://expath.itps.ncku.edu.tw, is a database resource that collects and utilizes gene expression profiles derived from microarray platforms under various conditions to infer metabolic pathways for plants.

  16. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Liang, Li-Jung; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2015-06-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance. The aim of the study was to elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body mass composition. VIP deficient (VIP -/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP-/- mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP-/- mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. VIP plays a key role in the regulation of body phenotype by significantly enhancing body weight and fat

  17. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  18. Mapping human metabolic pathways in the small molecule chemical space.

    PubMed

    Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thornton, Janet M; Nobeli, Irene

    2009-10-01

    The work presented here is a study of human metabolic pathways, as projected in the chemical space of the small molecules they comprise, and it is composed of three parts: a) a study of the extent of clustering and overlap of these pathways in chemical space, b) the development and assessment of a statistical model for estimating the proximity to a given pathway of any small molecule, and c) the use of the above model in estimating the proximity of marketed drugs to human metabolic pathways. The distribution, overlap, and relationships of human metabolic pathways in this space are revealed using both visual and quantitative approaches. A set of selected physicochemical and topological descriptors is used to build a classifier, whose aim is to predict metabolic class and pathway membership of any small molecule. The classifier performs well for tightly clustered, isolated pathways but is, naturally, much less accurate for strongly overlapping pathways. Finally, the extent of overlap of a set of known drugs with the human metabolome is examined, and the classifier is used to predict likely cross-interactions between drugs and the major metabolic pathways in humans.

  19. Epigenetic differences in normal colon mucosa of cancer patients suggests altered dietary metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Silviera, Matthew L.; Smith, Brian P.; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We have compared DNA methylation in normal colon mucosa between colon cancer patients and patients without cancer. We identified significant differences in methylation between the two groups at 114 – 874 genes. The majority of the differences are in pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. We also compared transcript levels of genes in the insulin-signaling pathway. We found that the mucosa of cancer patients had significantly higher transcript levels of several hormones regulating glucose metabolism and significantly lower transcript levels of a glycolytic enzyme and a key regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The se differences suggest that the normal colon mucosa of cancer patients metabolizes dietary components differently than the colon mucosa of controls. Because the differences identified are present in morphologically normal tissue, they may be diagnostic of colon cancer and/or prognostic of colon cancer susceptibility. PMID:22300984

  20. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2013-02-15

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat-rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum bile acids were measured. We found similar basal glucose concentrations in the two groups, whereas cholecystectomized subjects had elevated postprandial glucose excursions. Cholecystectomized subjects had reduced postprandial concentrations of duodenal bile acids, but preserved postprandial plasma GLP-1 responses, compared with control subjects. Also, cholecystectomized patients exhibited augmented fasting glucagon. Basal plasma CCK concentrations were lower and peak concentrations were higher in cholecystectomized patients. The concentrations of GIP, GLP-2, and gastrin were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, cholecystectomized subjects had preserved postprandial GLP-1 responses in spite of decreased duodenal bile delivery, suggesting that gallbladder emptying is not a prerequisite for GLP-1 release. Cholecystectomized patients demonstrated a slight deterioration of postprandial glycemic control, probably because of metabolic changes unrelated to incretin secretion.

  1. Sex steroid hormone metabolism takes place in human ocular cells.

    PubMed

    Coca-Prados, Miguel; Ghosh, Sikha; Wang, Yugang; Escribano, Julio; Herrala, Annakaisa; Vihko, Pirkko

    2003-08-01

    Steroids are potentially important mediators in the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. In this study, we report on the gene expression in the human eye of a group of enzymes, the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs), involved in the biosynthesis and inactivation of sex steroid hormones. In the eye, the ciliary epithelium, a neuroendocrine secretory epithelium, co-expresses the highest levels of 17HSD2 and 5 mRNAs, and in lesser level 17HSD7 mRNA. The regulation of gene expression of these enzymes was investigated in vitro in cell lines, ODM-C4 and chronic open glaucoma (GCE), used as cell models of the human ciliary epithelium. The estrogen, 17beta-estradiol (10(-7) M) and androgen agonist, R1881 (10(-8) M) elicited in ODM-C4 and GCE cells over a 24 h time course a robust up-regulation of 17HSD7 mRNA expression. 17HSD2 was up-regulated by estradiol in ODM-C4 cells, but not in GCE cells. Under steady-state conditions, ODM-C4 cells exhibited a predominant 17HSD2 oxidative enzymatic activity. In contrast, 17HSD2 activity was low or absent in GCE cells. Our collective data suggest that cultured human ciliary epithelial cells are able to metabolize estrogen, androgen and progesterone, and that 17HSD2 and 7 in these cells are sex steroid hormone-responsive genes and 17HSD7 is responsible to keep on intra/paracrine estrogenic milieu.

  2. Synthetic metabolism: engineering biology at the protein and pathway scales.

    PubMed

    Martin, Collin H; Nielsen, David R; Solomon, Kevin V; Prather, Kristala L Jones

    2009-03-27

    Biocatalysis has become a powerful tool for the synthesis of high-value compounds, particularly so in the case of highly functionalized and/or stereoactive products. Nature has supplied thousands of enzymes and assembled them into numerous metabolic pathways. Although these native pathways can be use to produce natural bioproducts, there are many valuable and useful compounds that have no known natural biochemical route. Consequently, there is a need for both unnatural metabolic pathways and novel enzymatic activities upon which these pathways can be built. Here, we review the theoretical and experimental strategies for engineering synthetic metabolic pathways at the protein and pathway scales, and highlight the challenges that this subfield of synthetic biology currently faces.

  3. Changes in the ghrelin hormone pathway maybe part of an unusual gastric system in monotremes.

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank

    2013-09-15

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone (GH)-releasing and appetite-regulating peptide predominately released from the stomach. Ghrelin is evolutionarily highly conserved and known to have a wide range of functions including the regulation of metabolism by maintaining an insulin-glucose balance. The peptide is produced as a single proprotein, which is later proteolytically cleaved. Ghrelin exerts its biological function after O-n-octanoylation at residue serine 3, which is catalyzed by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) and allows binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R 1a). Genes involved in the ghrelin pathway have been identified in a broad range of vertebrate species, however, little is known about this pathway in the basal mammalian lineage of monotremes (platypus and echidna). Monotremes are particularly interesting in this context, as they have undergone massive changes in stomach anatomy and physiology, accompanied by a striking loss of genes involved in gastric function. In this study, we investigated genes in the ghrelin pathway in monotremes. Using degenerate PCR, database searches and synteny analysis we found that genes encoding ghrelin and GOAT are missing in the platypus genome, whilst, as has been reported in other species, the GHSR is present and expressed in brain, pancreas, kidney, intestine, heart and stomach. This is the first report suggesting the loss of ghrelin in a mammal. The loss of this gene may be related to changes to the platypus digestive system and raises questions about the control of blood glucose levels and insulin response in monotreme mammals. In addition, the conservation of the ghrelin receptor gene in platypus indicates that another ligand(s) maybe acting via this receptor in monotremes.

  4. Role of thyroid hormone in postnatal circulatory and metabolic adjustments.

    PubMed Central

    Breall, J A; Rudolph, A M; Heymann, M A

    1984-01-01

    To assess the role of the early postnatal surge in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, we measured cardiac output, total oxygen consumption, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in three groups of lambs in the first 6 h after delivery. 15 fetal lambs were prepared at gestational ages of 128-129 d by placing catheters in the brachiocephalic artery, descending aorta, distal inferior vena cava, left atrium, and pulmonary artery so that measurements could be made soon after delivery. They were divided into three groups: Group I comprised five control animals; Group II consisted of five fetuses in which thyroidectomy was performed at surgery at 129 d gestation; and Group III consisted of five animals in which thyroidectomy was performed at term gestation during delivery by caesarian section, prior to severing the umbilical cord. The lambs in Group I exhibited a rapid postnatal rise in T3 concentrations, similar to that described previously, reaching a peak value of about 5 ng/ml. Although the postnatal surge in T3 concentration was arrested in Group II and III animals, Group II had no detectable plasma T3, while the Group III animals had T3 concentrations of about 0.8 ng/ml, which were within the range previously reported for term lamb fetuses. The lambs in group II showed 40-50% lower left ventricular outputs (190 vs. 297 ml/kg per min), systemic blood flows (155 vs. 286 ml/kg per min), and oxygen consumptions (9.8 vs. 20.2 ml/kg per min) as compared with Group I animals over the entire 6-h period. The lambs in Group II also had significantly lower heart rates (131 vs. 192 beats/min) and mean systemic arterial pressures (56 vs. 72 torr). However, there were no significant differences for any of these measurements between the Group III and Group I lambs. The reduction in cardiac output in the Group II animals were reflected in a significantly lower blood flow to the peripheral circulation, but there were no

  5. Metabolic pathways regulated by p63.

    PubMed

    Candi, Eleonora; Smirnov, Artem; Panatta, Emanuele; Lena, Anna Maria; Novelli, Flavia; Mancini, Mara; Viticchiè, Giuditta; Piro, Maria Cristina; Di Daniele, Nicola; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry

    2017-01-15

    The transcription factor p63 belongs to the p53-family and is a master regulator of proliferative potential, lineage specification, and differentiation in epithelia during development and tissue homeostasis. In cancer, p63 contribution is isoform-specific, with both oncogenic and tumour suppressive roles attributed, for ΔNp63 and TAp63, respectively. Recently, p53 and TAp73, in line with other tumour suppressor genes, have emerged as important regulators of energy metabolism and metabolic reprogramming in cancer. To date, p63 contributions in controlling energy metabolism have been partially investigated; given the extensive interaction of the p53 family members, these studies have potential implications in tumour cells for metabolic reprogramming. Here, we review the role of p63 isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63, in controlling cell metabolism, focusing on their specific metabolic target genes and their physiological/functional context of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The metabolic sensor Sirt1 and the hypothalamus: Interplay between peptide hormones and pro-hormone convertases.

    PubMed

    Nillni, Eduardo A

    2016-12-15

    The last decade had witnessed a tremendous progress in our understanding of the causes of metabolic diseases including obesity. Among the contributing factors regulating energy balance are nutrient sensors such as sirtuins. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a NAD + - dependent deacetylase is affected by diet, environmental stress, and also plays a critical role in metabolic health by deacetylating proteins in many tissues, including liver, muscle, adipose tissue, heart, endothelium, and in the complexity of the hypothalamus. Because of its dependence on NAD+, Sirt1 also functions as a nutrient/redox sensor, and new novel data show a function of this enzyme in the maturation of hypothalamic peptide hormones controlling energy balance either through regulation of specific nuclear transcription factors or by regulating specific pro-hormone convertases (PCs) involved in the post-translational processing of pro-hormones. The post-translational processing mechanism of pro-hormones is critical in the pathogenesis of obesity as recently shown that metabolic and physiological triggers affect the biosynthesis and processing of many peptides hormones. Specific regulation of pro-hormone processing is likely another key step where final amounts of bioactive peptides can be tightly regulated. Different factors stimulate or inhibit pro-hormones biosynthesis in concert with an increase in the PCs involved in the maturation of bioactive hormones. Adding more complexity to the system, the new studies describe here suggest that Sirt1 could also regulate the fate of peptide hormone biosynthesis. The present review summarizes the recent progress in hypothalamic SIRT1 research with a particular emphasis on the tissue-specific control of neuropeptide hormone maturation. The series of studies done in mouse and rat models strongly advocate for the first time that a deacetylating enzyme could be a regulator in the maturation of peptide hormones and their processing enzymes. These discoveries are the

  7. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  8. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristina M; Themanns, Madeleine; Friedbichler, Katrin; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Esterbauer, Harald; Tuckermann, Jan P; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-09-25

    Growth hormone (GH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the control of processes that are essential for the maintenance of vital body functions including energy supply and growth control. GH and GCs have been well characterized to regulate systemic energy homeostasis, particular during certain conditions of physical stress. However, dysfunctional signaling in both pathways is linked to various metabolic disorders associated with aberrant carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In liver, GH-dependent activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 controls a variety of physiologic functions within hepatocytes. Similarly, GCs, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), influence many important liver functions such as gluconeogenesis. Studies in hepatic Stat5 or GR knockout mice have revealed that they similarly control liver function on their target gene level and indeed, the GR functions often as a cofactor of STAT5 for GH-induced genes. Gene sets, which require physical STAT5-GR interaction, include those controlling body growth and maturation. More recently, it has become evident that impairment of GH-STAT5 signaling in different experimental models correlates with metabolic liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While GH-activated STAT5 has a protective role in chronic liver disease, experimental disruption of GC-GR signaling rather seems to ameliorate metabolic disorders under metabolic challenge. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about hepatic GH-STAT5 and GC-GR signaling in body growth, metabolism, and protection from fatty liver disease and HCC development.

  9. Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Azad, Reza Mansourian

    2011-03-01

    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  10. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  11. A Method for Finding Metabolic Pathways Using Atomic Group Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Cheng; Lin, Hai Xiang; Wang, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental computational problem in metabolic engineering is to find pathways between compounds. Pathfinding methods using atom tracking have been widely used to find biochemically relevant pathways. However, these methods require the user to define the atoms to be tracked. This may lead to failing to predict the pathways that do not conserve the user-defined atoms. In this work, we propose a pathfinding method called AGPathFinder to find biochemically relevant metabolic pathways between two given compounds. In AGPathFinder, we find alternative pathways by tracking the movement of atomic groups through metabolic networks and use combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity to guide the search towards more feasible pathways and better performance. The experimental results show that atomic group tracking enables our method to find pathways without the need of defining the atoms to be tracked, avoid hub metabolites, and obtain biochemically meaningful pathways. Our results also demonstrate that atomic group tracking, when incorporated with combined information of reaction thermodynamics and compound similarity, improves the quality of the found pathways. In most cases, the average compound inclusion accuracy and reaction inclusion accuracy for the top resulting pathways of our method are around 0.90 and 0.70, respectively, which are better than those of the existing methods. Additionally, AGPathFinder provides the information of thermodynamic feasibility and compound similarity for the resulting pathways. PMID:28068354

  12. Tracking the pathway of arsenic metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the toxic and carcinogenic properties of arsenic have been recognized for centuries, only in the past few decades has research focused on understanding the metabolic fate of arsenic in humans and relating metabolism to adverse health effects. In humans, conversion of in...

  13. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan L.; Rall, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    1. The development of active and inactive phosphorylase was determined in rat liver during the perinatal period. No inactive form could be found in tissues from animals less than 19 days gestation or older than the fifth postnatal day. 2. The regulation of phosphorylase in organ cultures of foetal rat liver was examined. None of the agents examined [glucagon, insulin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2′-O-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate)] changed the amount of phosphorylase activity. 3. Glycogen concentration in these explants were nevertheless decreased more than twofold by 4h of incubation with glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Incubation with insulin for 4h increased the glycogen content twofold. 4. Glycogen synthetase activity was examined in these explants. I-form activity (without glucose 6-phosphate) was found to decrease by a factor of two after 4h of incubation with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whereas I+D activity (with glucose 6-phosphate) remained nearly constant. Incubation for 4h with insulin increased I-form activity threefold, with only a slight increase in I+D activity. 5. When explants were incubated with insulin followed by addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the effects of insulin on glycogen concentration and glycogen synthetase activity were reversed. 6. These results indicate that the regulation of glycogen synthesis may be the major factor in the hormonal control of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver. PMID:4357717

  14. Stress hormones: physiological stress and regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Tsigos, Constantine

    2009-12-01

    Stress, defined as a state of threatened homeostasis, mobilizes a complex spectrum of adaptive physiologic and behavioral responses that aim to re-establish the challenged body homeostasis. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) constitute the main effector pathways of the stress system, mediating its adaptive functions. In western societies, indices of stress correlate with increasing rates of both obesity and metabolic syndrome which have reached epidemic proportions. Recent data indicate that chronic stress, associated with mild hypercortisolemia and prolonged SNS activation, favors accumulation of visceral fat and contributes to the clinical presentation of visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiometabolic complications. Reciprocally, obesity promotes a systemic low-grade inflammation state, mediated by increased adipokine secretion, which can chronically stimulate the stress system.

  15. A graph-theoretic approach to modeling metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Eric; Johnson, Mark; Tsai, Chun-che

    1991-08-01

    The metabolic pathways of medazepam, oxazepam, and diazepam were modeled using graph-theoretic transforms which are incorporable into computer-assisted metabolic analysis programs. The information, represented in the form of a graph-theoretic transform kit, which was obtained from these pathways was then used to predict the metabolites of other benzodiazepine compounds. The transform kits gave statistically significant predictions with respect to a statistical method for evaluating the performance of the transform kits.

  16. Enumerating Minimal Active Metabolic Pathways by Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Takehide; Inoue, Katsumi

    In systems biology, identifying vital functions like glycolysis from a given metabolic pathway is important to understand living organisms. In this paper, we particularly focus on the problem of enumerating minimal active pathways producing target metabolites from source metabolites. We represent the problem in propositional formulas and solve it through minimal model generation. An advantage of our method is that each solution satisfies qualitative laws of biochemical reactions. Moreover, we can calculate such solutions for a cellular scale metabolic pathway within a few seconds. In experiments, we have applied our method to a whole Escherichia coli metabolic pathway. As a result, we found a minimal set of reactions corresponding to the conventional glycolysis pathway described in a biological database EcoCyc.

  17. Direct and indirect effects of growth hormone receptor ablation on liver expression of xenobiotic metabolizing genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinna; Bartke, Andrzej; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Sun, Liou; Miller, Richard A

    2013-10-15

    Detoxification of ingested xenobiotic chemicals, and of potentially toxic endogenous metabolites, is carried out largely through a series of enzymes synthesized in the liver, sometimes called "xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes" (XME). Expression of these XME is sexually dimorphic in rodents and humans, with many of the XME expressed at higher levels in females. This expression pattern is thought to be regulated, in part, by the sex differences in circadian growth hormone (GH) pulsatility. We have evaluated mRNA, in the liver, for 52 XME genes in male and female mice of four mutant stocks, with diminished levels of GH receptor (GHR) either globally (GKO), or in liver (LKO), fat (FKO), or muscle (MKO) tissue specifically. The data show complex, sex-specific changes. For some XME, the expression pattern is consistent with direct control of hepatic mRNA by GHR in the liver. In contrast, other XME show evidence for indirect pathways in which hepatic XME expression is altered by GH signals in fat or skeletal muscle. The effects of GHR-null mutations on glucose control, responses to dietary interventions, steroid metabolism, detoxification pathways, and lifespan may depend on a mixture of direct hepatic effects and cross talk between different GH-responsive tissues.

  18. New avenues for regulation of lipid metabolism by thyroid hormones and analogs.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Leanza, Cristina; de Lange, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss due to negative energy balance is a goal in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The thyroid is known to be an important regulator of energy metabolism through the action of thyroid hormones (THs). The classic, active TH, 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) acts predominantly by binding to nuclear receptors termed TH receptors (TRs), that recognize TH response elements (TREs) on the DNA, and so regulate transcription. T3 also acts through "non-genomic" pathways that do not necessarily involve TRs. Lipid-lowering therapies have been suggested to have potential benefits, however, the establishment of comprehensive therapeutic strategies is still awaited. One drawback of using T3 in counteracting obesity has been the occurrence of heart rhythm disturbances. These are mediated through one TR, termed TRα. The end of the previous century saw the exploration of TH mimetics that specifically bind to TR beta in order to prevent cardiac disturbances, and TH derivatives such as 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), that possess interesting biological activities. Several TH derivatives and functional analogs have low affinity for the TRs, and are suggested to act predominantly through non-genomic pathways. All this has opened new perspectives in thyroid physiology and TH derivative usage as anti-obesity therapies. This review addresses the pros and cons of these compounds, in light of their effects on energy balance regulation and on lipid/cholesterol metabolism.

  19. New avenues for regulation of lipid metabolism by thyroid hormones and analogs

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Leanza, Cristina; de Lange, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss due to negative energy balance is a goal in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The thyroid is known to be an important regulator of energy metabolism through the action of thyroid hormones (THs). The classic, active TH, 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) acts predominantly by binding to nuclear receptors termed TH receptors (TRs), that recognize TH response elements (TREs) on the DNA, and so regulate transcription. T3 also acts through “non-genomic” pathways that do not necessarily involve TRs. Lipid-lowering therapies have been suggested to have potential benefits, however, the establishment of comprehensive therapeutic strategies is still awaited. One drawback of using T3 in counteracting obesity has been the occurrence of heart rhythm disturbances. These are mediated through one TR, termed TRα. The end of the previous century saw the exploration of TH mimetics that specifically bind to TR beta in order to prevent cardiac disturbances, and TH derivatives such as 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), that possess interesting biological activities. Several TH derivatives and functional analogs have low affinity for the TRs, and are suggested to act predominantly through non-genomic pathways. All this has opened new perspectives in thyroid physiology and TH derivative usage as anti-obesity therapies. This review addresses the pros and cons of these compounds, in light of their effects on energy balance regulation and on lipid/cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25538628

  20. Integrated Interactive Chart as a Tool for Teaching Metabolic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogiannis, Stavros; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Koufoudakis, Panagiotis; Dashi, Ino; Pontikeri, Kyriaki; Christodoulou, Constantina

    2014-01-01

    An interactive chart of energy metabolism with didactic function, complementary to the already existing metabolic maps, located at the URL www.metpath.teithe.gr is being presented. The chart illustrates the major catabolic and biosynthetic pathways of glucose, fatty acids, and aminoacids, individually as well as in an integrated view. For every…

  1. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Treesearch

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  2. Integrated Interactive Chart as a Tool for Teaching Metabolic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogiannis, Stavros; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Koufoudakis, Panagiotis; Dashi, Ino; Pontikeri, Kyriaki; Christodoulou, Constantina

    2014-01-01

    An interactive chart of energy metabolism with didactic function, complementary to the already existing metabolic maps, located at the URL www.metpath.teithe.gr is being presented. The chart illustrates the major catabolic and biosynthetic pathways of glucose, fatty acids, and aminoacids, individually as well as in an integrated view. For every…

  3. Association between sex hormone levels and abnormal metabolism in a population of elderly Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanping; Xiao, Haiying; Bai, Jie; Li, Chunlin; Wen, Xinyu; Cheng, Xiaoling; Fu, Shuhong; Lu, Yanhui; Li, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yinghong; Li, Yanyan; Jin, Mengmeng; Sun, Banruo; Tian, Yaping; Li, Shuzhang

    2013-03-01

    Low testosterone levels may be a signal of poor health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of age and abnormal metabolism on sex hormones in Chinese male. Three hundred and thirty-seven elder men were enrolled into this single-center, cross-sectional study, and their sex hormone levels and metabolic parameters were assessed. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations increased with age, while free testosterone index (FTI), testosterone secretion index (TSI), estradiol (E2)/SHBG and progestin (PROG) decreased. Abnormal metabolisms were related to androgen indices (TT, FT, BT, FTI, TSI, T/E2), SHBG and E2/SHBG even after adjusting by age and macrovascular disease. Obesity and overweight, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were the most important abnormal metabolism that related to decreased androgen indices. Including SHBG in the stepwise regression increased the explanation effect of TT and BT by 32.7% and 28.5%, respectively, and all metabolic indices were excluded. Abnormal metabolism indies (BMI and PBG) were correlated to the decrease in SHBG levels, while age and LH was positively correlated to SHBG levels. Age and abnormal metabolism were independently important factors associated with the sex hormone levels in elderly Chinese men, which were all mediated by SHBG.

  4. Metabolic pathways of tetraidothyronine and triidothyronine production by thyroid gland: a review of articles.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, A R

    2011-01-01

    Tetraidothyronine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodothyrosine (DIT) on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction, or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO), which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin

  5. The challenge of constructing, classifying, and representing metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Ron; Dreher, Kate; Karp, Peter D

    2013-08-01

    Scientists, educators, and students benefit from having free and centralized access to the wealth of metabolic information that has been gathered over the decades. Curators of the MetaCyc database work to present this information in an easily understandable pathway-based framework. MetaCyc is used not only as an encyclopedic resource for metabolic information but also as a template for the pathway prediction software that generates pathway/genome databases for thousands of organisms with sequenced genomes (available at www.biocyc.org). Curators need to define pathway boundaries and classify pathways within a broader pathway ontology to maximize the utility of the pathways to both users and the pathway prediction software. These seemingly simple tasks pose several challenges. This review describes these challenges as well as the criteria that need to be considered, and the rules that have been developed by MetaCyc curators as they make decisions regarding the representation and classification of metabolic pathway information in MetaCyc. The functional consequences of these decisions in regard to pathway prediction in new species are also discussed.

  6. Targeting Metabolic Survival Pathways in Lung Cancer via Combination Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    critical metabolic pathways necessary for survival of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-deficient non -small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. We have conducted...removal/washout of phenformin. Given the dependence of LKB1-deficient tumor cells on glutamine metabolism, we are targeting a critical enzyme responsible...B1, non -small cell lung cancer, glutamine metabolism, biguanides 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  7. Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Intervention for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yan Cheng, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Pennsylvania State University...Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0649 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...causes of cancer mortality in women. Current therapies for breast cancer mainly target molecular signaling pathways that promote tumor cell

  8. Systems biology of lupus: Mapping the impact of genomic and environmental factors on gene expression signatures, cellular signaling, metabolic pathways, hormonal and cytokine imbalance, and selecting targets for treatment

    PubMed Central

    PERL, ANDRAS

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the dysfunction of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, the release of pro-inflammatory nuclear materials from necrotic cells, and the formation of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and immune complexes of ANA with DNA, RNA, and nuclear proteins. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has recently emerged as a key factor in abnormal activation of Tand B cells in SLE. In T cells, increased production of nitric oxide and mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP) were identified as metabolic checkpoints upstream of mTOR activation. mTOR controls the expression T-cell receptor-associated signaling proteins CD4 and CD3ζ through increased expression of the endosome recycling regulator Rab5 and HRES-1/Rab4 genes, enhances Ca2+ fluxing and skews the expression of tyrosine kinases both in T and B cells, and blocks the expression of Foxp3 and the generation of regulatory T cells. MHP, increased activity of mTOR, Rab GTPases, and Syk kinases, and enhanced Ca2+ flux have emerged as common Tand B cell biomarkers and targets for treatment in SLE. PMID:20001421

  9. Systems biology of lupus: mapping the impact of genomic and environmental factors on gene expression signatures, cellular signaling, metabolic pathways, hormonal and cytokine imbalance, and selecting targets for treatment.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2010-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the dysfunction of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, the release of pro-inflammatory nuclear materials from necrotic cells, and the formation of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and immune complexes of ANA with DNA, RNA, and nuclear proteins. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has recently emerged as a key factor in abnormal activation of T and B cells in SLE. In T cells, increased production of nitric oxide and mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP) were identified as metabolic checkpoints upstream of mTOR activation. mTOR controls the expression T-cell receptor-associated signaling proteins CD4 and CD3zeta through increased expression of the endosome recycling regulator Rab5 and HRES-1/Rab4 genes, enhances Ca2+ fluxing and skews the expression of tyrosine kinases both in T and B cells, and blocks the expression of Foxp3 and the generation of regulatory T cells. MHP, increased activity of mTOR, Rab GTPases, and Syk kinases, and enhanced Ca2+ flux have emerged as common T and B cell biomarkers and targets for treatment in SLE.

  10. New insights into the regulation of plant immunity by amino acid metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Besides defence pathways regulated by classical stress hormones, distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. Mutations in several genes involved in Asp-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathways can have profound impact on plant resistance to specific pathogen types. For instance, amino acid imbalances associated with homoserine or threonine accumulation elevate plant immunity to oomycete pathogens but not to pathogenic fungi or bacteria. The catabolism of Lys produces the immune signal pipecolic acid (Pip), a cyclic, non-protein amino acid. Pip amplifies plant defence responses and acts as a critical regulator of plant systemic acquired resistance, defence priming and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Asp-derived pyridine nucleotides influence both pre- and post-invasion immunity, and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids appears to affect plant resistance to distinct pathogen classes by modulating crosstalk of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defence pathways. It also emerges that, besides polyamine oxidation and NADPH oxidase, Pro metabolism is involved in the oxidative burst and the hypersensitive response associated with avirulent pathogen recognition. Moreover, the acylation of amino acids can control plant resistance to pathogens and pests by the formation of protective plant metabolites or by the modulation of plant hormone activity.

  11. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  12. Cellular metabolic and autophagic pathways: traffic control by redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular Metabolic and Autophagic Pathways: Traffic Control by Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality, and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. PMID:23702245

  14. Metabolic methanol: molecular pathways and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Komarova, Tatiana V

    2015-04-01

    Methanol has been historically considered an exogenous product that leads only to pathological changes in the human body when consumed. However, in normal, healthy individuals, methanol and its short-lived oxidized product, formaldehyde, are naturally occurring compounds whose functions and origins have received limited attention. There are several sources of human physiological methanol. Fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages are likely the main sources of exogenous methanol in the healthy human body. Metabolic methanol may occur as a result of fermentation by gut bacteria and metabolic processes involving S-adenosyl methionine. Regardless of its source, low levels of methanol in the body are maintained by physiological and metabolic clearance mechanisms. Although human blood contains small amounts of methanol and formaldehyde, the content of these molecules increases sharply after receiving even methanol-free ethanol, indicating an endogenous source of the metabolic methanol present at low levels in the blood regulated by a cluster of genes. Recent studies of the pathogenesis of neurological disorders indicate metabolic formaldehyde as a putative causative agent. The detection of increased formaldehyde content in the blood of both neurological patients and the elderly indicates the important role of genetic and biochemical mechanisms of maintaining low levels of methanol and formaldehyde. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Dissecting thyroid hormone transport and metabolism in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gigena, Nicolás; Alamino, Vanina A; Montesinos, María Del Mar; Nazar, Magalí; Louzada, Ruy A; Wajner, Simone M; Maia, Ana L; Masini-Repiso, Ana M; Carvalho, Denise P; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Pellizas, Claudia G

    2017-02-01

    We reported thyroid hormone (TH) receptor expression in murine dendritic cells (DCs) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-dependent stimulation of DC maturation and ability to develop a Th1-type adaptive response. Moreover, an increased DC capacity to promote antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity, exploited in a DC-based antitumor vaccination protocol, was revealed. However, putative effects of the main circulating TH, l-thyroxine (T4) and the mechanisms of TH transport and metabolism at DC level, crucial events for TH action at target cell level, were not known. Herein, we show that T4 did not reproduce those registered T3-dependent effects, finding that may reflect a homoeostatic control to prevent unspecific systemic activation of DCs. Besides, DCs express MCT10 and LAT2 TH transporters, and these cells mainly transport T3 with a favored involvement of MCT10 as its inhibition almost prevented T3 saturable uptake mechanism and reduced T3-induced IL-12 production. In turn, DCs express iodothyronine deiodonases type 2 and 3 (D2, D3) and exhibit both enzymatic activities with a prevalence towards TH inactivation. Moreover, T3 increased MCT10 and LAT2 expression and T3 efflux from DCs but not T3 uptake, whereas it induced a robust induction of D3 with a parallel slight reduction in D2. These findings disclose pivotal events involved in the mechanism of action of THs on DCs, providing valuable tools for manipulating the immunogenic potential of these cells. Furthermore, they broaden the knowledge of the TH mechanism of action at the immune system network.

  16. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  17. Hormonal signaling and signal pathway crosstalk in the control of myometrial calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the basis for the control of myometrial contractant and relaxant signaling pathways is important to understanding how to manage myometrial contractions. Signaling pathways are influenced by the level of expression of the signals and signal pathway components, the location of these components in the appropriate subcellular environment, and covalent modification. Crosstalk between these pathways regulates the effectiveness of signal transduction and represents an important way by which hormones can regulate phenotype. This review deals primarily with signaling pathways that control Ca2+ entry and intracellular release, as well as the interplay between these pathways. PMID:17627855

  18. Fragment recruitment on metabolic pathways: comparative metabolic profiling of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dhwani K; Schunck, Harald; Löser, Johannes W; Laroche, Julie

    2013-03-15

    The sheer scale of the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets that are now available warrants the development of automated protocols for organizing, annotating and comparing the samples in terms of their metabolic profiles. We describe a user-friendly java program FROMP (Fragment Recruitment on Metabolic Pathways) for mapping and visualizing enzyme annotations onto the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways or custom-made pathways and comparing the samples in terms of their Pathway Completeness Scores, their relative Activity Scores or enzyme enrichment odds ratios. This program along with our fully configurable PERL-based annotation organization pipeline Meta2Pro (METAbolic PROfiling of META-omic data) offers a quick and accurate standalone solution for metabolic profiling of environmental samples or cultures from different treatments. Apart from pictorial comparisons, FROMP can also generate score matrices for multiple meta-omics samples, which can be used directly by other statistical programs.

  19. Metabolism of steroid hormones by Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, P; Valdez, R A; Romano, M C

    2006-06-01

    Previous in vitro experiments showed that both, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium cysticerci have the ability to metabolize exogenous androstenedione to testosterone. Here we evaluate on the capacity of both cysticerci to synthesize several sex steroid hormones, using different hormonal precursors. Experiments using thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed that both cysticerci were able to produce (3)H-hydroxyprogesterone, (3)H-androstenedione and (3)H-testosterone when (3)H-progesterone was used as the precursor. They also synthesized (3)H-androstenediol and (3)H-testosterone when (3)H-dehydroepiandrosterone was the precursor. In addition, both cysticerci interconverted (3)H-estradiol and (3)H-estrone. These results, strongly suggest the presence and activity of the Delta4 and Delta5 steroid pathway enzymes, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4) isomerase-like enzyme (3beta-HSD), that converts androstenediol into testosterone; and the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that interconverts estradiol and estrone, in both types of cysticerci.

  20. Melatonin Regulates Aging and Neurodegeneration through Energy Metabolism, Epigenetics, Autophagy and Circadian Rhythm Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jenwitheesuk, Anorut; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Mukda, Sujira; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is linked to certain types of neurodegenerative diseases and identifying new therapeutic targets has become critical. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, associates with molecules and signaling pathways that sense and influence energy metabolism, autophagy, and circadian rhythms, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Forkhead box O (FoxOs), sirtuins and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current understanding of how melatonin, together with molecular, cellular and systemic energy metabolisms, regulates epigenetic processes in the neurons. This information will lead to a greater understanding of molecular epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase lifespan under healthy conditions. PMID:25247581

  1. Computational identification of altered metabolism using gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hojung; Lee, Jinwon; Lee, Doheon

    2009-07-01

    Understanding altered metabolism is an important issue because altered metabolism is often revealed as a cause or an effect in pathogenesis. It has also been shown to be an important factor in the manipulation of an organism's metabolism in metabolic engineering. Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to measure the concentration levels of all metabolites in the genome-wide scale of a metabolic network; consequently, a method that infers the alteration of metabolism is beneficial. The present study proposes a computational method that identifies genome-wide altered metabolism by analyzing functional units of KEGG pathways. As control of a metabolic pathway is accomplished by altering the activity of at least one rate-determining step enzyme, not all gene expressions of enzymes in the pathway demonstrate significant changes even if the pathway is altered. Therefore, we measure the alteration levels of a metabolic pathway by selectively observing expression levels of significantly changed genes in a pathway. The proposed method was applied to two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression profiles measured in very high-gravity (VHG) fermentation. The method identified altered metabolic pathways whose properties are related to ethanol and osmotic stress responses which had been known to be observed in VHG fermentation because of the high sugar concentration in growth media and high ethanol concentration in fermentation products. With the identified altered pathways, the proposed method achieved best accuracy and sensitivity rates for the Red Star (RS) strain compared to other three related studies (gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA), significance analysis of microarray to gene set (SAM-GS), reporter metabolite), and for the CEN.PK 113-7D (CEN) strain, the proposed method and the GSEA method showed comparably similar performances.

  2. Global Profiling Strategies for Mapping Dysregulated Metabolic Pathways in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel I.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells possess fundamentally altered metabolism that provides a foundation to support tumorigenicity and malignancy. Our understanding of the biochemical underpinnings of cancer has benefited from the integrated utilization of large-scale profiling platforms (e.g. genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), which, together, can provide a global assessment of how enzymes and their parent metabolic networks become altered in cancer to fuel tumor growth. This review presents several examples of how these integrated platforms have yielded fundamental insights into dysregulated metabolism in cancer. We will also discuss questions and challenges that must be addressed to more completely describe, and eventually control, the diverse metabolic pathways that support tumorigenesis. PMID:23063552

  3. Natural Polyphenol Disposition via Coupled Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Hu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge associated with the development of chemopreventive polyphenols is the lack of bioavailability in vivo, which are primarily the result of coupled metabolic activities of conjugating enzymes and efflux transporters. These coupling processes are present in most of tissues and organs in mammals and are efficient for the purposes of drug metabolism, elimination and detoxification. Therefore, it was expected that these coupling processes represent a significant barrier to the oral bioavailabilities of polyphenols. In various studies of this coupling process, it was identified that various conjugating enzymes such as UGT and SULT are capable of producing very hydrophilic metabolites of polyphenols, which cannot diffuse out of the cells and needs the action of efflux transporters to pump them out of the cells. Additional studies have shown that efflux transporters such as MRP2, BCRP and OAT appear to serve as the gate keeper when there is an excess capacity to metabolize the compounds. These efflux transporters may also act as the facilitator of metabolism when there is a product/metabolite inhibition. For polyphenols, these coupled processes enable a duo recycling scheme of enteric and enterohepatic recycling, which allows the polyphenols to be reabsorbed and results in longer than expected apparent plasma half-lives for these compounds and their conjugates. Since the vast majority of polyphenols in plasma are hydrophilic conjugates, more research is needed to determine if the metabolites are active or reactive, which will help explain their mechanism of actions. PMID:17539746

  4. Influence of metabolic pathways on dam longevity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolism is an ever-changing dynamic system that can influence various physiological conditions including reproductive performance. It has been established that use of caloric restriction can enhance lifespan. But, it is also a well known fact that high energy demands in tandem with moderate to ...

  5. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Welcker, Jorg; Gaston, Anthony J; Hatch, Scott A; Palace, Vince; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Anderson, W Gary

    2013-06-15

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements-we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia). Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE) are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR). RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  6. Metabolic and hormonal signatures in pre-manifest and manifest Huntington's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Ross, Christopher A; Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Siddiqui, Sana; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder typified by involuntary body movements, and psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities. Many HD patients also exhibit metabolic changes including progressive weight loss and appetite dysfunction. Here we have investigated metabolic function in pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects to establish an HD subject metabolic hormonal plasma signature. Individuals at risk for HD who have had predictive genetic testing showing the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) expansion causative of HD, but who do not yet present signs and symptoms sufficient for the diagnosis of manifest HD are said to be "pre-manifest." Pre-manifest and manifest HD patients, as well as both familial and non-familial controls, were evaluated for multiple peripheral metabolism signals including circulating levels of hormones, growth factors, lipids, and cytokines. Both pre-manifest and manifest HD subjects exhibited significantly reduced levels of circulating growth factors, including growth hormone and prolactin. HD-related changes in the levels of metabolic hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon, and amylin were also observed. Total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were significantly decreased in HD subjects. C-reactive protein was significantly elevated in pre-manifest HD subjects. The observation of metabolic alterations, even in subjects considered to be in the pre-manifest stage of HD, suggests that in addition, and prior, to overt neuronal damage, HD affects metabolic hormone secretion and energy regulation, which may shed light on pathogenesis, and provide opportunities for biomarker development.

  7. Targeting metabolic pathways for head and neck cancers therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-08-17

    Cancer cells have distinctive energy metabolism pathways that support their rapid cell division. The preference for anaerobic glycolysis under the normal oxygen condition is known as the Warburg effect and has been observed in head and neck cancers. These metabolic changes are controlled by cancer-related transcription factors, such as tumor suppressor gene and hypoxia inducible factor 1α. In addition, various metabolic enzymes also actively regulate cancer-specific metabolism including the switch between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. For a long time, these metabolic changes in cancer cells have been considered a consequence of transformation required to maintain the high rate of tumor cell replication. However, recent studies indicate that alteration of metabolism is sufficient to initiate tumor transformation. Indeed, oncogenic mutations in the metabolic enzymes, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, have been increasingly found in various cancers, including head and neck cancers. In the present review, we introduce recent findings regarding the cancer metabolism, including the molecular mechanisms of how they affect cancer pathogenesis and maintenance. We also discuss the current and future perspectives on therapeutics that target metabolic pathways, with an emphasis on head and neck cancer.

  8. Predicting novel pathways in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Stefan; de Figueiredo, Luís F; Kaleta, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Elementary-modes analysis has become a well-established theoretical tool in metabolic pathway analysis. It allows one to decompose complex metabolic networks into the smallest functional entities, which can be interpreted as biochemical pathways. This analysis has, in medium-size metabolic networks, led to the successful theoretical prediction of hitherto unknown pathways. For illustration, we discuss the example of the phosphoenolpyruvate-glyoxylate cycle in Escherichia coli. Elementary-modes analysis meets with the problem of combinatorial explosion in the number of pathways with increasing system size, which has hampered scaling it up to genome-wide models. We present a novel approach to overcoming this obstacle. That approach is based on elementary flux patterns, which are defined as sets of reactions representing the basic routes through a particular subsystem that are compatible with admissible fluxes in a (possibly) much larger metabolic network. The subsystem can be made up by reactions in which we are interested in, for example, reactions producing a certain metabolite. This allows one to predict novel metabolic pathways in genome-scale networks.

  9. Inhibition of the Thyroid Hormone Pathway in Xenopus by Mercaptobenzothiazole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone-dependent process that provides a potential model system to assess chemicals for their ability to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this system to a variety of ...

  10. Inhibition of the Thyroid Hormone Pathway in Xenopus by Mercaptobenzothiazole

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone-dependent process that provides a potential model system to assess chemicals for their ability to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of this system to a variety of ...

  11. Aligning Metabolic Pathways Exploiting Binary Relation of Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Cheng; Lin, Hai Xiang; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway alignment has been widely used to find one-to-one and/or one-to-many reaction mappings to identify the alternative pathways that have similar functions through different sets of reactions, which has important applications in reconstructing phylogeny and understanding metabolic functions. The existing alignment methods exhaustively search reaction sets, which may become infeasible for large pathways. To address this problem, we present an effective alignment method for accurately extracting reaction mappings between two metabolic pathways. We show that connected relation between reactions can be formalized as binary relation of reactions in metabolic pathways, and the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relations of reactions can be accomplished in finite steps. By utilizing the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relation of reactions, we efficiently obtain reaction sets in a small number of steps without exhaustive search, and accurately uncover biologically relevant reaction mappings. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of topological similarity of nodes (reactions) by comparing the structural similarity of the k-neighborhood subgraphs of the nodes in aligning metabolic pathways. We employ this similarity metric to improve the accuracy of the alignments. The experimental results on the KEGG database show that when compared with other state-of-the-art methods, in most cases, our method obtains better performance in the node correctness and edge correctness, and the number of the edges of the largest common connected subgraph for one-to-one reaction mappings, and the number of correct one-to-many reaction mappings. Our method is scalable in finding more reaction mappings with better biological relevance in large metabolic pathways. PMID:27936108

  12. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Triiodotyronine (T3) was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and thyroxine (T4 ) significantly increased ( p<0.001) in metabolic syndrome compared to healthy controls. T3 correlated positively and significantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( p<0.001 ) and negatively with body mass index ( p<0.001 )and triglyceride ( p=0.026). T4 had a negative significant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (p<0.001) while growth hormone correlated positively with

  13. Female hormones: do they influence muscle and tendon protein metabolism?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette

    2017-08-29

    Due to increased longevity, women can expect to live more than one-third of their lives in a post-menopausal state, which is characterised by low circulating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. The aim of this review is to provide insights into current knowledge of the effect of female hormones (or lack of female hormones) on skeletal muscle protein turnover at rest and in response to exercise. This review is primarily based on data from human trials. Many elderly post-menopausal women experience physical disabilities and loss of independence related to sarcopenia, which reduces life quality and is associated with substantial financial costs. Resistance training and dietary optimisation can counteract or at least decelerate the degenerative ageing process, but lack of oestrogen in post-menopausal women may reduce their sensitivity to these anabolic stimuli and accelerate muscle loss. Tendons and ligaments are also affected by sex hormones, but the effect seems to differ between endogenous and exogenous female hormones. Furthermore, the effect seems to depend on the age, and as a result influence the biomechanical properties of the ligaments and tendons differentially. Based on the present knowledge oestrogen seems to play a significant role with regard to skeletal muscle protein turnover. Therefore, oestrogen/hormonal replacement therapy may counteract the degenerative changes in skeletal muscle. Nevertheless, there is a need for greater insight into the direct and indirect mechanistic effects of female hormones before any evidence-based recommendations regarding type, dose, duration and timing of hormone replacement therapy can be provided.

  14. Parallelization of Nullspace Algorithm for the computation of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Jevremović, Dimitrije; Trinh, Cong T; Srienc, Friedrich; Sosa, Carlos P; Boley, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Elementary mode analysis is a useful metabolic pathway analysis tool in understanding and analyzing cellular metabolism, since elementary modes can represent metabolic pathways with unique and minimal sets of enzyme-catalyzed reactions of a metabolic network under steady state conditions. However, computation of the elementary modes of a genome- scale metabolic network with 100-1000 reactions is very expensive and sometimes not feasible with the commonly used serial Nullspace Algorithm. In this work, we develop a distributed memory parallelization of the Nullspace Algorithm to handle efficiently the computation of the elementary modes of a large metabolic network. We give an implementation in C++ language with the support of MPI library functions for the parallel communication. Our proposed algorithm is accompanied with an analysis of the complexity and identification of major bottlenecks during computation of all possible pathways of a large metabolic network. The algorithm includes methods to achieve load balancing among the compute-nodes and specific communication patterns to reduce the communication overhead and improve efficiency.

  15. Perturbation Experiments: Approaches for Metabolic Pathway Analysis in Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Michael; Tröndle, Julia; Albermann, Christoph; Sprenger, Georg A; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, targeted metabolic engineering of microbial cells has become one of the major tools in bioprocess design and optimization. For successful application, a detailed knowledge is necessary about the relevant metabolic pathways and their regulation inside the cells. Since in vitro experiments cannot display process conditions and behavior properly, process data about the cells' metabolic state have to be collected in vivo. For this purpose, special techniques and methods are necessary. Therefore, most techniques enabling in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways rely on perturbation experiments, which can be divided into dynamic and steady-state approaches. To avoid any process disturbance, approaches which enable perturbation of cell metabolism in parallel to the continuing production process are reasonable. Furthermore, the fast dynamics of microbial production processes amplifies the need of parallelized data generation. These points motivate the development of a parallelized approach for multiple metabolic perturbation experiments outside the operating production reactor. An appropriate approach for in vivo characterization of metabolic pathways is presented and applied exemplarily to a microbial L-phenylalanine production process on a 15 L-scale.

  16. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'.

  17. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS.

  18. DHEA-Mediated Inhibition of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Alters Oocyte Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Patricia T.; Frolova, Antonina I.; Chi, Maggie M.; Grindler, Natalia M.; Willcockson, Alexandra R.; Reynolds, Kasey A.; Zhao, Quihong

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS. PMID:24036000

  19. Hypothalamic carnitine metabolism integrates nutrient and hormonal feedback to regulate energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Reichenbach, Alex; Andrews, Zane B

    2015-12-15

    The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires the hypothalamic integration of nutrient feedback cues, such as glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and metabolic hormones such as insulin, leptin and ghrelin. Although hypothalamic neurons are critical to maintain energy homeostasis research efforts have focused on feedback mechanisms in isolation, such as glucose alone, fatty acids alone or single hormones. However this seems rather too simplistic considering the range of nutrient and endocrine changes associated with different metabolic states, such as starvation (negative energy balance) or diet-induced obesity (positive energy balance). In order to understand how neurons integrate multiple nutrient or hormonal signals, we need to identify and examine potential intracellular convergence points or common molecular targets that have the ability to sense glucose, fatty acids, amino acids and hormones. In this review, we focus on the role of carnitine metabolism in neurons regulating energy homeostasis. Hypothalamic carnitine metabolism represents a novel means for neurons to facilitate and control both nutrient and hormonal feedback. In terms of nutrient regulation, carnitine metabolism regulates hypothalamic fatty acid sensing through the actions of CPT1 and has an underappreciated role in glucose sensing since carnitine metabolism also buffers mitochondrial matrix levels of acetyl-CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase and hence glucose metabolism. Studies also show that hypothalamic CPT1 activity also controls hormonal feedback. We hypothesis that hypothalamic carnitine metabolism represents a key molecular target that can concurrently integrate nutrient and hormonal information, which is critical to maintain energy homeostasis. We also suggest this is relevant to broader neuroendocrine research as it predicts that hormonal signaling in the brain varies depending on current nutrient status. Indeed, the metabolic action of ghrelin, leptin or insulin

  20. Evidence That Humans Metabolize Benzene via Two Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Stephen M.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian; Hayes, Richard B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has shown that humans metabolize benzene more efficiently at environmental air concentrations than at concentrations > 1 ppm. This led us to speculate that an unidentified metabolic pathway was mainly responsible for benzene metabolism at ambient levels. Objective We statistically tested whether human metabolism of benzene is better fitted by a kinetic model having two pathways rather than one. Methods We fit Michaelis-Menten-like models to levels of urinary benzene metabolites and the corresponding air concentrations for 263 nonsmoking Chinese females. Estimated benzene concentrations ranged from less than 0.001 ppm to 299 ppm, with 10th and 90th percentile values of 0.002 ppm and 8.97 ppm, respectively. Results Using values of Akaike’s information criterion obtained under the two models, we found strong statistical evidence favoring two metabolic pathways, with respective affinities (benzene air concentrations analogous to Km values) of 301 ppm for the low-affinity pathway (probably dominated by cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1) and 0.594 ppm for the high-affinity pathway (unknown). The exposure-specific metabolite level predicted by our two-pathway model at nonsaturating concentrations was 184 μM/ppm of benzene, a value close to an independent estimate of 194 μM/ppm for a typical nonsmoking Chinese female. Our results indicate that a nonsmoking woman would metabolize about three times more benzene from the ambient environment under the two-pathway model (184 μM/ppm) than under the one-pathway model (68.6 μM/ppm). In fact, 73% of the ambient benzene dose would be metabolized via the unidentified high-affinity pathway. Conclusion Because regulatory risk assessments have assumed nonsaturating metabolism of benzene in persons exposed to air concentrations well above 10 ppm, our findings suggest that the true leukemia risks could be substantially greater than currently thought at ambient levels of exposure—about 3-fold higher among

  1. Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A

    2002-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism is a fundamental process for plant growth and development. Although a considerable amount of information is available, little is known about the genetic control of enzymatic steps or regulation of several pathways. Much of the information about biochemical pathways has arisen from the use of mutants lacking key enzymes. Although mutants were largely used already in the 60's, by bacterial and fungal geneticists, it took plant research a long time to catch up. The advance in this area was rapid in the 80's, which was followed in the 90's by the development of techniques of plant transformation. In this review we present an overview of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway, the key regulatory enzymes and the mutants and transgenic plants produced for lysine and threonine metabolism. We also discuss and propose a new study of high-lysine mutants.

  2. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  3. Co-evolution of Hormone Metabolism and Signaling Networks Expands Plant Adaptive Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Ye, Mingli; Li, Bin; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-08-11

    Classically, hormones elicit specific cellular responses by activating dedicated receptors. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis and turnover of many of these hormone molecules also produce chemically related metabolites. These molecules may also possess hormonal activities; therefore, one or more may contribute to the adaptive plasticity of signaling outcomes in host organisms. Here, we show that a catabolite of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), namely phaseic acid (PA), likely emerged in seed plants as a signaling molecule that fine-tunes plant physiology, environmental adaptation, and development. This trait was facilitated by both the emergence-selection of a PA reductase that modulates PA concentrations and by the functional diversification of the ABA receptor family to perceive and respond to PA. Our results suggest that PA serves as a hormone in seed plants through activation of a subset of ABA receptors. This study demonstrates that the co-evolution of hormone metabolism and signaling networks can expand organismal resilience.

  4. [Metabolic pathways of OGCP and the influence of parkin protein on the metabolism of OGCP].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-yu; Cao, Li; Tang, Bei-sha; Zhang, Hai-nan; Guo, Ji-feng; Liao, Shu-sheng; Tang, Jian-guang; Yan, Xin-riang; Tan, Li-ming

    2011-03-01

    To study the metabolic pathways of 2-oxoglutarate carrier protein (OGCP)and the influence of parkin protein on the metabolism of OGCP. The OGCP metabolic pathways were identified through inhibiting proteasome activities with specific proteasome inhibitors and protease inhibitors. The isotope pulse-chase experiments were performed to measure the turnover rate of OGCP and to study the influence of parkin protein on the metabolism of OGCP. Proteasome inhibitors and protease inhibitors inhibited OGCP degradation. The OGCP metabolism had a half-life of about 8-10 h. Overexpression of parkin protein accelerated the OGCP degradation. OGCP degrades through proteasome and lysosome degradation pathways. The degradation of parkin protein can promote the degradation of OGCP.

  5. Transcription Analysis of Arabidopsis Membrane Transporters and Hormone Pathways during Developmental and Induced Leaf Senescence1[W

    PubMed Central

    van der Graaff, Eric; Schwacke, Rainer; Schneider, Anja; Desimone, Marcelo; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Kunze, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    A comparative transcriptome analysis for successive stages of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) developmental leaf senescence (NS), darkening-induced senescence of individual leaves attached to the plant (DIS), and senescence in dark-incubated detached leaves (DET) revealed many novel senescence-associated genes with distinct expression profiles. The three senescence processes share a high number of regulated genes, although the overall number of regulated genes during DIS and DET is about 2 times lower than during NS. Consequently, the number of NS-specific genes is much higher than the number of DIS- or DET-specific genes. The expression profiles of transporters (TPs), receptor-like kinases, autophagy genes, and hormone pathways were analyzed in detail. The Arabidopsis TPs and other integral membrane proteins were systematically reclassified based on the Transporter Classification system. Coordinate activation or inactivation of several genes is observed in some TP families in all three or only in individual senescence types, indicating differences in the genetic programs for remobilization of catabolites. Characteristic senescence type-specific differences were also apparent in the expression profiles of (putative) signaling kinases. For eight hormones, the expression of biosynthesis, metabolism, signaling, and (partially) response genes was investigated. In most pathways, novel senescence-associated genes were identified. The expression profiles of hormone homeostasis and signaling genes reveal additional players in the senescence regulatory network. PMID:16603661

  6. Influence of sugars and hormones on the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize endosperms.

    PubMed

    Ren, X D; Liu, H M; Liu, Y H; Hu, Y F; Zhang, J J; Huang, Y B

    2015-03-06

    Starch is the major storage product in the endosperm of cereals. Its synthesis is closely related to sucrose metabolism. In our previous study, we found that the expression of most of the genes involved in starch synthesis might be regulated by sugars and hormones in the maize endosperm. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism. Thus, in this study, maize endosperms were treated with different sugars and hormones and the expression of genes involved in sucrose metabolism (including synthesis, degradation, and transport) were evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that genes affected by different sugars and hormones were primarily regulated by abscisic acid. Sucrose and abscisic acid showed an additive effect on the expression of some genes. Differences in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were observed.

  7. Exercise-Driven Metabolic Pathways in Healthy Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Blazek, Alisa D.; Nam, Jin; Gupta, Rohan; Pradhan, Meera; Perera, Priyangi; Weisleder, Noah L.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Chaudhari°, Ajit M.; Lee, Beth S.; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Butterfield, Timothy A.; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Exercise is vital for maintaining cartilage integrity in healthy joints. Here we examined the exercise-driven transcriptional regulation of genes in healthy rat articular cartilage to dissect the metabolic pathways responsible for its potential benefits. Methods Transcriptome-wide gene expression in the articular cartilage of healthy Sprague-Dawley female rats exercised daily (low intensity treadmill walking) for 2, 5, or 15 days was compared to that of non-exercised rats, using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used for Gene Ontology (GO)-term enrichment and Functional Annotation analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway mapper was used to identify the metabolic pathways regulated by exercise. Results Microarray analysis revealed that exercise-induced 644 DEGs in healthy articular cartilage. The DAVID bioinformatics tool demonstrated high prevalence of Functional Annotation Clusters with greater enrichment scores and GO-terms associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis/remodeling and inflammation/immune response. The KEGG database revealed that exercise regulates 147 metabolic pathways representing molecular interaction networks for Metabolism, Genetic Information Processing, Environmental Information Processing, Cellular Processes, Organismal Systems, and Diseases. These pathways collectively supported the complex regulation of the beneficial effects of exercise on the cartilage. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight that exercise is a robust transcriptional regulator of a wide array of metabolic pathways in healthy cartilage. The major actions of exercise involve ECM biosynthesis/cartilage strengthening and attenuation of inflammatory pathways to provide prophylaxis against onset of arthritic diseases in healthy cartilage. PMID:26924420

  8. Exercise-driven metabolic pathways in healthy cartilage.

    PubMed

    Blazek, A D; Nam, J; Gupta, R; Pradhan, M; Perera, P; Weisleder, N L; Hewett, T E; Chaudhari, A M; Lee, B S; Leblebicioglu, B; Butterfield, T A; Agarwal, S

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining cartilage integrity in healthy joints. Here we examined the exercise-driven transcriptional regulation of genes in healthy rat articular cartilage to dissect the metabolic pathways responsible for the potential benefits of exercise. Transcriptome-wide gene expression in the articular cartilage of healthy Sprague-Dawley female rats exercised daily (low intensity treadmill walking) for 2, 5, or 15 days was compared to that of non-exercised rats, using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used for Gene Ontology (GO)-term enrichment and Functional Annotation analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway mapper was used to identify the metabolic pathways regulated by exercise. Microarray analysis revealed that exercise-induced 644 DEGs in healthy articular cartilage. The DAVID bioinformatics tool demonstrated high prevalence of functional annotation clusters with greater enrichment scores and GO-terms associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis/remodeling and inflammation/immune response. The KEGG database revealed that exercise regulates 147 metabolic pathways representing molecular interaction networks for Metabolism, Genetic Information Processing, Environmental Information Processing, Cellular Processes, Organismal Systems, and Diseases. These pathways collectively supported the complex regulation of the beneficial effects of exercise on the cartilage. Overall, the findings highlight that exercise is a robust transcriptional regulator of a wide array of metabolic pathways in healthy cartilage. The major actions of exercise involve ECM biosynthesis/cartilage strengthening and attenuation of inflammatory pathways to provide prophylaxis against onset of arthritic diseases in healthy cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Compartmentalizing metabolic pathway in Candida glabrata for acetoin production.

    PubMed

    Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Acetoin, a valuable compound, has high potential as a biochemical building block. In this study, subcellular metabolic engineering was applied to engineer the mitochondrion of Candida glabrata for acetoin production. With the aid of mitochondrial targeting sequences, a heterologous acetoin pathway was targeted into the mitochondria to increase the enzyme concentrations and level of intermediate, followed by coupling with the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) to increase the availability of mitochondrial pyruvate. As a result, the strain comprising the combination of the mitochondrial pathway and MPC could yield approximately 3.26 g/L of acetoin, which was about 59.8% higher than that produced by the cytoplasmic pathway. These results provided a new insight into the metabolic engineering of C. glabrata for acetoin production, and offered a potential platform to improve the performance of engineered pathways. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Metabolic Pathways in Anopheles stephensi mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Horton, Ashley A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2017-01-01

    No studies have been performed on mitochondria of malaria vector mosquitoes. This information would be valuable in understanding mosquito aging and detoxification of insecticides, two parameters that significantly impact malaria parasite transmission in endemic regions. Here, we report the analyses of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of cultured cells (ASE line) from Anopheles stephensi, a major vector of malaria in India, Southeast Asia and parts of the Middle East. ASE cell mitochondria shared many features in common with mammalian muscle mitochondria, despite the fact that these cells have a larval origin. However, two major differences with mammalian mitochondria were apparent. One, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle plays a major role in NADH oxidation in ASE cell mitochondria as it does in insect muscle mitochondria. In contrast, mammalian white muscle mitochondria depend primarily on lactate dehydrogenase, whereas red muscle mitochondria depend on the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle. Two, ASE mitochondria were able to oxidize Pro at a rate comparable with that of α-glycerophosphate. However, the Pro pathway appeared to differ from the currently accepted pathway, in that ketoglutarate could be catabolyzed completely by the Krebs cycle or via transamination depending on the ATP need. PMID:18588503

  11. Metabolic modeling of Rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Deepak K

    2010-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyllacticacid. It is commonly found in Coleus blumei, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis. The biosynthesis of RA starts with precursor molecules L‐phenylalanine and L‐tyrosine. Simulation of RA biosynthetic pathway was done using Gepasi Software, includes the reaction kinetics of each step of the pathway and different integration methods such as Euler's method. Optimization of the significant parameters responsible for RA biosynthesis was carried out. As the goal of the work was to increase the productivity of i.e. to maximize the concentration of the RA, the final concentration of RA ([RA]t) was selected as an objective function and selected initial concentration of the Caffeoyl‐3’‐4’hydroxyphenyllactic acid (3’C4HPLA) as parameter constraint and varied its initial concentration as: 0≤ [3’C4HPLA]i ≤ 0.025. Several optimization methods such as Simulated annealing, Evolutionary algorithms and Genetic algorithms were used to optimize the objective function. After optimization the final concentration of RA was slightly higher (4.566132e‐002 mM) than before optimization (4.047119e‐ 002 mM). On the basis of results obtained, it is clear that 4‐hydroxyphenyllactic acid and 3’C4HPLA play major role in the high productivity of the RA. PMID:21364781

  12. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  13. Characterization of the Juvenile Hormone Pathway in the Viviparous Cockroach, Diploptera punctata

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F.; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway. PMID:25706877

  14. PathwayBooster: a tool to support the curation of metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J; Pinney, John W

    2015-03-15

    Despite several recent advances in the automated generation of draft metabolic reconstructions, the manual curation of these networks to produce high quality genome-scale metabolic models remains a labour-intensive and challenging task. We present PathwayBooster, an open-source software tool to support the manual comparison and curation of metabolic models. It combines gene annotations from GenBank files and other sources with information retrieved from the metabolic databases BRENDA and KEGG to produce a set of pathway diagrams and reports summarising the evidence for the presence of a reaction in a given organism's metabolic network. By comparing multiple sources of evidence within a common framework, PathwayBooster assists the curator in the identification of likely false positive (misannotated enzyme) and false negative (pathway hole) reactions. Reaction evidence may be taken from alternative annotations of the same genome and/or a set of closely related organisms. By integrating and visualising evidence from multiple sources, PathwayBooster reduces the manual effort required in the curation of a metabolic model. The software is available online at http://www.theosysbio.bio.ic.ac.uk/resources/pathwaybooster/ .

  15. Metabolic tinker: an online tool for guiding the design of synthetic metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    McClymont, Kent; Soyer, Orkun S

    2013-06-01

    One of the primary aims of synthetic biology is to (re)design metabolic pathways towards the production of desired chemicals. The fast pace of developments in molecular biology increasingly makes it possible to experimentally redesign existing pathways and implement de novo ones in microbes or using in vitro platforms. For such experimental studies, the bottleneck is shifting from implementation of pathways towards their initial design. Here, we present an online tool called 'Metabolic Tinker', which aims to guide the design of synthetic metabolic pathways between any two desired compounds. Given two user-defined 'target' and 'source' compounds, Metabolic Tinker searches for thermodynamically feasible paths in the entire known metabolic universe using a tailored heuristic search strategy. Compared with similar graph-based search tools, Metabolic Tinker returns a larger number of possible paths owing to its broad search base and fast heuristic, and provides for the first time thermodynamic feasibility information for the discovered paths. Metabolic Tinker is available as a web service at http://osslab.ex.ac.uk/tinker.aspx. The same website also provides the source code for Metabolic Tinker, allowing it to be developed further or run on personal machines for specific applications.

  16. Obesity-Driven Gut Microbiota Inflammatory Pathways to Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627

  17. The PI3K pathway in B cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jellusova, Julia; Rickert, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    B cell growth and proliferation is tightly regulated by signaling through the B cell receptor and by other membrane bound receptors responding to different cytokines. The PI3K signaling pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in B cell activation, differentiation and survival. Activated B cells undergo metabolic reprograming in response to changing energetic and biosynthetic demands. B cells also need to be able to coordinate metabolic activity and proliferation with nutrient availability. The PI3K signaling network has been implicated in regulating nutrient acquisition, utilization and biosynthesis, thus integrating receptor-mediated signaling with cell metabolism. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about metabolic changes induced in activated B cells, strategies to adapt to metabolic stress and the role of PI3K signaling in these processes.

  18. Drug target identification in sphingolipid metabolism by computational systems biology tools: metabolic control analysis and metabolic pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozbayraktar, F Betül Kavun; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2010-08-01

    Sphingolipids regulate cellular processes that are critically important in cell's fate and function in cancer development and progression. This fact underlies the basics of the novel cancer therapy approach. The pharmacological manipulation of the sphingolipid metabolism in cancer therapeutics necessitates the detailed understanding of the pathway. Two computational systems biology tools are used to identify potential drug target enzymes among sphingolipid pathway that can be further utilized in drug design studies for cancer therapy. The enzymes in sphingolipid pathway were ranked according to their roles in controlling the metabolic network by metabolic control analysis. The physiologically connected reactions, i.e. biologically significant and functional modules of network, were identified by metabolic pathway analysis. The final set of candidate drug target enzymes are selected such that their manipulation leads to ceramide accumulation and long chain base phosphates depletion. The mathematical tools' efficiency for drug target identification performed in this study is validated by clinically available drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes, growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor pathways and association to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongwei; Olumi, Aria F

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes significantly increases the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The major endocrine aberration in connection with the metabolic syndrome is hyperinsulinemia. Insulin is an independent risk factor and a promoter of BPH. Insulin resistance may change the risk of BPH through several biological pathways. Hyperinsulinemia stimulates the liver to produce more insulin-like growth factor (IGF), another mitogen and an anti-apoptotic agent which binds insulin receptor/IGF receptor and stimulates prostate growth. The levels of IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in prostate tissue and in blood are associated with BPH risk, with the regulation of circulating androgen and growth hormone. Stromal-epithelial interactions play a critical role in the development and growth of the prostate gland and BPH. Previously, we have shown that the expression of c-Jun in the fibroblastic stroma can promote secretion of IGF-I, which stimulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation through activating specific target genes. Here, we will review the epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular findings which have evaluated the relation between diabetes and development of BPH.

  20. Integrated intracellular metabolic profiling and pathway analysis approaches reveal complex metabolic regulation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Wen, Jianping

    2016-02-15

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is one of the most important butanol producing strains. However, environmental stress in the fermentation process usually leads to a lower yield, seriously hampering its industrialization. In order to systematically investigate the key intracellular metabolites that influence the strain growth and butanol production, and find out the critical regulation nodes, an integrated analysis approach has been carried out in this study. Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology, the partial least square discriminant analysis and the pathway analysis, 40 metabolic pathways linked with 43 key metabolic nodes were identified. In-depth analysis showed that lots of amino acids metabolism promoted cell growth but exerted slight influence on butanol production, while sugar metabolism was favorable for cell growth but unfavorable for butanol synthesis. Besides, both lysine and succinic acid metabolism generated a complex effect on the whole metabolic network. Dicarboxylate metabolism exerted an indispensable role on cell growth and butanol production. Subsequently, rational feeding strategies were proposed to verify these conclusions and facilitate the butanol biosynthesis. Feeding amino acids, especially glycine and serine, could obviously improve cell growth while yeast extract, citric acid and ethylene glycol could significantly enhance both growth and butanol production. The feeding experiment confirmed that metabolic profiling combined with pathway analysis provided an accurate, reasonable and practical approach to explore the cellular metabolic activity and supplied a basis for improving butanol production. These strategies can also be extended for the production of other important bio-chemical compounds.

  1. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  2. Insulin resistance and dysregulation of tryptophan-kynurenine and kynurenine-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) underlines aging and aging-associated medical (diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension) and psychiatric (depression, cognitive decline) disorders. Molecular mechanisms of IR in genetically or metabolically predisposed individuals remain uncertain. Current review of the literature and our data presents the evidences that dysregulation of tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) and KYN-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolic pathways is one of the mechanisms of IR. The first and rate-limiting step of TRP-KYN pathway is regulated by enzymes inducible by pro-inflammatory factors and/or stress hormones. The key enzymes of KYN-NAD pathway require pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P), an active form of vitamin B6, as a cofactor. Deficiency of P5P diverts KYN-NAD metabolism from production of NAD to the excessive formation of xanthurenic acid (XA). Human and experimental studies suggested that XA and some other KYN metabolites might impair production, release, and biological activity of insulin. We propose that one of the mechanisms of IR is inflammation- and/or stress-induced upregulation of TRP-KYN metabolism in combination with P5P deficiency-induced diversion of KYN-NAD metabolism towards formation of XA and other KYN derivatives affecting insulin activity. Monitoring of KYN/P5P status and formation of XA might help to identify subjects at risk for IR. Pharmacological regulation of the TRP-KYN and KYN-NAD pathways and maintaining of adequate vitamin B6 status might contribute to prevention and treatment of IR in conditions associated with inflammation/stress-induced excessive production of KYN and deficiency of vitamin B6, e.g., type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, aging, menopause, pregnancy, and hepatitis C virus infection.

  3. Central Pathways Integrating Metabolism and Reproduction in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), orexin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholecystokinin, 26RFamide, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts. PMID:24723910

  4. On-line metabolic pathway analysis based on metabolic signal flow diagram.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Shimizu, K

    In this work, an integrated modeling approach based on a metabolic signal flow diagram and cellular energetics was used to model the metabolic pathway analysis for the cultivation of yeast on glucose. This approach enables us to make a clear analysis of the flow direction of the carbon fluxes in the metabolic pathways as well as of the degree of activation of a particular pathway for the synthesis of biomaterials for cell growth. The analyses demonstrate that the main metabolic pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae change significantly during batch culture. Carbon flow direction is toward glycolysis to satisfy the increase of requirement for precursors and energy. The enzymatic activation of TCA cycle seems to always be at normal level, which may result in the overflow of ethanol due to its limited capacity. The advantage of this approach is that it adopts both virtues of the metabolic signal flow diagram and the simple network analysis method, focusing on the investigation of the flow directions of carbon fluxes and the degree of activation of a particular pathway or reaction loop. All of the variables used in the model equations were determined on-line; the information obtained from the calculated metabolic coefficients may result in a better understanding of cell physiology and help to evaluate the state of the cell culture process. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. A Guided Discovery Approach for Learning Metabolic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2005-01-01

    Learning the wealth of information in metabolic pathways is both challenging and overwhelming for students. A step-by-step guided discovery approach to the learning of the chemical steps in gluconeogenesis and the citric acid cycle is described. This approach starts from concepts the student already knows, develops these further in a logical…

  6. A Guided Discovery Approach for Learning Metabolic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2005-01-01

    Learning the wealth of information in metabolic pathways is both challenging and overwhelming for students. A step-by-step guided discovery approach to the learning of the chemical steps in gluconeogenesis and the citric acid cycle is described. This approach starts from concepts the student already knows, develops these further in a logical…

  7. Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) Upgraded with Targeted Chemical Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Hagai; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M

    2016-01-01

    Malaria Parasite Metabolic Pathways (MPMP) is the website for the functional genomics of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum. All the published information about targeted chemical compounds has now been added. Users can find the drug target and publication details linked to a drug database for further information about the medicinal properties of each compound.

  8. Metabolic pathways in the post-genome era.

    PubMed

    Papin, Jason A; Price, Nathan D; Wiback, Sharon J; Fell, David A; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2003-05-01

    Metabolic pathways are a central paradigm in biology. Historically, they have been defined on the basis of their step-by-step discovery. However, the genome-scale metabolic networks now being reconstructed from annotation of genome sequences demand new network-based definitions of pathways to facilitate analysis of their capabilities and functions, such as metabolic versatility and robustness, and optimal growth rates. This demand has led to the development of a new mathematically based analysis of complex, metabolic networks that enumerates all their unique pathways that take into account all requirements for cofactors and byproducts. Applications include the design of engineered biological systems, the generation of testable hypotheses regarding network structure and function, and the elucidation of properties that can not be described by simple descriptions of individual components (such as product yield, network robustness, correlated reactions and predictions of minimal media). Recently, these properties have also been studied in genome-scale networks. Thus, network-based pathways are emerging as an important paradigm for analysis of biological systems.

  9. Bioinformatic Approaches to Metabolic Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, Stuart; Chadwick, Wayne; Wang, Liyun; Zhou, Yu; Martin, Bronwen; Park, Sung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development in the last decade of accurate and reliable mass data collection techniques has greatly enhanced our comprehension of cell signaling networks and pathways. At the same time however, these technological advances have also increased the difficulty of satisfactorily analyzing and interpreting these ever-expanding datasets. At the present time, multiple diverse scientific communities including molecular biological, genetic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and cell biological, are converging upon a common endpoint, that is, the measurement, interpretation, and potential prediction of signal transduction cascade activity from mass datasets. Our ever increasing appreciation of the complexity of cellular or receptor signaling output and the structural coordination of intracellular signaling cascades has to some extent necessitated the generation of a new branch of informatics that more closely associates functional signaling effects to biological actions and even whole-animal phenotypes. The ability to untangle and hopefully generate theoretical models of signal transduction information flow from transmembrane receptor systems to physiological and pharmacological actions may be one of the greatest advances in cell signaling science. In this overview, we shall attempt to assist the navigation into this new field of cell signaling and highlight several methodologies and technologies to appreciate this exciting new age of signal transduction. PMID:21870222

  10. Bioinformatic approaches to metabolic pathways analysis.

    PubMed

    Maudsley, Stuart; Chadwick, Wayne; Wang, Liyun; Zhou, Yu; Martin, Bronwen; Park, Sung-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The growth and development in the last decade of accurate and reliable mass data collection techniques has greatly enhanced our comprehension of cell signaling networks and pathways. At the same time however, these technological advances have also increased the difficulty of satisfactorily analyzing and interpreting these ever-expanding datasets. At the present time, multiple diverse scientific communities including molecular biological, genetic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and cell biological, are converging upon a common endpoint, that is, the measurement, interpretation, and potential prediction of signal transduction cascade activity from mass datasets. Our ever increasing appreciation of the complexity of cellular or receptor signaling output and the structural coordination of intracellular signaling cascades has to some extent necessitated the generation of a new branch of informatics that more closely associates functional signaling effects to biological actions and even whole-animal phenotypes. The ability to untangle and hopefully generate theoretical models of signal transduction information flow from transmembrane receptor systems to physiological and pharmacological actions may be one of the greatest advances in cell signaling science. In this overview, we shall attempt to assist the navigation into this new field of cell signaling and highlight several methodologies and technologies to appreciate this exciting new age of signal transduction.

  11. Connecting proline metabolism and signaling pathways in plant senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Becker, Donald F.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid proline has a unique biological role in stress adaptation. Proline metabolism is manipulated under stress by multiple and complex regulatory pathways and can profoundly influence cell death and survival in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Though the effects of proline are mediated by diverse signaling pathways, a common theme appears to be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to proline oxidation being coupled to the respiratory electron transport chain. Considerable research has been devoted to understand how plants exploit proline metabolism in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here, we review potential mechanisms by which proline metabolism influences plant senescence, namely in the petal and leaf. Recent studies of petal senescence suggest proline content is manipulated to meet energy demands of senescing cells. In the flower and leaf, proline metabolism may influence ROS signaling pathways that delay senescence progression. Future studies focusing on the mechanisms by which proline metabolic shifts occur during senescence may lead to novel methods to rescue crops under stress and to preserve post-harvest agricultural products. PMID:26347750

  12. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R.; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L.; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G.; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock−/−) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock−/− mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state. PMID:23341599

  13. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-02-26

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock(-/-)) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock(-/-) mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state.

  14. The mevalonate pathway and the synthesis of juvenile hormone in insects.

    PubMed

    Bellés, Xavier; Martín, David; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2005-01-01

    The mevalonate pathway in insects has two important peculiarities, the absence of the sterol branch and the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH), that may have influenced the mechanisms of regulation. The data available on these mechanisms indicate that cholesterol does not play a regulatory role and that JH modulates transcript levels of a number of genes of the mevalonate pathway or can influence the translatability and/or stability of the transcripts themselves. These data suggest that the mevalonate pathway in insects can best be interpreted in terms of coordinated regulation, in which regulators act in parallel to a number of enzymes, as occurs in the cholesterol-driven pathway in vertebrates.

  15. Low sex hormone-binding globulin is associated with the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Melissa E; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Cook, Nancy R; Seely, Ellen W; Ridker, Paul M; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2006-11-01

    Although an association between the metabolic syndrome and hyperandrogenism has been suggested in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, few studies have investigated this relationship in postmenopausal women. We measured estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated the free androgen index (FAI) in 212 postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy in the Women's Health Study. A modified definition of the metabolic syndrome (3 or more of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose metabolism) from the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults was used. Women with the metabolic syndrome had higher mean levels of estradiol, testosterone, and FAI values and lower SHBG levels. Higher FAI and lower SHBG were associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for BMI and other factors, women in the highest tertile of FAI had an odds ratio of 12.6 (95% confidence interval, 3.8-41.6) for the metabolic syndrome, whereas those in the lowest SHBG tertile had an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.7-19.8). When stratified by body mass index, the associations with high FAI and low SHBG remained significant even in women with body mass index less than 26.7 kg/m2. An androgenic hormone profile is associated with both the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic abnormalities in postmenopausal women.

  16. Metabolic pathway reconstruction strategies for central metabolism and natural product biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kotera, Masaaki; Goto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway reconstruction presents a challenge for understanding metabolic pathways in organisms of interest. Different strategies, i.e., reference-based vs. de novo, must be used for pathway reconstruction depending on the availability of well-characterized enzymatic reactions. If at least one enzyme is already known to catalyze a reaction, its amino acid sequence can be used as a reference for identifying homologous enzymes in the genome of an organism of interest. Where there is no known enzyme able to catalyze a corresponding reaction, however, the reaction and the corresponding enzyme must be predicted de novo from chemical transformations of the putative substrate-product pair. This review summarizes studies involving reference-based and de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction and discusses the importance of the classification and structure-function relationships of enzymes. PMID:27924274

  17. Metabolic pathway reconstruction strategies for central metabolism and natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Masaaki; Goto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway reconstruction presents a challenge for understanding metabolic pathways in organisms of interest. Different strategies, i.e., reference-based vs. de novo, must be used for pathway reconstruction depending on the availability of well-characterized enzymatic reactions. If at least one enzyme is already known to catalyze a reaction, its amino acid sequence can be used as a reference for identifying homologous enzymes in the genome of an organism of interest. Where there is no known enzyme able to catalyze a corresponding reaction, however, the reaction and the corresponding enzyme must be predicted de novo from chemical transformations of the putative substrate-product pair. This review summarizes studies involving reference-based and de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction and discusses the importance of the classification and structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  18. Revealing parasite influence in metabolic pathways in Apicomplexa infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Apicomplexa interacts with the host in the special living environment, competing for energy and nutrients from the host cells by manipulating the host metabolism. Previous studies of host-parasite interaction mainly focused on using cellular and biochemical methods to investigate molecular functions in metabolic pathways of parasite infected hosts. Computational approaches taking advantage of high-throughput biological data and topology of metabolic pathways have a great potential in revealing the details and mechanism of parasites-to-host interactions. A new analytical method was designed in this work to study host-parasite interactions in human cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Cryptosporidium parvum. Results We introduced a new method that analyzes the host metabolic pathways in divided parts: host specific subpathways and host-parasite common subpathways. Upon analysis on gene expression data from cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum or Cryptosporidium parvum, we found: (i) six host-parasite common subpathways and four host specific subpathways were significantly altered in plasmodium infected human cells; (ii) plasmodium utilized fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation, and Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis to obtain nutrients from host environment; (iii) in Cryptosporidium parvum infected cells, most of the host-parasite common enzymes were down-regulated, whereas the host specific enzymes up-regulated; (iv) the down-regulation of common subpathways in host cells might be caused by competition for the substrates and up-regulation of host specific subpathways may be stimulated by parasite infection. Conclusion Results demonstrated a significantly coordinated expression pattern between the two groups of subpathways. The method helped expose the impact of parasite infection on host cell metabolism, which was previously concealed in the pathway enrichment analysis. Our approach revealed detailed

  19. Analysis of complex metabolic behavior through pathway decomposition.

    PubMed

    Ip, Kuhn; Colijn, Caroline; Lun, Desmond S

    2011-06-03

    Understanding complex systems through decomposition into simple interacting components is a pervasive paradigm throughout modern science and engineering. For cellular metabolism, complexity can be reduced by decomposition into pathways with particular biochemical functions, and the concept of elementary flux modes provides a systematic way for organizing metabolic networks into such pathways. While decomposition using elementary flux modes has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding and manipulating cellular metabolism, its utility, however, is severely limited since the number of modes in a network increases exponentially with its size. Here, we present a new method for decomposition of metabolic flux distributions into elementary flux modes. Our method can easily operate on large, genome-scale networks since it does not require all relevant modes of the metabolic network to be generated. We illustrate the utility of our method for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli and for understanding the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) during infection. Our method can achieve computational time improvements exceeding 2000-fold and requires only several seconds to generate elementary mode decompositions on genome-scale networks. These improvements arise from not having to generate all relevant elementary modes prior to initiating the decomposition. The decompositions from our method are useful for understanding complex flux distributions and debugging genome-scale models.

  20. Analysis of complex metabolic behavior through pathway decomposition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding complex systems through decomposition into simple interacting components is a pervasive paradigm throughout modern science and engineering. For cellular metabolism, complexity can be reduced by decomposition into pathways with particular biochemical functions, and the concept of elementary flux modes provides a systematic way for organizing metabolic networks into such pathways. While decomposition using elementary flux modes has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding and manipulating cellular metabolism, its utility, however, is severely limited since the number of modes in a network increases exponentially with its size. Results Here, we present a new method for decomposition of metabolic flux distributions into elementary flux modes. Our method can easily operate on large, genome-scale networks since it does not require all relevant modes of the metabolic network to be generated. We illustrate the utility of our method for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli and for understanding the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) during infection. Conclusions Our method can achieve computational time improvements exceeding 2000-fold and requires only several seconds to generate elementary mode decompositions on genome-scale networks. These improvements arise from not having to generate all relevant elementary modes prior to initiating the decomposition. The decompositions from our method are useful for understanding complex flux distributions and debugging genome-scale models. PMID:21639889

  1. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Gabriel V.; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A.; Baker, Michael E.; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007

  2. Beyond low plasma T3: local thyroid hormone metabolism during inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Fliers, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Decreased serum thyroid hormone concentrations in severely ill patients were first reported in the 1970s, but the functional meaning of the observed changes in thyroid hormone levels, together known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), remains enigmatic. Although the common view was that NTIS results in overall down-regulation of metabolism in order to save energy, recent work has shown a more complex picture. NTIS comprises marked variation in transcriptional and translational activity of genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism, ranging from inhibition to activation, dependent on the organ or tissue studied. Illness-induced changes in each of these organs appear to be very different during acute or chronic inflammation, adding an additional level of complexity. Organ- and timing-specific changes in the activity of thyroid hormone deiodinating enzymes (deiodinase types 1, 2, and 3) highlight deiodinases as proactive players in the response to illness, whereas the granulocyte is a novel and potentially important cell type involved in NTIS during bacterial infection. Although acute NTIS can be seen as an adaptive response to support the immune response, NTIS may turn disadvantageous when critical illness enters a chronic phase necessitating prolonged life support. For instance, changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in muscle during critical illness may be relevant for the pathogenesis of myopathy associated with prolonged ventilator dependence. This review focuses on NTIS as a timing-related and organ-specific response to illness, occurring independently from the decrease in serum thyroid hormone levels and potentially relevant for disease progression.

  3. Association of thyroid hormones with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yukako; Takaya, Ryuzo; Takitani, Kimitaka; Ishiro, Manabu; Okasora, Keisuke; Niegawa, Tomomi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with health consequences, and thyroid dysfunction may be an adaption to the increased energy expenditure in obesity. With the rising prevalence of obesity in childhood, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome may also increase. In the current study, we have shown gender differences in the association of thyroid hormones with obesity, and attempted to elucidate the relationship between thyroid hormones and anthropometric parameters and biochemical data in obese Japanese children. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, body composition, thyroid hormones, and lipid profiles in 283 obese children. The association between thyroid hormones and several parameters differed by gender. The free T3 to free T4 ratio (fT3/fT4) in boys was negatively associated with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, whereas in girls, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were positively correlated with levels of glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fT3/fT4 was positively correlated with uric acid levels. FT3/fT4 in boys with metabolic syndrome was relatively higher than in those without metabolic syndrome. The cause of gender differences is unknown. Therefore, further studies with larger sample sizes and a long-term follow-up period are needed to address the influence of thyroid hormones on various parameters.

  4. Association of thyroid hormones with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Yukako; Takaya, Ryuzo; Takitani, Kimitaka; Ishiro, Manabu; Okasora, Keisuke; Niegawa, Tomomi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with health consequences, and thyroid dysfunction may be an adaption to the increased energy expenditure in obesity. With the rising prevalence of obesity in childhood, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome may also increase. In the current study, we have shown gender differences in the association of thyroid hormones with obesity, and attempted to elucidate the relationship between thyroid hormones and anthropometric parameters and biochemical data in obese Japanese children. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, body composition, thyroid hormones, and lipid profiles in 283 obese children. The association between thyroid hormones and several parameters differed by gender. The free T3 to free T4 ratio (fT3/fT4) in boys was negatively associated with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, whereas in girls, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were positively correlated with levels of glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fT3/fT4 was positively correlated with uric acid levels. FT3/fT4 in boys with metabolic syndrome was relatively higher than in those without metabolic syndrome. The cause of gender differences is unknown. Therefore, further studies with larger sample sizes and a long-term follow-up period are needed to address the influence of thyroid hormones on various parameters. PMID:26388669

  5. Effects of thyroid hormone on the GH signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Ocaranza, Paula; Lammoglia, Juan Javier; Iñiguez, Germán; Román, Rossana; Cassorla, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone on growth and development in children is well recognized. In addition, linear growth is highly dependent on the response of peripheral tissues to growth hormone, a process known as GH sensitivity, but little is known about the possible effects of T4 on this process. We determined the effect of stimulation with recombinant human GH (rhGH; 200 ng/mL) alone or in combination with two different concentrations of T4 (250 nM and 500 nM for 24 h) on JAK2 and STAT5 activation in skin fibroblast cultures obtained from prepubertal boys with normal height. JAK2 and STAT5 were activated under co-incubation with T4 (at both concentrations) and rhGH in the non-nuclear fraction of the fibroblasts. In addition, after 24h of co-incubation with rhGH and T4 (500 nM), we observed an increase in phospho-STAT5 in the nuclear fraction, when compared to GH and T4 stimulation alone. This effect was not observed when the fibroblasts were co-incubated with GH and the lower concentration of T4 (250 nM). Combined stimulation with GH and T4 at a concentration of 500 nM increases synergistically nuclear phospho-STAT5 in skin fibroblasts, which may amplify tissue sensitivity to GH. These findings may help to explain the effect of T4 administration on growth velocity in some children with idiopathic short stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis: Influence of lifestyle, gut microbiome and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hagland, Hanne R; Søreide, Kjetil

    2015-01-28

    The interconnectivity between diet, gut microbiota and cell molecular responses is well known; however, only recently has technology allowed the identification of strains of microorganisms harbored in the gastrointestinal tract that may increase susceptibility to cancer. The colonic environment appears to play a role in the development of colon cancer, which is influenced by the human metabolic lifestyle and changes in the gut microbiome. Studying metabolic changes at the cellular level in cancer be useful for developing novel improved preventative measures, such as screening through metabolic breath-tests or treatment options that directly affect the metabolic pathways responsible for the carcinogenicity.

  7. How Did Arthropod Sesquiterpenoids and Ecdysteroids Arise? Comparison of Hormonal Pathway Genes in Noninsect Arthropod Genomes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Kenny, Nathan James; Lam, Hon Ming; Chan, Ting Fung; Chu, Ka Hou; Bendena, William G; Tobe, Stephen S; Hui, Jerome Ho Lam

    2015-06-25

    The phylum Arthropoda contains the largest number of described living animal species, with insects and crustaceans dominating the terrestrial and aquatic environments, respectively. Their successful radiations have long been linked to their rigid exoskeleton in conjunction with their specialized endocrine systems. In order to understand how hormones can contribute to the evolution of these animals, here, we have categorized the sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway genes in the noninsect arthropod genomes, which are known to play important roles in the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in insects. In our analyses, the majority of gene homologs involved in the biosynthetic, degradative, and signaling pathways of sesquiterpenoids and ecdysteroids can be identified, implying these two hormonal systems were present in the last common ancestor of arthropods. Moreover, we found that the "Broad-Complex" was specifically gained in the Pancrustacea, and the innovation of juvenile hormone (JH) in the insect linage correlates with the gain of the JH epoxidase (CYP15A1/C1) and the key residue changes in the binding domain of JH receptor ("Methoprene-tolerant"). Furthermore, the gain of "Phantom" differentiates chelicerates from the other arthropods in using ponasterone A rather than 20-hydroxyecdysone as molting hormone. This study establishes a comprehensive framework for interpreting the evolution of these vital hormonal pathways in these most successful animals, the arthropods, for the first time. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. How Did Arthropod Sesquiterpenoids and Ecdysteroids Arise? Comparison of Hormonal Pathway Genes in Noninsect Arthropod Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhe; Kenny, Nathan James; Lam, Hon Ming; Chan, Ting Fung; Chu, Ka Hou; Bendena, William G.; Tobe, Stephen S.; Hui, Jerome Ho Lam

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Arthropoda contains the largest number of described living animal species, with insects and crustaceans dominating the terrestrial and aquatic environments, respectively. Their successful radiations have long been linked to their rigid exoskeleton in conjunction with their specialized endocrine systems. In order to understand how hormones can contribute to the evolution of these animals, here, we have categorized the sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway genes in the noninsect arthropod genomes, which are known to play important roles in the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in insects. In our analyses, the majority of gene homologs involved in the biosynthetic, degradative, and signaling pathways of sesquiterpenoids and ecdysteroids can be identified, implying these two hormonal systems were present in the last common ancestor of arthropods. Moreover, we found that the “Broad-Complex” was specifically gained in the Pancrustacea, and the innovation of juvenile hormone (JH) in the insect linage correlates with the gain of the JH epoxidase (CYP15A1/C1) and the key residue changes in the binding domain of JH receptor (“Methoprene-tolerant”). Furthermore, the gain of “Phantom” differentiates chelicerates from the other arthropods in using ponasterone A rather than 20-hydroxyecdysone as molting hormone. This study establishes a comprehensive framework for interpreting the evolution of these vital hormonal pathways in these most successful animals, the arthropods, for the first time. PMID:26112967

  9. TFAP2C controls hormone response in breast cancer cells through multiple pathways of estrogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, George W; Horan, Annamarie D; Chen, Yizhen; Weigel, Ronald J

    2007-09-15

    Breast cancers expressing estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) are associated with a favorable biology and are more likely to respond to hormonal therapy. In addition to ERalpha, other pathways of estrogen response have been identified including ERbeta and GPR30, a membrane receptor for estrogen, and the key mechanisms regulating expression of ERs and hormone response remain controversial. Herein, we show that TFAP2C is the key regulator of hormone responsiveness in breast carcinoma cells through the control of multiple pathways of estrogen signaling. TFAP2C regulates the expression of ERalpha directly by binding to the ERalpha promoter and indirectly via regulation of FoxM1. In so doing, TFAP2C controls the expression of ERalpha target genes, including pS2, MYB, and RERG. Furthermore, TFAP2C controlled the expression of GPR30. In distinct contrast, TFAP2A, a related factor expressed in breast cancer, was not involved in estrogen-mediated pathways but regulated expression of genes controlling cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including p21(CIP1) and IGFBP-3. Knockdown of TFAP2C abrogated the mitogenic response to estrogen exposure and decreased hormone-responsive tumor growth of breast cancer xenografts. We conclude that TFAP2C is a central control gene of hormone response and is a novel therapeutic target in the design of new drug treatments for breast cancer.

  10. Alterations in metabolic pathways and networks in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Zhu, H; Sharma, S; Bogdanov, M; Rozen, S G; Matson, W; Oki, N O; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Churchill, E; Lei, Z; Appleby, D; Kling, M A; Trojanowski, J Q; Doraiswamy, P M; Arnold, S E

    2013-04-09

    The pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown and clinical trials have not demonstrated significant benefit. Biochemical characterization of AD and its prodromal phase may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic insights. We used targeted metabolomics platform to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD (n=40), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=36) and control (n=38) subjects; univariate and multivariate analyses to define between-group differences; and partial least square-discriminant analysis models to classify diagnostic groups using CSF metabolomic profiles. A partial correlation network was built to link metabolic markers, protein markers and disease severity. AD subjects had elevated methionine (MET), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), vanillylmandelic acid, xanthosine and glutathione versus controls. MCI subjects had elevated 5-HIAA, MET, hypoxanthine and other metabolites versus controls. Metabolite ratios revealed changes within tryptophan, MET and purine pathways. Initial pathway analyses identified steps in several pathways that appear altered in AD and MCI. A partial correlation network showed total tau most directly related to norepinephrine and purine pathways; amyloid-β (Ab42) was related directly to an unidentified metabolite and indirectly to 5-HIAA and MET. These findings indicate that MCI and AD are associated with an overlapping pattern of perturbations in tryptophan, tyrosine, MET and purine pathways, and suggest that profound biochemical alterations are linked to abnormal Ab42 and tau metabolism. Metabolomics provides powerful tools to map interlinked biochemical pathway perturbations and study AD as a disease of network failure.

  11. Therapeutic targeting of EGFR-activated metabolic pathways in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qinglei; Lei, Ting; Ye, Fei

    2013-08-01

    The highly divergent histological heterogeneities, aggressive invasion and extremely poor response to treatment make glioblastoma (GBM) one of the most lethal and difficult cancers in humans. Among key elements driving its behavior is epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), however, neither traditional therapy including neurosurgery, radiation, temozolomide, nor targeted EGFR therapeutics in clinic has generated promising results to date. Strategies are now focusing on blocking the downstream EGFR-activated metabolic pathways and the key phosphorylated kinases. Here, we review two major EGFR-activated downstream metabolic pathways including the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways and their key phosphorylated kinase alterations in GBMs. This review also discusses potential pharmacological progress from bench work to clinical trials in order to evaluate specific inhibitors as well as therapeutics targeting PI3K and RAS signaling pathways. Several factors impede clinical progress in targeting GBM, including the high rates of acquired resistance, heterogeneity within and across the tumors, complexity of signaling pathways and difficulty in traversing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Substantial insight into genetic and molecular pathways and strategies to better tap the potential of these agents include rational combinatorial regimens and molecular phenotype-based patient enrichment, each of which will undoubtedly generate new therapeutic approaches to combat these devastating disabilities in the near future.

  12. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2016-08-10

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Effect of menopausal hormone therapy on components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lovre, Dragana; Lindsey, Sarah H; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2016-05-27

    The world population is aging, and women will spend an increasing share of their lives in a postmenopausal state that predisposes to metabolic dysfunction. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women is likely to increase dramatically. This article summarizes the effects of menopause in predisposing to components of MetS including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension (HTN). We also summarize the effects of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in reversing these metabolic alterations and discuss therapeutic advances of novel menopausal treatment on metabolic function.

  14. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  15. [Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) as well as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential hormones to maintain homeostasis of bone turnover by activating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Results from GH replacement therapy for primary osteoporosis and adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD) suggest that one year or more treatment period by this agent is required to gain bone mineral density (BMD) over the basal level after compensating BMD loss caused by dominant increase in bone resorption which was observed at early phase of GH treatment. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy of GH replacement therapy on increases in BMD in male patients with AGHD. Additional analyses are needed to draw firm conclusions in female patients with AGHD, because insufficient amounts of GH might be administrated to them without considerations of influence of estrogen replacement therapy on IGF-1 production. Further observational studies are needed to clarify whether GH replacement therapy prevent fracture risk in these patients.

  16. Human stanniocalcin: a possible hormonal regulator of mineral metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, H S; Cepeda, M A; Zhang, Q Q; Rosen, C A; Vozzolo, B L

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding the mammalian homolog of stanniocalcin (STC), a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone that was first described in fishes where it functions in preventing hypercalcemia. STC has a unique amino acid sequence and, until now, has remained one of the few polypeptide hormones never described in higher vertebrates. Human STC (hSTC) was found to be 247 amino acids long and to share 73% amino acid sequence similarity with fish STC. Polyclonal antibodies to recombinant hSTC localized to a distinct cell type in the nephron tubule, suggesting kidney as a possible site of synthesis. Recombinant hSTC inhibited the gill transport of calcium when administered to fish and stimulated renal phosphate reabsorption in the rat. The evidence suggests that mammalian STC, like its piscine counterpart, is a regulator of mineral homeostasis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8700837

  17. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Debottlenecking the 1,3-propanediol pathway by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Celińska, E

    2010-01-01

    The history of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) conversion from being a specialty chemical to being a bulk chemical illustrates that the concerted effort of different metabolic engineering approaches brings the most successful results. In order to metabolically tailor the 1,3-PD production pathway multiple strategies have been pursued. Knocking-out genes responsible for by-products formation, intergeneric transfer and overexpression of the genes directly involved in the pathway, manipulation with internal redox balance, introduction of a synthetic flux control point, and modification of the substrate mechanism of transport are some of the strategies applied. The metabolic engineering of the microbial 1,3-PD production exploits both native producers and microorganisms with acquired ability to produce the diol via genetic manipulations. Combination of the appropriate genes from homologous and heterologous hosts is expected to bring a desired objective of production of 1,3-PD cheaply, efficiently and independently from non-renewable resources. The state-of-the-art of the 1,3-PD pathway metabolic engineering is reviewed in this paper.

  19. Potential therapeutic targets in energy metabolism pathways of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rowshan Ara; Hossain, Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2017-03-30

    Mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes make cancer cells proliferate indefinitely. As they possess almost all mechanisms for cell proliferation and survival like healthy cells, it is difficult to specifically target cancer cells in the body. Current treatments in most of the cases are harmful to healthy cells as well. Thus, it would be of great prudence to target specific characters of cancer cells. Since cancer cells avidly use glucose and glutamine to survive and proliferate by upregulating the relevant enzymes and their specific isoforms having important regulatory roles, it has been of great interest recently to target the energy-related metabolic pathways as part of the therapeutic interventions. This paper summarizes the roles of energy metabolism and their cross-talks with other important signaling pathways in regulating proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. As breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, a clear understanding of the variations of energy metabolism in different molecular subtypes would help in treating each type with a very customized, safer and efficient treatment regimen, by targeting specific glucose metabolism and related pathways with gene silencing nucleic acid sequences or small molecule drugs, or the combination of both.

  20. Engineering metabolic pathways in plants by multigene transformation.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Arjó, Gemma; Bai, Chao; Banakar, Raviraj; Bassie, Ludovic; Berman, Judit; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Sabalza, Maite; Sanahuja, Georgina; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering in plants can be used to increase the abundance of specific valuable metabolites, but single-point interventions generally do not improve the yields of target metabolites unless that product is immediately downstream of the intervention point and there is a plentiful supply of precursors. In many cases, an intervention is necessary at an early bottleneck, sometimes the first committed step in the pathway, but is often only successful in shifting the bottleneck downstream, sometimes also causing the accumulation of an undesirable metabolic intermediate. Occasionally it has been possible to induce multiple genes in a pathway by controlling the expression of a key regulator, such as a transcription factor, but this strategy is only possible if such master regulators exist and can be identified. A more robust approach is the simultaneous expression of multiple genes in the pathway, preferably representing every critical enzymatic step, therefore removing all bottlenecks and ensuring completely unrestricted metabolic flux. This approach requires the transfer of multiple enzyme-encoding genes to the recipient plant, which is achieved most efficiently if all genes are transferred at the same time. Here we review the state of the art in multigene transformation as applied to metabolic engineering in plants, highlighting some of the most significant recent advances in the field.

  1. Pathway thermodynamics highlights kinetic obstacles in central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Flamholz, Avi; Reznik, Ed; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2014-02-01

    In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG'). Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG' of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG' approaches equilibrium (ΔrG' = 0 kJ/mol), exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF), which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation), substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase), and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD). The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of evaluating the

  2. Pathway Thermodynamics Highlights Kinetic Obstacles in Central Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Flamholz, Avi; Reznik, Ed; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG′). Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG′ of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG′ approaches equilibrium (ΔrG′ = 0 kJ/mol), exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF), which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation), substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase), and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD). The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of evaluating

  3. Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mitsunori; Hanada, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Yamauchi, Yukika; North, Helen; Marion-Poll, Annie; Sun, Tai-Ping; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nambara, Eiji

    2006-11-01

    In a wide range of plant species, seed germination is regulated antagonistically by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA). In the present study, we have revealed that ABA metabolism (both biosynthesis and inactivation) was phytochrome-regulated in an opposite fashion to GA metabolism during photoreversible seed germination in Arabidopsis. Endogenous ABA levels were decreased by irradiation with a red (R) light pulse in dark-imbibed seeds pre-treated with a far-red (FR) light pulse, and the reduction in ABA levels in response to R light was inhibited in a phytochrome B (PHYB)-deficient mutant. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis gene, AtNCED6, and the inactivation gene, CYP707A2, was regulated in a photoreversible manner, suggesting a key role for the genes in PHYB-mediated regulation of ABA metabolism. Abscisic acid-deficient mutants such as nced6-1, aba2-2 and aao3-4 exhibited an enhanced ability to germinate relative to wild type when imbibed in the dark after irradiation with an FR light pulse. In addition, the ability to synthesize GA was improved in the aba2-2 mutant compared with wild type during dark-imbibition after an FR light pulse. Activation of GA biosynthesis in the aba2-2 mutant was also observed during seed development. These data indicate that ABA is involved in the suppression of GA biosynthesis in both imbibed and developing seeds. Spatial expression patterns of the AtABA2 and AAO3 genes, responsible for last two steps of ABA biosynthesis, were distinct from that of the GA biosynthesis gene, AtGA3ox2, in both imbibed and developing seeds, suggesting that biosynthesis of ABA and GA in seeds occurs in different cell types.

  4. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan E; Jia, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Garmire, Lana X

    2016-03-31

    More accurate diagnostic methods are pressingly needed to diagnose breast cancer, the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. Blood-based metabolomics is a promising diagnostic method for breast cancer. However, many metabolic biomarkers are difficult to replicate among studies. We propose that higher-order functional representation of metabolomics data, such as pathway-based metabolomic features, can be used as robust biomarkers for breast cancer. Towards this, we have developed a new computational method that uses personalized pathway dysregulation scores for disease diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under the Curve, a receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.968 and 0.934, sensitivities of 0.946 and 0.954, and specificities of 0.934 and 0.918. These two metabolomics-based pathway models are further validated by RNA-Seq-based TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) breast cancer data, with AUCs of 0.995 and 0.993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease diagnosis.

  5. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Perroud, Bertrand; Lee, Jinoo; Valkova, Nelly; Dhirapong, Amy; Lin, Pei-Yin; Fiehn, Oliver; Kültz, Dietmar; Weiss, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values < 2.0 E-05) in glycolysis, propanoate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, urea cycle and arginine/proline metabolism, as well as in the non-metabolic p53 and FAS pathways. In a pilot study using random urine samples from both ccRCC and control patients, we performed metabolic profiling and found that only sorbitol, a component of an alternative glycolysis pathway, is significantly elevated at 5.4-fold in RCC patients as compared to controls. Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids

  6. Hormone regulation of rhizome development in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) associated with proteomic changes controlling respiratory and amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiqing; Xu, Qian; Meyer, William A.; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhizomes are underground stems with meristematic tissues capable of generating shoots and roots. However, mechanisms controlling rhizome formation and growth are yet to be completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether rhizome development could be regulated by cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellic acids (GAs), and determine underlying mechanisms of regulation of rhizome formation and growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by a CK or GA through proteomic and transcript analysis. Methods A rhizomatous genotype of tall fescue (‘BR’) plants were treated with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a synthetic cytokinin) or GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. Furthermore, comparative proteomic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome number by BAP and rhizome elongation by GA3. Key Results BAP stimulated rhizome formation while GA3 promoted rhizome elongation. Proteomic analysis identified 76 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) due to BAP treatment and 37 DEPs due to GA3 treatment. Cytokinin-related genes and cell division-related genes were upregulated in the rhizome node by BAP and gibberellin-related and cell growth-related genes in the rhizome by GA3. Conclusions Most of the BAP- or GA-responsive DEPs were involved in respiratory metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Transcription analysis demonstrated that genes involved in hormone metabolism, signalling pathways, cell division and cell-wall loosening were upregulated by BAP or GA3. The CK and GA promoted rhizome formation and growth, respectively, by activating metabolic pathways that supply energy and amino acids to support cell division and expansion during rhizome initiation and elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27443301

  7. Design of pathway-preferential estrogens that provide beneficial metabolic and vascular effects without stimulating reproductive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru C.; Zhang, Hui; Chambliss, Ken L.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Mayne, Christopher G.; Shaul, Philip W.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2016-01-01

    There is great medical need for estrogens with favorable pharmacological profiles, that support desirable activities for menopausal women such as metabolic and vascular protection but that lack stimulatory activities on the breast and uterus. Here, we report the development of structurally novel estrogens that preferentially activate a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways and result in favorable target tissue-selective activity. Through a process of structural alteration of estrogenic ligands that was designed to preserve their essential chemical and physical features but greatly reduced their binding affinity for ERs, we obtained “Pathway Preferential Estrogens” (PaPEs) which interacted with ERs to activate the extranuclear-initiated signaling pathway preferentially over the nuclear-initiated pathway. PaPEs elicited a pattern of gene regulation and cellular and biological processes that did not stimulate reproductive and mammary tissues or breast cancer cells. However, in ovariectomized mice, PaPEs triggered beneficial responses both in metabolic tissues (adipose tissue and liver) that reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation and in the vasculature that accelerated repair of endothelial damage. This process of designed ligand structure alteration represents a novel approach to develop ligands that shift the balance in ER-mediated extranuclear and nuclear pathways to obtain tissue-selective, non-nuclear pathway-preferential estrogens, which may be beneficial for postmenopausal hormone replacement. The approach may also have broad applicability for other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PMID:27221711

  8. Discovery of a metabolic alternative to the classical mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dellas, Nikki; Thomas, Suzanne T; Manning, Gerard; Noel, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Eukarya, Archaea, and some Bacteria encode all or part of the essential mevalonate (MVA) metabolic pathway clinically modulated using statins. Curiously, two components of the MVA pathway are often absent from archaeal genomes. The search for these missing elements led to the discovery of isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK), one of two activities necessary to furnish the universal five-carbon isoprenoid building block, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Unexpectedly, we now report functional IPKs also exist in Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, amongst a subset of species within the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi, we identified a new enzyme catalyzing the missing decarboxylative step of the putative alternative MVA pathway. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a functioning alternative MVA pathway. Key to this pathway is the catalytic actions of a newly uncovered enzyme, mevalonate phosphate decarboxylase (MPD) and IPK. Together, these two discoveries suggest that unforeseen variation in isoprenoid metabolism may be widespread in nature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00672.001 PMID:24327557

  9. Hormone signaling pathways as treatment targets in renal cell cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Niedzwiedzka, Magdalena; Porta, Camillo; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, biochemical and genetic research has revealed that renal cell cancer (RCC) etiology is hormone-related. It was shown that hormone receptors are abnormally expressed in RCC cells. Abnormal endocrine stimulation also plays a significant role in RCC pathophysiology. Cellular proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in RCC is modulated by para- and autocrine hormonal stimulation. In particular, RCC overexpression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor was reported. On the contrary, corticotropin releasing hormone was reported to inhibit RCC cell proliferation and regulate angiogenesis. Overexpression of luteinizing hormone also promotes RCC tumor angiogenesis. Estrogen receptor α overexpression increases the transcriptional factor activity of hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but estrogen receptor β has a cancer suppressive role. Glucocorticoid receptors and androgen receptor are markers of indolent RCC and assigned tumor suppressive activity. Proopiomelanocortin is upregulated in VHL-mutated renal cell carcinoma via Nur77 transcription factor signaling. In RCC, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor promotes angiogenesis and metastatic formation via VEGF release. Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression promotes cell survival and increases RCC cell proliferation. Vitamin D receptor expression is downregulated or absent in RCC and differentiate subtypes of renal cell tumors. RAR-β promotes tumorigenesis but retinoic acid receptor γ expression correlates negatively with the TNM stage at diagnosis. Finally, progesterone receptor expression is negatively correlated with the cancer stage. Molecular data analysis revealed the possibility of renal cancer cell proliferation induction via hormone activated pathways. Inhibition of hormonal signaling may thus play a putative role in supportive therapies against this cancer type.

  10. Cardioselective Dominant-negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Δ337T) Modulates Myocardial Metabolism and Contractile Dfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Olson, Aaron; Ge, Ming; Ning, Xue-Han; Buroker, Norman E.; Chung, Youngran; Jue, Thomas; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-06-03

    Dominant- negative thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) show elevated expression relative to ligand-binding TRs during cardiac hypertrophy. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of a dominant-negative TR alters cardiac metabolism and contractile efficiency (CE). We used mice expressing the cardioselective dominant-negative TRβ1 mutation Δ337T. Isolated working Δ337T hearts and nontransgenic control (Con) hearts were perfused with 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate (ACAC), lactate, and glucose at physiological concentrations for 30 min. 13C NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer analyses were used to determine substrate flux and fractional contributions (Fc) of acetyl-CoA to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Δ337T hearts exhibited rate depression but higher developed pressure and CE, defined as work per oxygen consumption (MV˙ O2). Unlabeled substrate Fc from endogenous sources was higher in Δ337T, but ACAC Fc was lower. Fluxes through CAC, lactate, ACAC, and FFA were reduced in Δ337T. CE and Fc differences were reversed by pacing Δ337T to Con rates, accompanied by an increase in FFA Fc. Δ337T hearts lacked the ability to increase MV˙ O2. Decreases in protein expression for glucose transporter-4 and hexokinase-2 and increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-2 and -4 suggest that these hearts are unable to increase carbohydrate oxidation in response to stress. These data show that Δ337T alters the metabolic phenotype in murine heart by reducing substrate flux for multiple pathways. Some of these changes are heart rate dependent, indicating that the substrate shift may represent an accommodation to altered contractile protein kinetics, which can be disrupted by pacing stress.

  11. Inhibitory pathways and the inhibition of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Mastronardi, Claudio A.; Faletti, Alicia G.; Seilicovich, Adriana; De Laurentiis, Andrea; McCann, Samuel M.; Rettori, Valeria

    2000-01-01

    In this research we examined the mechanisms by which ethanol (EtOH) inhibits luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release from incubated medial basal hypothalamic explants. EtOH (100 mM) stimulated the release of two inhibitory neurotransmitters: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and β-endorphin. EtOH also inhibited NO production, indicative of a suppression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. This inhibition was reversed by naltroxone (10−8 M), a μ-opioid receptor blocker, indicating that the inhibition of NOS by EtOH is mediated by β-endorphin. EtOH also blocked N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced LHRH release, but the blockade could not be reversed by either the GABA receptor blocker, bicuculline (10−5 M), naltroxone (10−8 M), or both inhibitors added together. However, increasing the concentration of naltrexone (10−6 M) but not bicuculline (10−4 M) reversed the inhibition. When we lowered the concentration of EtOH (50 mM), the EtOH-induced blockade of LHRH release could be reversed by either bicuculline (10−5 M), naltroxone (10−8 M), or the combination of the two blockers. Therefore, GABA is partially responsible for the blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced LHRH release. The block by GABA was exerted by inhibiting the activation of cyclooxygenase by NO, because it was reversed by prostaglandin E2, the product of activation of cyclooxygenase. Because the inhibition caused by the higher concentration of EtOH could not be reduced by bicuculline (10−4 M) but was blocked by naltroxone (10−6 M), the action of alcohol can be accounted for by stimulation of β-endorphin neurons that inhibit LHRH release by inhibition of activation of NOS and stimulation of GABA release. PMID:10688896

  12. Absence of juvenile hormone signalling regulates the dynamic expression profiles of nutritional metabolism genes during diapause preparation in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Tan, Q-Q; Zhu, L; Li, Y; Zhu, F; Lei, C-L; Wang, X-P

    2017-10-01

    Temperate insects have evolved diapause, a period of programmed developmental arrest during specific life stages, to survive unfavourable conditions. During the diapause preparation phase (DPP), diapause-destined individuals generally store large amounts of fat by regulating nutrition distribution for the energy requirement during diapause maintenance and postdiapause development. Although nutritional patterns during the DPP have been investigated at physiological and biochemical levels in many insects, it remains largely unknown how nutritional metabolism is regulated during the DPP at molecular levels. We used RNA sequencing to compare gene expression profiles of adult female cabbage beetles Colaphellus bowringi during the preoviposition phase (POP) and the DPP. Most differentially expressed genes were involved in specific metabolic pathways during the DPP. Genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways were clearly highly expressed during the DPP, whereas genes related to protein metabolic pathways were highly expressed during the POP. Hormone challenge and RNA interference experiments revealed that juvenile hormone via its nuclear receptor methoprene-tolerant mediated the expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism during the DPP. This work not only sheds light on the mechanisms of diapause preparation, but also provides new insights into the molecular basis of environmental plasticity in insects. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  14. The quality of metabolic pathway resources depends on initial enzymatic function assignments: a case for maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As metabolic pathway resources become more commonly available, researchers have unprecedented access to information about their organism of interest. Despite efforts to ensure consistency between various resources, information content and quality can vary widely. Two maize metabolic pathway resource...

  15. Strategies for metabolic pathway engineering with multiple transgenes.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    The engineering of metabolic pathways in plants often requires the concerted expression of more than one gene. While with traditional transgenic approaches, the expression of multiple transgenes has been challenging, recent progress has greatly expanded our repertoire of powerful techniques making this possible. New technological options include large-scale co-transformation of the nuclear genome, also referred to as combinatorial transformation, and transformation of the chloroplast genome with synthetic operon constructs. This review describes the state of the art in multigene genetic engineering of plants. It focuses on the methods currently available for the introduction of multiple transgenes into plants and the molecular mechanisms underlying successful transgene expression. Selected examples of metabolic pathway engineering are used to illustrate the attractions and limitations of each method and to highlight key factors that influence the experimenter's choice of the best strategy for multigene engineering.

  16. Creation of a genome-wide metabolic pathway database for Populus trichocarpa using a new approach for reconstruction and curation of metabolic pathways for plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peifen; Dreher, Kate; Karthikeyan, A; Chi, Anjo; Pujar, Anuradha; Caspi, Ron; Karp, Peter; Kirkup, Vanessa; Latendresse, Mario; Lee, Cynthia; Mueller, Lukas A; Muller, Robert; Rhee, Seung Yon

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic networks reconstructed from sequenced genomes or transcriptomes can help visualize and analyze large-scale experimental data, predict metabolic phenotypes, discover enzymes, engineer metabolic pathways, and study metabolic pathway evolution. We developed a general approach for reconstructing metabolic pathway complements of plant genomes. Two new reference databases were created and added to the core of the infrastructure: a comprehensive, all-plant reference pathway database, PlantCyc, and a reference enzyme sequence database, RESD, for annotating metabolic functions of protein sequences. PlantCyc (version 3.0) includes 714 metabolic pathways and 2,619 reactions from over 300 species. RESD (version 1.0) contains 14,187 literature-supported enzyme sequences from across all kingdoms. We used RESD, PlantCyc, and MetaCyc (an all-species reference metabolic pathway database), in conjunction with the pathway prediction software Pathway Tools, to reconstruct a metabolic pathway database, PoplarCyc, from the recently sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa. PoplarCyc (version 1.0) contains 321 pathways with 1,807 assigned enzymes. Comparing PoplarCyc (version 1.0) with AraCyc (version 6.0, Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) showed comparable numbers of pathways distributed across all domains of metabolism in both databases, except for a higher number of AraCyc pathways in secondary metabolism and a 1.5-fold increase in carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in PoplarCyc. Here, we introduce these new resources and demonstrate the feasibility of using them to identify candidate enzymes for specific pathways and to analyze metabolite profiling data through concrete examples. These resources can be searched by text or BLAST, browsed, and downloaded from our project Web site (http://plantcyc.org).

  17. Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, whereas lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation.

  18. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 modulate the lipolytic action of growth hormone by altering signal pathway linkages.

    PubMed

    Bergan-Roller, Heather E; Ickstadt, Alicia T; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has many actions in vertebrates, including the regulation of two disparate metabolic processes: growth promotion (anabolic) and the mobilization of stored lipids (catabolic). Our previous studies showed that GH stimulated IGF-1 production in hepatocytes from fed rainbow trout, but in cells from fasted fish GH stimulated lipolysis. In this study, we used rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to elucidate regulation of the mechanisms that enable cells to alter their lipolytic responsiveness to GH. In the first experiment, cells were removed from either fed or fasted fish, conditioned in medium containing serum (10%) from either fed or fasted fish, then challenged with GH. GH stimulated the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), the primary lipolytic enzyme, in cells from fasted fish conditioned with "fasted serum" but not in cells from fasted fish conditioned in "fed serum." Pretreatment of cells from fed fish with "fasted serum" resulted in GH-stimulated HSL expression, whereas GH-stimulated HSL expression in cells from fasted fish was blocked by conditioning in "fed serum." The nature of the conditioning serum governed the signaling pathways activated by GH irrespective of the nutritional state of the animals from which the cells were removed. When hepatocytes were pretreated with "fed serum," GH activated JAK2, STAT5, Akt, and ERK pathways; when cells were pretreated with "fasted serum," GH activated PKC and ERK. In the second study, we examined the direct effects of insulin (INS) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), two nutritionally-regulated hormones, on GH-stimulated lipolysis and signal transduction in isolated hepatocytes. GH only stimulated HSL mRNA expression in cells from fasted fish. Pretreatment with INS and/or IGF-1 abolished this lipolytic response to GH. INS and/or IGF-1 augmented GH activation of JAK2 and STAT5 in cells from fed and fasted fish. However, INS and/or IGF-1 eliminated the ability of GH to activate PKC and

  19. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal parameters in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    König, D; Huonker, M; Schmid, A; Halle, M; Berg, A; Keul, J

    2001-04-01

    During the past decade, the physical and mental stress in professional tennis has been constantly increasing. The overall intensity in tennis ranges between 60 and 70% of maximum oxygen uptake and the energy requirements are mainly provided by aerobic energy metabolism. Therefore, particularly with respect to the duration of the tournaments and the length of the matches, a good aerobic capacity promotes continuous success in professional tennis. During frequent periods of high intensity, however, muscular energy is derived from anaerobic glycolysis. Therefore, sports-specific conditioning programs in tennis should improve both glycolytic and oxidative muscular metabolism. Years of training and competition induce a number of cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations: an increase in heart size in terms of an athlete's heart, higher oxygen uptake capacity, improved muscular oxidative enzyme activities, reduced baseline catecholamine levels, and a lower resting heart rate. In addition, tennis induces side-specific increments in bone density, bone diameter, and bone length of the upper extremity. Furthermore, structural and functional adaptations of the conducting arteries in the preferred arm could be demonstrated in professional tennis players. In conclusion, tennis is a very complex sport involving strength, power, speed, agility and explosiveness, as well as endurance components. Scientific data on exercise-related cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in professional tennis are important to evaluate the players individual fitness level and will help to improve sports-specific conditioning programs. This in turn will not only enhance performance but also prevent overstrain and burnout syndromes.

  20. Adipose tissue lipolysis as a metabolic pathway to define pharmacological strategies against obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Langin, Dominique

    2006-06-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis is the catabolic process leading to the breakdown of triglycerides stored in fat cells and release of fatty acids and glycerol. Recent work has revealed that lipolysis is not a simple metabolic pathway stimulated by catecholamines and inhibited by insulin. There have been new discoveries on the endocrine and paracrine regulation of lipolysis and on the molecular mechanisms of triglyceride hydrolysis. Catecholamines modulate lipolysis through lipolytic beta-adrenoceptor and antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor. Recent studies have allowed a better understanding of the relative contribution of the two types of receptors and provided evidence for the in vivo involvement of alpha2-adrenoceptors in the physiological control of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis. A puzzling observation is the characterization of a residual catecholamine-induced lipolysis in mice deficient in beta-adrenoceptors. A novel lipolytic system has been characterized in human fat cells. Natriuretic peptides stimulate lipolysis through a cGMP-dependent pathway. There are other lipolytic pathways active in human fat cells which importance is not fully understood. Forty years after the description of the antilipolytic effect of nicotinic acid, the receptors have been identified. Adrenomedullin which is produced by adipocytes exert an antilipolytic effect through an indirect mechanism involving nitric oxide. The molecular details of the lipolytic reaction are not fully understood. The role of the lipases has been re-evaluated with the cloning of adipose triglyceride lipase. Hormone-sensitive lipase appears as the major lipase for catecholamine and natriuretic peptide-stimulated lipolysis whereas adipose triglyceride lipase mediates the hydrolysis of triglycerides during basal lipolysis. Translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase bound to the adipocyte lipid binding protein to the lipid droplet seems to be an important step during lipolytic activation. Re-organization of the

  1. Consensus and conflict cards for metabolic pathway databases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic network of H. sapiens and many other organisms is described in multiple pathway databases. The level of agreement between these descriptions, however, has proven to be low. We can use these different descriptions to our advantage by identifying conflicting information and combining their knowledge into a single, more accurate, and more complete description. This task is, however, far from trivial. Results We introduce the concept of Consensus and Conflict Cards (C2Cards) to provide concise overviews of what the databases do or do not agree on. Each card is centered at a single gene, EC number or reaction. These three complementary perspectives make it possible to distinguish disagreements on the underlying biology of a metabolic process from differences that can be explained by different decisions on how and in what detail to represent knowledge. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented C2CardsHuman, as a web application http://www.molgenis.org/c2cards, covering five human pathway databases. Conclusions C2Cards can contribute to ongoing reconciliation efforts by simplifying the identification of consensus and conflicts between pathway databases and lowering the threshold for experts to contribute. Several case studies illustrate the potential of the C2Cards in identifying disagreements on the underlying biology of a metabolic process. The overviews may also point out controversial biological knowledge that should be subject of further research. Finally, the examples provided emphasize the importance of manual curation and the need for a broad community involvement. PMID:23803311

  2. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. Metabolic Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladino-Orjuela, Guillermo; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto; Salt, Christopher; Parsons, John R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to build an updated collection of information focused on the mechanisms and elements involved in metabolic pathways of aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria. Enzymes as an expression of the genetic load and the type of electron acceptor available, as an environmental factor, were highlighted. In general, the review showed that both aerobic routes and anaerobic routes for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons are divided into two pathways. The first, named the upper pathways, entails the route from the original compound to central intermediate compounds still containing the aromatic ring but with the benzene nucleus chemically destabilized. The second, named the lower pathway, begins with ring de-aromatization and subsequent cleavage, resulting in metabolites that can be used by bacteria in the production of biomass. Under anaerobic conditions the five mechanisms of activation of the benzene ring described show the diversity of chemical reactions that can take place. Obtaining carbon and energy from an aromatic hydrocarbon molecule is a process that exhibits the high complexity level of the metabolic apparatus of anaerobic microorganisms. The ability of these bacteria to express enzymes that catalyze reactions, known only in non-biological conditions, using final electron acceptors with a low redox potential, is a most interesting topic. The discovery of phylogenetic and functional characteristics of cultivable and noncultivable hydrocarbon degrading bacteria has been made possible by improvements in molecular research techniques such as SIP (stable isotope probing) tracing the incorporation of (13)C, (15)N and (18)O into nucleic acids and proteins. Since many metabolic pathways in which enzyme and metabolite participants are still unknown, much new research is required. Therefore, it will surely allow enhancing the known and future applications in practice.

  4. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields—ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity—have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. PMID:24440821

  5. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah A; Mathews, Thomas P; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-08-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields-ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity-have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  6. Exploring De Novo metabolic pathways from pyruvate to propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Stine, Andrew; Zhang, Miaomin; Ro, Soo; Clendennen, Stephanie; Shelton, Michael C; Tyo, Keith E J; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Industrial biotechnology provides an efficient, sustainable solution for chemical production. However, designing biochemical pathways based solely on known reactions does not exploit its full potential. Enzymes are known to accept non-native substrates, which may allow novel, advantageous reactions. We have previously developed a computational program named Biological Network Integrated Computational Explorer (BNICE) to predict promiscuous enzyme activities and design synthetic pathways, using generalized reaction rules curated from biochemical reaction databases. Here, we use BNICE to design pathways synthesizing propionic acid from pyruvate. The currently known natural pathways produce undesirable by-products lactic acid and succinic acid, reducing their economic viability. BNICE predicted seven pathways containing four reaction steps or less, five of which avoid these by-products. Among the 16 biochemical reactions comprising these pathways, 44% were validated by literature references. More than 28% of these known reactions were not in the BNICE training dataset, showing that BNICE was able to predict novel enzyme substrates. Most of the pathways included the intermediate acrylic acid. As acrylic acid bioproduction has been well advanced, we focused on the critical step of reducing acrylic acid to propionic acid. We experimentally validated that Oye2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can catalyze this reaction at a slow turnover rate (10(-3) s(-1) ), which was unknown to occur with this enzyme, and is an important finding for further propionic acid metabolic engineering. These results validate BNICE as a pathway-searching tool that can predict previously unknown promiscuous enzyme activities and show that computational methods can elucidate novel biochemical pathways for industrial applications. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:303-311, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Metabolism of brucine: the important metabolic pathways of dihydroindole-type alkaloid for excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji-Xin; Wang, Min; Xu, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Song, Rui; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zhang, Zun-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Brucine is a widely prescribed glycine antagonist, but a complete understanding of its metabolic pathway is still lacking. The present work represents the first investigation of in vivo metabolism of brucine in rats using LC-ESI-ion trap-TOF-MS. A total of 12 Phase I and five Phase II metabolites were tentatively identified. Brucine can be metabolized by hydrolysis, demethylation and methoxylation, in addition to diverse oxidations in a Phase I manner followed by glucuronidation in Phase II metabolism. Both the renal and biliary routes were observed for the excretion of brucine and its metabolites. Our results update the metabolism and disposition data on brucine, which provides basic information for better understanding of the pharmacological and toxicological activities of brucine-containing medicines.

  8. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  9. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    DOE PAGES

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzymemore » pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.« less

  10. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoache, William C.; Russ, Zachary N.; Dueber, John E.

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. Lastly, this work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  11. Towards repurposing the yeast peroxisome for compartmentalizing heterologous metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    DeLoache, William C; Russ, Zachary N; Dueber, John E

    2016-03-30

    Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk and improving pathway efficiency, but improved tools and design rules are needed to make this strategy available to more engineered pathways. Here we focus on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome and develop a sensitive high-throughput assay for peroxisomal cargo import. We identify an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly sequestering non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we perform the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay. Finally, we apply these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titre. This work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  12. Polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism, estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diergaarde, Brenda; Potter, John D.; Jupe, Eldon R.; Manjeshwar, Sharmila; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Pugh, Thomas W.; DeFreese, Daniele C.; Gramling, Bobby A.; Evans, Ilonka; White, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Hormone therapy, estrogen plus progestin (E+P) particularly, is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated associations of common polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen and/or progesterone metabolism, E+P use, and their interactions with breast cancer risk in a case-control study of postmenopausal women (324 cases; 651 controls) nested within the VITAL cohort. None of the polymorphisms studied was, by itself, statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. E+P use was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (≥10 years versus never, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–2.8; Ptrend: 0.0002). Statistically significant interactions between CYP1A1 Ile462Val (Pinteraction: 0.04), CYP1A1 MspI (Pinteraction: 0.003), CYP1B1 Val432Leu (Pinteraction: 0.007), CYP1B1 Asn453Ser (Pinteraction: 0.04) and PGR Val660Leu (Pinteraction: 0.01), and E+P use were observed. The increased risk of breast cancer associated with E+P use was greater among women with at least one rare allele of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1B1 Asn453Ser and PGR Val660Leu polymorphisms than among women homozygous for the common allele of these polymorphisms. Risk of breast cancer increased little with increasing years of E+P use among women with at least one CYP1B1 Val432 allele; a large increase in risk was seen among women homozygous for CYP1B1 Leu432. Our results support the hypothesis that specific polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may modify the effect of E+P use on breast cancer risk. PMID:18628428

  13. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  14. Role of intracellular carbon metabolism pathways in Shigella flexneri virulence.

    PubMed

    Waligora, E A; Fisher, C R; Hanovice, N J; Rodou, A; Wyckoff, E E; Payne, S M

    2014-07-01

    Shigella flexneri, which replicates in the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelial cells, can use the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, or pentose phosphate pathway for glycolytic carbon metabolism. To determine which of these pathways is used by intracellular S. flexneri, mutants were constructed and tested in a plaque assay for the ability to invade, replicate intracellularly, and spread to adjacent epithelial cells. Mutants blocked in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (pfkAB and pykAF mutants) invaded the cells but formed very small plaques. Loss of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway gene eda resulted in small plaques, but the double eda edd mutant formed normal-size plaques. This suggested that the plaque defect of the eda mutant was due to buildup of the toxic intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic acid rather than a specific requirement for this pathway. Loss of the pentose phosphate pathway had no effect on plaque formation, indicating that it is not critical for intracellular S. flexneri. Supplementation of the epithelial cell culture medium with pyruvate allowed the glycolysis mutants to form larger plaques than those observed with unsupplemented medium, consistent with data from phenotypic microarrays (Biolog) indicating that pyruvate metabolism was not disrupted in these mutants. Interestingly, the wild-type S. flexneri also formed larger plaques in the presence of supplemental pyruvate or glucose, with pyruvate yielding the largest plaques. Analysis of the metabolites in the cultured cells showed increased intracellular levels of the added compound. Pyruvate increased the growth rate of S. flexneri in vitro, suggesting that it may be a preferred carbon source inside host cells.

  15. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, S. W.; Akintola, A. A.; Roelfsema, F.; van der Spoel, E.; Cobbaert, C. M.; Ballieux, B. E.; Egri, P.; Kvarta-Papp, Z.; Gereben, B.; Fekete, C.; Slagboom, P. E.; van der Grond, J.; Demeneix, B. A.; Pijl, H.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; van Heemst, D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism. PMID:26089239

  16. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2015-11-10

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism.

  17. Evolutionary Rate Heterogeneity of Primary and Secondary Metabolic Pathway Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dola; Mukherjee, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Primary metabolism is essential to plants for growth and development, and secondary metabolism helps plants to interact with the environment. Many plant metabolites are industrially important. These metabolites are produced by plants through complex metabolic pathways. Lack of knowledge about these pathways is hindering the successful breeding practices for these metabolites. For a better knowledge of the metabolism in plants as a whole, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes is a prerequisite. In this study, evolutionary rate variation of primary and secondary metabolic pathway genes has been analyzed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Primary metabolic pathway genes were found to be more conserved than secondary metabolic pathway genes. Several factors such as gene structure, expression level, tissue specificity, multifunctionality, and domain number are the key factors behind this evolutionary rate variation. This study will help to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of plant metabolism. PMID:26556590

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms in Estrogen Metabolic Pathway Associated with Risks of Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from a Southern Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu Hua; Fan, Yan Hui; Kao, Patrick Yu Ping; Ho, Deborah Tip Yin; Ha, Joyce Cheuk Tung; Chu, Leung Wing; Song, You-Qiang

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether genetic variations on the estrogen metabolic pathway would be associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional study. Individuals were recruited at the Memory Clinic, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Chinese individuals with (n = 426) and without (n = 350) AD. All subjects underwent a standardized cognitive assessment and genotyping of four candidate genes on the estrogen metabolic pathway (estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1), estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2), cytochrome P450 19A1 gene (CYP19A1), cytochrome P450 11A1 gene (CYP11A1)). Apart from consistent results showing an association between apolipoprotein (APO)E and AD, strong evidence of disease associations were found for polymorphisms in ESR2 and CYP11A1 based on the entire data set. For ESR2, significant protective effects were found for A alleles of rs4986938 (permuted P = .02) and rs867443 (permuted P = .02). For CYP11A1, significant risk effects were found for G alleles of rs11638442 (permuted P = .03) and rs11632698 (permuted P = .03). Stratifying subjects according to APOE ε4 status, their genetic effects continued to be significant in the APOE ε4-negative subgroup. Associations between CYP11A1 polymorphisms (rs2279357, rs2073475) and risk of AD were detected in women but not men. Further gene-level analysis confirmed the above association between ESR2 and CYP11A1, and pathway-level analysis highlighted the genetic effect of the estrogen metabolic pathway on disease susceptibility (permuted pathway-level P = .03). Consistent with previous biological findings for sex steroid hormones in the central nervous system, genetic alterations on the estrogen metabolic pathway were revealed in the Chinese population. Confirmation of these present findings in an independent population is warranted to elucidate disease pathogenesis and to explore the potential of hormone therapy in the treatment of AD. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American

  19. Improving Metabolic Pathway Efficiency by Statistical Model-Based Multivariate Regulatory Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Rizzoni, Elizabeth Anne; Sul, Se-Yeong; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-01-20

    Metabolic engineering entails target modification of cell metabolism to maximize the production of a specific compound. For empowering combinatorial optimization in strain engineering, tools and algorithms are needed to efficiently sample the multidimensional gene expression space and locate the desirable overproduction phenotype. We addressed this challenge by employing design of experiment (DoE) models to quantitatively correlate gene expression with strain performance. By fractionally sampling the gene expression landscape, we statistically screened the dominant enzyme targets that determine metabolic pathway efficiency. An empirical quadratic regression model was subsequently used to identify the optimal gene expression patterns of the investigated pathway. As a proof of concept, our approach yielded the natural product violacein at 525.4 mg/L in shake flasks, a 3.2-fold increase from the baseline strain. Violacein production was further increased to 1.31 g/L in a controlled benchtop bioreactor. We found that formulating discretized gene expression levels into logarithmic variables (Linlog transformation) was essential for implementing this DoE-based optimization procedure. The reported methodology can aid multivariate combinatorial pathway engineering and may be generalized as a standard procedure for accelerating strain engineering and improving metabolic pathway efficiency.

  20. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways--structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Pär

    2010-05-21

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

  1. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Paer

    2010-05-21

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

  2. Alcohol, stress hormones, and the prefrontal cortex: a proposed pathway to the dark side of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Ling; Richardson, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol produces changes in the prefrontal cortex that are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of alcoholism. A large body of literature suggests that stress hormones play a critical role in this process. Here we review the bi-directional relationship between alcohol and stress hormones, and discuss how alcohol acutely stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and induces enduring modifications to neuroendocrine stress circuits during the transition from non-dependent drinking to alcohol dependence. We propose a pathway by which alcohol and stress hormones elicit neuroadaptive changes in prefrontal circuitry that could contribute functionally to a dampened neuroendocrine state and the increased propensity to relapse—a spiraling trajectory that could eventually lead to dependence. PMID:24998895

  3. Effects of hormonal contraception on systemic metabolism: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Würtz, Peter; Auro, Kirsi; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Joensuu, Anni; Havulinna, Aki S; Aalto, Kristiina; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraception is commonly used worldwide, but its systemic effects across lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acids, circulating metabolites and cytokines remain poorly understood. Methods: A comprehensive molecular profile (75 metabolic measures and 37 cytokines) was measured for up to 5841 women (age range 24–49 years) from three population-based cohorts. Women using combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) or progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) were compared with those who did not use hormonal contraception. Metabolomics profiles were reassessed for 869 women after 6 years to uncover the metabolic effects of starting, stopping and persistently using hormonal contraception. Results: The comprehensive molecular profiling allowed multiple new findings on the metabolic associations with the use of COCPs. They were positively associated with lipoprotein subclasses, including all high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. The associations with fatty acids and amino acids were strong and variable in direction. COCP use was negatively associated with albumin and positively associated with creatinine and inflammatory markers, including glycoprotein acetyls and several growth factors and interleukins. Our findings also confirmed previous results e.g. for increased circulating triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Starting COCPs caused similar metabolic changes to those observed cross-sectionally: the changes were maintained in consistent users and normalized in those who stopped using. In contrast, POCs were only weakly associated with metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results were consistent across all cohorts and for different COCP preparations and different types of POC delivery. Conclusions: Use of COCPs causes widespread metabolic and inflammatory effects. However, persistent use does not appear to accumulate the effects over time and the metabolic perturbations are reversed upon discontinuation. POCs have little effect on systemic metabolism and

  4. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  5. Pathway Activity Profiling (PAPi): from the metabolite profile to the metabolic pathway activity.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Raphael B M; Ruggiero, Katya; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

    2010-12-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent omics-technologies and uses robust analytical techniques to screen low molecular mass metabolites in biological samples. It has evolved very quickly during the last decade. However, metabolomics datasets are considered highly complex when used to relate metabolite levels to metabolic pathway activity. Despite recent developments in bioinformatics, which have improved the quality of metabolomics data, there is still no straightforward method capable of correlating metabolite level to the activity of different metabolic pathways operating within the cells. Thus, this kind of analysis still depends on extremely laborious and time-consuming processes. Here, we present a new algorithm Pathway Activity Profiling (PAPi) with which we are able to compare metabolic pathway activities from metabolite profiles. The applicability and potential of PAPi was demonstrated using a previously published data from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PAPi was able to support the biological interpretations of the previously published observations and, in addition, generated new hypotheses in a straightforward manner. However, PAPi is time consuming to perform manually. Thus, we also present here a new R-software package (PAPi) which implements the PAPi algorithm and facilitates its usage to quickly compare metabolic pathways activities between different experimental conditions. Using the identified metabolites and their respective abundances as input, the PAPi package calculates pathways' Activity Scores, which represents the potential metabolic pathways activities and allows their comparison between conditions. PAPi also performs principal components analysis and analysis of variance or t-test to investigate differences in activity level between experimental conditions. In addition, PAPi generates comparative graphs highlighting up- and down-regulated pathway activity. These datasets are available in http://www.4shared

  6. Genetic, hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS: an update.

    PubMed

    De Leo, V; Musacchio, M C; Cappelli, V; Massaro, M G; Morgante, G; Petraglia, F

    2016-07-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting 5-10 % of women of reproductive age. It generally manifests with oligo/anovulatory cycles, hirsutism and polycystic ovaries, together with a considerable prevalence of insulin resistance. Although the aetiology of the syndrome is not completely understood yet, PCOS is considered a multifactorial disorder with various genetic, endocrine and environmental abnormalities. Moreover, PCOS patients have a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and their related morbidity, if compared to the general population.

  7. Global dynamic optimization approach to predict activation in metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    de Hijas-Liste, Gundián M; Klipp, Edda; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Banga, Julio R

    2014-01-06

    During the last decade, a number of authors have shown that the genetic regulation of metabolic networks may follow optimality principles. Optimal control theory has been successfully used to compute optimal enzyme profiles considering simple metabolic pathways. However, applying this optimal control framework to more general networks (e.g. branched networks, or networks incorporating enzyme production dynamics) yields problems that are analytically intractable and/or numerically very challenging. Further, these previous studies have only considered a single-objective framework. In this work we consider a more general multi-objective formulation and we present solutions based on recent developments in global dynamic optimization techniques. We illustrate the performance and capabilities of these techniques considering two sets of problems. First, we consider a set of single-objective examples of increasing complexity taken from the recent literature. We analyze the multimodal character of the associated non linear optimization problems, and we also evaluate different global optimization approaches in terms of numerical robustness, efficiency and scalability. Second, we consider generalized multi-objective formulations for several examples, and we show how this framework results in more biologically meaningful results. The proposed strategy was used to solve a set of single-objective case studies related to unbranched and branched metabolic networks of different levels of complexity. All problems were successfully solved in reasonable computation times with our global dynamic optimization approach, reaching solutions which were comparable or better than those reported in previous literature. Further, we considered, for the first time, multi-objective formulations, illustrating how activation in metabolic pathways can be explained in terms of the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This new methodology can be applied to metabolic networks with arbitrary

  8. Metabolite Profiling Identifies Pathways Associated with Metabolic Risk in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P.; Larson, Martin G.; Lewis, Gregory D.; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Shen, Dongxiao; Palma, Melinda J.; Roberts, Lee D.; Dejam, Andre; Souza, Amanda L.; Deik, Amy A.; Magnusson, Martin; Fox, Caroline S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Melander, Olle; Clish, Clary B.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although metabolic risk factors are known to cluster in individuals who are prone to developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Methods and Results To identify pathways associated with cardiometabolic risk, we used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the plasma concentrations of 45 distinct metabolites and examine their relation to cardiometabolic risk in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; N=1015) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC; N=746). We then interrogated significant findings in experimental models of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We observed that metabolic risk factors (obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia) were associated with multiple metabolites including branched-chain amino acids, other hydrophobic amino acids, tryptophan breakdown products, and nucleotide metabolites. We observed strong associations of insulin resistance traits with glutamine (standardized regression coefficients −0.04 to −0.22, per 1-SD change in log-glutamine, P<0.001), glutamate (0.05 to 0.14, P<0.001), and glutamine-glutamate ratio (−0.05 to −0.20, P<0.001) in the discovery sample (FHS); similar associations were observed in the replication sample (MDC). High glutamine-glutamate ratio was associated with lower risk of incident diabetes in FHS (OR 0.79; adjusted P=0.03), but not in MDC. In experimental models, administration of glutamine in mice led to both increased glucose tolerance (P=0.01) and to lower blood pressure (P<0.05). Conclusions Biochemical profiling identified circulating metabolites not previously associated with metabolic traits. Experimentally interrogating one of these pathways demonstrated that excess glutamine relative to glutamate, resulting from exogenous administration, is associated with reduced metabolic risk in mice. PMID:22496159

  9. Metabolite profiling identifies pathways associated with metabolic risk in humans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P; Larson, Martin G; Lewis, Gregory D; McCabe, Elizabeth L; Shen, Dongxiao; Palma, Melinda J; Roberts, Lee D; Dejam, Andre; Souza, Amanda L; Deik, Amy A; Magnusson, Martin; Fox, Caroline S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Melander, Olle; Clish, Clary B; Gerszten, Robert E; Wang, Thomas J

    2012-05-08

    Although metabolic risk factors are known to cluster in individuals who are prone to developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. To identify pathways associated with cardiometabolic risk, we used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the plasma concentrations of 45 distinct metabolites and to examine their relation to cardiometabolic risk in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n=1015) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC; n=746). We then interrogated significant findings in experimental models of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We observed that metabolic risk factors (obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia) were associated with multiple metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, other hydrophobic amino acids, tryptophan breakdown products, and nucleotide metabolites. We observed strong associations of insulin resistance traits with glutamine (standardized regression coefficients, -0.04 to -0.22 per 1-SD change in log-glutamine; P<0.001), glutamate (0.05 to 0.14; P<0.001), and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio (-0.05 to -0.20; P<0.001) in the discovery sample (FHS); similar associations were observed in the replication sample (MDC). High glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with lower risk of incident diabetes mellitus in FHS (odds ratio, 0.79; adjusted P=0.03) but not in MDC. In experimental models, administration of glutamine in mice led to both increased glucose tolerance (P=0.01) and decreased blood pressure (P<0.05). Biochemical profiling identified circulating metabolites not previously associated with metabolic traits. Experimentally interrogating one of these pathways demonstrated that excess glutamine relative to glutamate, resulting from exogenous administration, is associated with reduced metabolic risk in mice.

  10. Global dynamic optimization approach to predict activation in metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, a number of authors have shown that the genetic regulation of metabolic networks may follow optimality principles. Optimal control theory has been succesfully used to compute optimal enzyme profiles considering simple metabolic pathways. However, applying this optimal control framework to more general networks (e.g. branched networks, or networks incorporating enzyme production dynamics) yields problems that are analytically intractable and/or numerically very challenging. Further, these previous studies have only considered a single-objective framework. Results In this work we consider a more general multi-objective formulation and we present solutions based on recent developments in global dynamic optimization techniques. We illustrate the performance and capabilities of these techniques considering two sets of problems. First, we consider a set of single-objective examples of increasing complexity taken from the recent literature. We analyze the multimodal character of the associated non linear optimization problems, and we also evaluate different global optimization approaches in terms of numerical robustness, efficiency and scalability. Second, we consider generalized multi-objective formulations for several examples, and we show how this framework results in more biologically meaningful results. Conclusions The proposed strategy was used to solve a set of single-objective case studies related to unbranched and branched metabolic networks of different levels of complexity. All problems were successfully solved in reasonable computation times with our global dynamic optimization approach, reaching solutions which were comparable or better than those reported in previous literature. Further, we considered, for the first time, multi-objective formulations, illustrating how activation in metabolic pathways can be explained in terms of the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This new methodology can be applied to

  11. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O.; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis. PMID:28158248

  12. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis.

  13. Increased Metabolic Flexibility and Complexity in a Long-Lived Growth Hormone Insensitive Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the “loss of the complexity” hypothesis can be applied to compare the metabolic patterns of mouse models with known differences in metabolic and endocrine function as well as life span. Here, we compare the complexity of locomotor activity and metabolic patterns (energy expenditure, VO2, and respiratory quotient) of the long-lived growth hormone receptor gene deleted mice (GHR− /−) and their wild-type littermates. Using approximate entropy as a measure of complexity, we observed greater metabolic complexity, as indicated by greater irregularity in the physiological fluctuations of the GHR− /− mice. Further analysis of the data also revealed lower energy costs of locomotor activity and a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and respiratory quotient in the GHR− /− mice relative to controls. These findings suggest underlying differences in metabolic modulation in the GHR− /− mice revealed especially through measures of complexity of their time-dependent fluctuations. PMID:23788654

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a common hormonal condition with major metabolic sequelae that physicians should know about.

    PubMed

    Shorakae, S; Boyle, J; Teede, H

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent, chronic and heterogeneous endocrine condition, with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Insulin resistance and hyperandrogenaemia are the key pathophysiological hormonal abnormalities. Insulin resistance is a significant contributor to the reproductive and metabolic complications of PCOS, both independently and in the setting of excess bodyweight. While the diagnostic criteria are now internationally uniformly accepted, individual components of the criteria are ill-defined, making diagnosis challenging. This, along with low awareness of PCOS, has resulted in a significant proportion of women remaining undiagnosed. While reproductive features are best recognised in PCOS and form the basis of the diagnostic criteria, awareness of psychological and metabolic features, recommended screening protocols, and management strategies to prevent metabolic complications are important. In this review, we focus on diagnostic criteria, and reproductive, metabolic and psychological features of PCOS, as well as recommended screening and management strategies suggested by national and international evidence-based guidelines.

  15. Identification of a Lipokine, a Lipid Hormone Linking Adipose Tissue to Systemic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Haiming; Gerhold, Kristin; Mayers, Jared R.; Wiest, Michelle M.; Watkins, Steve M.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues can lead to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing a comprehensive lipidomic platform and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A robust increase in de novo lipogenesis rendered the adipose tissue of these mice resistant to the deleterious systemic effects of dietary lipid exposure. Systemic lipid profiling also led to identification of C16:1n7-palmitoleate as an adipose tissue-derived lipid hormone that strongly stimulates muscle insulin action and suppresses hepatosteatosis. Our data reveal a novel, lipid-mediated endocrine network and demonstrate that adipose tissue uses lipokines such as C16:1n7-palmitoleate to communicate with distant organs and regulate systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:18805087

  16. Identification of a lipokine, a lipid hormone linking adipose tissue to systemic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiming; Gerhold, Kristin; Mayers, Jared R; Wiest, Michelle M; Watkins, Steven M; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2008-09-19

    Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues leads to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing quantitative lipidomic analyses and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A robust increase in de novo lipogenesis rendered the adipose tissue of these mice resistant to the deleterious effects of dietary lipid exposure. Systemic lipid profiling also led to identification of C16:1n7-palmitoleate as an adipose tissue-derived lipid hormone that strongly stimulates muscle insulin action and suppresses hepatosteatosis. Our data reveal a lipid-mediated endocrine network and demonstrate that adipose tissue uses lipokines such as C16:1n7-palmitoleate to communicate with distant organs and regulate systemic metabolic homeostasis.

  17. Metabolic, hormonal and environmental regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression: lessons from the liver.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Elitsa Y; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) controls the regulation of the fibrinolytic system in blood by inhibiting both urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activators. Enhanced levels of PAI-1 are found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus which is associated with a dysbalance in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Especially a defective insulin response in the liver contributes to the development of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and peripheral insulin resistance and may contribute to hepatic over-expression of PAI-1 in diabetes type 2. Furthermore, a substantial upregulation of PAI-1 expression has also been shown in a variety of liver injury models. Thus, the liver appears to be not only a major site of PAI-1 synthesis in response to hormonal changes, but also in response to a variety of other pathological events. PAI-1 expression in liver largely depends on activation of signalling pathways and transcriptional regulators which may be the basis for a new level of cross-talk between different signalling pathways and thus may represent attractive therapeutic candidates. This article will primarily focus on the regulation of PAI-1 expression in liver cells and discuss potential cross-talks between metabolic, hormonal and environmental signals.

  18. Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.I.; Nichiporuk, I.A.; Yasnetsov, V.V.; Shashkov, V.S.

    1988-04-01

    In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for /sup 125/I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons.

  19. Diagnosis of Diseases of Steroid Hormone Production, Metabolism and Action

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical tests have been the basis for investigations of disorders affecting steroid hormones. In recent years it has been possible however to study the genes that determine functional enzymes, cofactors, receptors, transcription factors and signaling systems that are involved in the process. Analyses of mutations are available as a diagnostic service for only a few of these genes although research laboratories may be able to provide a service. Both biochemical and genetic research have brought to light new disorders. Some genes for transcription factors involved in the development of the endocrine organs have also been identified and patients with defects in these processes have been found. This paper will review general aspects of adrenal disorders with emphasis on clinical and laboratory findings. As with all endocrine investigations there are few single measurements that provide a definitive answer to a diagnosis. Timing of samples in relation to age, gender and time of day needs to be considered. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274298

  20. Down regulation of gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway in mouse testes by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on enzymes involved in sex-hormone synthesis pathway in male C57BL/6 mice were investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expressions of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD1, and CYP17 while CYP19 mRNA expression was slightly decreased. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD2 was induced in correlation with those did by estradiol. These observations supported that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol could exhibit the same effect as estradiol regarding regulation of testicular gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway.

  1. OsERF2 controls rice root growth and hormone responses through tuning expression of key genes involved in hormone signaling and sucrose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guiqing; Qin, Hua; Zhou, Jiahao; Quan, Ruidang; Lu, Xiangyang; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Haiwen

    2016-02-01

    Root determines plant distribution, development progresses, stress response, as well as crop qualities and yields, which is under the tight control of genetic programs and environmental stimuli. Ethylene responsive factor proteins (ERFs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Here, the regulatory function of OsERF2 involved in root growth was investigated using the gain-function mutant of OsERF2 (nsf2857) and the artificial microRNA-mediated silenced lines of OsERF2 (Ami-OsERF2). nsf2857 showed short primary roots compared with the wild type (WT), while the primary roots of Ami-OsERF2 lines were longer than those of WT. Consistent with this phenotype, several auxin/cytokinin responsive genes involved in root growth were downregulated in nsf2857, but upregulated in Ami-OsERF2. Then, we found that nsf2857 seedlings exhibited decreased ABA accumulation and sensitivity to ABA and reduced ethylene-mediated root inhibition, while those were the opposite in Ami-ERF2 plants. Moreover, several key genes involved in ABA synthesis were downregulated in nsf2857, but unregulated in Ami-ERF2 lines. In addition, OsERF2 affected the accumulation of sucrose and UDPG by mediating expression of key genes involved in sucrose metabolism. These results indicate that OsERF2 is required for the control of root architecture and ABA- and ethylene-response by tuning expression of series genes involved in sugar metabolism and hormone signaling pathways.

  2. Enkephalins and hormonal-metabolic reactions in experimental stress depending on its severity

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Y.B.; Alekminskaya, L.A.; Lasukova, T.V.

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the action of enkephalins on changes in hormonal-metabolic constants in stress of varied severity. Catecholamine excretion with the urine was determined fluorometrically, serum cortisol and insulin concentrations were measured radioimmunologically and glucose was determined by the standard orthotoluidine method. The results of the investigation indicate that enkephalins have a modulating effect on various hormonal mechanisms of adaptation stress. The results confirm that the physiological action of the peptide regulator depends on the functional state of the biological systems and it may differ sharply, even to the extent of diametrically opposite effects.

  3. Photorespiration: metabolic pathways and their role in stress protection.

    PubMed Central

    Wingler, A; Lea, P J; Quick, W P; Leegood, R C

    2000-01-01

    Photorespiration results from the oxygenase reaction catalysed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In this reaction glycollate-2-phosphate is produced and subsequently metabolized in the photorespiratory pathway to form the Calvin cycle intermediate glycerate-3-phosphate. During this metabolic process, CO2 and NH3 are produced and ATP and reducing equivalents are consumed, thus making photorespiration a wasteful process. However, precisely because of this inefficiency, photorespiration could serve as an energy sink preventing the overreduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition, especially under stress conditions that lead to reduced rates of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Furthermore, photorespiration provides metabolites for other metabolic processes, e.g. glycine for the synthesis of glutathione, which is also involved in stress protection. In this review we describe the use of photorespiratory mutants to study the control and regulation of photorespiratory pathways. In addition, we discuss the possible role of photorespiration under stress conditions, such as drought, high salt concentrations and high light intensities encountered by alpine plants. PMID:11128005

  4. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jacqueline M; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L; Thiede, Joshua M; Mehrer, Christopher R; Agnew, Daniel E; Campbell, Candace E; Markley, Andrew L; Price, Morgan N; Ray, Jayashree; Wetmore, Kelly M; Suh, Yumi; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Pfleger, Brian F

    2017-09-25

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. This discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.Levulinic acid (LA) is a value-added chemical easily obtained from biomass. The pathway enabling LA degradation in Pseudomonas putida requires five enzymes and can be engineered into Escherichia coli, which could enable further biotechnological applications.

  5. Effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on growth and glucose metabolism of the sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2007-10-01

    Pituitary hormones are essential for normal growth and metabolic responsiveness after birth, but their role before birth remains unclear. This study examined the effects of hypophysectomizing fetal sheep on their growth and glucose metabolism during the late normal and extended periods of gestation, and on their metabolic response to maternal fasting for 48 h near term. Fetal hypophysectomy reduced crown rump length (CRL), limb lengths, and body weight but increased ponderal index relative to controls near normal term. It also lowered the daily rate of crown rump length increment uniformly from 35 d before, to 20 d after normal term. Hypophysectomized (HX) fetuses had normal weight-specific rates of umbilical uptake, utilization, and oxidation of glucose but lower rates of umbilical oxygen uptake than controls near term. All these metabolic rates were significantly less in HX fetuses during the extended period of gestation than in HX and intact fetuses near normal term. In contrast to controls, glucogenesis was negligible in HX fetuses during maternal fasting. Consequently, the rate of glucose utilization decreased significantly in fasted HX but not intact fetuses. Conversely, the rate of CO(2) production from glucose carbon decreased in fasted intact but not HX fetuses. Fetal hypophysectomy also prevented the fasting-induced increases in plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations seen in controls. These findings demonstrate that the pituitary hormones are important in regulating the growth rate and adaptive responses of glucose metabolism to undernutrition in fetal sheep. They also suggest that fetal metabolism is altered when gestational length is extended.

  6. [Lipoprotein metabolism in menopause. Effect of hormonal substitution therapy].

    PubMed

    Heckers, H; Platt, D

    1991-06-20

    Oral administration of conjugated estrogens, estradiol valerate and micronized estradiol--but not the percutaneous application--in the postmenopause modifies the plasmic lipoprotein profile by lowering, dose-dependently, LDL and elevating HDL (HDL2). In parallel, the cardiovascular mortality is decreased by 50-66%, with smokers also benefiting to the same extent. On account of the increased risk for endometrial carcinoma associated with postmenopausal estrogen monotherapy, combination with a lowest-dose gestagen is imperative. However, the very numerous synthetic gestagens can antagonize the favorable effects of the estrogen on lipoprotein metabolism. This applies in particular to the gestagens of the 19-nortestosterone type, such as norethisterone acetate and, in particular, levonorgestrel, but less so the 17-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives medroxyprogesterone acetate and medrogestone with their very low androgenic effect.

  7. The insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway is involved in the nutritional regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) levels must be modulated to permit the normal progress of development and reproductive maturation in mosquitoes. JH is part of a transduction system that assesses nutritional information and controls reproduction in mosquitoes. Adult female Aedes aegypti show nutritionally-dependent dynamic changes in corpora allata (CA) JH biosynthetic activities. A coordinated expression of most JH biosynthetic enzymes has been described in female pupae and adult mosquitoes; increases or decreases in transcript levels for all the enzymes were concurrent with increases or decreases in JH synthesis; suggesting that transcriptional changes are at least partially responsible for the dynamic changes of JH biosynthesis. The goal of the present study is to identify signaling network components responsible for the nutritional-dependent changes of JH synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. The insulin/TOR signaling network plays a central role in the transduction of nutritional signals that regulate cell growth and metabolism in insects. These pathways have also been suggested as a link between nutritional signals and JH synthesis regulation in the CA of cockroaches and flies. We used a combination of in vitro studies and in vivo genetic knockdown experiments to explore nutritional signaling pathways in the CA. Our results suggest that the insulin/TOR pathway plays a role in the transduction of the nutritional information that regulates JH synthesis in mosquitoes. Transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding JH biosynthetic enzymes is at least partially responsible for these nutritionally modulated changes of JH biosynthesis.

  8. Hormonal Regulation and Expression Profiles of Wheat Genes Involved during Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sipla; Shukla, Vishnu; Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, Shivani; Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) biosynthesis pathway genes were reported from multiple crop species. PA accumulation was enhanced during grain filling and at that time, hormones like Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) interplay to control the process of seed development. Regulation of wheat PA pathway genes has not yet been reported in seeds. In an attempt to find the clues for the regulation by hormones, the promoter region of wheat PA pathway genes was analyzed for the presence of cis-elements. Multiple cis-elements of those known to be involved for ABA, GA3, salicylic acid (SA), and cAMP sensing were identified in the promoters of PA pathway genes. Eight genes (TaIMP, TaITPK1-4, TaPLC1, TaIPK2 and TaIPK1) involved in the wheat PA biosynthesis pathway were selected for the expression studies. The temporal expression response was studied in seeds treated with ABA and GA3 using quantitative real time PCR. Our results suggested that exogenous application of ABA induces few PA pathway genes in wheat grains. Comparison of expression profiles for PA pathway for GA3 and ABA suggested the antagonistic regulation of certain genes. Additionally, to reveal stress responses of wheat PA pathway genes, expression was also studied in the presence of SA and cAMP. Results suggested SA specific differential expression of few genes, whereas, overall repression of genes was observed in cAMP treated samples. This study is an effort to understand the regulation of PA biosynthesis genes in wheat. PMID:27135330

  9. Hormonal Regulation and Expression Profiles of Wheat Genes Involved during Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sipla; Shukla, Vishnu; Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, Shivani; Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2015-06-11

    Phytic acid (PA) biosynthesis pathway genes were reported from multiple crop species. PA accumulation was enhanced during grain filling and at that time, hormones like Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA₃) interplay to control the process of seed development. Regulation of wheat PA pathway genes has not yet been reported in seeds. In an attempt to find the clues for the regulation by hormones, the promoter region of wheat PA pathway genes was analyzed for the presence of cis-elements. Multiple cis-elements of those known to be involved for ABA, GA₃, salicylic acid (SA), and cAMP sensing were identified in the promoters of PA pathway genes. Eight genes (TaIMP, TaITPK1-4, TaPLC1, TaIPK2 and TaIPK1) involved in the wheat PA biosynthesis pathway were selected for the expression studies. The temporal expression response was studied in seeds treated with ABA and GA₃ using quantitative real time PCR. Our results suggested that exogenous application of ABA induces few PA pathway genes in wheat grains. Comparison of expression profiles for PA pathway for GA₃ and ABA suggested the antagonistic regulation of certain genes. Additionally, to reveal stress responses of wheat PA pathway genes, expression was also studied in the presence of SA and cAMP. Results suggested SA specific differential expression of few genes, whereas, overall repression of genes was observed in cAMP treated samples. This study is an effort to understand the regulation of PA biosynthesis genes in wheat.

  10. A safer method for studying hormone metabolism in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yon, Lisa; Faulkner, Brian; Kanchanapangka, Sumolya; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Meepan, Sompast; Lasley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive hormone assays provide a way to determine an animal's health or reproductive status without the need for physical or chemical restraint, both of which create unnecessary stress for the animal, and can potentially alter the hormones being measured. Because hormone metabolism is highly species-specific, each assay must be validated for use in the species of interest. Validation of noninvasive steroid hormone assays has traditionally required the administration of relatively high doses of radiolabelled compounds (100 µCi or more of (14)C labeled hormone) to permit subsequent detection of the excreted metabolites in the urine and feces. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive to extremely low levels of rare isotopes such as (14)C, and provides a way to validate hormone assays using much lower levels of radioactivity than those traditionally employed. A captive Asian bull elephant was given 1 µCi of (14)C-testosterone intravenously, and an opportunistic urine sample was collected 2 hr after the injection. The sample was separated by HPLC and the (14)C in the fractions was detected by AMS to characterize the metabolites present in the urine. A previously established HPLC protocol was used, which permitted the identification of fractions into which testosterone sulfate, testosterone glucuronide, and the parent compound testosterone elute. Results from this study indicate that the majority of testosterone excreted in the urine of the Asian bull elephant is in the form of testosterone sulfate. A small amount of testosterone glucuronide is also excreted, but there is no parent compound present in the urine at all. These results underscore the need for enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare urine samples for hormone assay measurement. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of proper hormone assay validation in order to ensure accurate measurement of the desired hormone. Although this study demonstrated the utility of AMS for safer validation of

  11. Coexistence of competing metabolic pathways in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Lenin; Amado, André; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes

    2016-05-01

    Understanding why strains with different metabolic pathways that compete for a single limiting resource coexist is a challenging issue within a theoretical perspective. Previous investigations rely on mechanisms such as group or spatial structuring to achieve a stable coexistence between competing metabolic strategies. Nevertheless, coexistence has been experimentally reported even in situations where it cannot be attributed to spatial effects [Heredity 100, 471 (2008), 10.1038/sj.hdy.6801073]. According to that study a toxin expelled by one of the strains can be responsible for the stable maintenance of the two strain types. We propose a resource-based model in which an efficient strain with a slow metabolic rate competes with a second strain type which presents a fast but inefficient metabolism. Moreover, the model assumes that the inefficient strain produces a toxin as a by-product. This toxin affects the growth rate of both strains with different strength. Through an extensive exploration of the parameter space we determine the situations at which the coexistence of the two strains is possible. Interestingly, we observe that the resource influx rate plays a key role in the maintenance of the two strain types. In a scenario of resource scarcity the inefficient is favored, though as the resource influx rate is augmented the coexistence becomes possible and its domain is enlarged.

  12. Cerulenin-mediated apoptosis is involved in adenine metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Sun, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Jee; Choi, Shin-Jung; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Song, Kyung-Bin; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Simon, Julian . E-mail: jsimon@fhcrc.org; Won, Misun . E-mail: misun@kribb.re.kr

    2006-10-27

    Cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, induces apoptosis of variety of tumor cells. To elucidate mode of action by cerulenin, we employed the proteomics approach using Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The differential protein expression profile of S. pombe revealed that cerulenin modulated the expressions of proteins involved in stresses and metabolism, including both ade10 and adk1 proteins. The nutrient supplementation assay demonstrated that cerulenin affected enzymatic steps transferring a phosphoribosyl group. This result suggests that cerulenin accumulates AMP and p-ribosyl-s-amino-imidazole carboxamide (AICAR) and reduces other necessary nucleotides, which induces feedback inhibition of enzymes and the transcriptional regulation of related genes in de novo and salvage adenine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the deregulation of adenine nucleotide synthesis may interfere ribonucleotide reductase and cause defects in cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. In conclusion, cerulenin induces apoptosis through deregulation of adenine nucleotide biosynthesis resulting in nuclear division defects in S. pombe.

  13. Brain areas and pathways in the regulation of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Serlie, Mireille J; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is the most important source of fuel for the brain and its concentration must be kept within strict boundaries to ensure the organism's optimal fitness. To maintain glucose homeostasis, an optimal balance between glucose uptake and glucose output is required. Besides managing acute changes in plasma glucose concentrations, the brain controls a daily rhythm in glucose concentrations. The various nuclei within the hypothalamus that are involved in the control of both these processes are well known. However, novel studies indicate an additional role for brain areas that are originally appreciated in other processes than glucose metabolism. Therefore, besides the classic hypothalamic pathways, we will review cortico-limbic brain areas and their role in glucose metabolism.

  14. Expression data on liver metabolic pathway genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pavan Kumar, Chodisetti; Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Sravan Kumar, Manchiryala; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the expression data on various metabolic pathways of liver with special emphasize on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis, both at gene and protein levels. The data were obtained to understand the effect of vitamin A deficiency on the expression status (both gene and protein levels) of some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride secretion, long chain PUFA, resolvin D1 synthesis, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis of liver, using modern biology tools, such as quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting techniques. This data article provides the supporting evidence to the article “Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels” [1] and therefore, these data may be referred back, for comprehensive understanding and interpretations and for future studies. PMID:26909377

  15. Characterizability of metabolic pathway systems from time series data.

    PubMed

    Voit, Eberhard O

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, the biomathematical community has devoted substantial effort to the complicated challenge of estimating parameter values for biological systems models. An even more difficult issue is the characterization of functional forms for the processes that govern these systems. Most parameter estimation approaches tacitly assume that these forms are known or can be assumed with some validity. However, this assumption is not always true. The recently proposed method of Dynamic Flux Estimation (DFE) addresses this problem in a genuinely novel fashion for metabolic pathway systems. Specifically, DFE allows the characterization of fluxes within such systems through an analysis of metabolic time series data. Its main drawback is the fact that DFE can only directly be applied if the pathway system contains as many metabolites as unknown fluxes. This situation is unfortunately rare. To overcome this roadblock, earlier work in this field had proposed strategies for augmenting the set of unknown fluxes with independent kinetic information, which however is not always available. Employing Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse methods of linear algebra, the present article discusses an approach for characterizing fluxes from metabolic time series data that is applicable even if the pathway system is underdetermined and contains more fluxes than metabolites. Intriguingly, this approach is independent of a specific modeling framework and unaffected by noise in the experimental time series data. The results reveal whether any fluxes may be characterized and, if so, which subset is characterizable. They also help with the identification of fluxes that, if they could be determined independently, would allow the application of DFE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do the Interactions between Glucocorticoids and Sex Hormones Regulate the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic, or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response do not seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein, and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release). These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e., levels) of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment). Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause) again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies. PMID:22649414

  17. Metabolite Valves: Dynamic Control of Metabolic Flux for Pathway Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kristala

    2015-03-01

    Microbial strains have been successfully engineered to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds, several of which have been commercialized. As new products are targeted for biological synthesis, yield is frequently considered a primary driver towards determining feasibility. Theoretical yields can be calculated, establishing an upper limit on the potential conversion of starting substrates to target compounds. Such yields typically ignore loss of substrate to byproducts, with the assumption that competing reactions can be eliminated, usually by deleting the genes encoding the corresponding enzymes. However, when an enzyme encodes an essential gene, especially one involved in primary metabolism, deletion is not a viable option. Reducing gene expression in a static fashion is possible, but this solution ignores the metabolic demand needed for synthesis of the enzymes required for the desired pathway. We have developed Metabolite valves to address this challenge. The valves are designed to allow high flux through the essential enzyme during an initial period where growth is favored. Following an external perturbation, enzyme activity is then reduced, enabling a higher precursor pool to be diverted towards the pathway of interest. We have designed valves with control at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. In both cases, key enzymes in glucose metabolism are regulated, and two different compounds are targeted for heterologous production. We have measured increased concentrations of intracellular metabolites once the valve is closed, and have demonstrated that these increased pools lead to increased product yields. These metabolite valves should prove broadly useful for dynamic control of metabolic flux, resulting in improvements in product yields.

  18. Engineering of a xylose metabolic pathway in Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaochao; Wang, Xi; Chen, Shulin

    2012-08-01

    The two metabolically versatile actinobacteria Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 can efficiently convert diverse organic substrates into neutral lipids mainly consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG), the precursor of energy-rich hydrocarbon. Neither, however, is able to utilize xylose, the important component present in lignocellulosic biomass, as the carbon source for growth and lipid accumulation. In order to broaden their substrate utilization range, the metabolic pathway of d-xylose utilization was introduced into these two strains. This was accomplished by heterogenous expression of two well-selected genes, xylA, encoding xylose isomerase, and xylB, encoding xylulokinase from Streptomyces lividans TK23, under the control of the tac promoter with an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector. The recombinant R. jostii RHA1 bearing xylA could grow on xylose as the sole carbon source, and additional expression of xylB further improved the biomass yield. The recombinant could consume both glucose and xylose in the sugar mixture, although xylose metabolism was still affected by the presence of glucose. The xylose metabolic pathway was also introduced into the high-lipid-producing strain R. opacus PD630 by expression of xylA and xylB. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the fatty acid composition was determined, and lipid produced from xylose by recombinants of R. jostii RHA1 and R. opacus PD630 carrying xylA and xylB represented up to 52.5% and 68.3% of the cell dry weight (CDW), respectively. This work demonstrates that it is feasible to produce lipid from the sugars, including xylose, derived from renewable feedstock by genetic modification of rhodococcus strains.

  19. Identifying Differentially Abundant Metabolic Pathways in Metagenomic Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Pop, Mihai

    Enabled by rapid advances in sequencing technology, metagenomic studies aim to characterize entire communities of microbes bypassing the need for culturing individual bacterial members. One major goal of such studies is to identify specific functional adaptations of microbial communities to their habitats. Here we describe a powerful analytical method (MetaPath) that can identify differentially abundant pathways in metagenomic data-sets, relying on a combination of metagenomic sequence data and prior metabolic pathway knowledge. We show that MetaPath outperforms other common approaches when evaluated on simulated datasets. We also demonstrate the power of our methods in analyzing two, publicly available, metagenomic datasets: a comparison of the gut microbiome of obese and lean twins; and a comparison of the gut microbiome of infant and adult subjects. We demonstrate that the subpathways identified by our method provide valuable insights into the biological activities of the microbiome.

  20. Methodology of the thyroid gland disease decision-making using profiling in steroid hormone pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sun; Yoon, Chang No

    2007-02-19

    To find out the genetic factors of outbreak of thyroid gland disease, we developed the thyroid gland decision-making system, which processes the metabolic profile in steroid hormone map using a statistical method. Metabolic profile is a measured data of lots of mixed materials that includes not only known metabolites, but also unknown ones, which is estimated to have an influence on the thyroid gland disease. Therefore, to develop thyroid gland disease decision-making system, analyzing metabolic profile containing multi-materials would be useful for diagnosing thyroid gland disease. Because experimental values used for system construction are area values for the retention time, the observations are preprocessed through variable transition and t-test to use the area values concurrently and the highly correlated materials are estimated by principal component analysis. The thyroid gland decision-making system developed through the logistic regression is an excellent system demonstrating 98.7% accuracy in the classification table.

  1. Influence of physical exercise on sex-hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Keizer, H A; Poortman, J; Bunnik, G S

    1980-05-01

    We have studied the effects of short-term exercise on the degradation rate of estradiol (E2) measured as the metabolic clearance rate (MCRE2). Six young women (mean age 20.7 yr) volunteered for this study in which we investigated the influence of a submaximal bicycle ergometer load on the MCRE2. All measurements were done in the morning of the 7th to 10th day of the menstrual cycle. [3H]estradiol 17 beta ([3H]E2) was administered intravenously at a constant rate by an infusion pump. During the exercise period on the bicycle ergometer (70% VO2max, 10 min) and the recovery period (25% VO2max, 30 min), several blood samples were taken in which the [3H]E2 concentration was estimated. The results showed a strong decrease in the MCRE2 (range 18-67%) at the end of the work load for all the volunteers. At the end of the recovery period, the MCR was still lower than the basal value (range 30-50%). The possible mechanisms and relevance of these exercise-induced MCR changes of estradiol are discussed.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Weiss, Noel S.; Chen, Chu; Li, Christopher I.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway altered the risk of breast cancer alone or in combination, as well as whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) modified the effect of these SNPs on breast cancer risk. Methods In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer, 891 cases and 878 controls were genotyped for six functional SNPs in the COMT, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes. Results Women homozygous with the T allele in CYP1B1*2 (Ser119; rs1056827) were at 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.46) times the risk of women homozygous with the G allele; women homozygous with the G allele in GSTP1 (Val105; rs1695) were at 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54–0.99) times the risk of breast cancer compared to women homozygous with the A allele. No other SNPs tested were associated with breast cancer to any appreciable degree. Potential gene-gene and gene-HT interactions were investigated. Conclusion With the exception of GSTP1 and possibly CYP1B1*2, our findings do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women. PMID:19383894

  3. Formate Assimilation: The Metabolic Architecture of Natural and Synthetic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-07-19

    Formate may become an ideal mediator between the physicochemical and biological realms, as it can be produced efficiently from multiple available sources, such as electricity and biomass, and serve as one of the simplest organic compounds for providing both carbon and energy to living cells. However, limiting the realization of formate as a microbial feedstock is the low diversity of formate-fixing enzymes and thereby the small number of naturally occurring formate-assimilation pathways. Here, the natural enzymes and pathways supporting formate assimilation are presented and discussed together with proposed synthetic routes that could permit growth on formate via existing as well as novel formate-fixing reactions. By considering such synthetic routes, the diversity of metabolic solutions for formate assimilation can be expanded dramatically, such that different host organisms, cultivation conditions, and desired products could be matched with the most suitable pathway. Astute application of old and new formate-assimilation pathways may thus become a cornerstone in the development of sustainable strategies for microbial production of value-added chemicals.

  4. Synthetic metabolic engineering-a novel, simple technology for designing a chimeric metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoting; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Omasa, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-09-06

    The integration of biotechnology into chemical manufacturing has been recognized as a key technology to build a sustainable society. However, the practical applications of biocatalytic chemical conversions are often restricted due to their complexities involving the unpredictability of product yield and the troublesome controls in fermentation processes. One of the possible strategies to overcome these limitations is to eliminate the use of living microorganisms and to use only enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway. Use of recombinant mesophiles producing thermophilic enzymes at high temperature results in denaturation of indigenous proteins and elimination of undesired side reactions; consequently, highly selective and stable biocatalytic modules can be readily prepared. By rationally combining those modules together, artificial synthetic pathways specialized for chemical manufacturing could be designed and constructed. A chimeric Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway with balanced consumption and regeneration of ATP and ADP was constructed by using nine recombinant E. coli strains overproducing either one of the seven glycolytic enzymes of Thermus thermophilus, the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase of Pyrococcus horikoshii, or the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Thermococcus kodakarensis. By coupling this pathway with the Thermus malate/lactate dehydrogenase, a stoichiometric amount of lactate was produced from glucose with an overall ATP turnover number of 31. In this study, a novel and simple technology for flexible design of a bespoke metabolic pathway was developed. The concept has been testified via a non-ATP-forming chimeric EM pathway. We designated this technology as "synthetic metabolic engineering". Our technology is, in principle, applicable to all thermophilic enzymes as long as they can be functionally expressed in the host, and thus would be potentially applicable to the biocatalytic manufacture of any chemicals

  5. A Binary Classifier for Prediction of the Types of Metabolic Pathway of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yemin; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The study of metabolic pathway is one of the most important fields in biochemistry. Good comprehension of the metabolic pathway system is helpful to uncover the mechanism of some fundamental biological processes. Because chemicals are part of the main components of the metabolic pathway, correct identification of which metabolic pathways a given chemical can participate in is an important step for understanding the metabolic pathway system. Most previous methods only considered the chemical information, which tried to deal with a multilabel classification problem of assigning chemicals to proper metabolic pathways. In this study, the pathway information was also employed, thereby transforming the problem into a binary classification problem of identifying the pair of chemicals and metabolic pathways, i.e., a chemical and a metabolic pathway was paired as a sample to be considered in this study. To construct the prediction model, the association between chemical pathway type pairs was evaluated by integrating the association between chemicals and association between pathway types. The support vector machine was adopted as the prediction engine. The extensive tests show that the constructed model yields good performance with total prediction accuracy around 0.878. The comparison results indicate that our model is quite effective and suitable for the identification of whether a given chemical can participate in a given metabolic pathway. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Estrogen metabolism genotypes, use of long-term hormone replacement therapy and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Novakovic, Srdjan; Frkovic-Grazio, Snjezana; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Stegel, Vida; Gersak, Ksenija

    2011-08-01

    Association between long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and increased risk of breast cancer is still under debate. Functionally relevant genetic variants within the estrogen metabolic pathway may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We investigated the associations of common polymorphisms in 4 genes encoding key proteins of the estrogen metabolic pathway, duration of HRT use and their interactions with breast cancer risk. We studied 530 breast cancer cases and 270 controls of the same age and ethnicity participating in a case-control study of postmenopausal women. Duration of HRT use was ascertained through a postal questionnaire. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695) and MnSOD (rs4880) polymorphisms by PCR-based RFLP and TaqMan® allelic discrimination method. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis. HRT use was significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (p<0.001). None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with breast cancer risk. A significant interaction was observed between MnSOD 47T>C and HRT use (pinteraction=0.036); the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term vs. short-term HRT use was decreased in women homozygous for the wild-type allele and increased in women with at least one variant allele of the MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism. Our results suggest that MnSOD 47T>C polymorphism in interaction with long-term HRT use may modify the risk of breast cancer.

  7. Resveratrol alleviates ethanol-induced hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the rat.

    PubMed

    Szkudelska, K; Deniziak, M; Roś, P; Gwóźdź, K; Szkudelski, T

    2017-03-31

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in different plant species and having numerous health-promoting properties in animals and humans. However, its protective action against deleterious effects of ethanol is poorly elucidated. In the present study, the influence of resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) on some hormones and metabolic parameters was determined in rats ingesting 10 % ethanol solution for two weeks. Blood levels of insulin, glucagon and adiponectin were affected by ethanol, however, resveratrol partially ameliorated these changes. Moreover, in ethanol drinking rats, liver lipid accumulation was increased, whereas resveratrol was capable of reducing liver lipid content, probably due to decrease in fatty acid synthesis. Resveratrol decreased also blood levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids and reduced gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in animals ingesting ethanol. These results show that resveratrol, already at low dose, alleviates hormonal and metabolic changes induced by ethanol in the rat and may be useful in preventing and treating some consequences of alcohol consumption.

  8. Minireview: Food for Thought: Regulation of Synaptic Function by Metabolic Hormones

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Gemma; Malekizadeh, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral actions of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, are well documented. However, the functions of these hormones are not restricted to the periphery because evidence is growing that both leptin and insulin can readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have widespread central actions. The hippocampus in particular expresses high levels of both insulin and leptin receptors as well as key components of their associated signaling cascades. Moreover, recent studies indicate that both hormones are potential cognitive enhancers. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that both leptin and insulin markedly influence key cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and the trafficking of glutamate receptors to and away from hippocampal synapses. The hippocampal formation is also a prime site for the neurodegenerative processes that occur during Alzheimer's disease, and impairments in either leptin or insulin function have been linked to central nervous system-driven diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the capacity of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, to regulate hippocampal synaptic function has significant implications for normal brain function and also central nervous system-driven disease. PMID:25470238

  9. Energy metabolism and hormonal profile in children with edematous protein-calorie malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Klish, W; Cuellar, A; Serrano, P A; Garcia, G; Argote, R M; Canseco, L; Nicholas, B L

    1975-08-01

    Modifications in energy metabolism and endocrine homeostasis (plasma insulin and growth hormone values, glucose and free fatty acid levels, serum thyroxine and TSH, free thyroxine index, and urinary catecholamines) were investigated in eight children with edematous protein-calorie malnutrition. Caloric expenditure was low at admission and correlated linearly with increased caloric intake throughout the study. The hormonal changes at admission were characterized by a negligible insulin response to intravenous arginine or glucose and by markedly elevated growth hormone levels which were neither increased by arginine nor suppressed by intravenous glucose. Serum thyroxine values were low, but free thyroxine index and serum TSH levels were within normal limits. At admission to the study, 24-hour urinary excretion of dopamine and norepinephrine was relatively reduced in relation to the excretion of epinephrine. All these modifications were corrected at time of the recovery study. It is suggested that in edematous protein-calorie malnutrition, insulin acts as the primary regulator of peripheral fuel release and that the high, nonsuppressible growth hormone levels may form part of an important homeostatic mechanism to provide substrates for brain metabolism via lipolysis.

  10. Adjuvant diet to improve hormonal and metabolic factors affecting breast cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Berrino, Franco; Villarini, Anna; De Petris, Michela; Raimondi, Milena; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2006-11-01

    Western lifestyle, characterized by reduced physical activity and a diet rich in fat, refined carbohydrates, and animal protein is associated with high prevalence of overweight, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and high plasma levels of several growth factors and sex hormones. Most of these factors are associated with breast cancer risk and, in breast cancer patients, with increased risk of recurrences. Recent trials have proven that such a metabolic and endocrine imbalance can be favorably modified through comprehensive dietary modification, shifting from Western to Mediterranean and macrobiotic diet.

  11. Yeast Pathway Kit: A Method for Metabolic Pathway Assembly with Automatically Simulated Executable Documentation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipa; Azevedo, Flávio; Parachin, Nadia Skorupa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Johansson, Björn

    2016-05-20

    We have developed the Yeast Pathway Kit (YPK) for rational and random metabolic pathway assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using reusable and redistributable genetic elements. Genetic elements are cloned in a suicide vector in a rapid process that omits PCR product purification. Single-gene expression cassettes are assembled in vivo using genetic elements that are both promoters and terminators (TP). Cassettes sharing genetic elements are assembled by recombination into multigene pathways. A wide selection of prefabricated TP elements makes assembly both rapid and inexpensive. An innovative software tool automatically produces detailed self-contained executable documentation in the form of pydna code in the narrative Jupyter notebook format to facilitate planning and sharing YPK projects. A d-xylose catabolic pathway was created using YPK with four or eight genes that resulted in one of the highest growth rates reported on d-xylose (0.18 h(-1)) for recombinant S. cerevisiae without adaptation. The two-step assembly of single-gene expression cassettes into multigene pathways may improve the yield of correct pathways at the cost of adding overall complexity, which is offset by the supplied software tool.

  12. Human sperm tail proteome suggests new endogenous metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, João; Oliva, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous

  13. Control of metabolic and cardiovascular function by the leptin-brain melanocortin pathway.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; Sessums, Price O; Ebaady, Sabira H; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major worldwide health problem. Excess weight gain is the most common cause of elevated blood pressure (BP) and markedly increases the risk of metabolic, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Although the mechanisms linking obesity with hypertension have not been fully elucidated, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to elevated BP in obese subjects. Recent evidence indicates that leptin and the central nervous system (CNS) melanocortin system, including melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R), play a key role in linking obesity with increased SNS activity and hypertension. Leptin, a peptide-hormone produced by adipose tissue, crosses the blood-brain barrier and activates brain centers that control multiple metabolic functions as well as SNS activity and BP via the CNS melanocortin system. The crosstalk between peripheral signals (e.g., leptin) and activation of CNS pathways (e.g., MC4R) that regulate energy balance, SNS activity and BP represents an important target for treating obesity and its metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Quantitative analysis of energy metabolic pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by selected reaction monitoring assay.

    PubMed

    Drabovich, Andrei P; Pavlou, Maria P; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the quantitative response of energy metabolic pathways in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and estradiol stimulation, we developed a targeted proteomics assay for accurate quantification of protein expression in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways. Cell growth conditions were selected to roughly mimic the exposure of cells in the cancer tissue to the intermittent hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and hormonal stimulation. Targeted proteomics assay allowed for reproducible quantification of 76 proteins in four different growth conditions after 24 and 48 h of perturbation. Differential expression of a number of control and metabolic pathway proteins in response to the change of growth conditions was found. Elevated expression of the majority of glycolytic enzymes was observed in hypoxia. Cancer cells, as opposed to near-normal MCF-10A cells, exhibited significantly increased expression of key energy metabolic pathway enzymes (FBP1, IDH2, and G6PD) that are known to redirect cellular metabolism and increase carbon flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. Our quantitative proteomic protocol is based on a mass spectrometry-compatible acid-labile detergent and is described in detail. Optimized parameters of a multiplex selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay for 76 proteins, 134 proteotypic peptides, and 401 transitions are included and can be downloaded and used with any SRM-compatible mass spectrometer. The presented workflow is an integrated tool for hypothesis-driven studies of mammalian cells as well as functional studies of proteins, and can greatly complement experimental methods in systems biology, metabolic engineering, and metabolic transformation of cancer cells.

  15. A novel metabolic pathway of melatonin: oxidation by cytochrome C.

    PubMed

    Semak, Igor; Naumova, Marya; Korik, Elena; Terekhovich, Victorya; Wortsman, Jacobo; Slominski, Andrzej

    2005-07-05

    The indoleamine melatonin is ubiquitously distributed, and because of its small size and amphiphilic nature, it is able to reach easily all cellular compartments. The highest intracellular melatonin concentrations are found in the mitochondria, suggestive of local metabolism and/or direct participation in organelle function. In mitochondria cytochrome c (cyt c) could represent a melatonin target since it has the capability to oxidize organic molecules in the presence of H2O2, and mitochondria are the main site of H2O2 production in nonphagocytic cells. Therefore, we investigated oxidation of melatonin by cyt c/H2O2 couple as a potential pathway for its metabolism in the mitochondria. We found melatonin conversion into N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine via sequential steps that generate the intermediates 2-hydroxymelatonin and 2,3-dihydroxymelatonin. We experimentally excluded mediation by a Fenton/Haber-Weiss-type reaction and documented the dependence on oxoferryl heme for melatonin oxidation. Given the high mitochondrial concentrations of both melatonin and cyt c as well as the continuous generation of H2O2 during respiration, it is entirely possible that mitochondrial cyt c-mediated oxidation of melatonin may be a plausible pathway of its biotransformation in vivo.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Qingzhu; Zhou, Qianjun; Gan, Susheng; Wu, Jingyu; Chen, Canbin; Li, Jiaqiang; Ye, Yaoxiong; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2016-09-28

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "tyrosine metabolism", "flavonoid biosynthesis", "ascorbate and aldarate metabolism", "betalains biosynthesis" and "anthocyanin biosynthesis". In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  17. Thyroid Hormones Correlate with Basal Metabolic Rate but Not Field Metabolic Rate in a Wild Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Welcker, Jorg; Chastel, Olivier; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Guillaumin, Jerome; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Speakman, John R.; Tremblay, Yann; Bech, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in mammals and birds. Hence, in many laboratory studies a positive relationship between TH concentrations and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated whereas evidence from species in the wild is scarce. Even though basal and field metabolic rates (FMR) are often thought to be intrinsically linked it is still unknown whether a relationship between TH and FMR exists. Here we determine the relationship between the primary thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) with both BMR and FMR in a wild bird species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). As predicted we found a strong and positive relationship between plasma concentrations of T3 and both BMR and mass-independent BMR with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.36 to 0.60. In contrast there was no association of T3 levels with either whole-body or mass-independent FMR (R2 = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively). In accordance with in vitro studies our data suggests that TH play an important role in modulating BMR and may serve as a proxy for basal metabolism in wild birds. However, the lack of a relationship between TH and FMR indicates that levels of physical activity in kittiwakes are largely independent of TH concentrations and support recent studies that cast doubt on a direct linkage between BMR and FMR. PMID:23437096

  18. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  19. Differential Effects of Hormones on Cellular Metabolism in Keratoconus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tina B.; Hjortdal, Jesper; Sejersen, Henrik; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disease with an onset commonly immediately post-puberty and stabilization by 40 to 50 years of age. The role of hormones in regulating corneal tissue structure in homeostatic and pathological conditions is unknown. Our group recently linked altered hormone levels to KC. Our current study sought to investigate and delineate the effects of exogenous hormones, such as androgen, luteotropin, and estrogen, on corneal stroma bioenergetics. We utilized our established 3D in vitro model to characterize the effects of DHEA, prolactin, 17β-estradiol on insulin-growth factor-1 and -2 (IGF-1, -2) signaling and metabolic function in primary corneal fibroblasts from healthy controls (HCFs) and KC patients (HKCs). Our data showed that exogenous DHEA significantly downregulated IGF-1 and its receptor in both HCFs and HKCs with HKCs showing consistently lower basal pentose phosphate flux. Prolactin caused no significant change in IGF-1 levels and an increase in IGF-2 in HKCs correlating with an increase in ATP and NADH levels. 17β-estradiol led to a significant upregulation in pentose phosphate flux and glycolytic intermediates in HCFs. Our results identified hormone-specific responses regulated in HKCs compared to HCFs revealing a novel role for hormones on bioenergetics in KC. PMID:28211546

  20. Hormones and fish hepatocyte metabolism: "the good, the bad and the ugly!".

    PubMed

    Moon, Thomas W

    2004-11-01

    This short review examines some of my personal experiences with Dr. Peter Hochachka, as a mentor and friend, and how his encouragement led to the research undertaken in my laboratory over the past three decades. Specifically, our work using the fish hepatocyte preparation as a model cell system is reviewed. The hepatocyte is an ideal cellular system that can be used to probe hepatic physiology and biochemistry. The impact of insulin, glucagon and related peptides, and catecholamines is discussed from the perspective of core and diverse functions of these key vertebrate metabolic hormones. Each hormone that operates in fish species was studied in manners similar to that of mammals, but it appears that the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in particular differs substantially from that in mammals. The receptors for each of these fish hormones seem structurally and in some cases functionally quite distinct from those in mammals. Few fish hormone receptor sequences are available, but fish genomists are rapidly adding new sequence information to the existing databases, so our view of the evolution of vertebrate hormone receptors will become clearer very quickly.

  1. Metabolic and hormonal changes during the refeeding period of prolonged fasting.

    PubMed

    Korbonits, Márta; Blaine, David; Elia, Marinos; Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-08-01

    The discovery of leptin, a hormone primarily involved in adaptation to fasting, led to an increased interest in appetite regulation and appetite-modulating hormones. Here, we present unique data from a case of extreme starvation and refeeding, showing changes in plasma concentrations of appetite-modulating and metabolic hormones as well as biochemical changes, and draw attention to the dangers of the refeeding syndrome. We studied the refeeding period of a 44-day voluntary fast uncomplicated by underlying disease. Biochemical and hormonal variables were compared with 16 matched subjects such that the BMI range of the controls covered the entire spectrum for the index subject's recovering BMI. Lack of calorie intake with free access to water resulted in 25% loss of body weight. Haemoconcentration was observed and feeding was started with a low sodium, hypocaloric liquid formulation. During early refeeding, marked hypophosphataemia, haemodilution and slight oedema developed. Vitamins B1, B12 and B6 were depleted while serum free fatty acids, ketone bodies and zinc levels were abnormally high; abnormal liver function developed over the first week. The hormonal profile showed low IGF-I and insulin levels, and elevated IGF-binding protein-1 concentrations. Appetite-regulating hormones were either very low (leptin and ghrelin) or showed no marked difference from the control group (peptide YY, agouti-related peptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin). Appetite was low at the beginning of refeeding and a transient increase in orexin and resistin was observed coincidently with an increase in subjective hunger. Our study illustrates the potential dangers of refeeding and provides a comprehensive insight into the endocrinology of prolonged fasting and the refeeding process.

  2. Hormone-related pathways and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Stephen A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to investigate genetic variation in hormone pathways in relation to risk of overall and subtype-specific breast cancer in women of African ancestry (AA). Genotyping and imputation yielded data on 143,934 SNPs in 308 hormone-related genes for 3663 breast cancer cases (1098 ER-, 1983 ER+, 582 ER unknown) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. AMBER includes data from four large studies of AA women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, the Women's Circle of Health Study, the Black Women's Health Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Pathway- and gene-based analyses were conducted, and single-SNP tests were run for the top genes. There were no strong associations at the pathway level. The most significantly associated genes were GHRH, CALM2, CETP, and AKR1C1 for overall breast cancer (gene-based nominal p ≤ 0.01); NR0B1, IGF2R, CALM2, CYP1B1, and GRB2 for ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.02); and PGR, MAPK3, MAP3K1, and LHCGR for ER- disease (p ≤ 0.02). Single-SNP tests for SNPs with pairwise linkage disequilibrium r (2) < 0.8 in the top genes identified 12 common SNPs (in CALM2, CETP, NR0B1, IGF2R, CYP1B1, PGR, MAPK3, and MAP3K1) associated with overall or subtype-specific breast cancer after gene-level correction for multiple testing. Rs11571215 in PGR (progesterone receptor) was the SNP most strongly associated with ER- disease. We identified eight genes in hormone pathways that contain common variants associated with breast cancer in AA women after gene-level correction for multiple testing.

  3. Hormone-Related Pathways and Risk of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Stephen A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A.; Troester, Melissa A.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to investigate genetic variation in hormone pathways in relation to risk of overall and subtype-specific breast cancer in women of African ancestry (AA). Methods Genotyping and imputation yielded data on 143,934 SNPs in 308 hormone-related genes for 3663 breast cancer cases (1098 ER-, 1983 ER+, 582 ER unknown) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. AMBER includes data from four large studies of AA women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, the Women's Circle of Health Study, the Black Women's Health Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Pathway- and gene-based analyses were conducted, and single SNP tests were run for the top genes. Results There were no strong associations at the pathway level. The most significantly associated genes were GHRH, CALM2, CETP, and AKR1C1 for overall breast cancer (gene-based nominal p ≤0.01); NR0B1, IGF2R, CALM2, CYP1B1, and GRB2 for ER+ breast cancer (p ≤0.02); and PGR, MAPK3, MAP3K1, and LHCGR for ER- disease (p ≤0.02). Single-SNP tests for SNPs with pairwise linkage disequilibrium r2 <0.8 in the top genes identified 12 common SNPs (in CALM2, CETP, NR0B1, IGF2R, CYP1B1, PGR, MAPK3, and MAP3K1) associated with overall or subtype-specific breast cancer after gene-level correction for multiple testing. Rs11571215 in PGR (progesterone receptor) was the SNP most strongly associated with ER- disease. Conclusion We identified eight genes in hormone pathways that contain common variants associated with breast cancer in AA women after gene-level correction for multiple testing. PMID:26458823

  4. Phytohormone signaling pathway analysis method for comparing hormone responses in plant-pest interactions.

    PubMed

    Studham, Matthew E; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2012-07-31

    Phytohormones mediate plant defense responses to pests and pathogens. In particular, the hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid have been shown to dictate and fine-tune defense responses, and identification of the phytohormone components of a particular defense response is commonly used to characterize it. Identification of phytohormone regulation is particularly important in transcriptome analyses. Currently there is no computational tool to determine the relative activity of these hormones that can be applied to transcriptome analyses in soybean. We developed a pathway analysis method that provides a broad measure of the activation or suppression of individual phytohormone pathways based on changes in transcript expression of pathway-related genes. The magnitude and significance of these changes are used to determine a pathway score for a phytohormone for a given comparison in a microarray experiment. Scores for individual hormones can then be compared to determine the dominant phytohormone in a given defense response. To validate this method, it was applied to publicly available data from previous microarray experiments that studied the response of soybean plants to Asian soybean rust and soybean cyst nematode. The results of the analyses for these experiments agreed with our current understanding of the role of phytohormones in these defense responses. This method is useful in providing a broad measure of the relative induction and suppression of soybean phytohormones during a defense response. This method could be used as part of microarray studies that include individual transcript analysis, gene set analysis, and other methods for a comprehensive defense response characterization.

  5. Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Yang-Gyu; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2012-10-05

    Sulforaphane, an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is known for its antidiabetic properties. The effects of sulforaphane on lipid metabolism in adipocytes are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane stimulates lipolysis. Mature adipocytes were incubated with sulforaphane for 24h and analyzed using a lipolysis assay which quantified glycerol released into the medium. We investigated gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and levels of HSL phosphorylation and AMP-activated protein kinase on sulforaphane-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Sulforaphane promoted lipolysis and increased both HSL gene expression and HSL activation. Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565, enhancing the phosphorylation of HSL Ser-563. Taken together, these results suggest that sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body in microgravity and during simulation of its physiological effects].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations into the effects of space flight and simulation experiments of various length on the hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body. Microgravity was shown to instigate shifts on different levels of the hormonal regulation and consequent adjustment of metabolism to this new environment. For instance, adaptation occurs on the level of basal secretory activity resulting in altered metabolism and formation of a pool of hormones. Metabolism readaptation to the Earth's gravity is dependent on polymorphic processes in the system of hormonal regulation developing in the course of time. Trends in the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism during early adaptation point to inequality of contributions of the antidiuretic hormone, natriuretic peptide, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In the ground-based simulations responses of the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism differ in intensity and types of hormones involved. Temperature variation can modify reactions of the comosis and volume regulating hormones at the beginning of adaptation. Physical-chemical regulation of calcium homeostasis in microgravity reveals itself by a rapid decline of the calcium-binding ability of blood buffers and, later on, degradation of the relative ability of extraplasmic structures to bind calcium. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the diurnal rhythm of the suprarenal steroidogenesis are indicative of modification of intensity of reactions of the main biosynthetic sequences. Countermeasures used by test-subjects in these investigations loosened significantly the aldosterone-secreting biosynthetic sequences but were favorable to the synthesis of testosterone and hydrocortisone. Some of the highly variable processes of hormonal regulation were mute to the diurnal rhythms in the pre-flight and preexperimental periods.

  7. Putting The Plant Metabolic Network pathway databases to work: going offline to gain new capabilities.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic databases such as The Plant Metabolic Network/MetaCyc and KEGG PATHWAY are publicly accessible resources providing organism-specific information on reactions and metabolites. KEGG PATHWAY depicts metabolic networks as wired, electronic circuit-like maps, whereas the MetaCyc family of databases uses a canonical textbook-like representation. The first MetaCyc-based database for a plant species was AraCyc, which describes metabolism in the model plant Arabidopsis. This database was created over 10 years ago and has since then undergone extensive manual curation to reflect updated information on enzymes and pathways in Arabidopsis. This chapter describes accessing and using AraCyc and its underlying Pathway Tools software. Specifically, methods for (1) navigating Pathway Tools, (2) visualizing omics data and superimposing the data on a metabolic pathway map, and (3) creating pathways and pathway components are discussed.

  8. Different sympathetic pathways control the metabolism of distinct bone envelopes.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Caroline; Mauprivez, Cédric; Haÿ, Eric; Baroukh, Brigitte; Brun, Adrian; Chaussain, Catherine; Marie, Pierre J; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Cherruau, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Bone remodeling, the mechanism that modulates bone mass adaptation, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system through the catecholaminergic pathway. However, resorption in the mandible periosteum envelope is associated with cholinergic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-positive nerve fibers sensitive to sympathetic neurotoxics, suggesting that different sympathetic pathways may control distinct bone envelopes. In this study, we assessed the role of distinct sympathetic pathways on rat femur and mandible envelopes. To this goal, adult male Wistar rats were chemically sympathectomized or treated with agonists/antagonists of the catecholaminergic and cholinergic pathways; femora and mandibles were sampled. Histomorphometric analysis showed that sympathectomy decreased the number of preosteoclasts and RANKL-expressing osteoblasts in mandible periosteum but had no effect on femur trabecular bone. In contrast, pharmacological stimulation or repression of the catecholaminergic cell receptors impacted the femur trabecular bone and mandible endosteal retromolar zone. VIP treatment of sympathectomized rats rescued the disturbances of the mandible periosteum and alveolar wall whereas the cholinergic pathway had no effect on the catecholaminergic-dependent envelopes. We also found that VIP receptor-1 was weakly expressed in periosteal osteoblasts in the mandible and was increased by VIP treatment, whereas osteoblasts of the retromolar envelope that was innervated only by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers, constitutively expressed beta-2 adrenergic receptors. These data highlight the complexity of the sympathetic control of bone metabolism. Both the embryological origin of the bone (endochondral for the femur, membranous for the mandibular periosteum and the socket wall) and environmental factors specific to the innervated envelope may influence the phenotype of the sympathetic innervation. We suggest that an origin-dependent imprint of bone cells through

  9. Pancreatic tumor cell metabolism: focus on glycolysis and its connected metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Vasseur, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    Because of lack of effective treatment, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of death by cancer in Western countries, with a very weak improvement of survival rate over the last 40years. Defeat of numerous conventional therapies to cure this cancer makes urgent to develop new tools usable by clinicians for a better management of the disease. Aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer relies on its own hallmarks: a low vascular network as well as a prominent stromal compartment (desmoplasia), which creates a severe hypoxic environment impeding correct oxygen and nutrients diffusion to the tumoral cells. To survive and proliferate in those conditions, pancreatic cancer cells set up specific metabolic pathways to meet their tremendous energetic and biomass demands. However, as PDAC is a heterogenous tumor, a complex reprogramming of metabolic processes is engaged by cancer cells according to their level of oxygenation and nutrients supply. In this review, we focus on the glycolytic activity of PDAC and the glucose-connected metabolic pathways which contribute to the progression and dissemination of this disease. We also discuss possible therapeutic strategies targeting these pathways in order to cure this disease which still until now is resistant to numerous conventional treatments.

  10. Glucuronidation, a new metabolic pathway for pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qi; Yang, Li; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yong; Fong, Alan; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Lu, Yan-Liu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) possess significant hepatotoxicity to humans and animals after metabolic activation by liver P450 enzymes. Metabolism pathways of PAs have been studied for several decades, including metabolic activation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and hydrolysis. However, the glucuronidation of intact PAs has not been investigated, although glucuronidation plays an important role in the elimination and detoxication of xenobiotics. In this study, PAs glucuronidation was investigated, and three important points were found. First, we demonstrated that senecionine (SEN)-a representative hepatotoxic PA-could be conjugated by glucuronic acid via an N-glucuronidation reaction catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase in human liver microsomes. Second, glucuronidation of SEN was catalyzed not only by human but also other animal species and showed significant species differences. Rabbits, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans showed the significantly higher glucuronidation activity than mice, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs on SEN. Kinetics of SEN glucuronidation in humans, pigs, and rabbits followed the one-site binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation, while cattle and sheep followed the two-sites binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Third, besides SEN, other hepatotoxic PAs including monocrotaline, adonifoline, and isoline also underwent N-glucuronidation in humans and several animal species such as rabbits, cattle, sheep, and pigs.

  11. Stress, metabolism and cancer: integrated pathways contributing to immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Repasky, Elizabeth A; Eng, Jason; Hylander, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    The potential for immune cells to control cancers has been recognized for many decades, but only recently has real excitement begun to spread through the oncology community following clear evidence that therapeutic blockade of specific immune-suppressive mechanisms is enough to make a real difference in survival for patients with several different advanced cancers. However, impressive and encouraging as these new clinical data are, it is clear that more effort should be devoted toward understanding the full spectrum of factors within cancer patients, which have the potential to block or weaken antitumor activity by immune cells. The goal of this brief review is to highlight recent literature revealing interactive stress and metabolic pathways, particularly those mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, which may conspire to block immune cells from unleashing their full killing potential. There is exciting new information regarding the role of neurogenesis by tumors and adrenergic signaling in cancer progression (including metabolic changes associated with cachexia and lipolysis) and in regulation of immune cell function and differentiation. However, much more work is needed to fully understand how the systemic metabolic effects mediated by the brain and nervous system can be targeted for therapeutic efficacy in the setting of immunotherapy and other cancer therapies.

  12. Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Gianoulis, Tara A.; Raes, Jeroen; Patel, Prianka V.; Bjornson, Robert; Korbel, Jan O.; Letunic, Ivica; Yamada, Takuji; Paccanaro, Alberto; Jensen, Lars J.; Snyder, Michael; Bork, Peer; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, approaches have been developed to sample the genetic content of heterogeneous environments (metagenomics). However, by what means these sequences link distinct environmental conditions with specific biological processes is not well understood. Thus, a major challenge is how the usage of particular pathways and subnetworks reflects the adaptation of microbial communities across environments and habitats—i.e., how network dynamics relates to environmental features. Previous research has treated environments as discrete, somewhat simplified classes (e.g., terrestrial vs. marine), and searched for obvious metabolic differences among them (i.e., treating the analysis as a typical classification problem). However, environmental differences result from combinations of many factors, which often vary only slightly. Therefore, we introduce an approach that employs correlation and regression to relate multiple, continuously varying factors defining an environment to the extent of particular microbial pathways present in a geographic site. Moreover, rather than looking only at individual correlations (one-to-one), we adapted canonical correlation analysis and related techniques to define an ensemble of weighted pathways that maximally covaries with a combination of environmental variables (many-to-many), which we term a metabolic footprint. Applied to available aquatic datasets, we identified footprints predictive of their environment that can potentially be used as biosensors. For example, we show a strong multivariate correlation between the energy-conversion strategies of a community and multiple environmental gradients (e.g., temperature). Moreover, we identified covariation in amino acid transport and cofactor synthesis, suggesting that limiting amounts of cofactor can (partially) explain increased import of amino acids in nutrient-limited conditions. PMID:19164758

  13. Steroid and metabolic hormonal profile of porcine serum vis-à-vis ovarian follicular fluid

    PubMed Central

    Naskar, Soumen; Borah, S.; Vashi, Y.; Thomas, R.; Sarma, D. K.; Goswami, J.; Dhara, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF) in porcine, and its influence on fertility. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from pigs (n=32) of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16) and crossbred (Hampshire × Ghungroo; n=16) were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8) and sows (n=8), and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle. FF was aspirated from small, medium and large follicles, and centrifuged for the collection of supernatant for further analysis. Blood samples were collected from the same animals, and serum was separated. Hormones, namely, cortisol, T3, T4 and testosterone were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Two-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data considering genetic background (native or crossbred), stage of reproductive life (gilt or sow), and source of sample (serum or FF) as fixed effects. Results: It was observed that all the hormones except cortisol differed significantly (p<0.01) based on genetic background. Stage of reproductive life and source of sample did not affect the studied hormonal level. Within the genetic groups, stage of reproductive life influenced T3 (p<0.01), cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) level in crossbred pigs as compared to T3 (p<0.01) only in native pigs. The level of T3 in serum, as well as FF, was higher (p<0.01) in Ghungroo gilts compared to sows. However, a reverse of this was observed in the case of crossbred pigs. The level of cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) was higher in crossbred sows than gilts in both serum and FF. Conclusion: The study revealed that serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones is indicative of their level in the ovarian FF. Further, varying level of steroid and metabolic hormones in pigs based on genetic background may be due to variation in body size, rate of energy metabolism and stage of (re)productive life. PMID

  14. Metabolism of cysteine by cyteinesulfinate-independent pathway(s) in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stipanuk, M.H.; De La Rosa, J.; Drake, M.R.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of cysteine (CYS) and that of cysteinesulfinate (CSA) were studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes from fed rats. In incubations of rat hepatocytes with either 1 or 25 mM CSA, over 90% of the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formed from (1-/sup 14/C)CSA could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. In similar incubations with 1 or 25 mM CYS, only 4% of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. Addition of unlabeled CSA inhibited recovery of label from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by 33%. Metabolism of CYS and of CSA were affected differently by addition of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, a cosubstrate for transamination, or of propargylglycine, an inhibitor of cystathionase activity. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of CYS is catabolized by CSA-independent pathways in the rat hepatocyte. Although addition of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate to incubations of hepatocytes with CSA resulted in a marked increase in CSA catabolism via the transamination pathway, addition of keto acids to incubation systems had little or no effect on production of any metabolite from CYS. Thus, CYS transamination does not appear to be a major pathway of CYS metabolism in the hepatocyte. Inhibition of cystathionase with propargylglycine reduced both /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS and ammonia plus urea nitrogen production from CYS by about 50%; CSA catabolism was not affected. Thus, cleavage of cyst(e)ine by cystathionase may be an important physiological pathway for CYS catabolism in the liver.

  15. Single vagus nerve stimulation reduces early postprandial C-peptide levels but not other hormones or postprandial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tang, M W; van Nierop, F S; Koopman, F A; Eggink, H M; Gerlag, D M; Chan, M W; Zitnik, R; Vaz, F M; Romijn, J A; Tak, P P; Soeters, M R

    2017-04-08

    A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism. Six female patients with RA were studied twice in balanced assignment (crossover design) to either VNS or no stimulation. The patients selected for this substudy had been on VNS therapy daily for at least 3 months and at maximum of 24 months. We compared 10-, 20-, and 30-min poststimulus levels to baseline levels, and a 4-h mixed meal test was performed 30 min after VNS. We also determined energy expenditure (EE) by indirect calorimetry before and after VNS. VNS did not affect pituitary hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), postprandial metabolism, or EE. Of note, VNS reduced early postprandial insulin secretion, but not AUC of postprandial plasma insulin levels. Cortisol and catecholamine levels in serum did not change significantly. Short stimulation of vagal activity by VNS reduces early postprandial insulin secretion, but not other hormone levels and postprandial response. This suggests VNS as a safe treatment for RA patients.

  16. Novel tryptophan metabolic pathways in auxin biosynthesis in silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Chiaki; Takei, Mami; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Nagata, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2017-08-01

    In the course of our study of the biosynthetic pathway of auxin, a class of phytohormones, in insects, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway tryptophan (Trp)→indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)→indole-3-acetadehyde (IAAld)→indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we identified two branches in the metabolic pathways in the silkworm, possibly affecting the efficiency of IAA production: Trp→indole-3-pyruvic acid→indole-3-lactic acid and IAAld→indole-3-ethanol. We also determined the apparent conversion activities (2.05×10(-7)UmL(-1) for Trp→IAA, 1.30×10(-5)UmL(-1) for IAOx→IAA, and 3.91×10(-1)UmL(-1) for IAAld→IAA), which explain why IAOx and IAAld are barely detectable as either endogenous compounds or metabolites of their precursors. The failure to detect IAAld, even in the presence of an inhibitor of the conversion IAAld→IAA, is explained by a switch in the conversion from IAAld→IAA to IAAld→IEtOH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suicidality and Activation of the Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bryleva, Elena Y; Brundin, Lena

    A recent report by the World Health Organization declared suicide to be a major global problem. With more than 800,000 lives lost each year, suicide is calculated to be the 14th leading cause of death around the world. While the biological mechanisms causing suicidal ideation and behavior are not fully understood, increased levels of inflammation, arising from various sources, have been detected in the central nervous system and the peripheral blood of suicidal patients and suicide completers. Inflammation induces the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, which generates a range of metabolites with potent effects on neurotransmitter systems as well as on inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that a dysregulation of the enzymes in the kynurenine pathway may be present in suicidal patients, with a resulting imbalance of metabolites that modulate glutamate neurotransmission and neuroinflammation. As the body of research in these areas grows, targeting the kynurenine pathway enzymes and metabolites may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for detection, treatment, and ultimately prevention of suicidal behavior.

  18. Targeting cancer metabolism by simultaneously disrupting parallel nutrient access pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong M; Roy, Saurabh G; Chen, Bin; Nguyen, Tiffany M; McMonigle, Ryan J; McCracken, Alison N; Zhang, Yanling; Kofuji, Satoshi; Hou, Jue; Selwan, Elizabeth; Finicle, Brendan T; Nguyen, Tricia T; Ravi, Archna; Ramirez, Manuel U; Wiher, Tim; Guenther, Garret G; Kono, Mari; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Weisman, Lois S; Potma, Eric O; Tromberg, Bruce J; Edwards, Robert A; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L

    2016-11-01

    Oncogenic mutations drive anabolic metabolism, creating a dependency on nutrient influx through transporters, receptors, and macropinocytosis. While sphingolipids suppress tumor growth by downregulating nutrient transporters, macropinocytosis and autophagy still provide cancer cells with fuel. Therapeutics that simultaneously disrupt these parallel nutrient access pathways have potential as powerful starvation agents. Here, we describe a water-soluble, orally bioavailable synthetic sphingolipid, SH-BC-893, that triggers nutrient transporter internalization and also blocks lysosome-dependent nutrient generation pathways. SH-BC-893 activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to mislocalization of the lipid kinase PIKfyve. The concomitant mislocalization of the PIKfyve product PI(3,5)P2 triggered cytosolic vacuolation and blocked lysosomal fusion reactions essential for LDL, autophagosome, and macropinosome degradation. By simultaneously limiting access to both extracellular and intracellular nutrients, SH-BC-893 selectively killed cells expressing an activated form of the anabolic oncogene Ras in vitro and in vivo. However, slower-growing, autochthonous PTEN-deficient prostate tumors that did not exhibit a classic Warburg phenotype were equally sensitive. Remarkably, normal proliferative tissues were unaffected by doses of SH-BC-893 that profoundly inhibited tumor growth. These studies demonstrate that simultaneously blocking parallel nutrient access pathways with sphingolipid-based drugs is broadly effective and cancer selective, suggesting a potential strategy for overcoming the resistance conferred by tumor heterogeneity.

  19. Targeting cancer metabolism by simultaneously disrupting parallel nutrient access pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong M.; Roy, Saurabh G.; Chen, Bin; Nguyen, Tiffany M.; McMonigle, Ryan J.; McCracken, Alison N.; Kofuji, Satoshi; Hou, Jue; Selwan, Elizabeth; Finicle, Brendan T.; Nguyen, Tricia T.; Ravi, Archna; Ramirez, Manuel U.; Wiher, Tim; Guenther, Garret G.; Kono, Mari; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Weisman, Lois S.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations drive anabolic metabolism, creating a dependency on nutrient influx through transporters, receptors, and macropinocytosis. While sphingolipids suppress tumor growth by downregulating nutrient transporters, macropinocytosis and autophagy still provide cancer cells with fuel. Therapeutics that simultaneously disrupt these parallel nutrient access pathways have potential as powerful starvation agents. Here, we describe a water-soluble, orally bioavailable synthetic sphingolipid, SH-BC-893, that triggers nutrient transporter internalization and also blocks lysosome-dependent nutrient generation pathways. SH-BC-893 activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to mislocalization of the lipid kinase PIKfyve. The concomitant mislocalization of the PIKfyve product PI(3,5)P2 triggered cytosolic vacuolation and blocked lysosomal fusion reactions essential for LDL, autophagosome, and macropinosome degradation. By simultaneously limiting access to both extracellular and intracellular nutrients, SH-BC-893 selectively killed cells expressing an activated form of the anabolic oncogene Ras in vitro and in vivo. However, slower-growing, autochthonous PTEN-deficient prostate tumors that did not exhibit a classic Warburg phenotype were equally sensitive. Remarkably, normal proliferative tissues were unaffected by doses of SH-BC-893 that profoundly inhibited tumor growth. These studies demonstrate that simultaneously blocking parallel nutrient access pathways with sphingolipid-based drugs is broadly effective and cancer selective, suggesting a potential strategy for overcoming the resistance conferred by tumor heterogeneity. PMID:27669461

  20. The Potential of Gonadal Hormone Signalling Pathways as Therapeutics for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Hill, R A

    2016-11-01

    Dementia is an ever-expanding problem facing an ageing society. Currently, there is a sharp paucity of treatment strategies. It has long been known that sex hormones, namely 17β-estradiol and testosterone, possess neuroprotective- and cognitive-enhancing qualities. However, certain lacunae in the knowledge underlying their molecular mechanisms have delayed their use as treatment strategies in dementia. With recent advancements in pharmacology and molecular biology, especially in the development of safer selective oestrogen receptor modulators and the recent discovery of the small-molecule brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, the exploitation of these signalling pathways for clinical use has become possible. This review aims to adumbrate the evidence and hurdles underscoring the use of sex hormones in the treatment of dementia as well as discussing some direction that is required to advance the translation of evidence into practise.

  1. Steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in benign and malignant human bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Martin; Hamilton, Gerhard; Thalhammer, Theresia

    2010-04-01

    IMPORTANCE IN THE FIELD: Primary bone tumors are considered as (sex steroid) hormone-dependent tumors. Osteosarcoma, osteoblastoma and bone cysts are preferentially found in males, while giant cell tumors are more common in females. Indeed, bone tumor development and progression are influenced by sex steroid hormones derived from in situ synthesis in bone cells. This review describes intracrine mechanisms for local formation of the biologically most active estrogen, 17beta-estradiol (E2), from circulating steroid precursors through the 'aromatase' (aromatization of androgens) and the 'sulfatase' (conversion of inactive estrone-sulfate) pathway. The reader gains knowledge on both pathways and the enzymes, which contribute to the in situ availability of active hormones, namely 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, aromatase, steroid sulfatases and sulfotransferases. An overview is given and the expression and function of these enzymes in bone tumors are discussed. Knowledge on pathways for the in situ formation of E2 in bone cells may allow the identification of potential targets for i) novel endocrine therapeutic options in primary bone tumors and ii) future preventive interventions.

  2. Insulin resistance and medial prefrontal gyrus metabolism in women receiving hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Rasgon, Natalie L; Kenna, Heather A; Wroolie, Tonita E; Williams, Katherine E; DeMuth, Bevin N; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2014-07-30

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a putative risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, and has been shown to impede neuronal glucose metabolism in animal models. This post hoc study focused on metabolic changes in the medial prefrontal region, a brain region exhibiting decline years before documented cognitive changes, relative to high or low IR status in a cohort of postmenopausal women at risk for dementia who were randomized to continue or discontinue existing stable hormone therapy (HT) for 2 years. Subjects were dichotomized into high and low IR groups based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, which was within clinically normal limits for the group as a whole at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Results showed that high and low IR groups showed significant differences in metabolic decline of the medial prefrontal gyrus, regardless of HT randomization group. However, HT randomization was predictive of metabolic decline only in women with low HOMA (homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance). Performance in working memory was consistent with observed metabolic changes. These results suggest IR may be an independent moderator of regional metabolic changes, while protective metabolic effects of HT are most apparent in those at low-end range of IR. If replicated in future studies, these findings will help to better understand the interaction between putative risk and protective factors, and further delineate cohort postmenopausal women who may benefit from HT.

  3. Pentachlorophenol disrupts steroid hormone metabolism at concentrations that reduce survival and fecundity of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, L.G.; LeBlanc, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Alterations in steroid metabolism by environmental endocrine disrupters can significantly affect steroid hormone-dependent processes such as growth and reproduction. Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been shown to elicit a variety of endocrine-related adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to establish whether concentrations of PCP that adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction of Daphnia magna during chronic exposure also elicit changes in steroid hormone metabolism. Survival and/or reproduction of daphnids was significantly reduced from exposure to 1.0, 0.50 and 0.25 mg/L PCP. Following chronic exposure to PCP, daphnids were incubated with [{sup 14}C]testosterone and the testosterone metabolites eliminated were identified and quantified. The rate of testosterone hydroxyl-metabolite elimination was not significantly different from controls. However, elimination of two of the glucose-conjugated metabolites of testosterone decreased in a PCP concentration-dependent manner. Adult daphnids were next exposed to these concentrations of PCP for only 48 hours and effects on steroid metabolism assessed. As observed following chronic exposure, PCP had no effect on the elimination of hydroxyl-metabolites. However, elimination of glucose and sulfate conjugates of testosterone were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, (1) PCP alters steroid biotransformation activities at concentrations that affect survival and reproduction, and (2) effects on steroid metabolism can be detected following short-term exposure to PCP. Thus, this biochemical parameter may serve as a biomarker of chronic toxicity associated with PCP.

  4. Growth hormone activity in mitochondria depends on GH receptor Box 1 and involves caveolar pathway targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Perret-Vivancos, Cecile; Abbate, Aude; Ardail, Dominique; Raccurt, Mireille; Usson, Yves; Lobie, Peter E.; Morel, Gerard . E-mail: gerard.morel@univ-lyon1.fr

    2006-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) binding to its receptor (GHR) initiates GH-dependent signal transduction and internalization pathways to generate the biological effects. The precise role and way of action of GH on mitochondrial function are not yet fully understood. We show here that GH can stimulate cellular oxygen consumption in CHO cells transfected with cDNA coding for the full-length GHR. By using different GHR cDNA constructs, we succeeded in determining the different parts of the GHR implicated in the mitochondrial response to GH. Polarography and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that the Box 1 of the GHR intracellular domain was required for an activation of the mitochondrial respiration in response to a GH exposure. However, confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that cells lacking the GHR Box 1 could efficiently internalize the hormone. We demonstrated that internalization mediated either by clathrin-coated pits or by caveolae was able to regulate GH mitochondrial effect: these two pathways are both essential to obtain the GH stimulatory action on mitochondrial function. Moreover, electron microscopic and biochemical approaches allowed us to identify the caveolar pathway as essential for targeting GH and GHR to mitochondria.

  5. Impact of glucocorticoid hormones on adipokine secretion and human adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N

    2013-08-01

    The glucocorticoid hormones alter the metabolism of the adipose tissue after an approximately 2-h lag period. The effects are mediated through the nuclear receptors that alter the expression of a wide variety of genes through the mechanisms that are similar to those seen in the other cells. There are many direct metabolic effects of the glucocorticoids on the adipose tissue metabolism, and every year, new effects are added to the list of proteins whose expression is influenced by the glucocorticoids. Furthermore, some enzymatic processes are affected by these hormones only in the presence of the other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) or insulin. Most of the effects of the glucocorticoids are on the gene transcription, and the effects on the mRNA are reflected in the altered levels of the target proteins. The glucocorticoids enhance the leptin release, while reducing that of the inflammatory adipokines and stimulating that of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the presence of insulin. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) is enhanced by the glucocorticoids along with that of α1 glycoprotein 1 and serum amyloid A release by the adipose tissue. In contrast, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue is blocked by the glucocorticoids. It is still unclear which, if any, of these effects account for the insulin resistance due to the glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue. However, recent work suggests that, at least in mice, the reduction in the osteocalcin release by the osteoblasts in the presence of the glucocorticoids accounts for much of the in vivo insulin resistance. In summary, there are multiple direct effects of the glucocorticoids, both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory, on the adipose tissue.

  6. Nongenomic signaling pathways triggered by thyroid hormones and their metabolite 3-iodothyronamine on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Axelband, F; Dias, J; Ferrão, F M; Einicker-Lamas, M

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a wide range of important physiological activities in almost all organism. As changes in these hormones levels-observed in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism-promote serious derangements of the cardiovascular system, it is important to know their mechanisms of action. Although the classic genomic actions which are dependent on interaction with nuclear receptors to modulate cardiac myocytes genes expression, there is growing evidence about T(3) and T(4)-triggered nongenomic pathways, resulted from their binding to plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or mitocondrial receptors that leads to a rapidly regulation of cardiac functions. Interestingly both actions converge to amplify thyroid hormone effects on cardiovascular system. T(3) and T(4) nongenomic actions modify inotropic and chronotropic effects, cardiac action potential duration, cardiac growth, and myocyte shape by protein translation through protein kinases-dependent signaling cascades, which include PKA, PKC, PI3K, and MAPK, and changes on ion channels and pumps activity. In respect to the decreased systemic vascular resistance seen in hyperthyroidism, T(3) appears to activate NOS or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. In addition, a novel biologically active T(4)-derived metabolite has been described, 3-iodothyronamine, T(1)AM, which also acts through membrane receptors to mediate nongenomic cardiac effects. This metabolite influences the physiological manifestations of thyroid hormone actions by inducing opposite effects from those stimulated by T(3) and T(4), such as negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Therefore, beyond genomic and nongenomic effects of thyroid hormones, it is crucial for there to be an equilibrium between T(3) or T(4) and T(1)AM levels for maintaining cardiac homeostasis.

  7. Kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis: potential targets for non-hormonal therapeutics.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brett D; Kocbek, Vida; Nirgianakis, Kostantinos; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis, the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, is associated with chronic pelvic pain, subfertility and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Current treatments include the surgical removal of the lesions or the induction of a hypoestrogenic state. However, a reappearance of the lesion after surgery is common and a hypoestrogenic state is less than optimal for women of reproductive age. Additional approaches are required. Endometriosis lesions exist in a unique microenvironment characterized by increased concentrations of hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress and iron. This environment influences cell survival through the binding of membrane receptors and a subsequent cascading activation of intracellular kinases that stimulate a cellular response. Many of these kinase signalling pathways are constitutively activated in endometriosis. These pathways are being investigated as therapeutic targets in other diseases and thus may also represent a target for endometriosis treatment. To identify relevant English language studies published up to 2015 on kinase signalling pathways in endometriosis, we searched the Pubmed database using the following search terms in various combinations; 'endometriosis', 'inflammation', 'oxidative stress', 'iron', 'kinase', 'NF kappa', 'mTOR', 'MAPK' 'p38', 'JNK', 'ERK' 'estrogen' and progesterone'. Further citing references were identified using the Scopus database and finally current clinical trials were searched on the clinicaltrials.gov trial registry. The current literature on intracellular kinases activated by the endometriotic environment can be summarized into three main pathways that could be targeted for treatments: the canonical IKKβ/NFκB pathway, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. A number of pharmaceutical compounds that target these pathways have been successfully trialled in in vitro and animal models of endometriosis, although they have not yet proceeded to

  8. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    PubMed

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39-50) vs. 46 (40-53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7-19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers. © 2017 American

  9. Inhibition of the PI3K Pathway Suppresses Hormonal Secretion and Limits Growth in Pheochromocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Joel T.; Hottinger, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Operative resection is the only curative treatment for pheochromocytomas. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway has been shown to be an effective treatment of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in vitro. We hypothesized that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway would be a viable strategy to inhibit growth and hormonal secretion in pheochromocytoma cells. Methods Sixteen pheochromocytomas were analyzed for expression of phosphorylated Akt and the NE marker achaete scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1). Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells were treated with up to 100 µM of the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 for 48 h. Western blot analysis was used to measure phosphorylated Akt, total Akt, ASCL1, chromogranin A (CgA), and markers of apoptosis. Growth was assessed by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) bromide cellular proliferation assay for six days. Results Human pheochromocytomas expressed significant amounts of phosphorylated Akt, and there was a significant correlation between malignant pheochromocytomas and the amount of expressed ASCL1. LY294002 significantly inhibited the PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in both ASCL1 and CgA, indicating an alteration in the NE phenotype and hormonal suppression. Treatment decreased cellular proliferation, and cleavage of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and PARP was observed. Conclusions Human pheochromocytoma tumor samples express high levels of phosphorylated Akt. LY294002 effectively inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway, suppresses NE tumor markers, and decreases cellular proliferation via apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway may represent a new strategy in the treatment of pheochromocytomas. PMID:19669229

  10. Relation of aging and sex hormones to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Baños de MacCarthy, Guadalupe

    2011-07-01

    Several factors such as age, gender, race, lifestyle and diet, contribute to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which has become the new epidemic of this century. They also contribute to the prevalence, age of appearance and outcome of cardiovascular disease, which is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women worldwide. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and type-2 diabetes, among other diseases. In this paper we analyze from a pathogenetic point of view, two of the factors which contribute to the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases: age and gender. The gender variations are a consequence of the different rate of decrease of sexual hormones in males and females and of the protective roles they play during adulthood and older age phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue-specific actions of the metabolic hormones FGF15/19 and FGF21.

    PubMed

    Owen, Bryn M; Mangelsdorf, David J; Kliewer, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 15/19 and 21 belong to a subfamily of FGFs that function as hormones. Produced in response to specific nutritional cues, they act on overlapping sets of cell surface receptors composed of classic FGF receptors in complex with βKlotho, and regulate metabolism and related processes during periods of fluctuating energy availability. Pharmacologically, both FGF15/19 and FGF21 cause weight loss and improve both insulin-sensitivity and lipid parameters in rodent and primate models of metabolic disease. Recently, FGF21 was shown to have similar effects in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. We discuss here emerging concepts in FGF15/19 and FGF21 tissue-specific actions and critically assess their putative role as candidate targets for treating metabolic disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cold temperature blocks thyroid hormone-induced changes in lipid and energy metabolism in the liver of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Awai, Koichiro; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles to low temperature affects many biological processes including lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway, resulting in arrest of TH-induced metamorphosis. To clarify what molecular events occur in this phenomenon, we investigated the glycerophospholipid and fatty acid (FA) compositions, the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and the transcript levels of related genes in the liver of control (26 °C) and cold-treated (4 °C) tadpoles with or without 5 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Exposure to T3 decreased the tail height and polyunsaturation of FAs in the glycerophospholipids, and increased plasma glucose levels and transcript levels of primary TH-response genes including TH receptor, and some energy metabolic (cox4, srebp1 and fas) and FA chain elongase genes (elovl3 and elovl5). However, these T3-induced responses were abolished at 4 °C. Exposure to cold temperature enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride and free FA levels, monounsaturation of FAs, mitochondrial enzymes activities (cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase; U/g liver), with the upregulation of the genes involved in glycogenolysis (pygl), gluconeogenesis (pck1 and g6pc2), FA β-oxidation (acadl), and cholesterol uptake and synthesis (hmgcr, srebp2 and ldlr1), glycerophospholipids synthesis (pcyt1, pcyt2, pemt, and pparg), and FA monounsaturation (scd1) and chain elongation (elovl1 and elovl2). T3 had little effect on the cold-induced changes. Our study demonstrated that exposures to T3 and cold temperature exert different effects on lipid metabolism, resulting in changes in the FA composition in glycerophospholipids, and suggests that a cold-induced signal may block TH-signaling pathway around primary TH-response genes.

  13. Consequences of monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency for renal transport and metabolism of thyroid hormones in mice.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Friesema, Edith C H; Schlott, Bernhard; Mittag, Jens; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2010-02-01

    Patients carrying inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporting monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-8 suffer from a severe form of psychomotor retardation and exhibit abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels. The thyroidal phenotype characterized by high-serum T(3) and low-serum T(4) levels is also found in mice mutants deficient in MCT8 although the cause of these abnormalities is still unknown. Here we describe the consequences of MCT8 deficiency for renal thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and function by studying MCT8 null mice and wild-type littermates. Whereas serum and urinary parameters do not indicate a strongly altered renal function, a pronounced induction of iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 expression together with increased renal T(3) and T(4) content point to a general hyperthyroid state of the kidneys in the absence of MCT8. Surprisingly, accumulation of peripherally injected T(4) and T(3) into the kidneys was found to be enhanced in the absence of MCT8, indicating that MCT8 deficiency either directly interferes with the renal efflux of thyroid hormones or activates indirectly other renal thyroid hormone transporters that preferentially mediate the renal uptake of thyroid hormones. Our findings indicate that the enhanced uptake and accumulation of T(4) in the kidneys of MCT8 null mice together with the increased renal conversion of T(4) into T(3) by increased renal deiodinase type 1 activities contributes to the generation of the low-serum T(4) and the increase in circulating T(3) levels, a hallmark of MCT8 deficiency.

  14. The CHH-superfamily of multifunctional peptide hormones controlling crustacean metabolism, osmoregulation, moulting, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Webster, Simon George; Keller, Rainer; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2012-01-15

    Apart from providing an up-to-date review of the literature, considerable emphasis was placed in this article on the historical development of the field of "crustacean eyestalk hormones". A role of the neurosecretory eyestalk structures of crustaceans in endocrine regulation was recognized about 80 years ago, but it took another half a century until the first peptide hormones were identified. Following the identification of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) and moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a large number of homologous peptides have been identified to this date. They comprise a family of multifunctional peptides which can be divided, according to sequences and precursor structure, into two subfamilies, type-I and -II. Recent results on peptide sequences, structure of genes and precursors are described here. The best studied biological activities include metabolic control, moulting, gonad maturation, ionic and osmotic regulation and methyl farnesoate synthesis in mandibular glands. Accordingly, the names CHH, MIH, and GIH/VIH (gonad/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone), MOIH (mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone) were coined. The identification of ITP (ion transport peptide) in insects showed, for the first time, that CHH-family peptides are not restricted to crustaceans, and data mining has recently inferred their occurrence in other ecdysozoan clades as well. The long-held tenet of exclusive association with the eyestalk X-organ-sinus gland tract has been challenged by the finding of several extra nervous system sites of expression of CHH-family peptides. Concerning mode of action and the question of target tissues, second messenger mechanisms are discussed, as well as binding sites and receptors. Future challenges are highlighted.

  15. Effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fowelin, J; Attvall, S; Lager, I; Bengtsson, B A

    1993-11-01

    In a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, the effect of 26 weeks of replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in nine patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency was studied with a euglycemic clamp. Glucose production and utilization were studied with D-(3-3H)-glucose infusions. Comparisons were made with placebo treatment for 6 and 26 weeks, respectively. GH therapy for 6 weeks increased fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin. However, after 26 weeks of GH treatment, no significant changes in glucose or insulin concentrations were recorded. GH treatment induced a marked change in insulin action evident after 6 weeks of therapy as shown by lower glucose infusion rates (GIRs) during the clamp compared with placebo treatment (2.6 +/- 0.4 v 4.1 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1). This change in insulin action was due to a decreased insulin effect on glucose utilization. After 26 weeks of GH therapy, there was no significant difference in GIRs. During placebo treatment, insulin sensitivity and insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were unchanged compared with concentrations measured before the study. Thus GH replacement therapy induces a change in insulin action in GH-deficient individuals. Whether this change represents a decrease in insulin action (ie, insulin resistance) or a restoration of action to normal is presently unclear, since a healthy control group was not included in the study. During long-term treatment, the present study suggests that the change in insulin action can be reversed, probably secondarily to changes in body composition.

  16. Effects of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol on gene expression of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in sea bream hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of growth hormone (GH), human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)) and cortisol, on mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in hepatocytes isolated from silver sea bream. Genes encoding GK, G6Pase, GS and GP were partially cloned and characterized from silver sea bream liver and real-time PCR assays were developed for the quantification of the mRNA expression profiles of these genes in order to evaluate the potential of these carbohydrate metabolic pathways. GK mRNA level was elevated by GH and hIGF-I, implying that GH-induced stimulation of GK expression may be mediated via IGF-I. GH was found to elevate GS and G6Pase expression, but reduce G6PDH mRNA expression. However, hIGF-I did not affect mRNA levels of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH, suggesting that GH-induced modulation of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH expression levels is direct, and occurs independently of the action of IGF-I. T(3) and T(4) directly upregulated transcript abundance of GK, G6Pase, GS and GP. Cortisol significantly increased transcript amounts of G6Pase and GS but markedly decreased transcript abundance of GK and G6PDH. These changes in transcript abundance indicate that (1) the potential of glycolysis is stimulated by GH and thyroid hormones, but attenuated by cortisol, (2) gluconeogenic and glycogenic potential are augmented by GH, thyroid hormones and cortisol, (3) glycogenolytic potential is upregulated by thyroid hormones but not affected by GH or cortisol, and (4) the potential of the pentose phosphate pathway is attenuated by GH and cortisol but unaffected by thyroid hormones.

  17. Traditional and novel aspects of the metabolic actions of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone has been known to be diabetogenic for almost a century and it's diabetogenic properties fostered consideration of excessive and abnormal GH secretion as a cause of diabetes, as well as a role in the microvascular complications, especially retinopathy. However, besides inducing insulin resistance, GH also is lipolytic and a major anabolic hormone for nitrogen retention and protein synthesis. These actions are best illustrated at the extremes of GH secretion: Gigantism/acromegaly is characterized by excessive growth, CHO intolerance, hyperplasia of bone, little body fat and prominent muscle development, whereas total deficiency of GH secretion or action is associated with adiposity, poor growth, and poor muscle development. These actions also become apparent during puberty and pregnancy, times when GH secretion is increased and account for the characteristic changes in body composition and tendency to diabetes. More recently, tissue specific deletions of the GH receptor (GHR), have uncovered newer metabolic effects including it's essential role in triglyceride export from the liver when GHR is deleted in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis and ultimately to hepatic adenoma formation, effects which may explain these findings in obesity, a state of diminished GH secretion and action. In addition deletion of GH action in muscle and fat is associated with specific patterns of disturbed phenotype and metabolic effects in CHO, fat, and protein metabolism affecting the specific tissue and whole body function. This chapter provides an overview of these classic and newer metabolic functions of GH, placing this hormone and its actions in a central role of body fuel economy in health and disease.

  18. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to different endurance training protocols.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Köhler, K; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, mainly 2 high-intensity-training (HIT) protocols became common: first, a Wingate-based "all-out" protocol and second, a 4×4 min protocol. However, no direct comparison between these protocols exists, and also a comparison with high-volume-training (HVT) is missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare these 3 endurance training protocols on metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses. Twelve subjects performed: 1) HVT [130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO)]; 2) 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3) 4×30 s all-out. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone, and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 180' after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO₃⁻, pO₂, PCO₂), and spirometric analysis. Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. The 4×30 s training caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by 4 × 4 min and HVT. Testosterone levels were significantly increased by all 3 exercise protocols. Metabolic stress was highest during and after 4×30 s, followed by 4×4 min and HVT. The 4×30 s training was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. In conclusion, the results suggest that 4×30 s and 4×4 min promote anabolic processes more than HVT, due to higher increases of hGH, testosterone, and the T/C ratio. It can be speculated that the acute hormonal increase and the metabolic perturbations might play a positive role in optimizing training adaptation and in eliciting health benefits as it has been shown by previous long term training studies using similar exercise protocols.

  19. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Huika; Pham, Thy; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P; Pretorius, Carel J; Richard, Derek J; Mortimer, Robin H; d'Emden, Michael C; Richard, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive genes, and cell growth were assessed. LNCaP cells internalised SHBG by a testosterone independent process. Testosterone was rapidly taken up and effluxed as testosterone-glucuronide; however this effect was reduced by the presence of SHBG. Addition of SHBG, rather than reducing testosterone bioavailability, further increased testosterone-induced expression of prostate specific antigen and enhanced testosterone-induced reduction of androgen receptor mRNA expression. Following 38 hours of testosterone treatment cell morphology changed and growth declined; however, cotreatment with SHBG abrogated these inhibitory effects. These findings clearly demonstrate that internalised SHBG plays an important regulatory and intracellular role in modifying testosterone action and this has important implications for the role of SHBG in health and disease.

  20. Metabolic and hormonal responses to long-distance swimming in cold water.

    PubMed

    Dulac, S; Quirion, A; DeCarufel, D; LeBlanc, J; Jobin, M; Côte, J; Brisson, G R; Lavoie, J M; Diamond, P

    1987-10-01

    The acute effects of long-distance swimming in cold water on selected hormonal and metabolic variables were evaluated on 22 long-distance swimmers (16 males and 6 females) during a 32-km swimming competition (La Traversée Internationale du Lac St-Jean). The water temperature was 18.5 degrees C and the mean performance times were 8 h and 32 min for men (M) and 9 h and 1 min for women (F). The blood samples were withdrawn in the fasting state during the week preceding the event and within 30 min after completion of the race. A positive correlation was obtained, for both groups, between percent body fat and rectal temperature measured at the end of the competition. After the competition, an increase in plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyroxine, free fatty acids, lactate, a decrease in glucose and insulin and no change in growth hormone, triiodothyronine, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations were observed in both groups. The increase in plasma thyroxine was more pronounced in the slower swimmers while the change in blood cortisol concentrations was higher in the subjects having the most acute decrease in body temperature. Male and female swimmers have a similar metabolic and hormonal response to a long-distance swimming competition in cold water.

  1. Effect of short-term fasting on hepatic steroid hormone metabolism in cows.

    PubMed

    Ono, Mamiko; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Tanemura, Kouichi; Ishii, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of 4-day fasting on steroid hormone metabolism in the liver and secretion of LH was examined in cows. Six non pregnant, dry Holstein cows were used. The estrous cycle was synchronized in all cows using CIDR-Ovsynch. Cows were allocated to a control group (n=3) and a fasting group (n=3). In the fasting group, cows were fasted for four days from day -4 to day -1 (day 0=day of 2nd GnRH injection) but otherwise were fed ad libitum. The experiment was repeated in a crossover design after an interval of about one month. The peripheral progesterone (P(4)) concentration in the fasting group was significantly higher than in the control group on day -1 and 0. The peripheral estradiol-17β concentration in the fasting group was also significantly higher than in the control group on day -1 and 0. The portal vein P(4) concentration in the fasting group was significantly higher than in the control group. On day 0, there was no difference in LH secretion between groups. The mean percentages of lipid droplets in liver cells in the fasting group were significantly higher than in the control group on day 0. These results suggest that short-term fasting leads to reduced hepatic steroid hormone metabolism by accumulation of fat in the liver, which causes high peripheral steroid hormone concentrations.

  2. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huika; Ungerer, Jacobus P.; Pretorius, Carel J.; Mortimer, Robin H.; d'Emden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive genes, and cell growth were assessed. LNCaP cells internalised SHBG by a testosterone independent process. Testosterone was rapidly taken up and effluxed as testosterone-glucuronide; however this effect was reduced by the presence of SHBG. Addition of SHBG, rather than reducing testosterone bioavailability, further increased testosterone-induced expression of prostate specific antigen and enhanced testosterone-induced reduction of androgen receptor mRNA expression. Following 38 hours of testosterone treatment cell morphology changed and growth declined; however, cotreatment with SHBG abrogated these inhibitory effects. These findings clearly demonstrate that internalised SHBG plays an important regulatory and intracellular role in modifying testosterone action and this has important implications for the role of SHBG in health and disease. PMID:27990161

  3. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  4. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  5. Gene expression analysis reveals the dysregulation of immune and metabolic pathways in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyan; Xu, Panpan; Yao, Lifen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several pathway analyses of genome-wide association studies reported the involvement of metabolic and immune pathways in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Until now, the exact mechanisms of these pathways in AD are still unclear. Here, we conducted a pathway analysis of a whole genome AD case-control expression dataset (n=41, 25 AD cases and 16 controls) from the human temporal cortex tissue. Using the differently expressed AD genes, we identified significant KEGG pathways related to metabolism and immune processes. Using the up- and down- regulated AD gene list, we further found up-regulated AD gene were significantly enriched in immune and metabolic pathways. We further compare the immune and metabolic KEGG pathways from the expression dataset with those from previous GWAS datasets, and found that most of these pathways are shared in both GWAS and expression datasets. PMID:27732949

  6. Transcriptome atlas of aromatic amino acid family metabolism-related genes in eight liver cell types uncovers the corresponding metabolic pathways in rat liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cuifang; Xu, CunShuan

    2010-10-01

    To explore gene expression of aromatic amino acid family metabolism and their metabolic pathways of eight liver cell types in rat liver regeneration, eight kinds of rat regenerating liver cells were isolated by using the combination of percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic bead methods. Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression changes of genes associated with aromatic amino acid family metabolism. The transcriptome atlas showed that the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine was mainly catalyzed into tyrosine in hepatic stellate cells in the initiation stage, tyrosine was oxidized into dopa and norepinephrine in biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells, and norepinephrine was finally catalyzed into adrenaline in biliary epithelia cells and pit cells in the progress stage. Thyroid hormone of tyrosine catabolites was synthesized from tyrosine in almost all cells in different stage of LR, among which genes of T3 biosynthesis were increased in HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. Tryptophan was decarboxylated to 5-hydroxytryptamine in dendritic cells in the progress stage. Based on the results as above, we concluded that phenylalanine is the major source of tyrosine, proliferation of biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells maybe promote by tyrosine catabolites-dopa and norepinephrine, biliary epithelia cells and pit cells maybe promote by adrenaline. T3 maybe play a major role on proliferation of HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. The proliferation of dendritic cells maybe promote by tryptophan catabolites-5-hydroxytryptamine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Role of bile acids in the regulation of the metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Kitamura, Naho; Tanigaki, Tatsuya; Takashina, Yoko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bile acids (BAs) are not only facilitators of dietary lipid absorption but also important signaling molecules exerting multiple physiological functions. Some major signaling pathways involving the nuclear BAs receptor farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled BAs receptor TGR5/M-BAR have been identified to be the targets of BAs. BAs regulate their own homeostasis via signaling pathways. BAs also affect diverse metabolic pathways including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. This paper suggests the mechanism of controlling metabolism via BA signaling and demonstrates that BA signaling is an attractive therapeutic target of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27433295

  8. Serum Metabolic Profiling Reveals Altered Metabolic Pathways in Patients with Post-traumatic Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lunzhao; Shi, Shuting; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wei; Xia, Zi-an; Xing, Zhihua; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related disability, adversely affects the quality of life of TBI patients, and exacts a personal and economic cost that is difficult to quantify. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is currently unknown, and an effective treatment of the disease has not yet been identified. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis; thus, metabolomics based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to identify potential biomarkers and the associated metabolic pathways of post-TBI cognitive impairment. A biomarker panel consisting of nine serum metabolites (serine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, galactose, palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, citric acid, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyrate) was identified to be able to discriminate between TBI patients with cognitive impairment, TBI patients without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Furthermore, associations between these metabolite markers and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates were identified. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify several serum metabolite markers and investigate the altered metabolic pathway that is associated with post-TBI cognitive impairment. These markers appear to be suitable for further investigation of the disease mechanisms of post-TBI cognitive impairment. PMID:26883691

  9. Serum Metabolic Profiling Reveals Altered Metabolic Pathways in Patients with Post-traumatic Cognitive Impairments.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lunzhao; Shi, Shuting; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wei; Xia, Zi-an; Xing, Zhihua; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Zhe

    2016-02-17

    Cognitive impairment, the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related disability, adversely affects the quality of life of TBI patients, and exacts a personal and economic cost that is difficult to quantify. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is currently unknown, and an effective treatment of the disease has not yet been identified. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis; thus, metabolomics based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to identify potential biomarkers and the associated metabolic pathways of post-TBI cognitive impairment. A biomarker panel consisting of nine serum metabolites (serine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, galactose, palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, citric acid, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyrate) was identified to be able to discriminate between TBI patients with cognitive impairment, TBI patients without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Furthermore, associations between these metabolite markers and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates were identified. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify several serum metabolite markers and investigate the altered metabolic pathway that is associated with post-TBI cognitive impairment. These markers appear to be suitable for further investigation of the disease mechanisms of post-TBI cognitive impairment.

  10. Plasma progesterone, metabolic hormones and beta-hydroxybutyrate in Holstein-Friesian cows after superovulation.

    PubMed

    Bényei, Balázs; Komlósi, István; Pécsi, Anna; Kulcsár, Margit; Huzsvai, László; Barros, C W C; Huszenicza, Gyula

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic hormones [insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)], progesterone (P4) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) serum concentrations were evaluated and their effect on the superovulation results of donor cows was investigated in a semi-arid environment. Body weight, body condition score (BCS) and lactation stage were also included in the analysis. Twenty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were superovulated with 600 IU FSHp following the routine procedure and flushed on day 7 in a Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer Centre in the semi-arid area of Brazil. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and blood samples were collected for assays. All of the hormones investigated and BHB serum concentrations were within the physiological ranges. There was a positive correlation between hormones, except between BHB and all the others. The leptin level was influenced by feeding status, as indicated by the BCS. Insulin, T4, T3 and BHB levels were affected by milking status. Dry cows had higher levels of all hormones except BHB. An optimum level of leptin resulted in the highest number of CL, while the linear increase of P4, T4 and IGF significantly increased the number of CL.

  11. Phospholipase Cγ1 Connects the Cell Membrane Pathway to the Nuclear Receptor Pathway in Insect Steroid Hormone Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Zheng, Chuan-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the classical nuclear receptor pathway, there is a nongenomic pathway in the cell membrane that regulates gene expression in animal steroid hormone signaling; however, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates calcium influx via phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1) to modulate the protein kinase C phosphorylation of the transcription factor ultraspiracle (USP1) in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The PLCG1 mRNA levels are increased during the molting and metamorphic stages. The depletion of PLCG1 by RNA interference can block 20E-enhanced pupation, cause larvae death and pupation defects, and repress 20E-induced gene expression. 20E may induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1 at the cytosolic tyrosine kinase (Src) homology 2 domains and then determine the migration of PLCG1 toward the plasma membrane. The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor suramin, Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, and the depletions of ecdysone-responsible GPCR (ErGPCR) and Gαq restrain the 20E-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1. PLCG1 participates in the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. The inhibition of GPCR, PLC, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, and calcium channels represses the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. Through calcium signaling, PLCG1 mediates the transcriptional activation driven by the ecdysone-response element. Through PLCG1 and calcium signaling, 20E regulates PKC phosphorylation of USP1 at Ser-21 to determine its ecdysone-response element binding activity. These results suggest that 20E activates PLCG1 via the ErGPCR and Src family kinases to regulate Ca2+ influx and PKC phosphorylation of USP1 to subsequently modulate gene transcription for metamorphosis. PMID:24692553

  12. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; Yañez, Mónica; Osorio, Sonia; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Fernie, Alisdair R; Casaretto, José A

    2014-06-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato.

  13. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Osorio, Sonia; Casaretto, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato. PMID:24659489

  14. Metabolic pathways of benzimidazole anthelmintics in harebell (Campanula rotundifolia).

    PubMed

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Jirásko, Robert; Skálová, Lenka; Pavlík, František; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-08-01

    Benzimidazoles anthelmintics, which enter into environment primarily through excretion in the feces or urine of treated animals, can affect various organisms and disrupt ecosystem balance. The present study was designed to test the phytotoxicity and biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). This meadow plant commonly grows in pastures and comes into contact with anthelmintics through the excrements of treated animals. Suspensions of harebell cells in culture medium were used as an in vitro model system. ABZ, FLU and FBZ were not found to be toxic for harebell cells, which were able to metabolize ABZ, FLU and FBZ via the formation of a wide scale of metabolites. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 24, 18 and 29 metabolites of ABZ, FLU and FBZ, respectively. Several novel metabolites were identified for the first time. Based on the obtained results, the schemes of the metabolic pathways of these anthelmintics were proposed. Most of these metabolites can be considered deactivation products, but a substantial portion of them may readily be decomposed to biologically active substances which could negatively affect ecosystems.

  15. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, p<0.0001), factor 6 (long-chain acylcarnitines, p<0.01), and factor 2 (medium-chain dicarboxylated acylcarnitines, p<0.0001) were higher in males vs. females; factor 6 levels were higher in Caucasians vs. African Americans (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also observed in hormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  16. Race and Sex Differences in Small-Molecule Metabolites and Metabolic Hormones in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahesh J.; Batch, Bryan C.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Bain, James R.; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Stevens, Robert D.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, p<0.0001), factor 6 (long-chain acylcarnitines, p<0.01), and factor 2 (medium-chain dicarboxylated acylcarnitines, p<0.0001) were higher in males vs. females; factor 6 levels were higher in Caucasians vs. African Americans (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also observed in hormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones. PMID:24117402

  17. BioPAXViz: a cytoscape application for the visual exploration of metabolic pathway evolution.

    PubMed

    Psomopoulos, Fotis E; Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Baichoo, Shakuntala; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2017-01-25

    BioPAXViz is a Cytoscape (version 3) application, providing a comprehensive framework for metabolic pathway visualization. Beyond the basic parsing, viewing and browsing roles, the main novel function that BioPAXViz provides is a visual comparative analysis of metabolic pathway topologies across pre-computed pathway phylogenomic profiles given a species phylogeny. Furthermore, BioPAXViz supports the display of hierarchical trees that allow efficient navigation through sets of variants of a single reference pathway. Thus, BioPAXViz can significantly facilitate, and contribute to, the study of metabolic pathway evolution and engineering.

  18. Text mining for metabolic pathways, signaling cascades, and protein networks.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Robert; Krallinger, Martin; Andres, Eduardo; Tamames, Javier; Blaschke, Christian; Valencia, Alfonso

    2005-05-10

    The complexity of the information stored in databases and publications on metabolic and signaling pathways, the high throughput of experimental data, and the growing number of publications make it imperative to provide systems to help the researcher navigate through these interrelated information resources. Text-mining methods have started to play a key role in the creation and maintenance of links between the information stored in biological databases and its original sources in the literature. These links will be extremely useful for database updating and curation, especially if a number of technical problems can be solved satisfactorily, including the identification of protein and gene names (entities in general) and the characterization of their types of interactions. The first generation of openly accessible text-mining systems, such as iHOP (Information Hyperlinked over Proteins), provides additional functions to facilitate the reconstruction of protein interaction networks, combine database and text information, and support the scientist in the formulation of novel hypotheses. The next challenge is the generation of comprehensive information regarding the general function of signaling pathways and protein interaction networks.

  19. Direct suppressive effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico

    2003-08-01

    Acute alkalosis may directly affect PTH secretion. The effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis was studied in 20 dogs. PTH values were lower in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml). Acute alkalosis is an independent factor that decreases PTH values during normocalcemia and delays the PTH response to hypocalcemia. We recently showed that acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis stimulated PTH secretion. This study was designed to evaluate whether acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Three groups of 10 dogs were studied: control, acute metabolic alkalosis, and acute respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced with an infusion of sodium bicarbonate and respiratory alkalosis by hyperventilation. Calcium chloride was infused to prevent alkalosis-induced hypocalcemia during the first 60 minutes. During the next 30 minutes, disodium EDTA was infused to induce hypocalcemia and to evaluate the PTH response to hypocalcemia. Because the infusion of sodium bicarbonate resulted in hypernatremia, the effect of hypernatremia was studied in an additional group that received hypertonic saline. After 60 minutes of a normocalcemic clamp, PTH values were less (p < 0.05) in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml); the respective blood pH values were 7.61 +/- 0.01, 7.59 +/- 0.02, and 7.39 +/- 0.02. The maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia was similar among the three groups. However, the maximal PTH response was observed after a decrease in ionized calcium of 0.20 mM in the control group but not until a decrease of 0.40 mM in the metabolic and respiratory alkalosis groups. In contrast to the metabolic alkalosis group, hypernatremia (157 +/- 2 mEq/liter) in the hypertonic saline group was associated with an increased PTH value (46

  20. APL-1, the Alzheimer's Amyloid precursor protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, modulates multiple metabolic pathways throughout development.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Collin Y; Raps, Daniel A; Li, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in genes that process APP are correlated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological function of APP remains unclear. APP is a transmembrane protein that can be sequentially cleaved by different secretases to yield multiple fragments, which can potentially act as signaling molecules. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes one APP-related protein, APL-1, which is essential for viability. Here, we show that APL-1 signaling is dependent on the activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 and influences metabolic pathways such as developmental progression, body size, and egg-laying rate. Furthermore, apl-1(yn5) mutants, which produce high levels of the extracellular APL-1 fragment, show an incompletely penetrant temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. In a genetic screen to isolate mutants in which the apl-1(yn5) lethality rate is modified, we identified a suppressor mutation in MOA-1/R155.2, a receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase, and an enhancer mutation in MOA-2/B0495.6, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockdown of apl-1 in an apl-1(yn5) background caused lethality and molting defects at all larval stages, suggesting that apl-1 is required for each transitional molt. We suggest that signaling of the released APL-1 fragment modulates multiple metabolic states and that APL-1 is required throughout development.

  1. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of ({sup 14}C) CO{sub 2} production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate.

  2. Vitamin D Metabolic Pathway Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Yu, Kai; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Moy, Kristin; Freedman, Neal D.; Mayne, Susan T.; Albanes, Demetrius; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa; Bamlet, William R.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige; Canzian, Federico; Cotterchio, Michelle; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steve; Giles, Graham G.; Goggins, Michael; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hartge, Patricia; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison; Klein, Eric; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Porta, Miquel; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Maeder, Dennis; Brotzman, Michelle; Risch, Harvey; Sampson, Joshua N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN) totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L) for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713) and controls (n = 878). The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830). Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186), LRP2 (rs4668123), CYP24A1 (rs2762932), GC (rs2282679), and CUBN (rs1810205) genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008–0.037), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25799011

  3. Metabolomic analysis identifies altered metabolic pathways in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Simone; Murgia, Federica; Lorefice, Lorena; Liggi, Sonia; Cocco, Eleonora; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Atzori, Luigi

    2017-07-16

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by a complex pathogenesis and difficult management. The identification of new biomarkers would be clinically useful for more accurate diagnoses and disease monitoring. Metabolomics, the identification of small endogenous molecules, offers an instantaneous molecular snapshot of the MS phenotype. Here the metabolomic profiles (utilizing plasma from patients with MS) were characterized with a Gas cromatography-mass spectrometry-based platform followed by a multivariate statistical analysis and comparison with a healthy control (HC) population. The obtained partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model